Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 158

Search results for: Salmonella typhi

158 Bioassay Guided Isolation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Components from Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Cassia Sieberiana D.C. (Fabaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Sani

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The leaves extracts of Cassia sieberiana D.C. were screened for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Test (BST) and antimicrobial bioassay against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli using crude ethanol extract, Chloroform soluble fraction, aqueous soluble fraction, ethyl acetate soluble fraction, methanol soluble fraction and n-hexane soluble fraction. The Ethyl acetate fraction obtained proved to be most active in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses in BST and also active on Salmonella typhi. The Bioactivity result was used to guide the column chromatography which led to the isolation of pure compound CSB-8 which was found active in the BST with LC₅₀ value of 34(722-182)µg/ml and showed remarkable activity on Salmonella typhi (zone of inhibition 25mm) at 10,000µg/ml. The ¹H-NMR, ¹³C NMR, FTIR and GC-MS spectra of compound suggested the proposed structure to be 2-pentadecanone.

Keywords: brine shrimp, Cassia sieberiana D. C, Column chromatography, antimicrobial bioassay

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157 Comparison between Two Groups of Pathogenic Bacteria under Different Essential Oil Extract of Ocimum basilicum L.

Authors: A. M. Daneshian Moghaddam, J. Shayegh, J. Dolghari Sharaf

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This study was conducted to assessment the antibacterial activities of different part of basil essential oil on the standard gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and gram-positive ones including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogen. The basil essential oil was provided from two part of plant (leaf and herb) at the two different developmental stage. The antibacterial properties of basil essential oil was studied Also agar disk diffusion, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were detected. The results of agar disk diffusion tests showed the inhibition zones as follow: Listeria monocytogen 17.11-17.42 mm, St. aureus 29.20-30.56 mm, B. cereus 14.73-16.06 mm, E. coli 21.60-23.58 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.63-24.80 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen on leaf essential oil. From the herb part of basil almost similar results were obtained: Listeria monocytogen 17.02-17.67 mm, St. aureus 29.60-30.41 mm, B. cereus 10.66-16.11 mm, E. coli 17.48-23.54 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.58-21.64 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen. The MICs for gram-positive bacteria were as: B. cereus ranging 36-18 μg/mL, S. aureus 18 μg/mL, Listeria monocytogen 18-36 μg/mL and for gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, Salmonella typhi and P. aeruginosa were 18-9 μg/mL.

Keywords: basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil, gram-positive and gram negative bacteria, antibacterial activity, MIC, MBC

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156 Emergence of Ciprofloxacin Intermediate Susceptible Salmonella Typhi in India

Authors: Meenakshi Chaudhary, V .S. Randhawa, M. Jais, R. Dutta

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Introduction: An outbreak of Multi drug resistant S. Typhi (i.e. resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) occurred in 1990's in India which peaked in 1992-93 and resulted in the change of drug of choice from chloramphenicol to ciprofloxacin for enteric fever. Currently an emergence of Ciprofloxacin susceptible S. Typhi isolates in the region is being reported which appears to be chromosomally mediated. Methodology: Six hundred sixty four strains were randomly selected from the time period between January 2008-December 2011 at the National Salmonella Phage Typing Centre, LHMC, New Delhi. The strains were representative of the north, central and south zones of India. All isolates were subjected to serotyping, biotyping, phage typing and then to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by CLSI disk diffusion (CLSI) technique to Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Trimethoprim-Sulfomethoxazole and Tetracycline. Subsequently MIC of the isolates was determined by E-test (AB-Biodisc). Results: More than 80% of the tested strains had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. The E test revealed the MIC (Ciprofloxacin) of these strains to be in the range of 0.12 to 0.5 µg/ml. Sixty nine percent of ciprofloxacin intermediate susceptible strains belonged to Phage type E1 and fourteen percent of these were Vi- Negative i.e these could not be typed by the phage typing scheme of Craigie and Yen. All the strains remained susceptible to cefotaxime. Conclusion: Predominant isolation of intermediate susceptible S. Typhi strains from India would alter the recommendations of empiric treatment of enteric fever in the region. Alternative to the low cost ciprofloxacin will have to be sought or increased dosage and/or duration of ciprofloxacin will have to be recommended. The reasons for the trend of increase in percentage of intermediate susceptible S. Typhi strains are not clear but may be attributed partly to the revision of CLSI guidelines in 2013.

Keywords: salmonella typhi, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, ciprofloxacin, minimum inhibitory concentration

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155 Effect of Media Osmolarity on Vi Biosynthesis on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Strain C6524 Cultured on Batch System

Authors: Dwi Arisandi Wijaya, Ernawati Arifin Giri-Rachman, Neni Nurainy

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Typhoid fever disease can be prevented by using a polysaccharide-based vaccine Vi which is a virulence factor of S.typhi. To produce high yield Vi polysaccharide from bacteria, it is important to know the biosynthesis of Vi polysaccharide and the regulators involved. In the In vivo condition, S. typhi faces different osmolarity, and the bacterial two-component system OmpR-EnvZ, regulate by up and down Capsular Vi polysaccharide biosynthesis. A high yielded Vi Polysaccharide strain, S. typhi strain C6524 used to study the effect of media osmolarity on Vi polysaccharide biosynthesis and the osmoregulation pattern of S. typhi strain C6524. The methods were performed by grown S. typhi strain C6524 grown on medium with 50 mM, 100 mM, and 150 mM osmolarity with the batch system. Vi polysaccharide concentration was measured by ELISA method. For further investigation of the osmoregulation pattern of strain C6524, the osmoregulator gene, OmpR, has been isolated and sequenced using the specific primer of the OmpR gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis is done with BLAST and Lallign. Amino Acid sequence analysis is done with Prosite and Multiple Sequence Alignment. The results of cultivation showed the average content of polysaccharide Vi for 50 mM, 100 mM, and 150 mM osmolarities 11.49 μg/mL, 12.06 μg/mL, and 14.53 μg/mL respectively. Analysis using Anova stated that the osmolarity treatment of 150 mM significantly affects Vi content. Analysis of nucleotide sequences shows 100% identity between S. typhi strain C6524 and Ty2. Analysis of amino acid sequences shows that the OmpR response regulator protein of the C6524 strain also has a α4-β5-α5 motif which is important for the regulatory activation system when phosphorylation occurs by domain kinase. This indicates that the regulator osmolarity response of S. typhi strain C6524 has no difference with the response regulator owned by S. typhi strain Ty2. A high Vi response rate in the 150 mM osmolarity treatment requires further research for RcsB-RcsC, another two-component system involved in Vi Biosynthesis.

Keywords: osmoregulator, OmpR, Salmonella, Vi polysaccharide

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154 Evaluation of Anti-Typhoid Effects of Azadirachta indica L. Fractions

Authors: A. Adetutu, T. M. Awodugba, O. A. Owoade

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The development of resistance to currently known conventional anti-typhoid drugs has necessitated search into cheap, more potent and less toxic anti-typhoid drugs of plant origin. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-typhoid activity of fractions of A. indica in Salmonella typhi infected rats. Leaves of A. indica were extracted in methanol and fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate, and aqueous fractions. The anti-salmonella potentials of fractions of A. indica were assessed via in-vitro inhibition of S. typhi using agar well diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and biofilm assays. The biochemical and haematological parameters were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The histological analysis was performed using Haematoxylin and Eosin staining methods. Data analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. Results of this study showed that S. typhi was sensitive to aqueous and chloroform fractions of A. indica, and the fractions showed biofilm inhibition at concentrations of 12.50, 1.562, and 0.39 mg/mL. In the in-vivo study, the extract and chloroform fraction had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the number of viable S. typhi recovered from the blood and stopped salmonellosis after 6 days of treatment of rats at 500 mg/kg b.w. Treatments of infected rats with chloroform and aqueous fractions of A. indica normalized the haematological parameters in the animals. Similarly, treatment with fractions of the plants sustained a normal antioxidant status when compared with the normal control group. Chloroform and ethyl-acetate fractions of A. indica reversed the liver and intestinal degeneration induced by S. typhi infection in rats. The present investigation indicated that the aqueous and chloroform fractions of A. indica showed the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis, including typhoid fever. The results of the study may justify the ethno-medicinal use of the extract in traditional medicine for the treatment of typhoid and salmonella infections.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica L, salmonella, typhoid, leave fractions

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153 The Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activities of Piper betle L.

Authors: Disaya Jaroensattayatham

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Nowadays, infectious diseases are prevalent and severe health problems as they render the increment of casualty, illness, and global economic recession. Along with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, the potency of typically used antibiotics can be affected to a considerable degree. As a result, unorthodox antibiotics have become an urgent issue in the pharmaceutical field. Piper betle L., known as betle leaf, has been used for many purposes, such as a traditional home remedy, and has shown its ability in inhibiting bacteria as well as fungus. Thus, in this study, the investigation of antimicrobial activities of the Piper betle L. extracts was carried out using the Agar disk-diffusion method and Broth microdilution, aiming to evaluate and determine its efficacy to inhibit bacterial and fungal growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans. In the agar disk-diffusion test, the extracts of Piper betle L. gave the maximum zone of inhibition of 15.1 mm (S. aureus), 7.7 mm (S. typhi), and 11.7 mm (C. albicans), while its MIC values were 1000 µg/ml in S. aureus and greater than 2000 µg/ml in S. typhi and C. albicans. According to the results, the Piper betle L. obtains an antimicrobial activity and shows a higher effect towards gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. To determine the mechanism behind its ability, more research is needed to be performed in the future.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Piper betle L., Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus

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152 Anti-Microbial Activity of Senna garrettiana Extract

Authors: Pun Jankrajangjaeng

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Senna garrettiana is a climatic tropical plant in Southeast Asia. Senna garrettiana (Craib) is used as a medicinal plant in Thailand, in which the experiment reported that the plant contains triterpenoids, ligans, phenolics, and fungal metabolites. Thus, it is also reported that the plant possesses interesting biological activity such as antioxidant activity. Therefore, Senna garrettiana is selected to examine the antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study is to examine the antimicrobial activity of Senna garrettiana (crab) extract against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Salmonella typhi, and the fungus Candida albicans. This study performed the agar disk-diffusion method and broth microdilution by using five concentrations of plant extract to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. garrettiana extract. The result showed that S. garrettiana extract gave the maximum zone inhibition of 11.7 mm, 13.7 mm, and 14.0 mm against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. The MIC value of S. garrettiana against S. aureus was 125 µg/mL while the MIC in S. typhi and C. albicans greater than 2000 µg/mL. To conclude, S. garrettiana extract showed higher sensitivity of antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the plant extracts also possessed antifungal activity. Therefore, further investigation to confirm the mechanism of action of antimicrobial activity in S. garrettiana extract should be performed to identify the target of the antimicrobial action.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Salmonella typhi, Senna garrettiana, Staphylococcus aureus

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151 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan

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This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

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150 Pefloxacin as a Surrogate Marker for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella: Study from North India

Authors: Varsha Gupta, Priya Datta, Gursimran Mohi, Jagdish Chander

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Fluoroquinolones form the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of infections due to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. There is a complex interplay between several resistance mechanisms for quinolones and various fluoroquinolones discs, giving varying results, making detection and interpretation of fluoroquinolone resistance difficult. For detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella ssp., we compared the use of pefloxacin and nalidixic acid discs as surrogate marker. Using MIC for ciprofloxacin as the gold standard, 43.5% of strains showed MIC as ≥1 μg/ml and were thus resistant to fluoroquinoloes. Based on the performance of nalidixic acid and pefloxacin discs as surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin resistance, both the discs could correctly detect all the resistant phenotypes; however, use of nalidixic acid disc showed false resistance in the majority of the sensitive phenotypes. We have also tested newer antimicrobial agents like cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin against Salmonella spp. Moreover, there was a comeback of susceptibility to older antimicrobials like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. We can also use cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. typhi due to their high susceptibility.

Keywords: salmonella, pefloxacin, surrogate marker, chloramphenicol

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149 In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Selected Tanzania Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mhuji Kilonzo, Patrick Ndakidemi, Musa Chacha

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Objective: To evaluate antibacterial activity from four selected medicinal plants namely Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Lonchocarpus capassa, Albizia anthelmentica and Myrica salicifolia used for management of bacterial infection in Tanzania. Methods: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of plants extracts against the tested bacterial species was determined by using 96 wells microdilution method. In this method, 50 μL of nutrient broth were loaded in each well followed by 50 μL of extract (100 mg/mL) to make a final volume of 100 μL. Subsequently, 50 μL were transferred from first rows of each well to the second rows and the process was repeated down the columns to the last wells from which 50 μL were discarded. Thereafter, 50 μL of the selected bacterial suspension were added to each well thus making a final volume of 100 μL. The lowest concentration which showed no bacterial growth was considered as MIC. Results: It was revealed that L. capassa leaf ethyl acetate extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella kisarawe and Salmonella typhi with MIC values of 0.39 and 0.781 mg/mL respectively. Likewise, L. capassa root bark ethyl acetate extracts inhibited growth of S. typhi and E. coli with MIC values of 0.39 and 0.781 mg/mL respectively. The M. aethiopicum leaf and root bark chloroform extracts displayed antibacterial activity against S. kisarawe and S. typhi respectively with MIC value of 0.781 mg/mL. The M. salicifolia stem bark ethyl acetate exhibited antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with MIC value of 0.39 mg/mL whereas the methanolic stem and root bark of the same plant inhibited the growth of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC value of 0.781 mg/mL. Conclusion: It was concluded that M. aethiopicum, L. capassa, A. anthelmentica and M. salicifolia are potential source of antibacterial agents. Further studies to establish structures of antibacterial and evaluate active ingredients are recommended.

Keywords: Albizia anthelmentica, Lonchocarpus capassa, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Myrica salicifolia

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148 Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Salmonella spp. Isolate from Chickens at Slaughterhouses in Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Seree Klaengair, Sunpetch Angkititrakul, Dusadee Phongaran, Chaiyaporn Soikum

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The objectives of this study is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from chickens at slaughterhouses in northeast of Thailand. During 2015-2016, all samples were isolated and identified by ISO 6579:2002. A total of 604 samples of rectal swab were collected and isolated for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 109 of 604 (18.05%) samples. The most prevalent serovars were Salmonella Kentucky (22.94%), Give (20.18%) and Typhimurium (7.34%). In this study, 66.97% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 38.39% were multidrug resistant. The highest resistances were found in nalidixic acid (49.54%), ampicillin (30.28%), tetracycline (27.52%), amoxicillin (26.61%), ciprofloxacin (23.85) and norfloxacin (19.27%). The results showed high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in chickens and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Prevention and control of Salmonella contamination in chickens should be consumer healthy.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella spp., chicken, slaughterhouse

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147 Salmonella Spp. and Essential Oil of Laurus nobilis

Authors: Karima Oldyerou, B. Meddah, A. Tirtouil

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The food borne infections have a significant impact on public health. Salmonella is the first bacterial cause, especially because of its general availability in the intestinal tract of poultry, pigs and cattle. This bacteria and essential oil of Laurus nobilis subject in this article. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity shows a sensitivity of Salmonella spp. with a MIC of 2.5 mg.ml -1 in vivo after infection of wistar rats and administered orally this essential oil, microbiological results fecal material shows the antibacterial effect of this oil on Salmonella spp.

Keywords: Laurus nobilis, essential oil, salmonella, antibacterial activity, fecal matte

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146 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Specific Bacteriophage Isolation from Sewage Treatment Plant and in vivo Analysis of Phage Efficiency in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Pratibha Goyal, Nupur Mathur, Anuradha Singh

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Antibiotic resistance is the worldwide threat to human health in this century. Excessive use of antibiotic after their discovery in 1940 makes certain bacteria to become resistant against antibiotics. Most common antibiotic-resistant bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Among all Staphylococcus resistant strain called Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several lives threatening infection in human commonly found in the hospital environment. Our study aimed to isolate bacteriophage against MRSA from the hospital sewage treatment plant and to analyze its efficiency In Vivo in Swiss albino mice model. Sewage sample for the isolation of bacteriophages was collected from SDMH hospital sewage treatment plant in Jaipur. Bacteriophages isolated by the use of enrichment technique and after characterization, isolated phages used to determine phage treatment efficiency in mice. Mice model used to check the safety and suitability of phage application in human need which in turn directly support the use of natural bacteriophage rather than synthetic chemical to kill pathogens. Results show the plaque formation in-vitro and recovery of MRSA infected mice during the experiment. Favorable lytic efficiency determination of MRSA and Salmonella presents a natural way to treat lethal infections caused by Multidrug-resistant bacteria by using their natural host-pathogen relationship.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus, pathogens, phage therapy, Salmonella typhi

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145 Genotyping of Salmonella enterica Collected from Poultry Farms Located in Riyadh, KSA by Multiplex-PCR

Authors: Moussa I. Mohamed, Turki, K. A. Al-Faraj, Abdullah A. Al-Arfaj, Ashgan M. Hessain

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The objective of the present study is to detect the incidences of Salmonella enterica from different poultry farms located in Egypt on molecular basis. During the summer of 2012, a total of 1800 cloacal swabs were collected from poultry farms located I Cairo, Egypt to be subjected for isolation of Salmonella enteric. Moreover, a total of 300 samples of poultry and poultry products were collected from different retail establishment markets in Cairo, Egypt including, 150 local whole frozen chickens, 50 imported whole frozen chickens, 100 local chicken cut samples. The highest rate of isolation 8% was obtained from imported frozen chickens and local chicken cuts, followed by local frozen chickens 6.66% and finally rectal swabs from apparently health chickens 6.4 %. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were most frequent among the total Salmonella isolates. Multiplex-PCR for the rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis from field samples especially after pre-enrichment on Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) selective broth (PCR-RV), revealed the same positive samples. Therefore PCR-RV technique is rabid, time saving and applicable to detect Salmonella serovars directly from chicken samples. Moreover, detecting Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis by this assay was carried out within 2 days opposed to 5–6 d by the bacteriological and serological methods.

Keywords: Salmonella enterica, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis enrichment, multiplex-PCR

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144 Risk Factors for Severe Typhoid Fever in Children: A French Retrospective Study about 78 Cases from 2000-2017 in Six Parisian Hospitals

Authors: Jonathan Soliman, Thomas Cavasino, Virginie Pommelet, Lahouari Amor, Pierre Mornand, Simon Escoda, Nina Droz, Soraya Matczak, Julie Toubiana, François Angoulvant, Etienne Carbonnelle, Albert Faye, Loic de Pontual, Luu-Ly Pham

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Background: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are systemic infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or paratyphi (A, B, C). Children traveling to tropical areas are at risk to contract these diseases which can be complicated. Methods: Clinical, biological and bacteriological data were collected from 78 pediatric cases reported between 2000 and 2017 in six Parisian hospitals. Children aged 0 to 18 years old, with a diagnosis of typhoid or paratyphoid fever confirmed by bacteriological exams, were included. Epidemiologic, clinical, biological features and presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria or intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (nalidixic acid resistant) were examined by univariate analysis and by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors of severe typhoid in children. Results: 84,6% of the children were imported cases of typhoid fever (n=66/78) and 15,4% were autochthonous cases (n=12/78). 89,7% were caused by S.typhi (n=70/78) and 12,8% by S.paratyphi (n=10/78) including 2 co-infections. 19,2% were intrafamilial cases (n=15/78). Median age at diagnosis was 6,4 years-old [6 months-17,9 years]. 28,2% of the cases were complicated forms (n=22/78): digestive (n=8; 10,3%), neurological (n=7; 9%), pulmonary complications (n=4; 5,1%) and hemophagocytic syndrome (n=4; 5,1%). Only 5% of the children had prior immunization with typhoid non-conjugated vaccine (n=4/78). 28% of the cases (n=22/78) were caused by resistant bacteria. Thrombocytopenia and diagnosis delay was significantly associated with severe infection (p= 0.029 and p=0,01). Complicated forms were more common with MDR (p=0,1) and not statistically associated with a young age or sex in this study. Conclusions: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are not rare in children back from tropical areas. This multicentric pediatric study seems to show that thrombocytopenia, diagnosis delay, and multidrug resistant bacteria are associated with severe typhoid fever and complicated forms in children.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, children, Salmonella enterica typhi and paratyphi, severe typhoid

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143 Virulence Genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis Isolated from Milk and Dairy Products

Authors: E. Rahimi, S. Shaigannia

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Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis are important infectious agents causing food poisoning and food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. This study was carried out in order to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance properties of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from ruminant milk and dairy products in Iran. Overall 360 raw and pasteurized milk and traditional and commercial dairy products were purchased from random selected supermarkets and retail stories of Isfahan province, Iran. Samples were cultured immediately and those found positive for Salmonella were analyzed for the presence of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and several putative genes using PCR. Totally, 13 (3.61%), 8 (2.22%), 1 (0.27%) and 4 (1.11%) samples were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and other species of Salmonella, respectively. PCR results showed that invA, rfbJ, fliC and spv were the detected virulence genes in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis positive samples. To the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first prevalence report of virulence genes of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from ruminant milk and traditional and commercial dairy products in Iran.

Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, virulence genes, ruminant milk, dairy products

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142 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Pigs at Slaughterhouses in Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Sunpetch Angkititrakul, Seree Klaengair, Dusadee Phongaran, Arunee Ritthipanun

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The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs at slaughterhouses in the northeast of Thailand. During 2015-2016, all samples were isolated and identified by ISO 6579:2002. A total of 699 samples of rectal swab were collected and isolated for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 275 of 699 (39.34%) samples. 24 serovars were identified in the 275 isolates. The most prevalent serovars were rissen (36.97%), S. enterica ser.4,5,12:i: (25.35%) and typhimurium (21.33%). In this study, 76.30% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 38.39% were multidrug resistant. The highest resistances were found in ampicillin (69.20%), tetracycline (66.35%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (35.55%) and chloramphenicol (9.00%) The results showed high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pigs and high antimicrobial resistance among the isolates, and indicated the need for monitoring program to control Salmonella contamination and reduce the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in pig supply chain.

Keywords: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella spp., pig

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141 Mansonone G and Its Ether Analogues as New Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Rita Hairani, Warinthorn Chavasiri

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Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widespread in nature and can be produced by plants, fungi and actinomycetes. The interest of naphthoquinones is not only limited as organic dyes, but also their wide variety of biological activities such as antitumor, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. Typical 1,2-naphthoquinones such as mansonones can be found in Mansonia gagei Drumm. (“chan-cha-mod”), Sterculaceae family. This plant has been used traditionally to treat some diseases such as antiemetic and antidepressant. In this study, some natural mansonones isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of M. gagei heartwood have been assessed for their antibacterial activities using agar well diffusion method. According to the antibacterial activity results of four natural mansonones (mansonones C, E, G and H), mansonones E and G showed higher activities than the others against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Since mansonone G exhibited good antibacterial activity and was obtained in the highest yield, we decided to derivertize mansonone G into five ether analogues. Based on the antibacterial activities of these synthesized compounds, four ether analogues (compounds 1-4) revealed higher antibacterial activities than its natural mansonone G against S. aureus and S. typhi.

Keywords: Mansonia gagei Drumm., antibacterial activities, mansonone G, ether analogues

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140 Effect of Cellulase Pretreatment for n-Hexane Extraction of Oil from Garden Cress Seeds

Authors: Boutemak Khalida, Dahmani Siham

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Garden cress (Lepidium Sativum L.) belonging to the family Brassicaceae, is edible growing annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, antimicrobial, bronchodilator, hypoglycaemic and antianemic. The aim of the present study is to optimize the process parameters (cellulase concentration and incubation time) of enzymatic pre-treatment of the garden cress seeds and to evaluate the effect of cellulase pre-treatment of the crushed seeds on the oil yield, physico-chemical properties and antibacterial activity and comparing to non-enzymatic method. The optimum parameters of cellulase pre-treatment were as follows: cellulase of 0,1% w/w and incubation time of 2h. After enzymatic pre-treatment, the oil was extracted by n-hexane for 1.5 h, the oil yield was 4,01% for cellulase pre-treatment as against 10,99% in the control sample. The decrease in yield might be caused a result of mucilage. Garden cress seeds are covered with a layer of mucilage which gels on contact with water. At the same time, the antibacterial activity was carried out using agar diffusion method against 4 food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi,Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis). The results showed that bacterial strains are very sensitive to the oil with cellulase pre-treatment. Staphylococcus aureus is extremely sensitive with the largest zone of inhibition (40 mm), Escherichia coli and salmonella typhi had a very sensitive to the oil with a zone of inhibition (26 mm). Bacillus subtilizes is averagely sensitive which gave an inhibition of 16 mm. But it does not exhibit sensivity to the oil without enzymatic pre-treatment with a zone inhibition (< 8 mm). Enzymatic pre-treatment could be useful for antimicrobial activity of the oil, and hold a good potential for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Lepidium sativum L., cellulase, enzymatic pretreatment, antibacterial activity.

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139 The Determination of Total Microbial Count and Prevalence of Salmonella in the Shrimp Supply in Khuzestan Province

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar

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Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases throughout the world. Shrimp are an important commodity in world fishery trade. The microbiological quality of shrimp must be evaluated for assurance of shrimp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in shrimp sold in Khuzestan province. In this study, a total of 245 samples of shrimp sold in Khuzestan province were tested for Salmonella prevalence and total microbial population. The mean aerobic bacterial count in 50.2% of samples was 2200, in 29.8% of samples was 13,600, in 20% of samples was 36,700, and the mean aerobic bacterial count in the total samples was 20,000. (20,000 cfu/cc). Of the total samples, 33 samples were positive for Salmonella and the prevalence of Salmonella was determined 13.4%. These results indicate the possibility that shrimp contribute to foodborne infections. The improvement of shrimp quality is an important issue, and shrimp before consuming should be washed with water containing chlorine, with the aim of increasing safety. In addition, it should be avoided to eat shrimp as raw or not cooked properly.

Keywords: determination, total microbial, Salmonella, shrimp

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138 Changes in the fecal Microbiome of Periparturient Dairy Cattle and Associations with the Onset of Salmonella Shedding

Authors: Lohendy Munoz-Vargas, Stephen O. Opiyo, Rose Digianantonio, Michele L. Williams, Asela Wijeratne, Gregory Habing

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Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations. Cattle serve as reservoirs of Salmonella, and periparturient cows have high prevalence of Salmonella shedding; however, to author`s best knowledge, little is known about the association between the gut microbiome and the onset of Salmonella shedding during the periparturient period. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the association between changes in bacterial communities and the onset of Salmonella shedding in cattle approaching parturition. In a prospective cohort study, fecal samples from 98 dairy cows originating from four different farms were collected at four time points relative to calving (-3 wks, -1 wk, +1 wk, +3 wks). All 392 samples were cultured for Salmonella. Sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform was completed to evaluate the fecal microbiome in a selected sample subset. Analyses of microbial composition, diversity, and structure were performed according to time points, farm, and Salmonella onset status. Individual cow fecal microbiomes, predominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria phyla, significantly changed before and after parturition. Microbial communities from different farms were distinguishable based on multivariate analysis. Although there were significant differences in some bacterial taxa between Salmonella positive and negative samples, our results did not identify differences in the fecal microbial diversity or structure for cows with and without the onset of Salmonella shedding. These data suggest that determinants other than the significant changes in the fecal microbiome influence the periparturient onset of Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle.

Keywords: dairy cattle, microbiome, periparturient, Salmonella

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137 Fecal Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Eguale, Ephrem Engdawork, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Dainel Asrat, Hile Alemayehu, John Gunn

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Salmonella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens affecting wide range of vertebrates and humans worldwide. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent the common sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Fecal samples were collected from 132 dairy herds in central Ethiopia and cultured for Salmonella to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cattle in 10(7.6%) of the dairy farms. Out of 1193 fecal samples 30(2.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Large farm size, detection of diarrhea in one or more animals during sampling and keeping animals completely indoor compared to occasional grazing outside were associated with Salmonella positivity of the farms. Farm level prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in young animals below 6 months of age compared to other age groups(X2=10.24; p=0.04). Nine different serotypes were isolated. The four most frequently recovered serotypes were S. Typhimurium (23.3%),S. Saintpaul (20%) and S. Kentucky and S. Virchow (16.7%) each. All isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 18 drugs tested. Twenty-six (86.7%), 20(66.7%), 18(60%), 16(53.3%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Resistance to 2 drugs was detected in 93.3% of the isolates. Resistance to 3 or more drugs were detected in 21(70%) of the total isolates while multi-drug resistance (MDR) to 7 or more drugs were detected in 12 (40%) of the isolates. The rate of occurrence of MDR in Salmonella strains isolated from dairy farms in Addis Ababa was significantly higher than those isolated from farms outside of Addis Ababa((p= 0.009). The detection of high MDR in Salmonella isolates originating from dairy farms warrants the need for strict pathogen reduction strategy in dairy cattle and spread of these MDR strains to human population.

Keywords: salmonella, antimicrobial resistance, fecal prevalence

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136 Comparison of the Isolation Rates and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Antibiotic-Free and Conventional Chicken Meat Samples

Authors: Jin-Hyeong Park, Hong-Seok Kim, Jin-Hyeok Yim, Young-Ji Kim, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo

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Salmonella contamination in chicken samples can cause major health problems in humans. However, not only the effects of antibiotic treatment during growth but also the impacts of poultry slaughter line on the prevalence of Salmonella in final chicken meat sold to consumers are unknown. In this study, we compared the isolation rates and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella between antibiotic-free, conventional, conventional Korean native retail chicken meat samples and clonal divergence of Salmonella isolates by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, the distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was analyzed. A total of 72 retail chicken meat samples (n = 24 antibiotic-free broiler [AFB] chickens, n = 24 conventional broiler [CB] chickens, and n = 24 conventional Korean native [CK] chickens) were collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. The isolation rates of Salmonella were 66.6% in AFB chickens, 45.8% in CB chickens, and 25% in CK chickens. By analyzing the minimum inhibitory concentrations of β -lactam antibiotics with the disc-diffusion test, we found that 81.2% of Salmonella isolates from AFB chickens, 63.6% of isolates from CB chickens, and 50% of isolates from CK chickens were ESBL producers; all ESBL-positive isolates had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Interestingly, all ESBL-producing Salmonella were revealed as ST16 by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, all CTX-M-15-positive isolates had the genetic platform of blaCTX-M gene (IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15-IS903), to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Salmonella around the world. The Salmonella ST33 strain (S. Hadar) isolated in this study has never been reported in South Korea. In conclusion, our findings showed that antibiotic-free retail chicken meat products were also largely contaminated with ESBL-producing Salmonella and that their ESBL genes and genetic platforms were the same as those isolated from conventional retail chicken meat products.

Keywords: antibiotic-free poultry, conventional poultry, multilocus sequence typing, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, antimicrobial resistance

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135 Survey of Selected Pathogenic Bacteria in Chickens from Rural Households in Limpopo Province

Authors: M. Lizzy Madiwani, Ignatious Ncube, Evelyn Madoroba

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This study was designed to determine the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in household raised chickens and study their virulence and antibiotic profiles. For this purpose, 40 chickens were purchased from families in the Capricorn district and sacrificed for sampling. Tissues were cultured on different bacteriological media followed by biotyping using Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-time of Flight (MALDI-TOF). Disk diffusion test was performed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria. Out of a total of 160 tissue samples evaluated, E. coli and Salmonella were detected in these tissues. Furthermore, determination of the pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains at species level using primer sets that target selected genes of interest in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed. The invA gene, a confirmatory gene of Salmonella was detected in all the Salmonella isolates. The study revealed that there is a high distribution of Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli in these chickens. Therefore, further studies on identification at the species level are highly recommended to provide management and sanitation practices to lower this prevalence. The antimicrobial susceptibly data generated from this study can be a valuable reference to veterinarians for treating bacterial diseases in poultry.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Escherichia coli, pathogens, Salmonella

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134 Food Poisoning (Salmonellosis) as a Public Health Problem Through Consuming the Meat and Eggs of the Carrier Birds

Authors: M.Younus, M. Athar Khan, Asif Adrees

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The present research endeavour was made to investigate the Public Health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier’s birds and to see the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat, and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings and causing food poisoning. The ultimate objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses in all the continents of the world. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever in humans. The chain of transmission started from poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end hosts. In this experiment a total number of 200 samples of human stool and blood were collected randomly (100 samples of human stool and 100 samples of human blood) of 100 patients suspected from food poisoning patients from different hospitals of Lahore area for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients from each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the hospitals.

Keywords: salmonella, zoonosis, food, transmission, eggs

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133 Same-Day Detection Method of Salmonella Spp., Shigella Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes with Fluorescence-Based Triplex Real-Time PCR

Authors: Ergun Sakalar, Kubra Bilgic

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Faster detection and characterization of pathogens are the basis of the evoid from foodborne pathogens. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are common foodborne bacteria that are among the most life-threatining. It is important to rapid and accurate detection of these pathogens to prevent food poisoning and outbreaks or to manage food chains. The present work promise to develop a sensitive, species specific and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For this purpose, three genes were picked out, ompC for Salmonella spp., ipaH for Shigella spp. and hlyA for L. monocytogenes. After short pre-enrichment of milk was passed through a vacuum filter and bacterial DNA was exracted using commercially available kit GIDAGEN®(Turkey, İstanbul). Detection of amplicons was verified by examination of the melting temperature (Tm) that are 72° C, 78° C, 82° C for Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The method specificity was checked against a group of bacteria strains, and also carried out sensitivity test resulting in under 10² CFU mL⁻¹ of milk for each bacteria strain. Our results show that the flourescence based triplex qPCR method can be used routinely to detect Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and L. monocytogenes during the milk processing procedures in order to reduce cost, time of analysis and the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks.

Keywords: evagreen, food-born bacteria, pathogen detection, real-time pcr

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
132 Effects of Environmental Parameters on Salmonella Contaminated in Harvested Oysters (Crassostrea lugubris and Crassostrea belcheri)

Authors: Varangkana Thaotumpitak, Jarukorn Sripradite, Saharuetai Jeamsripong

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Environmental contamination from wastewater discharges originated from anthropogenic activities introduces the accumulation of enteropathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals, especially in oysters, and in shellfish harvesting areas. The consumption of raw or partially cooked oysters can be a risk for seafood-borne diseases in human. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of Salmonella in oyster meat samples, and environmental factors (ambient air temperature, relative humidity, gust wind speed, average wind speed, tidal condition, precipitation and season) by using the principal component analysis (PCA). One hundred and forty-four oyster meat samples were collected from four oyster harvesting areas in Phang Nga province, Thailand from March 2016 to February 2017. The prevalence of Salmonella of each site was ranged from 25.0-36.11% in oyster meat. The results of PCA showed that ambient air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation were main factors correlated with Salmonella detection in these oysters. Positive relationship was observed between positive Salmonella in the oysters and relative humidity (PC1=0.413) and precipitation (PC1=0.607), while the negative association was found between ambient air temperature (PC1=0.338) and the presence of Salmonella in oyster samples. These results suggested that lower temperature and higher precipitation and higher relative humidity will possibly effect on Salmonella contamination of oyster meat. During the high risk period, harvesting of oysters should be prohibited to reduce pathogenic bacteria contamination and to minimize a hazard of humans from Salmonellosis.

Keywords: oyster, Phang Nga Bay, principal component analysis, Salmonella

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131 Prevalence and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Dodonaea viscosa Extract and Antibacterial Agents against Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry

Authors: Shayma Munqith Al-Baker, Fadhl Ahmed Saeed Al-Gasha’a, Samira Hamid Hanash, Ahmed Ali Al-Hazmi

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A total of 200 samples (180 fecal materials and 20 organ samples) were collected from (5 different poultry farms, 10 local poultry shops, 5 houses poultry, 5 Eggs stores shops and 5 hand slaughters centers) in Ibb city, Yemen, 2014. According to morphological, cultural, as well as biochemical characterization and serological tests, 59 29.5% isolates were identified as Salmonella spp. and all Salmonella isolates were categorized by serotype, which comprised of, 37 62.71% Salmonella Typhimurium serovar, 21 35.59%. Salmonella Enteritidis serovar and 11.69% Salmonella Heidelberg serovar. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for bacterial isolates and the results showed there were clear differences in antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates varies as follows: Ofloxacin 79.66%, Ciprofloxacin 67.80%, Colistin 59.32% and Gentamycin 52.54%. All of isolates were resistant to Erythromycin, Penicillin and Lincomycin. Antibacterial activity was done for both aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dodonaea viscosa plant by using well and disc diffusion assay. The results indicated that well diffusion assay had best results than disc diffusion assay, the highest inhibition zone was 22 mm for well diffusion and 15 mm for disc diffusion assay, the results observed that ethanol extract had best antibacterial effect than aqueous extract which the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 71.19% comparing with aqueous extract 28.81% by using disc diffusion assay, while the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 88.13% comparing with aqueous extract 52.54% by using will diffusion assay.

Keywords: Salmonella spp, Dodonaea viscosa, antimicrobial and salmonellosis

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130 Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Risk Factors for Salmonella Species and Escherichia Coli from Raw Meat at Butchery Houses in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Haftay Abraha Tadesse, Dawit Gebreegziabiher Hagos, Atsebaha Gebrekidan Kahsay, Mahumd Abdulkader

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Background: Salmonella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are important foodborne pathogens affecting humans and animals. They are among the most important causes of infection that are associated with the consumption of contaminated food. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors for Salmonella species and E. coli in raw meat from butchery houses of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2019. Socio-demographic data and risk factors were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Meat samples were collected aseptically from the butchery houses and transported using icebox to Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Sciences for the isolation and identification of Salmonella species and E. coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data obtained were cleaned and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 and logistic regression models with odds ratio were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 153 out of 384 (39.8%) of the meat specimens were found to be contaminated. The contamination of Salmonella species and E. coli were 15.6% (n=60) and 20.8%) (n=80), respectively. Mixed contamination (Salmonella species and E. coli) was observed in 13 (3.4 %) of the analyzed. Poor washing hands regularly (AOR = 8.37; 95% CI: 2.75-25.50) and not using gloves during meat handling (AOR=11. 28; 95% CI:(4.69 27.10) were associated with overall bacterial contamination. About 100% of the tested isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, Co trimoxazole , sulphamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and norfloxacine of E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively, while the resistance of amoxyclav_amoxicillin and erythromycin were both isolated bacteria species. The overall multidrug resistance pattern for Salmonella and E. coli were 51.4% (n=19) and 31.8% (14), respectively. Conclusion: Of the 153 (153/384) contaminated raw meat, 60 (15.6%) and 80 (20.8%) were contaminated by Salmonella species and E. coli, respectively. Poor handwashing practice and not using glove during meat handling showed a significant association with bacterial contamination. Multidrug-resistant showed in Salmonella species, and E. coli were 19 (51.4%) and 14 (31.8%), respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility test, butchery houses, E. coli, raw meat, salmonella species

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129 How to Break an Outbreak: Containment Measures of a Salmonella Outbreak Associated with Egg Consumption

Authors: Gal Zagron, Nitza Abramson, Deena R. Zimmerman, Chen Stein-Zamir

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Background: Salmonella enteritidis is a common cause of foodborne outbreaks, primarily associated with poultry eggs. S. enteritidis This is the only Salmonella type that is found inside the eggshell. A rise in Salmonella enteritidis notifications was noted in spring 2017. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological investigation of the outbreak in the Jerusalem district, along with the containment measures taken. Methods: This study is a population-based epidemiological study with a description of environmental control activities. Results: During the months May - July, 2017 848 salmonellosis cases were reported to the Jerusalem district health office compared to 294 cases May - July 2016. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated in 58% of reported cases. Clusters and outbreaks ( > 2 cases) were reported among nursery schools, nursing homes, persons residing in one kibbutz and several cases in different food service establishments in the Jerusalem district. Epidemiological investigations revealed eggs consumption as a common feature among the cases (uncooked or undercooked eggs in most cases). A national investigation among egg suppliers revealed that most cases consumed eggs provided by a single provider with isolation of Salmonella enteritidis at the source as well. Containment measures were taken to control the epidemic including distributing information via electronic and written media to the public, searching for all egg distribution centers, informing local authorities, the poultry council and food stores. The eggs originating from the provider were recalled and extinguished. Written instructions to all food preparation facilities in the district were distributed regarding the proper storage and preparation of eggs. The number of reported cases declined and the outbreak vanished during correlating months of 2018. Conclusions: The investigation of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks should include epidemiological and laboratory investigations, tracing the source of the eggs and testing the eggs and the source of eggs. Health education activities are essential as to the proper handling of eggs and egg products aiming to minimize susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

Keywords: epidemiological investigation, food-borne disease, food safety, Salmonella enteritidis

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