Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2816

Search results for: biogas plant

2696 Lifestyle Switching Phenomenon of Plant Associated Fungi

Authors: Gauravi Agarkar, Mahendra Rai


Fungi are closely associated with the plants in various types of interactions such as mycorrhizal, parasitic or endophytic. Some of these interactions are beneficial and a few are harmful to the host plants. It has been suggested that these plant-associated fungi are able to change their lifestyle abd this means endophyte may become parasite or vice versa. This phenomenon may have profound effect on plant-fungal interactions and various ecological niches. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that trigger the change in fungal lifestyle and understand whether these different lifestyles are interconnected at some points either by physiological, biochemical or molecular routes. This review summarizes the factors affecting plant fungal interactions and discusses the possible mechanisms for lifestyles switching of fungi based on available experimental evidences. Research should be boosted in this direction to fetch more advantages in future and to avoid the severe consequences in agriculture and other related fields.

Keywords: endophytic, lifestyle switching, mycorrhizal, parasitic, plant-fungal interactions

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2695 Quality Control Parameters and Pharmacological Aspects of Less Known Medicinal Plant of India: Plumeria pudica Linn.

Authors: Shweta Shriwas, Sumeet Dwivedi, Raghvendra Dubey


Plumeria pudica Linn. Family Apocynaceae commonly known as Nag Chmapa is grown wildly in many parts of India. The plant is medium size shrub, grown up to height of 5-10 feet, evergreen with white flowers. In traditional system of medicine, the plant is widely used in the treatment of worms, infection, inflammation, etc. So, far no any systematic and documented study was done to revealed quality control parameters and pharmacological aspect of the selected plant species, therefore, the attempt was made in present investigation to reveal the same. The parameters such as Ash value, FOM, LOD, SI, etc. were studied using various coarsely dried plant materials of the species. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmentic and anti-microbial activity of various extract was investigated and reported in present work.

Keywords: Plumeria pudica, quality control, pharmacology, parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
2694 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Leguminosae in Kantharalak Community Forest, Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Promprom, W. Chatan


Leguminosae is a large plant family and its members are important for local people utilization in the Northeast of Thailand. This research aimed to survey medicinal plants in this family in Kantharalak Community forest. The plant collection and exploration were made from October 2017 to September 2018. Folk medicinal uses were studied by interviewing villagers and folk medicine healers living around the community forest by asking about local names, using parts, preparation and properties. The results showed that 65 species belonging to 40 genera were found. Among these, 30 species were medicinal plant. The most used plant parts were leaf. Decoction and drinking were mostly preparation method and administration mode used. All medicinal plants could be categorized into 17 diseases/symptoms. Most plant (56.66%) were used for fever. The voucher specimens were deposited in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Therefore, the data from this study might be widely used by the local area and further scientific study.

Keywords: ethnobotany, ethnophamacology, medicinal plant, taxonomy, utilization

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2693 An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Kerime Özkay, Ahmet Yıldırım


In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.

Keywords: agarose gel, DNA staining, organic dye, N-719

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2692 Some Agricultural Characteristics of Cephalaria syriaca Lines Selected from a Population and Developed as Winter Type

Authors: Rahim Ada, Ahmet Tamkoç


The research was conducted in the “Randomized Complete Block Design” with three replications in research field of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. In study, a total of 9 Cephalaria syriaca promised lines (9, 37, 38, 42, Beyaz 4, 5 Beyaz, 13 Beyaz, 27 Beyaz, Başaklar 2), which were taken from Sivas population, and 1 population were evaluated in two growing seasons (2012-13 and 2013-14). According to the results, the highest plant height, first branch height, first head height, number of branches per plant, number of head per plant, head diameter,1000 seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were obtained respectively from Başaklar 2 (68.37 cm), Başaklar 2 (37.80 cm), Başaklar 2 (54.83 cm), 37 (7.73 number/plant), 42 (18.03 number/plant), 9 (10.30 mm), Başaklar 2 (19.33 g), 27 Beyaz (1254.2 kg ha-1), Başaklar 2 (28.77%), and 27 Beyaz (357.9 kg ha-1).

Keywords: Cephalaria syriaca, yield, oil, population

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2691 The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: N. AlShaya, R. Alhomidan, S. Alromizan, W. Labib


Plant-based natural fibers are used more increasingly in construction materials. It is done to reduce the pressure on the built environment, which has been increased dramatically due to the increases world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibers are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibers as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fiber types; fiber characteristics, and fiber-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview on the main factors, affecting the properties of plant-based natural fiber cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibers in producing various construction materials; such as, mud bricks and blocks is investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibers as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.

Keywords: natural fibres, cement composites, construction materia, sustainability, stregth, durability

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2690 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam


Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: thermal power plant, lignite coal, pretreatment, demineralization, electrodialysis, recycling, ash dampening

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2689 Exergy Analysis and Evaluation of the Different Flowsheeting Configurations for CO₂ Capture Plant Using 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol

Authors: Ebuwa Osagie, Vasilije Manovic


Exergy analysis provides the identification of the location, sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies, and magnitude in a thermal system. Thus, both the qualitative and quantitative assessment can be evaluated with exergy, unlike energy which is based on quantitative assessment only. The main purpose of exergy analysis is to identify where exergy is destroyed. Thus, reduction of the exergy destruction and losses associated with the capture plant systems can improve work potential. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis of different configurations of the process helps to identify opportunities for reducing the steam requirements for each of the configurations. This paper presents steady-state simulation and exergy analysis of the 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)-based post-combustion capture (PCC) plant. Exergy analysis performed for the AMP-based plant and the different configurations revealed that the rich split with intercooling configuration gave the highest exergy efficiency of 73.6%, while that of the intercooling and the reference AMP-based plant were 57.3% and 55.8% respectively.

Keywords: 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, modelling, and simulation, post-combustion capture plant, exergy analysis, flowsheeting configurations

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
2688 Multi-Criteria Assessment of Biogas Feedstock

Authors: Rawan Hakawati, Beatrice Smyth, David Rooney, Geoffrey McCullough


Targets have been set in the EU to increase the share of renewable energy consumption to 20% by 2020, but developments have not occurred evenly across the member states. Northern Ireland is almost 90% dependent on imported fossil fuels. With such high energy dependency, Northern Ireland is particularly susceptible to the security of supply issues. Linked to fossil fuels are greenhouse gas emissions, and the EU plans to reduce emissions by 20% by 2020. The use of indigenously produced biomass could reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and external energy dependence. With a wide range of both crop and waste feedstock potentially available in Northern Ireland, anaerobic digestion has been put forward as a possible solution for renewable energy production, waste management, and greenhouse gas reduction. Not all feedstock, however, is the same, and an understanding of feedstock suitability is important for both plant operators and policy makers. The aim of this paper is to investigate biomass suitability for anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland. It is also important that decisions are based on solid scientific evidence. For this reason, the methodology used is multi-criteria decision matrix analysis which takes multiple criteria into account simultaneously and ranks alternatives accordingly. The model uses the weighted sum method (which follows the Entropy Method to measure uncertainty using probability theory) to decide on weights. The Topsis method is utilized to carry out the mathematical analysis to provide the final scores. Feedstock that is currently available in Northern Ireland was classified into two categories: wastes (manure, sewage sludge and food waste) and energy crops, specifically grass silage. To select the most suitable feedstock, methane yield, feedstock availability, feedstock production cost, biogas production, calorific value, produced kilowatt-hours, dry matter content, and carbon to nitrogen ratio were assessed. The highest weight (0.249) corresponded to production cost reflecting a variation of £41 gate fee to 22£/tonne cost. The weights calculated found that grass silage was the most suitable feedstock. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to investigate the impact of weights. The analysis used the Pugh Matrix Method which relies upon The Analytical Hierarchy Process and pairwise comparisons to determine a weighting for each criterion. The results showed that the highest weight (0.193) corresponded to biogas production indicating that grass silage and manure are the most suitable feedstock. Introducing co-digestion of two or more substrates can boost the biogas yield due to a synergistic effect induced by the feedstock to favor positive biological interactions. A further benefit of co-digesting manure is that the anaerobic digestion process also acts as a waste management strategy. From the research, it was concluded that energy from agricultural biomass is highly advantageous in Northern Ireland because it would increase the country's production of renewable energy, manage waste production, and would limit the production of greenhouse gases (current contribution from agriculture sector is 26%). Decision-making methods based on scientific evidence aid policy makers in classifying multiple criteria in a logical mathematical manner in order to reach a resolution.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomass as feedstock, decision matrix, renewable energy

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2687 Dynamic Self-Scheduling of Pumped-Storage Power Plant in Energy and Ancillary Service Markets Using Sliding Window Technique

Authors: P. Kanakasabapathy, S. Radhika


In the competitive electricity market environment, the profit of the pumped-storage plant in the energy market can be maximized by operating it as a generator, when market clearing price is high and as a pump, to pump water from lower reservoir to upper reservoir, when the price is low. An optimal self-scheduling plan has been developed for a pumped-storage plant, carried out on weekly basis in order to maximize the profit of the plant, keeping into account of all the major uncertainties such as the sudden ancillary service delivery request and the price forecasting errors. For a pumped storage power plant to operate in a real time market successive self-scheduling has to be done by considering the forecast of the day-ahead market and the modified reservoir storage due to the ancillary service request of the previous day. Sliding Window Technique has been used for successive self-scheduling to ensure profit for the plant.

Keywords: ancillary services, BPSO, power system economics, self-scheduling, sliding window technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
2686 Water Footprint for the Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Vijaya Subramaniam, Loh Soh Kheang, Astimar Abdul Aziz


Water footprint (WFP) has gained importance due to the increase in water scarcity in the world. This study analyses the WFP for an agriculture sector, i.e., the oil palm supply chain, which produces oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB), crude palm oil, palm kernel, and crude palm kernel oil. The water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) method was used. This method analyses the water depletion index (WDI) based on the local blue water scarcity. The main contribution towards the WFP at the plantation was the production of FFB from the crop itself at 0.23m³/tonne FFB. At the mill, the burden shifts to the water added during the process, which consists of the boiler and process water, which accounted for 6.91m³/tonne crude palm oil. There was a 33% reduction in the WFP when there was no dilution or water addition after the screw press at the mill. When allocation was performed, the WFP reduced by 42% as the burden was shared with the palm kernel and palm kernel shell. At the kernel crushing plant (KCP), the main contributor towards the WFP 4.96 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil which came from the palm kernel which carried the burden from upstream followed by electricity, 0.33 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil used for the process and 0.08 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil for transportation of the palm kernel. A comparison was carried out for mills with biogas capture versus no biogas capture, and the WFP had no difference for both scenarios. The comparison when the KCPs operate in the proximity of mills as compared to those operating in the proximity of ports only gave a reduction of 6% for the WFP. Both these scenarios showed no difference and insignificant difference, which differed from previous life cycle assessment studies on the carbon footprint, which showed significant differences. This shows that findings change when only certain impact categories are focused on. It can be concluded that the impact from the water used by the oil palm tree is low due to the practice of no irrigation at the plantations and the high availability of water from rainfall in Malaysia. This reiterates the importance of planting oil palm trees in regions with high rainfall all year long, like the tropics. The milling stage had the most significant impact on the WFP. Mills should avoid dilution to reduce this impact.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, water footprint, crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil, WAVE method

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2685 Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Eloise C. Tredenick, Troy W. Farrell, W. Alison Forster, Steven T. P. Psaltis


The agriculture industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops. More efficacious sprays provide many environmental and financial benefits. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The importance of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted, as the results of each uptake experiments are specific to each formulation of active ingredient and plant species. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a nonlinear porous diffusion model of ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which provides additions to a simple diffusion model through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating plant species' variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. The model could feasibly be adapted to other ionic active ingredients diffusing through other plant species' cuticles. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms.

Keywords: aqueous pores, ionic active ingredient, mathematical model, plant cuticle, porous diffusion

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2684 Changes in Some Morphological Characters of Dill Under Cadmium Stress

Authors: A. M. Daneshian Moghaddam, A. H. Hosseinzadeh, A. Bandehagh


To investigate the effect of cadmium heavy metal stress on five ecotype of dill, this experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Tabriz University and Shabestar Islamic Azad University’s laboratories with tree replications. After growing the plants, cadmium treatments (concentration 0,300, 600 µmol) were applied. The essential oil of the samples was measured by hydro distillation and using a Clevenger apparatus. Variables used in this study include: wet and dry roots and aerial part of plant, plant height, stem diameter, and root length. The results showed that different concentrations of heavy metal has statistical difference (p < 0.01) on the fresh weight, dry weight, plant height and root length but hadn’t significant difference on essential oil percentage and root length. Dill ecotypes have statistical significant difference on essential oil percent, fresh plant weight, plant height, root length, except plant dry weight. The interactions between Cd concentration and dill ecotypes have not significant effect on all traits, except root length. Maximum fresh weight (4.98 gr) and minimum amount (3.13 gr) were obtained in control trait and 600 ppm of cd concentration, respectively. Highest amount of fresh weight (4.78 gr) was obtained in Birjand ecotype. Maximum plant dry weight (1.2 gr) was obtained at control. The highest plant height (32.54 cm) was obtained in control and with applies cadmium concentrations from zero to 300 and 600 ppm was found significantly reduced in plant height.

Keywords: pollution, essential oil, ecotype, dill, heavy metals, cadmium

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2683 Effect of Irrigation Regime and Plant Density on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Yield in a Semi-Arid Environment

Authors: Atif Naim, Faisal E. Ahmed, Sershen


A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive winter seasons at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan, to study effects of different levels of irrigation regime and plant density on yield of introduced small seeded (desi type) chickpea cultivar (ILC 482). The experiment was laid out in a 3X3 factorial split-plot design with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of three irrigation regimes (designated as follows: I1 = optimum irrigation, I2 = moderate stress and I3 = severe stress; this corresponded with irrigation after drainage of 50%, 75% and 100% of available water based on 70%, 60% and 50% of field capacity, respectively) assigned as main plots and three plant densities (D₁=20, D₂= 40 and D₃= 60 plants/m²) assigned as subplots. The results indicated that the yield components (number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight), seed yield per plant, harvest index and yield per unit area of chickpea were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation regime. Decreasing irrigation regime significantly (p < 0.05) decreased all measured parameters. Alternatively, increasing plant density significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the number of pods and seed yield per plant and increased seed yield per unit area. While number of seeds per pod and harvest index were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by plant density. Interaction between irrigation regime and plant density was also significantly (p < 0.05) affected all measured parameters of yield, except for harvest index. It could be concluded that the best irrigation regime was full irrigation (after drainage of 50% available water at 70% field capacity) and the optimal plant density was 20 plants/m² under conditions of semi-arid regions.

Keywords: irrigation regime, Cicer arietinum, chickpea, plant density

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2682 Feasibility Study of Potential and Economic of Rice Straw VSPP Power Plant in Thailand

Authors: Sansanee Sansiribhan, Anusorn Rattanathanaophat, Chirapan Nuengchaknin


The potential feasibility of a 9.5 MWe capacity rice straw power plant project in Thailand was studied by evaluating the rice straw resource. The result showed that Thailand had a high rice straw biomass potential at the provincial level, especially, the provinces in the central, northeastern and western Thailand, which could feasibly develop plants. The economic feasibility of project was also investigated. The financial feasibility is also evaluated based on two important factors in the project, i.e., NPV ≥ 0 and IRR ≥ 11%. It was found that the rice straw power plant project at 9.5 MWe was financially feasible with the cost of fuel in the range of 30.6-47.7 USD/t.

Keywords: power plant, project feasibility, rice straw, Thailand

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2681 Modeling and Benchmarking the Thermal Energy Performance of Palm Oil Production Plant

Authors: Mathias B. Michael, Esther T. Akinlabi, Tien-Chien Jen


Thermal energy consumption in palm oil production plant comprises mainly of steam, hot water and hot air. In most efficient plants, hot water and air are generated from the steam supply system. Research has shown that thermal energy utilize in palm oil production plants is about 70 percent of the total energy consumption of the plant. In order to manage the plants’ energy efficiently, the energy systems are modelled and optimized. This paper aimed to present the model of steam supply systems of a typical palm oil production plant in Ghana. The models include exergy and energy models of steam boiler, steam turbine and the palm oil mill. The paper further simulates the virtual plant model to obtain the thermal energy performance of the plant under study. The simulation results show that, under normal operating condition, the boiler energy performance is considerably below the expected level as a result of several factors including intermittent biomass fuel supply, significant moisture content of the biomass fuel and significant heat losses. The total thermal energy performance of the virtual plant is set as a baseline. The study finally recommends number of energy efficiency measures to improve the plant’s energy performance.

Keywords: palm biomass, steam supply, exergy and energy models, energy performance benchmark

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2680 Insecticidal Effects of Plant Extracts of Thymus daenensis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

Authors: Afsoon Danesh Afrooz, Sohrab Imani, Ali Ahadiyat, Aref Maroof, Yahya Ostadi


This study has been investigated for finding alternative and safe botanical pesticides instead of chemical insecticides. The effects of plant extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Thymus daenensis were tested against adult of Callosobrochus maculatus F. Experiments were carried out at 27±1°C and 60 ± 5% R. H. under dark condition with adopting a complete randomized block design. Three replicates were set up for five concentrations of each plants extract. LC50 values were determined by SPSS 16.0 software. LC50 values indicated that plant extract of Thymus daenensis with 1.708 (µl/l air) against adult was more effective than the plant extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with LC50 12.755 (µl/l air). It was found that plant extract of Thymus daenensis in comparison with extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis could be used as a pesticide for control store pests.

Keywords: callosobruchus maculatus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, insecticidal effects, Thymus daenensis

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2679 Transforming Ganges to be a Living River through Waste Water Management

Authors: P. M. Natarajan, Shambhu Kallolikar, S. Ganesh


By size and volume of water, Ganges River basin is the biggest among the fourteen major river basins in India. By Hindu’s faith, it is the main ‘holy river’ in this nation. But, of late, the pollution load, both domestic and industrial sources are deteriorating the surface and groundwater as well as land resources and hence the environment of the Ganges River basin is under threat. Seeing this scenario, the Indian government began to reclaim this river by two Ganges Action Plans I and II since 1986 by spending Rs. 2,747.52 crores ($457.92 million). But the result was no improvement in the water quality of the river and groundwater and environment even after almost three decades of reclamation, and hence now the New Indian Government is taking extra care to rejuvenate this river and allotted Rs. 2,037 cores ($339.50 million) in 2014 and Rs. 20,000 crores ($3,333.33 million) in 2015. The reasons for the poor water quality and stinking environment even after three decades of reclamation of the river are either no treatment/partial treatment of the sewage. Hence, now the authors are suggesting a tertiary level treatment standard of sewages of all sources and origins of the Ganges River basin and recycling the entire treated water for nondomestic uses. At 20million litres per day (MLD) capacity of each sewage treatment plant (STP), this basin needs about 2020 plants to treat the entire sewage load. Cost of the STPs is Rs. 3,43,400 million ($5,723.33 million) and the annual maintenance cost is Rs. 15,352 million ($255.87 million). The advantages of the proposed exercise are: we can produce a volume of 1,769.52 million m3 of biogas. Since biogas is energy, can be used as a fuel, for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. It is possible to generate about 3,539.04 million kilowatt electricity per annum from the biogas generated in the process of wastewater treatment in Ganges basin. The income generation from electricity works out to Rs 10,617.12million ($176.95million). This power can be used to bridge the supply and demand gap of energy in the power hungry villages where 300million people are without electricity in India even today, and to run these STPs as well. The 664.18 million tonnes of sludge generated by the treatment plants per annum can be used in agriculture as manure with suitable amendments. By arresting the pollution load the 187.42 cubic kilometer (km3) of groundwater potential of the Ganges River basin could be protected from deterioration. Since we can recycle the sewage for non-domestic purposes, about 14.75km3 of fresh water per annum can be conserved for future use. The total value of the water saving per annum is Rs.22,11,916million ($36,865.27million) and each citizen of Ganges River basin can save Rs. 4,423.83/ ($73.73) per annum and Rs. 12.12 ($0.202) per day by recycling the treated water for nondomestic uses. Further the environment of this basin could be kept clean by arresting the foul smell as well as the 3% of greenhouse gages emission from the stinking waterways and land. These are the ways to reclaim the waterways of Ganges River basin from deterioration.

Keywords: Holy Ganges River, lifeline of India, wastewater treatment and management, making Ganges permanently holy

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2678 Isolation of Bacterial Species with Potential Capacity for Siloxane Removal in Biogas Upgrading

Authors: Ellana Boada, Eric Santos-Clotas, Alba Cabrera-Codony, Maria Martin, Lluis Baneras, Frederic Gich


Volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS) are a group of manmade silicone compounds widely used in household and industrial applications that end up on the biogas produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic matter in landfills and wastewater treatment plants. The presence of VMS during the biogas energy conversion can cause damage on the engines, reducing the efficiency of this renewable energy source. Non regenerative adsorption onto activated carbon is the most widely used technology to remove siloxanes from biogas, while new trends point out that biotechnology offers a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional technologies. The first objective of this research was to enrich, isolate and identify bacterial species able to grow using siloxane molecules as a sole carbon source: anoxic wastewater sludge was used as initial inoculum in liquid anoxic enrichments, adding D4 (as representative siloxane compound) previously adsorbed on activated carbon. After several months of acclimatization, liquid enrichments were plated onto solid media containing D4 and thirty-four bacterial isolates were obtained. 16S rRNA gene sequencing allowed the identification of strains belonging to the following species: Ciceribacter lividus, Alicycliphilus denitrificans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas citronellolis which are described to be capable to degrade toxic volatile organic compounds. Kinetic assays with 8 representative strains revealed higher cell growth in the presence of D4 compared to the control. Our second objective was to characterize the community composition and diversity of the microbial community present in the enrichments and to elucidate whether the isolated strains were representative members of the community or not. DNA samples were extracted, the 16S rRNA gene was amplified (515F & 806R primer pair), and the microbiome analyzed from sequences obtained with a MiSeq PE250 platform. Results showed that the retrieved isolates only represented a minor fraction of the microorganisms present in the enrichment samples, which were represented by Alpha, Beta, and Gamma proteobacteria as dominant groups in the category class thus suggesting that other microbial species and/or consortia may be important for D4 biodegradation. These results highlight the need of additional protocols for the isolation of relevant D4 degraders. Currently, we are developing molecular tools targeting key genes involved in siloxane biodegradation to identify and quantify the capacity of the isolates to metabolize D4 in batch cultures supplied with a synthetic gas stream of air containing 60 mg m⁻³ of D4 together with other volatile organic compounds found in the biogas mixture (i.e. toluene, hexane and limonene). The isolates were used as inoculum in a biotrickling filter containing lava rocks and activated carbon to assess their capacity for siloxane removal. Preliminary results of biotrickling filter performance showed 35% of siloxane biodegradation in a contact time of 14 minutes, denoting that biological siloxane removal is a promising technology for biogas upgrading.

Keywords: bacterial cultivation, biogas upgrading, microbiome, siloxanes

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2677 Effect of Non-Legume Primary Ecological Successor on Nitrogen Content of Soil

Authors: Vikas Baliram Kalyankar


Study of ecology is important as it plays role in development of environment engineering. With the advent of technologies the study of ecosystem structure and changes in it are remaining unnoticed. The ecological succession is the sequential replacement of plant species following changes in the environment. The present study depicts the primary ecological succession in an area leveled up to the height of five feet with no signs of plant life on it. The five quadrates of 1 meter square size were observed during the study period of six months. Rain water being the only source of water in the area increased its ecological importance. The primary successor was non- leguminous plant Balonites roxburgii during the peak drought periods in the region of the summer 2013-14. The increased nitrogen content of soil after the plant implied its role in atmospheric nitrogen fixation.

Keywords: succession, Balonites roxburgii, non-leguminous plant, ecology

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2676 Effect of Weed Control and Different Plant Densities the Yield and Quality of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Hasan Dalgic, Fikret Akinerdem


This trial was made to determine effect of different plant density and weed control on yield and quality of winter sowing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Selcuk University, Agricultural Faculty trial fields and the effective substance of Trifluran was used as herbicide. Field trial was made during the vegetation period of 2009-2010 with three replications according to 'Split Plots in Randomized Blocks' design. The weed control techniques were made on main plots and row distances was set up on sub-plots. The trial subjects were consisting from three weed control techniques as fallowing: herbicide application (Trifluran), hoeing and control beside the row distances of 15 cm and 30 cm. The results were ranged between 59.0-76.73 cm in plant height, 40.00-47.07 cm in first branch height, 5.00-7.20 in number of branch per plant, 6.00-14.73 number of head per plant, 19.57-21.87 mm in head diameter, 2125.0-3968.3 kg ha-1 in seed yield, 27.10-28.08 % in crude oil rate and 531.7-1070.3 kg ha-1. According to the results, Remzibey safflower cultivar showed the highest seed yield on 30 cm of row distance and herbicide application by means of the direct effects of plant height, first branch height, number of branch per plant, number of head per plant, table diameter, crude oil rate and crude oil yield.

Keywords: safflower, herbicide, row spacing, seed yield, oil ratio, oil yield

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2675 Modeling and Simulation Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink

Authors: Jamuna Konda, Umamaheswara Reddy Karumuri, Sriramya Muthugi, Varun Pishati, Ravi Shakya,


This paper investigates the challenges involved in mathematical modeling of plant simulation models ensuring the performance of the plant models much closer to the real time physical model. The paper includes the analysis performed and investigation on different methods of modeling, design and development for plant model. Issues which impact the design time, model accuracy as real time model, tool dependence are analyzed. The real time hardware plant would be a combination of multiple physical models. It is more challenging to test the complete system with all possible test scenarios. There are possibilities of failure or damage of the system due to any unwanted test execution on real time.

Keywords: model based design (MBD), MATLAB, Simulink, stateflow, plant model, real time model, real-time workshop (RTW), target language compiler (TLC)

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2674 Effect of Plant Density and Planting Pattern on Yield and Quality of Single Cross 704 Silage Corn (Zea mays L.) in Isfahan

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Ali Zahedi


This field experiment was conducted in Isfahan in 2011 in order to study the effect of plant density and planting pattern on growth, yield and quality of silage corn (SC 704) using a randomized complete block design with split plot layout and four replications. The main plot consisted of three planting patterns (60 and 75 cm single planting row and 75 cm double planting row referred to as 60S, 75S and 75T, respectively). The subplots consisted of four levels of plant densities (65000, 80000, 95000 and 110000 plants per hectare). Each subplot consisted of 7 rows, each with 10m length. Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of plants at silking and hard dough stages (when the plants were harvested for silage) were evaluated. Results of variance analysis showed that the effects of planting pattern and plant density were significant on leaf area per plant, leaf area index (at silking), plant height, stem diameter, dry weights of leaf, stem and ear in silking and harvest stages and on fresh and dry yield, dry matter percentage and crude protein percentage at harvest. There was no planting pattern × plant density interaction for these parameters. As row space increased from 60 cm with single planting to 75 cm with single planting, leaf area index and plant height increased, but leaf area per plant, stem diameter, dry weight of leaf, stem and ear, dry matter percentage, dry matter yield and crude protein percentage decreased. Dry matter yield reduced from 24.9 to 18.5 t/ha and crude protein percentage decreased from 6.11 to 5.60 percent. When the plant density increased from 65000 to 110000 plant per hectare, leaf area index, plant height, dry weight of leaf, stem and ear and dry matter yield increased from 19.2 to 23.3 t/ha, whereas leaf area per plant, stem diameter, dry matter percentage and crude protein percentage decreased from 6.30 to 5.25. The best results were obtained with 60 cm row distance with single planting and 110000 plants per hectare.

Keywords: silage corn, plant density, planting pattern, yield

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2673 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards


In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.

Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energy

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2672 Study of Current the Rice Straw Potential for a Small Power Plant Capacity in the Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Sansanee Sansiribhan, Orrawan Rewthong, Anusorn Rattanathanaophat, Sarun Saensiriphan


The objective of this work was to study potential of rice straw for power plant in the central region of Thailand. Provincial power plant capacity was studied. The results showed that provinces central region had potential for small power plants with a capacity of over 10 MW in 13 provinces, 1-10 MW in 6 provinces and less than 1 MW in 3 provinces.

Keywords: rice straw, power plant, central region, Thailand

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2671 Bioinsecticidal Activity and Phytochemical Study of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika


Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However, alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

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2670 Antiglycemic Activity of Raw Plant Materials as Potential Components of Functional Food

Authors: Ewa Flaczyk, Monika Przeor, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak


The aim of this paper was to collect the information concerning the most popular raw plant materials of antidiabetic activity, in a context of functional food developing production. The elaboration discusses morphological elements possible for an application in functional food production of the plants such as: common bean, ginger, Ceylon cinnamon, white mulberry, fenugreek, French lilac, ginseng, jambolão, and bitter melon. An activity of bioactive substances contained in these raw plant materials was presented, pointing their antiglycemic and also hypocholesterolemic, antiarthritic, antirheumatic, antibacterial, and antiviral activity in the studies on humans and animals. Also the genesis of functional food definition was presented.

Keywords: antiglycemic activity, raw plant materials, functional food, food, nutritional sciences

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2669 Critical Terrain Slope Calculation for Locating Small Hydropower Plants

Authors: C. Vrekos, C. Evagelides, N. Samarinas, G. Arampatzis


As known, the water energy is a renewable and clean source of energy. Energy production from hydropower has been the first, and still is today a renewable source used to generate electricity. The optimal location and sizing of a small hydropower plant is a very important issue in engineering design which encourages investigation. The aim of this paper is to present a formula that can be utilized for locating the position of a small hydropower plant although there is a high dependence on economic, environmental, and social parameters. In this paper, the economic and technical side of the problem is considered. More specifically, there is a critical terrain slope that determines if the plant should be located at the end of the slope or not. Of course, this formula can be used for a first estimate and does not include detailed economic analysis. At the end, a case study is presented for the location of a small hydropower plant in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed formula.

Keywords: critical terrain slope, economic analysis, hydropower plant locating, renewable energy

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2668 Economic Assessment of CO2-Based Methane, Methanol and Polyoxymethylene Production

Authors: Wieland Hoppe, Nadine Wachter, Stefan Bringezu


Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization might be a promising way to substitute fossil raw materials like coal, oil or natural gas as carbon source of chemical production. While first life cycle assessments indicate a positive environmental performance of CO2-based process routes, a commercialization of CO2 is limited by several economic obstacles up to now. We, therefore, analyzed the economic performance of the three CO2-based chemicals methane and methanol as basic chemicals and polyoxymethylene as polymer on a cradle-to-gate basis. Our approach is oriented towards life cycle costing. The focus lies on the cost drivers of CO2-based technologies and options to stimulate a CO2-based economy by changing regulative factors. In this way, we analyze various modes of operation and give an outlook for the potentially cost-effective development in the next decades. Biogas, waste gases of a cement plant, and flue gases of a waste incineration plant are considered as CO2-sources. The energy needed to convert CO2 into hydrocarbons via electrolysis is assumed to be supplied by wind power, which is increasingly available in Germany. Economic data originates from both industrial processes and process simulations. The results indicate that CO2-based production technologies are not competitive with conventional production methods under present conditions. This is mainly due to high electricity generation costs and regulative factors like the German Renewable Energy Act (EEG). While the decrease in production costs of CO2-based chemicals might be limited in the next decades, a modification of relevant regulative factors could potentially promote an earlier commercialization.

Keywords: carbon capture and utilization (CCU), economic assessment, life cycle costing (LCC), power-to-X

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2667 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai


Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 390