Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1072

Search results for: code

1072 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

Abstract:

Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
1071 A Rapid Code Acquisition Scheme in OOC-Based CDMA Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We propose a code acquisition scheme called improved multiple-shift (IMS) for optical code division multiple access systems, where the optical orthogonal code is used instead of the pseudo noise code. Although the IMS algorithm has a similar process to that of the conventional MS algorithm, it has a better code acquisition performance than the conventional MS algorithm. We analyze the code acquisition performance of the IMS algorithm and compare the code acquisition performances of the MS and the IMS algorithms in single-user and multi-user environments.

Keywords: code acquisition, optical CDMA, optical orthogonal code, serial algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
1070 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code FORSDRAM Controller

Authors: N. Pitcheswara Rao

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
1069 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code for SDRAM Controller

Authors: Pitcheswara Rao Nelapati

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
1068 A Resistant-Based Comparative Study between Iranian Concrete Design Code and Some Worldwide Ones

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani

Abstract:

The design in most counties should be inevitably carried out by their native code such as Iran. Since the Iranian concrete code does not exist in structural design software, most engineers in this country analyze the structures using commercial software but design the structural members manually. This point motivated us to make a communication between Iranian code and some other well-known ones to create facility for the engineers. Finally, this paper proposes the so-called interpretation charts which help specify the position of Iranian code in comparison of some worldwide ones.

Keywords: beam, concrete code, strength, interpretation charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1067 Code-Switching in Facebook Chatting Among Maldivian Teenagers

Authors: Aaidha Hammad

Abstract:

This study examines the phenomenon of code switching among teenagers in the Maldives while they carry out conversations through Facebook in the form of “Facebook Chatting”. The current study aims at evaluating the frequency of code-switching and it investigates between what languages code-switching occurs. Besides the study identifies the types of words that are often codeswitched and the triggers for code switching. The methodology used in this study is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approach. In this regard, the chat log of a group conversation between 10 teenagers was collected and analyzed. A questionnaire was also administered through online to 24 different teenagers from different corners of the Maldives. The age of teenagers ranged between 16 and 19 years. The findings of the current study revealed that while Maldivian teenagers chat in Facebook they very often code switch and these switches are most commonly between Dhivehi and English, but some other languages are also used to some extent. It also identified the different types of words that are being often code switched among the teenagers. Most importantly it explored different reasons behind code switching among the Maldivian teenagers in Facebook chatting.

Keywords: code-switching, Facebook, Facebook chatting Maldivian teenagers

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
1066 Development of Fem Code for 2-D Elasticity Problems Using Quadrilateral and Triangular Elements

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Waseem Sakawat

Abstract:

This study presents the development of FEM code using Quadrilateral 4-Node (Q4) and Triangular 3-Node (T3) elements. Code is formulated using MATLAB language. Instead of using both elements in the same code, two separate codes are written. Quadrilateral element is difficult to handle directly, that is why natural coordinates (eta, ksi) are used. Due to this, Q4 code includes numerical integration (Gauss quadrature). In this case, complete numerical integration is performed using 2 points. On the other hand, T3 element can be modeled directly, by using direct stiffness approach. Axially loaded element, cantilever (special constraints) and Patch test cases were analyzed using both codes and the results were verified by using Ansys.

Keywords: FEM code, MATLAB, numerical integration, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1065 Code Switching: A Case Study Of Lebanon

Authors: Wassim Bekai

Abstract:

Code switching, as its name states, is altering between two or more languages in one sentence. The speaker tends to use code switching in his/her speech for better clarification of his/her message to the receiver. It is commonly used in sociocultural countries such as Lebanon because of the various cultures that have come across its lands through history, considering Lebanon is geographically located in the heart of the world, and hence between many cultures and languages. In addition, Lebanon was occupied by Turkish authorities for about 400 years, and later on by the French mandate, where both of these countries forced their languages in official papers and in the Lebanese educational system. In this paper, the importance of code switching in the Lebanese workplace will be examined, stressing the efficiency and amount of the production resulting from code switching in the workplace (factories, universities among other places) in addition to exploring the social, education, religious and cultural factors behind this phenomenon in Lebanon.

Keywords: code switching, Lebanon, cultural, factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
1064 Features of Testing of the Neuronetwork Converter Biometrics-Code with Correlation Communications between Bits of the Output Code

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, A. I. Ivanov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. Y. Malygin, K. Mukapil, S. D. Tolybayev

Abstract:

The article examines the testing of the neural network converter of biometrics code. Determined the main reasons that prevented the use adopted in the works of foreign researchers classical a Binomial Law when describing distribution of measures of Hamming "Alien" codes-responses.

Keywords: biometrics, testing, neural network, converter of biometrics-code, Hamming's measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
1063 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based on Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
1062 Quick Response(QR) Code for Vehicle Registration and Identification

Authors: S. Malarvizhi, S. Sadiq Basha, M. Santhosh Kumar, K. Saravanan, R. Sasikumar, R. Satheesh

Abstract:

This is a web based application which provides authorization for the vehicle identification and registration. It also provides mutual authentication between the police and users in order to avoid misusage. The QR code generation in this application overcomes the difficulty in the manual registration of the vehicle documents. This generated QR code is placed in the number plates of the vehicles. The QR code is scanned using the QR Reader installed in the smart devices. The police officials can check the vehicle details and file cases on accidents, theft and traffic rules violations using QR code. In addition to vehicle insurance payments and renewals, the renewal alert is sent to the vehicle owner about payment deadline. The non-permitted vehicles can be blocked in the next check-post by sending the alert messages.

Keywords: QR code, QR reader, registration, authentication, idenfication

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1061 Lowering Error Floors by Concatenation of Low-Density Parity-Check and Array Code

Authors: Cinna Soltanpur, Mohammad Ghamari, Behzad Momahed Heravi, Fatemeh Zare

Abstract:

Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been shown to deliver capacity approaching performance; however, problematic graphical structures (e.g. trapping sets) in the Tanner graph of some LDPC codes can cause high error floors in bit-error-ratio (BER) performance under conventional sum-product algorithm (SPA). This paper presents a serial concatenation scheme to avoid the trapping sets and to lower the error floors of LDPC code. The outer code in the proposed concatenation is the LDPC, and the inner code is a high rate array code. This approach applies an interactive hybrid process between the BCJR decoding for the array code and the SPA for the LDPC code together with bit-pinning and bit-flipping techniques. Margulis code of size (2640, 1320) has been used for the simulation and it has been shown that the proposed concatenation and decoding scheme can considerably improve the error floor performance with minimal rate loss.

Keywords: concatenated coding, low–density parity–check codes, array code, error floors

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1060 Code Refactoring Using Slice-Based Cohesion Metrics and AOP

Authors: Jagannath Singh, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

Abstract:

Software refactoring is very essential for maintaining the software quality. It is an usual practice that we first design the software and then go for coding. But after coding is completed, if the requirement changes slightly or our expected output is not achieved, then we change the codes. For each small code change, we cannot change the design. In course of time, due to these small changes made to the code, the software design decays. Software refactoring is used to restructure the code in order to improve the design and quality of the software. In this paper, we propose an approach for performing code refactoring. We use slice-based cohesion metrics to identify the target methods which requires refactoring. After identifying the target methods, we use program slicing to divide the target method into two parts. Finally, we have used the concepts of Aspects to adjust the code structure so that the external behaviour of the original module does not change.

Keywords: software refactoring, program slicing, AOP, cohesion metrics, code restructure, AspectJ

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
1059 Maximum Distance Separable b-Symbol Repeated-Root γ-Constacylic Codes over a Finite Chain Ring of Length 2

Authors: Jamal Laaouine, Mohammed Elhassani Charkani

Abstract:

Let p be a prime and let b be an integer. MDS b-symbol codes are a direct generalization of MDS codes. The γ-constacyclic codes of length pˢ over the finite commutative chain ring Fₚm [u]/ < u² > had been classified into four distinct types, where is a nonzero element of the field Fₚm. Let C₃ be a code of Type 3. In this paper, we obtain the b-symbol distance db(C₃) of the code C₃. Using this result, necessary and sufficient conditions under which C₃ is an MDS b-symbol code are given.

Keywords: constacyclic code, repeated-root code, maximum distance separable, MDS codes, b-symbol distance, finite chain rings

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
1058 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon

Abstract:

Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
1057 Performance Analysis and Comparison of Various 1-D and 2-D Prime Codes for OCDMA Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Shashank Johri, Arpit Mehrotra

Abstract:

In this paper we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension i.e. time slots whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for OCDMA system on a single platform. Results shows that 1D Extended Prime Code (EPC) can support more number of active users compared to other codes but at the expense of larger code length which further increases the complexity of the code. Modified Prime Code (MPC) supports lesser number of active users at λc=2 but it has a lesser code length as compared to 1D prime code. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
1056 The Effect of the 2015 Revision to the Corporate Governance Code on Japanese Listed Firms

Authors: Tomotaka Yanagida

Abstract:

The Corporate Governance Code, revised in 2015, requires firms listed within the first and second sections of Japan’s Tokyo stock exchange to select two or more independent outside directors (the Corporate Governance Code4-8). Therefore, Japanese listed firms must do this or explain the reason why they are not able to do so. This study investigates how the Corporate Governance Code affects Japanese listed firms. We find that the Corporate Governance Code increases the ratio of outside directors by nearly 8.8% for a sample of Japanese firms comprising nearly 4,200 firm-year observations from 2014 to 2015 using a difference-in-differences approach. This implies that they felt it would have been difficult to explain why it was not appropriate to have an outside director at the annual shareholders' meeting. Moreover, this suggests that they appoint outside directors as defined by the Corporate Governance Code, but maintain board size. This situation shows that compliance in Japan may simply be 'window dressing,' that is, more form than substance.

Keywords: board structure, comply or explain, corporate governance code, soft law

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1055 On the Construction of Some Optimal Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Skezeer John B. Paz, Ederlina G. Nocon

Abstract:

Finding an optimal binary linear code is a central problem in coding theory. A binary linear code C = [n, k, d] is called optimal if there is no linear code with higher minimum distance d given the length n and the dimension k. There are bounds giving limits for the minimum distance d of a linear code of fixed length n and dimension k. The lower bound which can be taken by construction process tells that there is a known linear code having this minimum distance. The upper bound is given by theoretic results such as Griesmer bound. One way to find an optimal binary linear code is to make the lower bound of d equal to its higher bound. That is, to construct a binary linear code which achieves the highest possible value of its minimum distance d, given n and k. Some optimal binary linear codes were presented by Andries Brouwer in his published table on bounds of the minimum distance d of binary linear codes for 1 ≤ n ≤ 256 and k ≤ n. This was further improved by Markus Grassl by giving a detailed construction process for each code exhibiting the lower bound. In this paper, we construct new optimal binary linear codes by using some construction processes on existing binary linear codes. Particularly, we developed an algorithm applied to the codes already constructed to extend the list of optimal binary linear codes up to 257 ≤ n ≤ 300 for k ≤ 7.

Keywords: bounds of linear codes, Griesmer bound, construction of linear codes, optimal binary linear codes

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
1054 Challenges in Teaching Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

Authors: Rasika Dayarathna

Abstract:

Computing has reached every corner of our lives in many forms. The Internet, particularly Social Media, Artificial Intelligence, are prominent among them. As a result, computing has changed our lives and it is expected that severe changes will take place in the coming years. It has introduced a new set of ethical challenges and amplified the existing ethical challenges. It is the duty of everyone involved from conceptualizing, designing, implementing, deploying, and using to follow generally accepted practices in order to avoid or minimize harm and improve the quality of life. Since computing in various forms mentioned above has a significant impact on our lives, various codes of conduct and standards have been introduced. Among many, the ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct is a leading one. This was drafted for everyone, including aspiring computing professionals. However, teaching a code of conduct for aspiring computing professionals is very challenging since this universal code needs to be taught for young computing professionals in a local setting where there are value mismatches and exposure to information systems. This paper discusses the importance of teaching the code, how to overcome the challenges, and suggestions to improve the code to make it more appealing and buying in. It is expected that the improved approach would contribute to improving the quality of life.

Keywords: code of conduct, professionalism, ethics, code of ethics, ethics education, moral development

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1053 A Corpus-Based Analysis on Code-Mixing Features in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children in Singapore

Authors: Xunan Huang, Caicai Zhang

Abstract:

This paper investigated the code-mixing features in Mandarin-English bilingual children in Singapore. First, it examined whether the code-mixing rate was different in Mandarin Chinese and English contexts. Second, it explored the syntactic categories of code-mixing in Singapore bilingual children. Moreover, this study investigated whether morphological information was preserved when inserting syntactic components into the matrix language. Data are derived from the Singapore Bilingual Corpus, in which the recordings and transcriptions of sixty English-Mandarin 5-to-6-year-old children were preserved for analysis. Results indicated that the rate of code-mixing was asymmetrical in the two language contexts, with the rate being significantly higher in the Mandarin context than that in the English context. The asymmetry is related to language dominance in that children are more likely to code-mix when using their nondominant language. Concerning the syntactic categories of code-mixing words in the Singaporean bilingual children, we found that noun-mixing, verb-mixing, and adjective-mixing are the three most frequently used categories in code-mixing in the Mandarin context. This pattern mirrors the syntactic categories of code-mixing in the Cantonese context in Cantonese-English bilingual children, and the general trend observed in lexical borrowing. Third, our results also indicated that English vocabularies that carry morphological information are embedded in bare forms in the Mandarin context. These findings shed light upon how bilingual children take advantage of the two languages in mixed utterances in a bilingual environment.

Keywords: bilingual children, code-mixing, English, Mandarin Chinese

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
1052 Energy Efficiency in Hot Arid Climates Code Compliance and Enforcement for Residential Buildings

Authors: Mohamed Edesy, Carlo Cecere

Abstract:

This paper is a part of an ongoing research that proposes energy strategies for residential buildings in hot arid climates. In Egypt, the residential sector is dominated by increase in consumption rates annually. A building energy efficiency code was introduced by the government in 2005; it indicates minimum design and application requirements for residential buildings. Submission is mandatory and should lead to about 20% energy savings with an increase in comfort levels. However, compliance is almost nonexistent, electricity is subsidized and incentives to adopt energy efficient patterns are very low. This work presents an overview of the code and analyzes the impact of its introduction on different sectors. It analyses compliance barriers and indicates challenges that stand in the way of a realistic enforcement. It proposes an action plan for immediate code enforcement, updating current code to include retrofit, and development of rating systems for buildings. This work presents a broad national plan for energy efficiency empowerment in the residential sector.

Keywords: energy efficiency, housing, energy policies, code enforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
1051 Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening

Authors: Rehab I. Abdul Rahman, Mazhar B. Tayel

Abstract:

This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051 microcontroller, that able to assure reliable operation in the presence of bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the 8051 microcontroller, Hamming code protection was used in its SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code and its simulation have been used for this hamming code protection.

Keywords: radiation, hardening, bitflip, hamming

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
1050 Effects of Level Densities and Those of a-Parameter in the Framework of Preequilibrium Model for 63,65Cu(n,xp) Reactions in Neutrons at 9 to 15 MeV

Authors: L. Yettou

Abstract:

In this study, the calculations of proton emission spectra produced by 63Cu(n,xp) and 65Cu(n,xp) reactions are used in the framework of preequilibrium models using the EMPIRE code and TALYS code. Exciton Model predidtions combined with the Kalbach angular distribution systematics and the Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation (HMS) were used. The effects of levels densities and those of a-parameter have been investigated for our calculations. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the Exciton Model and HMS calculations.

Keywords: Preequilibrium models , level density, level density a-parameter., Empire code, Talys code.

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
1049 Public Administrators, Code of Conduct and the Nigerian Society

Authors: Mahmud Adam, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim

Abstract:

The issue of ethics and values of public office holders in Nigerian has been and still is a matter of great mystery. Their behaviours in the discharge of their official responsibility remain unsatisfactory. The paper looks at the code of conduct and the societal values with which the Nigerian Administrators function today. Secondary sources of data were used. In conclusion, a change in attitude, reorientation, harsh and enforceable laws is required to reverse the trend.

Keywords: society, administrators, code of conduct, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1048 Hybrid Obfuscation Technique for Reverse Engineering Problem

Authors: Asma’a Mahfoud, Abu Bakar Md. Sultan, Abdul Azim Abd, Norhayati Mohd Ali, Novia Admodisastro

Abstract:

Obfuscation is a practice to make something difficult and complicated. Programming code is ordinarily obfuscated to protect the intellectual property (IP) and prevent the attacker from reverse engineering (RE) a copyrighted software program. Obfuscation may involve encrypting some or all the code, transforming out potentially revealing data, renaming useful classes and variables (identifiers) names to meaningless labels, or adding unused or meaningless code to an application binary. Obfuscation techniques were not performing effectively recently as the reversing tools are able to break the obfuscated code. We propose in this paper a hybrid obfuscation technique that contains three approaches of renaming. Experimentation was conducted to test the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The experimentation has presented a promising result, where the reversing tools were not able to read the code.

Keywords: intellectual property, obfuscation, software security, reverse engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
1047 Good Faith and Accession in the New Civil Code

Authors: Adelina Vrancianu

Abstract:

The problem of artificial real accession will be analyzed in this study both in terms of old and current Civil Code provisions and in terms of comparative law, European legal and Canadian systems. The current Civil Code from 2009 has brought new changes about the application and solutions regarding artificial real accession. The hypothesis in which a person is making works with his own materials on the real estate belonging to another person is developed and analyzed in detail from national and international point of view in relation with the good faith. The scope of this analysis is to point out what are the changes issued from case-law and which ones are new, inspired from other law systems in regard to the good/bad faith. The new civil code has promoted a definition for this notion. Is this definition a new one inspired from the comparative law or is it inspired from the case-law? Is it explained for every case scenario of accession or is a general notion? The study tries to respond to these questions and to present the new aspects in the area. has reserved a special place for the situation of execution of works with own materials exceeding the border with violation of another’s right of property, where the variety of solutions brings into discussion the case of expropriation for private interest. The new Civil Code is greatly influenced by the Civil Code from Quebec in comparison with the old code of French influence. The civil reform was needed and has brought into attention new solutions inspired from the Canadian system which has mitigated the permanent conflict between the constructor and the immovable owner.

Keywords: accession, good faith, new civil code, comparative law

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1046 Developing a Modified Version of KIVA-3V, Enabling Gaseous Injections

Authors: Hossein Keshtkar, Ali Nasiri Toosi

Abstract:

With the growing concerns about gasoline environmental pollution and also the need for a more widely available fuel source, natural gas is finding its way to the automotive engines. But before this could happen industrially, simulations of natural gas direct injection need to take place to maximize and optimize power output. KIVA is one of the most powerful tools when it comes to engine simulation. Widely accepted by both researchers and the industry, KIVA an open-source code, offers great in-depth simulation and analyzation. KIVA can compute complex phenomena’s which can occur inside the chamber before, whilst and after ignition. One downside to KIVA, is its in-capability of simulating gaseous injections, making it useful for only liquidized fuel. In this study, we developed a numerical code, to enable the simulation of gaseous injection within the KIVA code. By introducing our code as a subroutine, we modified the original KIVA program. To ensure the correct application of gaseous fuel injection using our modified KIVA code, we simulated two different cases and compared them with their experimental data. We concluded our modified version of KIVA’s simulation results came in very close to those measured experimentally.

Keywords: gaseous injections, KIVA, natural gas direct injection, numerical code, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1045 Virtual Reality Based 3D Video Games and Speech-Lip Synchronization Superseding Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, S. Meenakshi Sundaram, Wenli Hu, Yang Yung

Abstract:

In 3D video games, the dominance of production is unceasingly growing with a protruding level of affordability in terms of budget. Afterward, the automation of speech-lip synchronization technique is customarily onerous and has advanced a critical research subject in virtual reality based 3D video games. This paper presents one of these automatic tools, precisely riveted on the synchronization of the speech and the lip movement of the game characters. A robust and precise speech recognition segment that systematized with Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction method is developed which unconventionally delivers lip sync results. The Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction algorithm is constructed on that used in code-excited linear prediction, but Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction codebooks have an explicit algebraic structure levied upon them. This affords a quicker substitute to the software enactments of lip sync algorithms and thus advances the superiority of service factors abridged production cost.

Keywords: algebraic code excited linear prediction, speech-lip synchronization, video games, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
1044 Practical Challenges of Tunable Parameters in Matlab/Simulink Code Generation

Authors: Ebrahim Shayesteh, Nikolaos Styliaras, Alin George Raducu, Ozan Sahin, Daniel Pombo VáZquez, Jonas Funkquist, Sotirios Thanopoulos

Abstract:

One of the important requirements in many code generation projects is defining some of the model parameters tunable. This helps to update the model parameters without performing the code generation again. This paper studies the concept of embedded code generation by MATLAB/Simulink coder targeting the TwinCAT Simulink system. The generated runtime modules are then tested and deployed to the TwinCAT 3 engineering environment. However, defining the parameters tunable in MATLAB/Simulink code generation targeting TwinCAT is not very straightforward. This paper focuses on this subject and reviews some of the techniques tested here to make the parameters tunable in generated runtime modules. Three techniques are proposed for this purpose, including normal tunable parameters, callback functions, and mask subsystems. Moreover, some test Simulink models are developed and used to evaluate the results of proposed approaches. A brief summary of the study results is presented in the following. First of all, the parameters defined tunable and used in defining the values of other Simulink elements (e.g., gain value of a gain block) could be changed after the code generation and this value updating will affect the values of all elements defined based on the values of the tunable parameter. For instance, if parameter K=1 is defined as a tunable parameter in the code generation process and this parameter is used to gain a gain block in Simulink, the gain value for the gain block is equal to 1 in the gain block TwinCAT environment after the code generation. But, the value of K can be changed to a new value (e.g., K=2) in TwinCAT (without doing any new code generation in MATLAB). Then, the gain value of the gain block will change to 2. Secondly, adding a callback function in the form of “pre-load function,” “post-load function,” “start function,” and will not help to make the parameters tunable without performing a new code generation. This means that any MATLAB files should be run before performing the code generation. The parameters defined/calculated in this file will be used as fixed values in the generated code. Thus, adding these files as callback functions to the Simulink model will not make these parameters flexible since the MATLAB files will not be attached to the generated code. Therefore, to change the parameters defined/calculated in these files, the code generation should be done again. However, adding these files as callback functions forces MATLAB to run them before the code generation, and there is no need to define the parameters mentioned in these files separately. Finally, using a tunable parameter in defining/calculating the values of other parameters through the mask is an efficient method to change the value of the latter parameters after the code generation. For instance, if tunable parameter K is used in calculating the value of two other parameters K1 and K2 and, after the code generation, the value of K is updated in TwinCAT environment, the value of parameters K1 and K2 will also be updated (without any new code generation).

Keywords: code generation, MATLAB, tunable parameters, TwinCAT

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1043 Design and Performance Improvement of Three-Dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access Networks with NAND Detection Technique

Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented and analyzed three-dimensional (3-D) matrices of wavelength/time/space code for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with NAND subtraction detection technique. The 3-D codes are constructed by integrating a two-dimensional modified quadratic congruence (MQC) code with one-dimensional modified prime (MP) code. The respective encoders and decoders were designed using fiber Bragg gratings and optical delay lines to minimize the bit error rate (BER). The performance analysis of the 3D-OCDMA system is based on measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), BER and eye diagram for a different number of simultaneous users. Also, in the analysis, various types of noises and multiple access interference (MAI) effects were considered. The results obtained with NAND detection technique were compared with those obtained with OR and AND subtraction techniques. The comparison results proved that the NAND detection technique with 3-D MQC\MP code can accommodate more number of simultaneous users for longer distances of fiber with minimum BER as compared to OR and AND subtraction techniques. The received optical power is also measured at various levels of BER to analyze the effect of attenuation.

Keywords: Cross Correlation (CC), Three dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access (3-D OCDMA), Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA), Multiple Access Interference (MAI), Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN), Three Dimensional Modified Quadratic Congruence/Modified Prime (3-D MQC/MP) code

Procedia PDF Downloads 313