Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Gulcin Yildiz

35 General Framework for Price Regulation of Container Terminals

Authors: Murat Yildiz, Burcu Yildiz

Abstract:

Price Cap Regulation is a form of economic regulation designed in the 1980s in the United Kingdom. Price cap regulation sets a cap on the price that the utility provider can charge. The cap is set according to several economic factors, such as the price cap index, expected efficiency savings and inflation. It has been used by several countries as a regulatory regime in several sectors. Container port privatization is still in early stages in some countries. Lack of a general framework can be an impediment to privatization. This paper aims a general framework to comprising decisions to be made for variables which are able to accommodate the variety of container terminals. Several approaches that may be needed as well as a passage between approaches.

Keywords: Price Cap Regulation, ports privatization, container terminal price regime, earning sharing

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34 The Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Bioactive Compounds of Freeze-Dried Carrots

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz

Abstract:

Although drying is one of the most prevalent techniques applied to enhance food stability, it is a complicated method covering simultaneous coupled heat and mass transfer phenomena and the theoretical application of these phenomena to food products becomes challenging because of the complex structure and to the physical and chemical changes that happen at drying. Pretreatment of materials before drying has been shown to be effective in solving drying problems such as long drying times and poor product quality. The study was conducted to examine the effect of ultrasound (US) pre-treatment on physical and chemical/nutritional attributes of freeze-dried carrot slices. The carrots were washed, hand-peeled, and cut with dimensions of 1 cm (L) x 0.2 (W) cm x 1 cm (H). The carrot samples were treated in an ultrasonic bath in two different times, which were 15 and 30 minutes. Untreated and ultrasound pre-treated carrot samples were dried in a freeze dryer. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed in terms of bioactive compounds, including total phenols, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity. Significant differences were found among dried carrot samples with and without ultrasound. The freeze-dried carrot slices treated with a US (especially 30 minutes - treatment) showed higher preservation of bioactive compounds. In overall, US pretreatment is a promising process, as demonstrated in current research by its capability to better retain freeze-dried carrot quality.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, carrot, freeze drying, ultrasound-pretreatment

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33 Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate (SPI): Starch Conjugates Treated by Sonication

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng

Abstract:

In recent years there is growing interested in using soy protein because of several advantages compared to other protein sources, such as high nutritional value, steady supply, and low cost. Soy protein isolate (SPI) is the most refined soy protein product. It contains 90% protein in a moisture-free form and has some desirable functionalities. Creating a protein-polysaccharide conjugate to be the emulsifying agent rather than the protein alone can markedly enhance its stability. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ultrasound treatments on the physicochemical properties of SPI-starch conjugates. The soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) samples were obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Protein concentrations were analyzed by the Bardford method using BSA as the standard. The volume-weighted mean diameters D [4,3] of protein–polysaccharide conjugates were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface hydrophobicity of the conjugates was measured by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased protein solubility. The highest solubility was 69.2% for the sample treated with ultrasonication at pH 12, while the lowest (9.13%) was observed in the Control. For the other pH conditions, the protein solubility values ranged from 40.53 to 49.65%. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of the SPI-modified starch conjugates. While the D [4,3] for the Control was 731.6 nm, it was 293.7 nm for the samples treated by sonication at pH 12. The surface hydrophobicity (H0) of SPI-starch at all pH conditions were significantly higher than those in the Control. Ultrasonication was proven to be effective in improving the solubility and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate-starch conjugates.

Keywords: particle size, solubility, soy protein isolate, ultrasonication

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32 The Effect of Ultrasound as Pre-Treatment for Drying of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz

Abstract:

Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food and an alternative to reduce post-harvest loss of fruits. Different pre-treatment methods have been developed for fruit drying, such as ultrasound. If no pre-treatment is done, the fruits will continue to darken after they are dried. However, the effects of ultrasound as pre-treatment on drying of apples has not been well documented. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ultrasound as pre-treatment before oven drying of red delicious and golden delicious apples. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were dried in different temperatures. Before performing drying experiments in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C, ultrasound as pretreatment was applied in 5, 10, and 15 minutes. Colors of the dried apples were measured with a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300 (Minolta Camera Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan) by directly holding the device vertically to the surface of the samples. Content of total phenols was determined spectrophotometrically with the FolinCiocalteau assay, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The samples (both red delicious and golden delicious apples) with longer ultrasound treatment produced higher weight loss due to the changes in tissue structure. However less phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were observed for the samples with longer ultrasound pre-treatment. The highest total phenolic content (TPC) was determined in dried apples at 75 °C with 5 minutes pre-treatment ultrasound and the lowest TPC was determined in dried apples at 50 °C with 15 minutes pre-treatment ultrasound which was subjected to the longest ultrasound pre-treatment and drying. The combination of 5 min of ultrasound pre-treatment and 75 °C of oven-drying showed to be the best combination for an energy efficient process. This combination exhibited good antioxidant properties as well. The present study clearly demonstrated that applying ultrasound as pre-treatment for drying of apples is an effective process in terms of quality of dried products, time, and energy.

Keywords: golden delicious apples, red delicious apples, total phenolic content, Ultrasound

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31 Comparison of Oven and Microwave Drying on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Gokcen Izli

Abstract:

Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food. Drying is one of the oldest methods known for the preservation of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables. Drying of agricultural products enhances their storage life, minimizes losses during storage, and save shipping and transportation costs. Apples are considered excellent candidates for drying. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of microwave and oven processing on the quality of selected apple products. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were washed, peeled, and sliced. Drying experiments were performed in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C and in a microwave at 140 W and 210 W. Quality attributes such as color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of dried samples with different methods were compared with the fresh sample. A Minolta CR-300 Chroma Meter was used to examine color changes in the apples. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It was found that the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of dried samples under all drying conditions were decreased compared to the fresh samples. The phenolic contents of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W for both red and golden delicious apples were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C. Similarly, the antioxidant activities of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C for both types of apples. All color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were changed significantly depending on the drying methods and temperatures. The closest color values to the fresh sample were found for the microwave dried samples at 140 W. Microwave drying was proven to be more effective than oven drying.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, color, golden delicious, microwave, red delicious, total phenolic content

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30 Physicochemical Properties of Pea Protein Isolate (PPI)-Starch and Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)-Starch Nanocomplexes Treated by Ultrasound at Different pH Values

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng

Abstract:

Soybean proteins are the most widely used and researched proteins in the food industry. Due to soy allergies among consumers, however, alternative legume proteins having similar functional properties have been studied in recent years. These alternative proteins are also expected to have a price advantage over soy proteins. One such protein that has shown good potential for food applications is pea protein. Besides the favorable functional properties of pea protein, it also contains fewer anti-nutritional substances than soy protein. However, a comparison of the physicochemical properties of pea protein isolate (PPI)-starch nanocomplexes and soy protein isolate (SPI)-starch nanocomplexes treated by ultrasound has not been well documented. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ultrasound treatment on the physicochemical properties of PPI-starch and SPI-starch nanocomplexes. Pea protein isolate (85% pea protein) provided by Roquette (Geneva, IL, USA) and soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company were adjusted to different pH levels (2-12) and treated with 5 minutes of ultrasonication (100% amplitude) to form complexes with starch. The soluble protein content was determined by the Bradford method using BSA as the standard. The turbidity of the samples was measured using a spectrophotometer (Lambda 1050 UV/VIS/NIR Spectrometer, PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, USA). The volume-weighted mean diameters (D4, 3) of the soluble proteins were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The emulsifying properties of the proteins were evaluated by the emulsion stability index (ESI) and emulsion activity index (EAI). Both the soy and pea protein isolates showed a U-shaped solubility curve as a function of pH, with a high solubility above the isoelectric point and a low one below it. Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased solubility for both the SPI and PPI-starch complexes. The pea nanocomplexes showed greater solubility than the soy ones. The SPI-starch nanocomplexes showed better emulsifying properties determined by the emulsion stability index (ESI) and emulsion activity index (EAI) due to SPI’s high solubility and high protein content. The PPI had similar or better emulsifying properties at certain pH values than the SPI. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of both kinds of nanocomplex. For all pH levels with both proteins, the droplet sizes were found to be lower than 300 nm. The present study clearly demonstrated that applying ultrasonication under different pH conditions significantly improved the solubility and emulsify¬ing properties of the SPI and PPI. The PPI exhibited better solubility and emulsifying properties than the SPI at certain pH levels

Keywords: emulsifying properties, pea protein isolate, soy protein isolate, ultrasonication

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29 Rapid and Easy Fabrication of Collagen-Based Biocomposite Scaffolds for 3D Cell Culture

Authors: Esra Turker, Umit Hakan Yildiz, Ahu Arslan Yildiz

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The key of regenerative medicine is mimicking natural three dimensional (3D) microenvironment of tissues by utilizing appropriate biomaterials. In this study, a synthetic biodegradable polymer; poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLLCL) and a natural polymer; collagen was used to mimic the biochemical structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), and by means of electrospinning technique the real physical structure of ECM has mimicked. PLLCL/Collagen biocomposite scaffolds enables cell attachment, proliferation and nutrient transport through fabrication of micro to nanometer scale nanofibers. Biocomposite materials are commonly preferred due to limitations of physical and biocompatible properties of natural and synthetic materials. Combination of both materials improves the strength, degradation and biocompatibility of scaffold. Literature studies have shown that collagen is mostly solved with heavy chemicals, which is not suitable for cell culturing. To overcome this problem, a new approach has been developed in this study where polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as co-electrospinning agent. PVP is preferred due to its water solubility, so PLLCL/collagen biocomposite scaffold can be easily and rapidly produced. Hydrolytic and enzymatic biodegradation as well as mechanical strength of scaffolds were examined in vitro. Cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology characterization studies have been performed as well. Further, on-chip drug screening analysis has been performed over 3D tumor models. Overall, the developed biocomposite scaffold was used for 3D tumor model formation and obtained results confirmed that developed model could be used for drug screening studies to predict clinical efficacy of a drug.

Keywords: biomaterials, 3D cell culture, drug screening, electrospinning, lab-on-a-chip, tissue engineering

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28 Legal Arrangement on Media Ownership and the Case of Turkey

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

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In this study, we will touch upon the legal arrangements issued in Turkey for prevention of condensation and for ensuring pluralism in the media. We will mention the legal arrangements concerning the regulatory and supervisory authority, namely the Radio and Television Supreme Council, for the visual and auditory media. In this context; the legal arrangements, which have been introduced by the Law No 6112 on the Establishment of Radio and Television Enterprises and Their Media Services in relation to the media ownership, will be reviewed through comparison with the Article 29 of the repealed Law No 3984.

Keywords: media ownership, legal arrangements, the case for Turkey, pluralism

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27 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audiovisual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

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Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Collective expression activity informs the masses, gives direction to opinions and establishes public opinion. Due to these characteristics, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorisation of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, radio and television supreme council

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26 Dynamic Analysis of Viscoelastic Plates with Variable Thickness

Authors: Gülçin Tekin, Fethi Kadıoğlu

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In this study, the dynamic analysis of viscoelastic plates with variable thickness is examined. The solutions of dynamic response of viscoelastic thin plates with variable thickness have been obtained by using the functional analysis method in the conjunction with the Gâteaux differential. The four-node serendipity element with four degrees of freedom such as deflection, bending, and twisting moments at each node is used. Additionally, boundary condition terms are included in the functional by using a systematic way. In viscoelastic modeling, Three-parameter Kelvin solid model is employed. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain are transformed to the real time domain by using MDOP, Dubner & Abate, and Durbin inverse transform techniques. To test the performance of the proposed mixed finite element formulation, numerical examples are treated.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, inverse laplace transform techniques, mixed finite element formulation, viscoelastic plate with variable thickness

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25 A Survey on How Faculty Perceive and Quest for Modes of Internationalization in a Private Higher Education Institution

Authors: Hanife Akar, Basak Calik, Gulcin Gulmez-Dag, Elanur Yilmaz

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Internationalization in higher education (IHE) has been a longstanding issue in the Western World but its impact has travelled beyond its borders. As a developing country, universities in Turkey also have put into their agendas strategic plans for IHE to compete with global trends and benchmarked universities. The purpose of this study was to explore how faculty in a private university in Mid Anatolia would like see modes of internationalization in their institution through a survey design and understand their quest for internationalization. Findings indicate that participants (N=49) are internationalized in different ways, from holding international Ph.D. degrees to postdoctoral degrees, or being international faculty themselves. Participants’ visions seem to be affected by the type of programs they are in, and many consider being a part of an international joint program or having international students and faculty are an essential component in IHE. In addition to holding joints degrees, and exchange or international human sources, participants quest for more collaboration for R&D, more comparative research opportunities, and examine or develop curricula from a global perspective.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, internationalization, visions

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24 Synthesis of Metal Curcumin Complexes with Iron(III) and Manganese(II): The Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Emel Yildiz, Nurcan Biçer, Fazilet Aksu, Arash Alizadeh Yegani

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Plants provide the wealth of bioactive compounds, which exert a substantial strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Recently, a lot of studies have explored the medicinal properties of curcumin, including antitumoral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-Alzheimer's disease effects. Metal complexes of curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) were synthesized with Mn(II) and Fe(III). The structures of synthesized metal complexes have been characterized by using spectroscopic and analytic methods such as elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, FT-IR, AAS, TG and argentometric titration. It was determined that the complexes have octahedral geometry. The effects of the metal complexes on the disorder of memory, which is an important symptom of Alzheimer's Disease were studied on lab rats with Plus-Maze Tests at Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory.

Keywords: curcumin, Mn(II), Fe(III), Alzheimer disease, beta amyloid 25-35

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23 An Investigation of Direct and Indirect Geo-Referencing Techniques on the Accuracy of Points in Photogrammetry

Authors: F. Yildiz, S. Y. Oturanc

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Advances technology in the field of photogrammetry replaces analog cameras with reflection on aircraft GPS/IMU system with a digital aerial camera. In this system, when determining the position of the camera with the GPS, camera rotations are also determined by the IMU systems. All around the world, digital aerial cameras have been used for the photogrammetry applications in the last ten years. In this way, in terms of the work done in photogrammetry it is possible to use time effectively, costs to be reduced to a minimum level, the opportunity to make fast and accurate. Geo-referencing techniques that are the cornerstone of the GPS / INS systems, photogrammetric triangulation of images required for balancing (interior and exterior orientation) brings flexibility to the process. Also geo-referencing process; needed in the application of photogrammetry targets to help to reduce the number of ground control points. In this study, the use of direct and indirect geo-referencing techniques on the accuracy of the points was investigated in the production of photogrammetric mapping.

Keywords: photogrammetry, GPS/IMU systems, geo-referecing, digital aerial camera

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22 Churn Prediction for Telecommunication Industry Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Ulas Vural, M. Ergun Okay, E. Mesut Yildiz

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Telecommunication service providers demand accurate and precise prediction of customer churn probabilities to increase the effectiveness of their customer relation services. The large amount of customer data owned by the service providers is suitable for analysis by machine learning methods. In this study, expenditure data of customers are analyzed by using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN model is applied to the data of customers with different billing duration. The proposed model successfully predicts the churn probabilities at 83% accuracy for only three months expenditure data and the prediction accuracy increases up to 89% when the nine month data is used. The experiments also show that the accuracy of ANN model increases on an extended feature set with information of the changes on the bill amounts.

Keywords: customer relationship management, churn prediction, telecom industry, deep learning, artificial neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
21 Effect Mechanisms of Aromatic Plants: Effects on Intestinal Health and Broiler Feeding

Authors: Ozlem Durna Aydin, Gultekin Yildiz

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Antibiotics are microbial metabolites with low molecular weight produced by fungi and algae, inhibiting the development of other microorganisms even in low growth. Antibiotics have been used as growth factors in animal feeds for many years. They prohibited; because of increased residue problem and increased resistance to antibiotics in bacteria due to prolonged use. Aromatic plants and extracts have attracted the attention of scientists nowadays due to positive reasons such as confidence of the community to the products those are coming from nature, desire to consume, and no residue problems. Plant extracts are obtained from aromatic plants, and they come forward with antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. It has been stated that intestinal histomorphology and microbiosis are positively affected by the use of plant extract in feeds. In the present day, aromatic plants and extracts are a remarkable research field with intriguing unknowns in the field of animal nutrition, and they continue to exist in the journal in vitro and in vivo studies.

Keywords: aromatic plant, broilers, extract mechanism of action, intestinal health

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20 An Investigation on the Removal of Synthetic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by a Functional Polymer

Authors: Ali Kara, Asim Olgun, Sevgi Sozugecer, Sahin Ozel, Kubra Nur Yildiz, P. Sevinç, Abdurrahman Kuresh, Guliz Turhan, Duygu Gulgun

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The synthetic dyes, one of the most hazardous chemical compound classes, are important potential water pollutions since their presence in water bodies reduces light penetration, precluding the photosynthesis of aqueous flora and causing various diseases. Some the synthetic dyes are highly toxic and/or carcinogenic, and their biodegradation can produce even more toxic aromatic amines. The adsorption procedure is one of the most effective means of removing synthetic dye pollutants, and has been described in a number of previous studies by using the functional polymers. In this study, we investigated the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solution by using a functional polymer as an adsorbent material. The effect of initial solution concentration, pH, and contact time on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were studied in details. The results showed that functional polymer has a potential to be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbent for the treatment of aqueous solutions from textile industries.

Keywords: functional polymers, synhetic dyes, adsorption, physicochemical parameters

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19 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome during Seed Development, and Generation of Genic-SSR Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Authors: Ozhan Simsek, Dicle Donmez, Burhanettin Imrak, Ahsen Isik Ozguven, Yildiz Aka Kacar

Abstract:

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to be one of the oldest edible fruit tree species, with a wide geographical global distribution. Fruits from the two defined varieties (Hicaznar and 33N26) were taken at intervals after pollination and fertilization at different sizes. Seed samples were used for transcriptome sequencing. Primary sequencing was produced by Illumina Hi-Seq™ 2000. Firstly, we had raw reads, and it was subjected to quality control (QC). Raw reads were filtered into clean reads and aligned to the reference sequences. De novo analysis was performed to detect genes expressed in seeds of pomegranate varieties. We performed downstream analysis to determine differentially expressed genes. We generated about 27.09 gb bases in total after Illumina Hi-Seq sequencing. All samples were assembled together, we got 59,264 Unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of Unigenes are 84.547.276 bp, 1.426 bp, 2,137 bp, and 46.20 %, respectively. Unigenes were annotated with 7 functional databases, finally, 42.681(NR: 72.02%), 39.660 (NT: 66.92%), 30.790 (Swissprot: 51.95%), 20.212 (COG: 34.11%), 27.689 (KEGG: 46.72%), 12.328 (GO: 20.80%), and 33,833 (Interpro: 57.09%) Unigenes were annotated. With functional annotation results, we detected 42.376 CDS, and 4.999 SSR distribute on 16.143 Unigenes.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, SSR, RNA-Seq, Illumina

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18 Antioxidant Properties of Snack Crackers Incorporated with Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L.) Powder

Authors: Elif Yildiz, Gizem Gungor, Hatice Yilmaz, Duygu Gocmen

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Nowadays, consumer demand has been increasing for the healthy and functional food. In this context, some natural products rich in phenolic compounds are also added to cereal based food for health benefits. Natural phenolic compounds have many beneficial bioactivities such as anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic activities. It has been found that various plant species contain natural bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant function. One of these plant species is mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L). Mahaleb berries with dark blue or red colours have the highest antioxidant capacities among all common fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine the possibilities of improving the antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers by supplementing with mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L) powder. For this purpose mahaleb powder were used to replace wheat flour in the snack cracker formulation at two different levels (5%, and 7.5% w/w). As a result, mahaleb supplementation caused an increase in total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of crackers. It can be say that mahaleb powder can be used as an alternative functional and nutritional ingredient in bakery products.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cracker, mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L), phenolic contents

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17 Evaluation of Institutionalization in Public Hospitals: A Province Example

Authors: Manar Aslan, Ayse Yildiz

Abstract:

The study was conducted descriptively to assess their hospital institutionalization of upper and mid-level managers of 18 hospitals affiliated to Public Hospitals Association. In its simplest form institutionalization is whatever the subject matter, is dominated by the rules of articulated and determined behavior in all kinds of business, interaction, and communication. Hospital service is a type of service carried out chained together. It should not be forgotten that this kind of services is carried out without barrier, and who and what to do with definite lines, hospital management is a process, and this process can be achieved through institutionalization. With the establishment of the Public Hospitals Unions in Turkey, all the state hospitals in the provinces have been gathered under this roof. One of the goals is to establish control mechanisms to ensure that hospitals reach pre-determined financial, medical, and administrative standards. In this way, the preparations for the institutionalization of units and hospital enterprises will be completed. The data of the study were collected by institutionalization management attitude scale (cronbach alpha: 0.98) of composed of 5 sub-dimensions and 52 questions in 18 hospitals’ managers (N=310) in the largest province in Turkey. The results of the study revealed that the total score taken by managers at the institutionalization scale was 200.80, and this was close to the maximum score. In addition, it was determined that the difference between the mean score of the scale and its sub-dimensions with the gender, the hospitals, and the management position.

Keywords: institutionalization, hospital, manager, evaluation

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16 Organizational Management and Leadership

Authors: Osman Yildiz

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As it is predicted 2559 years before there is nothing permanent except change. In our turbulent World, Organizations will always be faced with the challenge of determining the path that will always keep them on balance en route that will bring success. That means from top to bottom, every organisation is exposed to fight to stay afloat and compete while they face the continuous prospect of change in an increasingly competitive and globalized World. Otherwise, they would fail to realize their goals and targets, and ultimately would disappear. But the organizations that will celebrate success five or ten years from now will be the winners of the fight by having recognizing that planning the change was only the first step in the journey and put sufficient efforts into the task of leading change. Increasingly unpredictable and competitive organizational environments have put pressure on leaders across all industries to better manage the change. The key of establishing effective change and transformation in organisations lies on the steps taken before the change happens depending to the quality of the human sources; readiness for change, acknowledgement by management, prepared leaders, motivated employees, overcoming the resistance to change and ultimately adapting change into the organization. Due to these factors, leaders managing the organisational development can ensure organizations and employees to meet new performance targets, motivation and skills rapidly and effectively. Finally, this article will provide some tools for leaders, and discuss how to catch organisational development and manage the innovations in effective ways.

Keywords: managing the change, organizational change, human factor, leaders, globalization, organisational development

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15 Honor Endorsement from the Perspective of System Justification and Regulatory Focus Orientation

Authors: Gülçin Akbas Uslu

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Honor cultures put importance on the sexual purity of women. Women are expected to avoid acts that may spoil their honor. The emphasis on honor leads to the subordination of women and the dominance of men. In order to protect and clean honor, women are exposed to physical and psychological violence. Therefore, understanding the motivations driving people to endorse honor bears importance. For this purpose, this study aims to explore honor endorsement from the joint perspective of System Justification Theory (SJT) and Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT). SJT asserts that people have a tendency to support and rationalize the system. The motivation to maintain the system may be a factor in the endorsement of honor. RFT proposes two distinct regulatory processes, namely promotion and prevention focus. Having a dominant prevention focus, such as a deep concern for responsibilities, risk avoidance, and minimizing negative outcomes, may have a role in honor. Data were collected conveniently from 366 participants (216 women; 150 men). Participants filled out Honor Endorsement Index, Honor Based System Justification Scale and Regulatory Focus Orientation Scale Results revealed that both regulatory focus and system justification play a role in understanding honor. One-way ANOVA findings showed that individuals with a dominant prevention focus endorse honor beliefs more than individuals with a dominant promotion focus. Besides, regression analysis revealed that prevention focus and system justification significantly and positively predict honor. Results provide clarifications for why honor has an important meaning in individuals’ life and why honor-based violence is approved. These findings bear great importance in Turkey, where emphasis on honor is high and can be used in reducing people’s adherence to honor, which is based on women’s sexuality and men’s power over women.

Keywords: honor, system justification theory, regulatory focus theory, prevention focus

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14 Body Perception and Self-Esteem in Individuals Performing Bodybuilding Exercise Program

Authors: Yildiz Erdoganoglu, Unzile Tunc

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The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of body, upper extremity, lower extremity endurance, and core functionality with body perception and self-esteem in individuals who applied for a bodybuilding exercise program. Forty volunteer male subjects who underwent bodybuilding exercises for one year or more were included in the study. After obtaining demographic information of the individuals, trunk endurance was evaluated by curl-up and modified Sorensen test, upper extremity endurance by push-up test, lower extremity endurance by repeated squat test, core functionalities by single-leg wall sitting and repeated single-leg squatting tests. body perception, body image perception scale, and self-esteem were evaluated with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The mean age of the individuals was 25.60 ± 4.70 years, mean exercise time was 22.47 ± 34.60 months. At the end of the study, body perception was low, and self-esteem was moderate. There was no significant relationship between abdominal endurance, back extensor endurance, upper extremity, and lower extremity endurance, core functionality, and body perception (p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant relationship between abdominal extensor, back extensor, upper extremity and lower extremity endurance, core functionality, and self-esteem (p > 0.05). The body, upper and lower extremity endurance, and core functionality of bodybuilders did not have any effect on body perception and self-esteem, suggesting that these individuals did not contribute positively to their efforts to improve their body perception and self- esteem.

Keywords: body endurance, body perception, core functionality, self esteem

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13 Determination of the Bearing Capacity of Granular Pumice Soils by Laboratory Tests

Authors: Mustafa Yildiz, Ali Sinan Soganci

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Pumice soils are countered in many projects such as transportation roads, channels and residential units throughout the World. The pumice deposits are characterized by the vesicular nature of their particles. When the pumice soils are evaluated considering the geotechnical viewpoint, they differ from silica sands in terms of physical and engineering characteristics. These differences are low grain strength, high friction angle, void ratio and compressibility. At stresses greater than a few hundred kPa, the stress-strain-strength behaviour of these soils is determined by particle crushing. Particle crushing leads to changes in the density and reduction in the components of shear stress due to expansion. In this study, the bearing capacity and behaviour of granular pumice soils compared to sand-gravels were investigated by laboratory model tests. Firstly the geotechnical properties of granular pumice soils were determined; then, the behaviour of pumice soils with an equivalent diameter of sand and gravel soils were investigated by model rectangular and circular foundation types and were compared with each other. For this purpose, basic types of model footing (15*15 cm, 20*20 cm, Φ=15 cm and Φ=20 cm) have been selected. When the experimental results of model bearing capacity are analyzed, the values of sand and gravel bearing capacity tests were found to be 1.0-1.5 times higher than the bearing capacity of pumice the same size. This fact has shown that sand and gravel have a higher bearing capacity than pumice of the similar particle sizes.

Keywords: pumice soils, laboratory model tests, bearing capacity, laboratory model tests, Nevşehir

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12 The Effects of Kicking Leg Preference on the Bilateral Balance Ability Asymmetries in Collegian Football Players

Authors: Mehmet Yildiz, Mehmet Kale

Abstract:

The primary aim of the present study was to identify the bilateral balance asymmetries when comparing the dominant (DL) vs. the non-dominant leg (NDL) in the collegian soccer players. The secondary aim was to compare the inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) when differentiating by kicking preference (right-dominant vs. left-dominant). 34 right-dominant leg (RightDL) (age:21.12±1.85, height:174.50±5.18, weight:69.42±6.86) and 23 left-dominant leg (LeftDL), (age:21.70±2.03, height:176.2±6.27, weight:68.73±5.96) collegian football players were tested for bilateral static and dynamic balance. Balance ability was assessed by measuring centre of pressure deviation on a single leg. Single leg static and dynamic balance scores and inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Student t tests were used for the comparison of dominant and nondominant leg balance scores and RightDL and LeftDL football players’ inter-limb asymmetry index of the balance scores. The results showed that there were significant differences in the dynamic balance scores in favour of the nondominant leg, (DL:738±211 vs. NDL:606±226, p < 0.01). Also, it has been seen that LeftDL players have significantly higher inter-limb asymmetry index when compared with rightDL players for both static (rightDL:-7.07±94.91 vs. leftDL:-183.19±354.05, p < 0.01) and dynamic (rightDL: 1.73±49.65 vs. leftDL:27.08±23.34, p < 0.05) balance scores. In conclusion, bilateral dynamic balance asymmetries may be affected using single leg predominantly in the mobilization workouts. Because of having higher inter-limb asymmetry index, left-dominant leg players may be screened and trained to minimize balance asymmetry.

Keywords: bilateral balance, asymmetries, dominant leg, leg preference

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11 Computer Aided Shoulder Prosthesis Design and Manufacturing

Authors: Didem Venus Yildiz, Murat Hocaoglu, Murat Dursun, Taner Akkan

Abstract:

The shoulder joint is a more complex structure than the hip or knee joints. In addition to the overall complexity of the shoulder joint, two different factors influence the insufficient outcome of shoulder replacement: the shoulder prosthesis design is far from fully developed and it is difficult to place these shoulder prosthesis due to shoulder anatomy. The glenohumeral joint is the most complex joint of the human shoulder. There are various treatments for shoulder failures such as total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Due to its reverse design than normal shoulder anatomy, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has different physiological and biomechanical properties. Post-operative achievement of this arthroplasty is depend on improved design of reverse total shoulder prosthesis. Designation achievement can be increased by several biomechanical and computational analysis. In this study, data of human both shoulders with right side fracture was collected by 3D Computer Tomography (CT) machine in dicom format. This data transferred to 3D medical image processing software (Mimics Materilise, Leuven, Belgium) to reconstruct patient’s left and right shoulders’ bones geometry. Provided 3D geometry model of the fractured shoulder was used to constitute of reverse total shoulder prosthesis by 3-matic software. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted for comparison of intact shoulder and prosthetic shoulder in terms of stress distribution and displacements. Body weight physiological reaction force of 800 N loads was applied. Resultant values of FE analysis was compared for both shoulders. The analysis of the performance of the reverse shoulder prosthesis could enhance the knowledge of the prosthetic design.

Keywords: reverse shoulder prosthesis, biomechanics, finite element analysis, 3D printing

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10 The Role of Parents on Fear Acquisition of Children in COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Begum Serim-Yildiz

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the role of parents' emotional and behavioral reactions on fears of children in the COVID-19 pandemic considering Rachman’s Three Pathways Theory. For this purpose, a phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. Thirteen participants living with their children were utilized through criterion and snowball sampling. In semi-structured interviews parents were asked about their own and their children’s beahavioral and emotional reactions in the COVID-19 pandemic, and they were expected to give detailed information about fears of their children before and in pandemic. Firstly, parents were asked about their behavioral and emotional reactions in the COVID-19 pandemic. As behavioral reactions, precautions taken by parents to protect the rest of the family from negative physical and emotional impact of the pandemic were mentioned, while emotional reactions were defined as acquisition of negative emotions like fear, anxiety, and worry. Secondly, parents were asked about their children’s behavioral and emotional reactions. Some of the parents talked about positive behavioral changes such as gaining self-control, while some others explained negative behavioral changes like increased time spent with technological tools. In the emotional changes section, all of the parents explained at least one negative emotion. All of the parents stated that their children had COVID-19 related fears. According to parents’ expressions, fears of children in pandemic were examined in two dimensions. Fears directly related to COVID-19 were fear of virus/microbes, illness or death of someone in family and death and fears. Fears indirectly related to COVID-19 were fear of going out, sleep alone at night, separation, touching stuff outside the home, and cold. Considering existing literature and based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children’s modelling experiences have impact on acquisition of negative emotions, especially fear, therefore, preventive interventions involving caregivers should be provided by mental health professionals working with children.

Keywords: children’s fears, COVID-19 pandemic, modelling experiences, parents’ reactions

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9 The Representation of Female Characters by Women Directors in Surveillance Spaces in Turkish Cinema

Authors: Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

Abstract:

The representation of women characters in cinema has been discussed for centuries. In cinema where dominant narrative codes prevail and scopophilic views exist over women characters, passive stereotypes of women are observed in the representation of women characters. In films shot from a woman’s point of view in Turkish Cinema and even in the films outside the main stream in which the stories of women characters are told, the fact that women characters are discussed on the basis of feminist film theories triggers the question: ‘Are feminist films produced in Turkish Cinema?’ The spaces that are used in the representation of women characters are observed to be used as spaces that convert characters into passive subjects on the basis of the space factor in the narrative. The representation of women characters in the possible surveillance spaces integrates the characters and compresses them in these spaces. In this study, narrative analysis was used to investigate women characters representation in the surveillance spaces. For the study framework, firstly a case study films are selected, and in the second level, women characters representations in surveillance spaces are argued by narrative analysis using feminist film theories. Two questions are argued with feminist film theories: ‘Why do especially women directors represent their female characters to viewers by representing them in surveillance spaces?’ and ‘Can this type of presentation contribute to the feminist film practice and become important with regard to feminist film theories?’ The representation of women characters in a passive and observed way in surveillance spaces of the narrative reveals the questioning of also the discourses of films outside of the main stream. As films that produce alternative discourses and reveal different cinematic languages, those outside the main stream are expected to bring other points of view also to the representation of women characters in spaces. These questionings are selected as the baseline and Turkish films such as Watch Tower and Mustang, directed by women, were examined. This examination paves the way for discussions regarding the women characters in surveillance spaces. Outcomes can be argued from the viewpoint of representation in the genre by feminist film theories. In the context of feminist film theories and feminist film practice, alternatives should be found that can corporally reveal the existence of women in both the representation of women characters in spaces and in the usage of the space factor.

Keywords: feminist film theory, representation, space, women directors

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8 Relation of Mean Platelet Volume with Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity and Brachial Artery Diameter and Intima Media Thickness in Diabetic Patients with Respect to Obesity and Diabetic Complications

Authors: Pınar Karakaya, Meral Mert, Yildiz Okuturlar, Didem Acarer, Asuman Gedikbasi, Filiz Islim, Teslime Ayaz, Ozlem Soyluk, Ozlem Harmankaya, Abdulbaki Kumbasar

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the relation of mean platelet volume (MPV) levels with serum paraoxonase-1 activity and brachial artery diameter and intima media thickness in diabetic patients with respect to obesity and diabetic complications. Methods: A total of 201 diabetic patients grouped with respect to obesity [obese (n=89) and non-obese (n=112) and diabetic complications [with (n=50) or without (n=150) microvascular complications and with (n=91) or without (n=108) macrovascular complications] groups were included. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics of patients, anthropometric measurements, diabetes related microvascular and macrovascular complications, serum levels for MPV, bBrachial artery diameter and intima media thickness (IMT) and serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were recorded. Correlation of MPV values to paraoxonase and arylesterase activities as well as to brachial artery diameter and IMT was evaluated in study groups. Results: Mean(SD) paraoxonase and arylesterase values were 119.8(37.5) U/L and 149.0(39.9) U/L, respectively in the overall population with no significant difference with respect to obesity and macrovascular diabetic complications, whereas significantly lower values for paraoxonase (107.5(30.7) vs. 123.9(38.8) U/L, p=0.007) and arylesterase (132.1(30.2) vs. 154.7(41.2) U/L, p=0.001) were noted in patients with than without diabetic microvascular complications. Mean(SD) MPV values were 9.10 (0.87) fL in the overall population with no significant difference with respect to obesity and diabetic complications. No significant correlation of MPV values to paraoxonase, arylesterase activities, to brachial artery diameter and IMT was noted in the overall study population as well as in study groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings revealed a significant decrease I PON-1 activity in diabetic patients with microvascular rather than macrovascular complications, whereas regardless of obesity and diabetic complications, no increase in thrombogenic activity and no relation of thrombogenic activity with PON-1 activity and brachial artery diameter and IMK.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, microvascular complications, macrovascular complications, obesity, paraoxonase

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7 Effects of Nano-Coating on the Mechanical Behavior of Nanoporous Metals

Authors: Yunus Onur Yildiz, Mesut Kirca

Abstract:

In this study, mechanical properties of a nanoporous metal coated with a different metallic material are studied through a new atomistic modelling technique and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This new atomistic modelling technique is based on the Voronoi tessellation method for the purpose of geometric representation of the ligaments. With the proposed technique, atomistic models of nanoporous metals which have randomly oriented ligaments with non-uniform mass distribution along the ligament axis can be generated by enabling researchers to control both ligament length and diameter. Furthermore, by the utilization of this technique, atomistic models of coated nanoporous materials can be numerically obtained for further mechanical or thermal characterization. In general, this study consists of two stages. At the first stage, we use algorithms developed for generating atomic coordinates of the coated nanoporous material. In this regard, coordinates of randomly distributed points are determined in a controlled way to be employed in the establishment of the Voronoi tessellation, which results in randomly oriented and intersected line segments. Then, line segment representation of the Voronoi tessellation is transformed to atomic structure by a special process. This special process includes generation of non-uniform volumetric core region in which atoms can be generated based on a specific crystal structure. As an extension, this technique can be used for coating of nanoporous structures by creating another volumetric region encapsulating the core region in which atoms for the coating material are generated. The ultimate goal of the study at this stage is to generate atomic coordinates that can be employed in the MD simulations of randomly organized coated nanoporous structures. At the second stage of the study, mechanical behavior of the coated nanoporous models is investigated by examining deformation mechanisms through MD simulations. In this way, the effect of coating on the mechanical behavior of the selected material couple is investigated.

Keywords: atomistic modelling, molecular dynamic, nanoporous metals, voronoi tessellation

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6 Implementation of Nutritional Awareness Programme on Eating Habits of Primary School Children

Authors: Gulcin Satir, Ahmet Yildirim

Abstract:

Globally, including Turkey, health problems associated with malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies in childhood will remain major public health problems in future. Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Many studies support the fact that nutritional knowledge makes contribution to wellbeing of children and their school performance. The purpose of this study was to examine nutritional knowledge and eating habits of primary school children and to investigate differences in these variables by socioeconomic status. A quasi-experimental one group pretest/posttest design study was conducted in five primary schools totaling 200 children aging 9-10 years in grade 4 to determine the effect of nutritional awareness programme on eating habits of primary school children. The schools were chosen according to parents’ social and demographic characteristics. The implemented nutritional awareness education programme focused on healthy lifestyle such as beneficial foods, eating habits, personal hygiene, physical activity and the programme consisted of eight lessons. The teaching approaches used included interactive teaching, role-playing, demonstration, small group discussions, questioning, and feedback. The lessons were given twice a week for four weeks totaling eight lessons. All lessons lasted 45-60 minutes and first 5 minutes of this was pre-assessment and last 5 minutes post assessment evaluation. The obtained data were analyzed for normality, and the distribution of the variables was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Paired t-test was used to evaluate the effectiveness of education programme and to compare the above-mentioned variables in each school separately before and after the lessons. The result of the paired t-test conducted separately for each school showed that on average after eight lessons, there was a 25-32% increase in nutritional knowledge of students regardless of the school they attend to and this rate was significant (P < 0.01). This shows that increase in nutritional awareness in these five schools having different socio-economic status was similar to each other. This study suggests that having children involved directly in lessons help to achieve nutritional awareness leading to healthy eating habits. It is concluded that nutritional awareness is a valuable tool to change eating habits. Study findings will provide information for developing nutrition education programmes for the healthy life and obesity prevention in children.

Keywords: children, nutritional awareness, obesity, socioeconomic status

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