Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Poonam A. Sachdev

28 Quality Evaluation of Bread Enriched with Red Sweet Pepper Powder (Capsicum annuum)

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur, Preeti Ahluwalia, Poonam A. Sachdev


Bread is an ideal vehicle to impart bioactive compounds to the consumers in a convenient manner. This study evaluated bread enriched with red sweet pepper powder (RSP) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% and compared to control bread (without RSP). The bread crumbs were assayed for bioactive, physical, nutritional, textural, color, and sensory properties. Bread supplemented with RSP improved its color, nutritional, and bioactive properties. The low moisture content and increased hardness were observed at higher levels of RSP. Color intensity (expressed as L*, a*, b* values) of bread with 2 and 4% RSP were lower than those of high levels, and the same trend was observed for protein, fibre and ash content of bread. Significant (p < 0.05) increases were recorded for bioactive compounds such as total phenols (0.145 to 235 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (56% to 78%) and flavonoids (0.112 to 0.379 mg/g) as the level of powder increased. Bread enriched with 8% RSP showed improved sensory profile as compared to control, whereas a further increase in RSP decreased the sensory and textural properties. Thus, RSP act as a natural colorant and functional food that enhanced the functional and nutritional properties of bread and can be used to customize bread for specific health needs.

Keywords: breads, bioactive compounds, red sweet pepper powder, sensory scores

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27 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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26 Burden of Dengue in Northern India

Authors: Ashutosh Biswas, Poonam Coushic, Kalpana Baruah, Paras Singla, A. C. Dhariwal, Pawana Murthy


Burden of Dengue in Northern India Ashutosh Biswas, Poonam Coushic, Kalpana Baruah, Paras Singla, AC Dhariwal, Pawana Murthy. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, NVBDCP,WHO New Delhi, India Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the burden of dengue in capital region of India. Methodology:Seropositivity of Dengue for IgM Ab, NS1 Ag and IgG Ab were performed among the blood donors’ samples from blood bank, those who were coming to donate blood for the requirement of blood for the admitted patients in hospital. Blood samplles were collected through out the year to estimate seroprevalance of dengue with or without outbreak season. All the subjects were asymptomatic at the time of blood donation. Results: A total of 1558 donors were screened for the study. On the basis of inclusion/ exclusion criteria, we enrolled 1531subjects for the study.Twenty seven donors were excluded from the study, out of which 6 were detected HIV +ve, 11 were positive for HBsAg and 10 were found positive for HCV.Mean age was 30.51 ± 7.75 years.Of 1531subjects, 18 (1.18%) had a past history of typhoid fever, 28 (1.83%) had chikungunya fever, 9 (0.59%) had malaria and 43 subjects (2.81%) had a past history of symptomatic dengue infection.About 2.22% (34) of subjects were found to have sero-positive for NS1 Ag with a peak point prevalence of 7.14% in the month of October and sero-positive of IgM Ab was observed about 5.49% (84)with a peak point prevalence of 14.29% in the month of October. Sero-prevalnce of IgGwas detected in about 64.21% (983) of subjects. Conclusion: Acute asymptomatic dengue (NS1 Ag+ve) was observed in 7.14%, as the subjects were having no symptoms at the time of sampling. This group of subjects poses a potential public health threat for transmitting dengue infection through blood transfusion (TTI) in the community as evident by presence of active viral infection due to NS1Ag +VE. Therefore a policy may be implemented in the blood bank for testing NS1 Ag to look for active dengue infection for preventing dengue transmission through blood transfusion (TTI). Acute or Subacute dengue infection ( IgM Ab+ve) was observed from 5.49% to 14.29% which is a peak point prevalence in the month of October. About 64.21% of the population were immunized by natural dengue infection ( IgG Ab+ve) in theNorthern province of India. This might be helpful for implementing the dengue vaccine in a region. Blood samples in blood banks should be tested for dengue before transfusion to any other person to prevent transfusion transmitted dengue infection as we estimated upto 7.14% positivity of NS1 Ag in our study which indicates presence of dengue virus in blood donors’ samples.

Keywords: Dengue Burden, Seroprevalance, Asymptomatic dengue, Dengue transmission through blood transfusion

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25 Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was isothermally and cyclically oxidized at 800oC for 40 hours in air, and its oxidation behavior was characterized in terms of its oxidation rate, scaling rate, and scale spallation tendency. The isothermal oxidation tests indicated that Ti-6Al-4V oxidized fast and almost linearly, forming thick oxide scales. However, the scales that formed during isothermal oxidation were adherent. The cyclic oxidation tests indicated that the scales that formed on Ti-6Al-4V were highly susceptible to spallation owing to the large growth stress arisen and the thermal stress imposed during thermal cyclings. The formed scales frequently delaminated into several pieces owing to the excessive stress aroused by the repetitive thermal shock. Particularly, excessive oxidation and heavy spallation occurred at the edge of Ti-6Al-4V during cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, isothermal, oxidation, spallation

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24 A Review of Magnesium Air Battery Systems: From Design Aspects to Performance Characteristics

Authors: R. Sharma, J. K. Bhatnagar, Poonam, R. C. Sharma


Metal–air batteries have been designed and developed as an essential source of electric power to propel automobiles, make electronic equipment functional, and use them as the source of power in remote areas and space. High energy and power density, lightweight, easy recharge capabilities, and low cost are essential features of these batteries. Both primary and rechargeable magnesium air batteries are highly promising. Our focus will be on the basics of electrode reaction kinetics of Mg–air cell in this paper. Design and development of Mg or Mg alloys as anode materials, design and composition of air cathode, and promising electrolytes for Mg–air batteries have been reviewed. A brief note on the possible and proposed improvements in design and functionality is also incorporated. This article may serve as the primary and premier document in the critical research area of Mg-air battery systems.

Keywords: air cathode, battery design, magnesium air battery, magnesium anode, rechargeable magnesium air battery

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23 Spiritual Quotient, a Significant Predictor of Teaching Effectiveness

Authors: Poonam Khurana, Mikelsh Prasad Yadav


All human beings are virtue by God as they get controlling mind and an attitude towards something with the help of which they can experience spirituality. People have different psychological thoughts and beliefs relating to god. Some people feel the immense pleasure in performing religious activities while some believe in the thought “Ahem Brahmasmi” i.e I am part of the divine and they feel pleasure in activities which motivate them to achieve peace. Religion in psychology is considered as a specific fundamental set of beliefs, thoughts and practices generally agreed and controlled by a number of person. It is the psychology of a person which commands their mind in deciding at which path they can attain the eternal feelings of the universe and accordingly they will develop their behavior towards religion and spirituality. Keeping the same in mind, the present study is based much on literature and a brief analysis of 50 teachers in Delhi and NCR colleges and makes an attempt to study the relationship of spiritual quotient and effective teaching and suggest spiritual quotient as a considerable predictor to make the workplace accessible.

Keywords: effectiveness, quotient, teaching, spiritual

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22 Correlation between General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Stress Response after One Month Practice of Moderate Intensity Physical Exercise

Authors: Mohita Singh, Sunil Sachdev, Amrita Singh


Background and Aim: Physical aerobic exercises promote positive changes in one’s mental health, intelligence, and ability to cope with stressful encounters. The present study was designed to explore the correlation between intelligence and stress parameters and to assess the correlation between the same parameters after the practice of one month of moderate-intensity physical exercise. Method: The study was conducted on thirty-five healthy male volunteer students to assess the correlation between stress parameters in subjects with varying level of general intelligence (GI) and emotional intelligence (EI). Correlation studies were again conducted after one month between the same parameters to evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity physical exercise (MIPE). Baseline values were recorded using standard scales. Result: IQ and EQ correlated negatively with both acute and chronic stress parameters and positively with each other. A positive correlation was found between acute and chronic stress. With the practice of one month of moderate-intensity physical exercise, there was significant increment between the parameters under study and hence improved results. Conclusion: MIPE improved correlation between GI, EI, stress parameters, and thus reduced stress and improved intelligence.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, general intelligence, moderate intensity physical exercise, stress response

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21 Raman Line Mapping on Melt Spun Polycarbonate/MWNT Fiber-Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


Raman spectroscopy was used for characterization of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) and Polycarbonate/multi-wall carbon nanotube (PC/MWNT) based fibers with 0.55% and 0.75% of MWNT (PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75). PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75 fibers was prepared by melt spinning device using nanocomposites made by two different route, viz., solvent casting and melt extrusion. Fibers prepared from melt extruded nanocomposites showed smooth and uniform morphology as compared to solvent casting based nanocomposites. The Raman mapping confirmed that the melt extruded based nanocomposites had better dispersion of MWNT in Polycarbonate (PC) than solvent casting carbon nanotube.

Keywords: dispersion, melt extrusion, multi-wall carbon nanotube, mapping

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20 Layouting for Phase II of New Priok Project Using Adaptive Port Planning Frameworks

Authors: Mustarakh Gelfi, Poonam Taneja, Tiedo Vellinga, Delon Hamonangan


The initial masterplan of New Priok in the Port of Tanjung Priok was developed in 2012 is being updated to cater to new developments and new demands. In the new masterplan (2017), Phase II of development will start from 2035-onwards, depending on the future conditions. This study is about creating a robust masterplan for Phase II, which will remain functional under future uncertainties. The methodology applied in this study is scenario-based planning in the framework of Adaptive Port Planning (APP). Scenario-based planning helps to open up the perspective of the future as a horizon of possibilities. The scenarios are built around two major uncertainties in a 2x2 matrix approach. The two major uncertainties for New Priok port are economics and sustainability awareness. The outcome is four plausible scenarios: Green Port, Business As Usual, Moderate Expansion, and No Expansion. Terminal needs in each scenario are analyzed through traffic analysis and identifying the key cargos and commodities. In conclusion, this study gives the wide perspective for Port of Tanjung Priok for the planning Phase II of the development. The port has to realize that uncertainties persevere and are very likely to influence the decision making as to the future layouts. Instead of ignoring uncertainty, the port needs to make the action plans to deal with these uncertainties.

Keywords: Indonesia Port, port's layout, port planning, scenario-based planning

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19 Emotion Mining and Attribute Selection for Actionable Recommendations to Improve Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Jaishree Ranganathan, Poonam Rajurkar, Angelina A. Tzacheva, Zbigniew W. Ras


In today’s world, business often depends on the customer feedback and reviews. Sentiment analysis helps identify and extract information about the sentiment or emotion of the of the topic or document. Attribute selection is a challenging problem, especially with large datasets in actionable pattern mining algorithms. Action Rule Mining is one of the methods to discover actionable patterns from data. Action Rules are rules that help describe specific actions to be made in the form of conditions that help achieve the desired outcome. The rules help to change from any undesirable or negative state to a more desirable or positive state. In this paper, we present a Lexicon based weighted scheme approach to identify emotions from customer feedback data in the area of manufacturing business. Also, we use Rough sets and explore the attribute selection method for large scale datasets. Then we apply Actionable pattern mining to extract possible emotion change recommendations. This kind of recommendations help business analyst to improve their customer service which leads to customer satisfaction and increase sales revenue.

Keywords: actionable pattern discovery, attribute selection, business data, data mining, emotion

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18 Auroville; Landscapes of Life, Living and Being

Authors: Anandit Sachdev


Auroville, a settlement in Tamil Nadu, India, is based on the principles of ‘human unity’as defined by Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo. The settlement was conceptualized on these principles by Sri Aurobindo’s spiritual partner Mirra Alfassa, known as ‘The Mother’ to the Aurovillians. In common perception, the settlement is an experiment in achieving ‘human unity’ through sustainable living. Since its inception in late 1960s, the settlement has attracted people from a variety of nationalities, each understanding, seeking, and rendering ‘human unity’ in their own unique way. This multiplicity of inhabitation has created and continues to create complex and layered human and more-than-human geographies, which are collectively understood as Auroville. This essay builds on these multiple narratives of local metaphysical and every inhabitation of spiritual and philosophical ideas of Sri Aurobindo as rendered in materiality by the Mother. The research aims to assess how theseforms of everyday spirituality conflict, interact, and engage with the principles of Auroville. The research further aims to understands how, if at all, the diverse landscapes of social, cultural, and infrastructural conflictssynthesizewhen perceived through the lens of spirituality. The research does so by detailing the different forms of the built environment which evoke the transcendental and its underlying processes. While doing so, it aims to understand how different manifestations of interiority within the Aurovillian landscape tie back to the self and its entanglements. By analysing the settlement through a spiritual lens, the research ultimately ties together questions relating to the built environment and ontology and asks how each facilitates a continuous synthesis with the other. Lastly, the paper enquires if these ongoing processes of synthesis of built space and ontological entanglements are what can be conceptualized as ‘human unity’ as perceived by Sri Aurobindo himself.

Keywords: sacrality, sacred, spirituality, philosophy, Indian philosophy, auroville, India

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17 Bioavailability of Iron in Some Selected Fiji Foods using In vitro Technique

Authors: Poonam Singh, Surendra Prasad, William Aalbersberg


Iron the most essential trace element in human nutrition. Its deficiency has serious health consequences and is a major public health threat worldwide. The common deficiencies in Fiji population reported are of Fe, Ca and Zn. It has also been reported that 40% of women in Fiji are iron deficient. Therefore, we have been studying the bioavailability of iron in commonly consumed Fiji foods. To study the bioavailability it is essential to assess the iron contents in raw foods. This paper reports the iron contents and its bioavailability in commonly consumed foods by multicultural population of Fiji. The food samples (rice, breads, wheat flour and breakfast cereals) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for total iron and its bioavailability. The white rice had the lowest total iron 0.10±0.03 mg/100g but had high bioavailability of 160.60±0.03%. The brown rice had 0.20±0.03 mg/100g total iron content but 85.00±0.03% bioavailable. The white and brown breads showed the highest iron bioavailability as 428.30±0.11 and 269.35 ±0.02%, respectively. The Weetabix and the rolled oats had the iron contents 2.89±0.27 and 1.24.±0.03 mg/100g with bioavailability of 14.19±0.04 and 12.10±0.03%, respectively. The most commonly consumed normal wheat flour had 0.65±0.00 mg/100g iron while the whole meal and the Roti flours had 2.35±0.20 and 0.62±0.17 mg/100g iron showing bioavailability of 55.38±0.05, 16.67±0.08 and 12.90±0.00%, respectively. The low bioavailability of iron in certain foods may be due to the presence of phytates/oxalates, processing/storage conditions, cooking method or interaction with other minerals present in the food samples.

Keywords: iron, bioavailability, Fiji foods, in vitro technique, human nutrition

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16 A Study of Level of Happiness in Orphans of Patna District

Authors: Riya Kartikee, Uday Shankar


Background –.Happiness refers to a range of the balance of positive and pleasant emotions of joy, pride, contentment, gratitude, and living with ethics. Happiness is an experience combined with a sense that one’s life is good, meaningful, and worth a while, but in the context of orphans who have lost their birthgivers, their parents who play an important role in bringing necessities and comfort to them, but many terms of the above phases are missing in the life of orphan So, stress increases because of lack of love, attention, sympathy, care, they experience many kind of trauma and also in some cases their lives get worst as they face some physiological abuse, sexual abuse, they are forced to have stress at a not only mentally but physically also in the context of Patna, Bihar where many people are below poverty line, lack of resources is a normal condition for the Orphanages.AIM- The present study was intended to study the level of Happiness among the orphans of Patna District, also it was attempted to find the role of happiness in their lives as an individual.Method- The sample of 70 Orphans in the age group of 12 to 18 years were taken from the orphanages of Patna district-Apnaghar, Rainbow homes, etc. Purposive sampling was used in the study, There has been one research tool used in the study, which is Happiness scale by Dr.R.L Bhardwaj and Dr.Poonam R Das. Results- Results have revealed that Orphans have possessed a very low level of happiness and unhappiness was related due to their living conditions in the orphanage.Conclusion-It can be stated that the Level of happiness is an important missing determinant in the lives of orphans.

Keywords: happiness, orphans, patna, orphanage

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15 Nanoparticle Based Green Inhibitor for Corrosion Protection of Zinc in Acidic Medium

Authors: Neha Parekh, Divya Ladha, Poonam Wadhwani, Nisha Shah


Nano scaled materials have attracted tremendous interest as corrosion inhibitor due to their high surface area on the metal surfaces. It is well known that the zinc oxide nanoparticles have higher reactivity towards aqueous acidic solution. This work presents a new method to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles with white sesame seeds extract (nano-green inhibitor) for corrosion protection of zinc in acidic medium. The morphology of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by TEM and DLS. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor was determined by Gravimetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Gravimetric measurements suggested that nano-green inhibitor is more effective than green inhibitor. Furthermore, with the increasing temperature, inhibition efficiency increases for both the inhibitors. In addition, it was established the Temkin adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data for both the inhibitors. The effect of temperature and Temkin adsorption isotherm revealed Chemisorption mechanism occurring in the system. The activation energy (Ea) and other thermodynamic parameters for inhibition process were calculated. The data of EIS showed that the charge transfer controls the corrosion process. The surface morphology of zinc metal (specimen) in absence and presence of green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The outcomes indicated a formation of a protective layer over zinc metal (specimen).

Keywords: corrosion, green inhibitor, nanoparticles, zinc

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14 Rediscovery of Important Elements Contributing to Cultural Interchange Values Made during Restoration of Khanpur Gate

Authors: Poonam A. Trambadia, Ashish V. Trambadia


The architecture of sultanate period of Ahmedabad had evolved just before the establishment of Mughal rule in North India. After shifting the capital of the kingdom from Patan to Ahmedabad, when the buildings and structures were being built, an interesting cultural blend happened in architecture. Many sultanate buildings in Ahmedabad historic city have resemblance with Patan including the names. Outer fortification walls and Gates were built during the rule of the third ruler in the late 15th century. All the gates had sandstone slabs supported by three arched entrance in sandstone with wooden shutter. A restoration project of Khanpur Gate was initiated in 2016. The paper identifies some evidences and some hidden layers of structures as important elements of cultural interchange while some were just forgotten in the process. The recycling of pre-existing elements of structures are examined and compared. There were layers uncovered that were hidden behind later repairs using traditional brick arch, which was taken out in the process. As the gate had partially collapsed, the restoration included piece by piece dismantling and restoring in the same sequence wherever required. The recycled materials found in the process were recorded and provided the basis for this study. The gate after this discovery sets a new example of fortification Gate built in Sultanate era. The comparison excludes Maratha and British Period Gates to avoid further confusion and focuses on 15th – 16th century sultanate architecture of Ahmedabad.

Keywords: Ahmedabad World Heritage, fortification, Indo-Islamic style, Sultanate architecture, cultural interchange

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13 Synthesis of (S)-Naproxen Based Amide Bond Forming Chiral Reagent and Application for Liquid Chromatographic Resolution of (RS)-Salbutamol

Authors: Poonam Malik, Ravi Bhushan


This work describes a very efficient approach for synthesis of activated ester of (S)-naproxen which was characterized by UV, IR, ¹HNMR, elemental analysis and polarimetric studies. It was used as a C-N bond forming chiral derivatizing reagent for further synthesis of diastereomeric amides of (RS)-salbutamol (a β₂ agonist that belongs to the group β-adrenolytic and is marketed as racamate) under microwave irradiation. The diastereomeric pair was separated by achiral phase HPLC, using mobile phase in gradient mode containing methanol and aqueous triethylaminephosphate (TEAP); separation conditions were optimized with respect to pH, flow rate, and buffer concentration and the method of separation was validated as per International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. The reagent proved to be very effective for on-line sensitive detection of the diastereomers with very low limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.69 and 0.57 ng mL⁻¹ for diastereomeric derivatives of (S)- and (R)-salbutamol, respectively. The retention times were greatly reduced (2.7 min) with less consumption of organic solvents and large (α) as compared to literature reports. Besides, the diastereomeric derivatives were separated and isolated by preparative HPLC; these were characterized and were used as standard reference samples for recording ¹HNMR and IR spectra for determining absolute configuration and elution order; it ensured the success of diastereomeric synthesis and established the reliability of enantioseparation and eliminated the requirement of pure enantiomer of the analyte which is generally not available. The newly developed reagent can suitably be applied to several other amino group containing compounds either from organic syntheses or pharmaceutical industries because the presence of (S)-Npx as a strong chromophore would allow sensitive detection.This work is significant not only in the area of enantioseparation and determination of absolute configuration of diastereomeric derivatives but also in the area of developing new chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs).

Keywords: chiral derivatizing reagent, naproxen, salbutamol, synthesis

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12 Space Utilisation during Meal Preparation in an Indian Kitchen Belonging to Middle-Income Group Family

Authors: Poonam Magu, Kumud Khanna, P. Seetharaman


A kitchen is a major workplace in any home. A large variety of tasks, mainly related to meal preparation is performed here. The types of activities performed are varied and vast. In a way, it is the activities performed that determine the way the space within the kitchen is going to be utilised. A study was conducted in 510 Indian kitchens belonging to middle-income group families living in Delhi. It was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 510 non-working homemakers were interviewed and questions pertaining to their personal characteristics, meal preparation and physical aspects related to the kitchen were asked. In the second phase, the technique of Path Process Chart was developed. Subsequently, a sub-sample of 50 homemakers was selected from the larger group. The activity of meal preparation was carried out by the homemakers themselves in their kitchens. A time and motion study was conducted using the technique of Path Process Chart. The results were analysed using the appropriate analysis sheets and conclusions were drawn. It was found that the entire kitchen and more specifically, the counter had been 'divided' into a number of workplaces. These workplaces were being used either for performing operations or for the purpose of storage. In many cases, it was used for both. On the whole, in 50 kitchens studied, 21 workplaces were identified which were used for performing operations related to meal preparation and 17 for storage It was also observed that almost the entire kitchen was used for the purpose of storage of some item or the other. The major workplaces where operations were performed were the range, workplaces to the right and left of range and sink and workplaces to the right or left of the sink. The same workplaces were also used for the purpose of storage. There were some workplaces outside the kitchen too, which were used for operations or storage. These were the dining table, courtyard or balcony, bedroom cupboard. On the whole, the range centre and the sink centre were found to be the two most important centres in an Indian kitchen belonging to urban middle-income group family.

Keywords: kitchen, workplace, meal preparation, path process chart

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11 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Land Use Change and Green Cover Index

Authors: Poonam Sharma, Ankur Srivastav


Cities are complex and dynamic systems that constitute a significant challenge to urban planning. The increasing size of the built-up area owing to growing population pressure and economic growth have lead to massive Landuse/Landcover change resulted in the loss of natural habitat and thus reducing the green covers in urban areas. Urban environmental quality is influenced by several aspects, including its geographical configuration, the scale, and nature of human activities occurring and environmental impacts generated. Cities have transformed into complex and dynamic systems that constitute a significant challenge to urban planning. Cities and their sustainability are often discussed together as the cities stand confronted with numerous environmental concerns as the world becoming increasingly urbanized, and the cities are situated in the mesh of global networks in multiple senses. A rapid transformed urban setting plays a crucial role to change the green area of natural habitats. To examine the pattern of urban growth and to measure the Landuse/Landcover change in Gurgoan in Haryana, India through the integration of Geospatial technique is attempted in the research paper. Satellite images are used to measure the spatiotemporal changes that have occurred in the land use and land cover resulting into a new cityscape. It has been observed from the analysis that drastically evident changes in land use has occurred with the massive rise in built up areas and the decrease in green cover and therefore causing the sustainability of the city an important area of concern. The massive increase in built-up area has influenced the localised temperatures and heat concentration. To enhance the decision-making process in urban planning, a detailed and real world depiction of these urban spaces is the need of the hour. Monitoring indicators of key processes in land use and economic development are essential for evaluating policy measures.

Keywords: cityscape, geospatial techniques, green cover index, urban environmental quality, urban planning

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10 Estimation of Biomedical Waste Generated in a Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi

Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Manoj Jais, Poonam Gupta, Suraiya K. Ansari, Ravinder Kaur


Introduction: As much as the Health Care is necessary for the population, so is the management of the Biomedical waste produced. Biomedical waste is a wide terminology used for the waste material produced during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings and animals, in research or in the production or testing of biological products. Biomedical waste management is a chain of processes from the point of generation of Biomedical waste to its final disposal in the correct and proper way, assigned for that particular type of waste. Any deviation from the said processes leads to improper disposal of Biomedical waste which itself is a major health hazard. Proper segregation of Biomedical waste is the key for Biomedical Waste management. Improper disposal of BMW can cause sharp injuries which may lead to HIV, Hepatitis-B virus, Hepatitis-C virus infections. Therefore, proper disposal of BMW is of upmost importance. Health care establishments segregate the Biomedical waste and dispose it as per the Biomedical waste management rules in India. Objectives: This study was done to observe the current trends of Biomedical waste generated in a tertiary care Hospital in Delhi. Methodology: Biomedical waste management rounds were conducted in the hospital wards. Relevant details were collected and analysed and sites with maximum Biomedical waste generation were identified. All the data was cross checked with the commons collection site. Results: The total amount of waste generated in the hospital during January 2014 till December 2014 was 6,39,547 kg, of which 70.5% was General (non-hazardous) waste and the rest 29.5% was BMW which consisted highly infectious waste (12.2%), disposable plastic waste (16.3%) and sharps (1%). The maximum quantity of Biomedical waste producing sites were Obstetrics and Gynaecology wards with a total Biomedical waste production of 45.8%, followed by Paediatrics, Surgery and Medicine wards with 21.2 %, 4.6% and 4.3% respectively. The maximum average Biomedical waste generated was by Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward with 0.7 kg/bed/day, followed by Paediatrics, Surgery and Medicine wards with 0.29, 0.28 and 0.18 kg/bed/day respectively. Conclusions: Hospitals should pay attention to the sites which produce a large amount of BMW to avoid improper segregation of Biomedical waste. Also, induction and refresher training Program of Biomedical waste management should be conducted to avoid improper management of Biomedical waste. Healthcare workers should be made aware of risks of poor Biomedical waste management.

Keywords: biomedical waste, biomedical waste management, hospital-tertiary care, New Delhi

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9 Time and Energy Saving Kitchen Layout

Authors: Poonam Magu, Kumud Khanna, Premavathy Seetharaman


The two important resources of any worker performing any type of work at any workplace are time and energy. These are important inputs of the worker and need to be utilised in the best possible manner. The kitchen is an important workplace where the homemaker performs many essential activities. Its layout should be so designed that optimum use of her resources can be achieved.Ideally, the shape of the kitchen, as determined by the physical space enclosed by the four walls, can be square, rectangular or irregular. But it is the shape of the arrangement of counter that one normally refers to while talking of the layout of the kitchen. The arrangement can be along a single wall, along two opposite walls, L shape, U shape or even island. A study was conducted in 50 kitchens belonging to middle income group families. These were DDA built kitchens located in North, South, East and West Delhi.The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 510 non working homemakers were interviewed. The data related to personal characteristics of the homemakers was collected. Additional information was also collected regarding the kitchens-the size, shape , etc. The homemakers were also questioned about various aspects related to meal preparation-people performing the task, number of items cooked, areas used for meal preparation , etc. In the second phase, a suitable technique was designed for conducting time and motion study in the kitchen while the meal was being prepared. This technique was called Path Process Chart. The final phase was carried out in 50 kitchens. The criterion for selection was that all items for a meal should be cooked at the same time. All the meals were cooked by the homemakers in their own kitchens. The meal preparation was studied using the Path Process Chart technique. The data collected was analysed and conclusions drawn. It was found that of all the shapes, it was the kitchen with L shape arrangement in which, on an average a homemaker spent minimum time on meal preparation and also travelled the minimum distance. Thus, the average distance travelled in a L shaped layout was 131.1 mts as compared to 181.2 mts in an U shaped layout. Similarly, 48 minutes was the average time spent on meal preparation in L shaped layout as compared to 53 minutes in U shaped layout. Thus, the L shaped layout was more time and energy saving layout as compared to U shaped.

Keywords: kitchen layout, meal preparation, path process chart technique, workplace

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8 Antecedents and Consequents of Organizational Politics: A Select Study of a Central University

Authors: Poonam Mishra, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Sanjeev Swami


Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of percieved organizational politics with three levels of antecedents (i.e., organizational level, work environment level and individual level)and its consequents simultaneously. The study addresses antecedents and consequents of percieved political behavior in the higher education sector of India with specific reference to a central university. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: A conceptual framework and hypotheses were first developed on the basis of review of previous studies on organizational politics. A questionnaire was then developed carrying 66 items related to 8-constructs and demographic characteristics of respondents. Jundegemental sampling was used to select respondents. Primary data is collected through structured questionnaire from 45 faculty members of a central university. The sample constitutes Professors, Associate Professors and Assistant Professors from various departments of the University. To test hypotheses data was analyzed statistically using partial least square-structural equations modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings: Results indicated a strong support for OP’s relationship with three of the four proposed antecedents that are, workforce diversity, relationship conflict and need for power with relationship conflict having the strongest impact. No significant relationship was found between role conflict and perception of organizational politics. The three consequences that is, intention to turnover, job anxiety, and organizational commitment are significantly impacted by perception of organizational politics. Practical Implications– This study will be helpful in motivating future research for improving the quality of higher education in India by reducing the level of antecedents that adds to the level of perception of organizational politics, ultimately resulting in unfavorable outcomes. Originality/value: Although a large number of studies on atecedents and consequents of percieved organizational politics have been reported, little attention has been paid to test all the separate but interdependent relationships simultaneously; in this paper organizational politics will be simultaneously treated as a dependent variable and same will be treated as independent variable in subsequent relationships.

Keywords: organizational politics, workforce diversity, relationship conflict, role conflict, need for power, intention to turnover, job anxiety, organizational commitment

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7 Effect of Preoperative Single Dose Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Post-Operative Quality of Recovery and Pain Relief after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Authors: Gurjeet Khurana, Surender Singh, Poonam Arora, Praveendra K. Sachan


Introduction: Post-operative quality of recovery is the key outcome in the perspective of anesthesiologist. It is directly related to patient satisfaction. This is unsurprising, considering most aspects of a poor quality recovery after surgery will impair satisfaction with care. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate effects of Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Quality of Recovery using QoR- 40 questionnaire and compare their effects. Material and methods: After obtaining the ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 67 patients of 18-60 years, ASA grade I and II scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I of 34 patients received 2mg/kg lignocaine diluted to 10ml with normal saline. Group 2 of 33 patients received 0.1 mg/kg I/V Dexamethasone diluted to 10ml with normal saline. QoR-40 was assessed on pre-operative day, and again QoR-40 was assessed at 24 hr post-operative day-1. Postoperative pain scores, nausea and vomiting and shoulder pain were secondary outcomes. Results: The Global QoR-40 was more than 180 at 24 hr in both the groups. The Dexamethasone group had higher Global QoR-40 than lignocaine group 187.94 v/s 182.85. Amongst dimensions of QoR-40 Dexamethasone had statistically better physical comfort, physical independence, and pain relief as compared to Lignocaine. Positive items had excellent responses in Dexamethasone group. Headache, backache and sore throat were also less severe in Dexamethasone group as compared to Lignocaine group. Dexamethasone group had lower VAS compared to lignocaine group. Similarly, there was less fentanyl consumption in dexamethasone group (364.08 ± 127.31) in postoperative period when compared to the lignocaine group (412.31 ± 147.8). Group receiving dexamethasone had 36% increase in appetite compared to lignocaine group (17.6%), which facilitated early oral feeding. Frequency of PONV was less in group-2 at different time interval as compared to group 1. Total episode of PONV were 18 in group 1 and 7 in group 2. Statistically significant difference was seen among two groups (p value= 0.007). Use of antiemetic was more in group 1 as compared to group 2 at all the times, though it was not statistically significant at different time intervals. Antiemetics were administered to 18 patients in group 1 as compared to 5 patients in group 2 postoperatively. Statistically significant difference (p value= 0.011) was seen in total antiemetic consumption. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that pre-operative administration of a single dose of dexamethasone enhanced the quality of recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to Lignocaine bolus dose.

Keywords: dexamethasone, lignocaine, QoR-40 questionnaire, quality of recovery

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6 Evaluation of the Irritation Potential of Three Topical Formulations of Minoxidil 5% Using Patch Test

Authors: Sule Pallavi, Shah Priyank, Thavkar Amit, Mehta Suyog, Rohira Poonam


Minoxidil is used topically to help hair growth in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia. The objective of this study is to compare irritation potential of three conventional formulation of minoxidil 5% topical solution of in human patch test. The study was a single centre, double blind, non-randomized controlled study in 56 healthy adult Indian subjects. Occlusive patch test for 24 hours was performed with three formulation of minoxidil 5% topical solution. Products tested included aqueous based minoxidil 5% (AnasureTM 5%, Sun Pharma, India – Brand A), alcohol based minoxidil 5% (Brand B) and aqueous based minoxidil 5% (Brand C). Isotonic saline 0.9% and 1% w/w sodium lauryl sulphate were included as negative control and positive control respectively. Patches were applied and removed after 24hours. The skin reaction was assessed and clinically scored 24 hours after the removal of the patches under constant artificial daylight source using Draize scale (0-4 points scale for erythema/wrinkles/dryness and for oedema). A combined mean score up to 2.0/8.0 indicates a product is “non-irritant” and score between 2.0/8.0 and 4.0/8.0 indicates “mildly irritant” and score above 4.0/8.0 indicates “irritant”. Follow-up was scheduled after one week to confirm recovery for any reaction. The procedure of the patch test followed the principles outlined by Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) (IS 4011:2018; Methods of Test for safety evaluation of Cosmetics-3rd revision). Fifty six subjects with mean age 30.9 years (27 males and 29 females) participated in the study. The combined mean score (± standard deviation) were: 0.13 ± 0.33 (Brand A), 0.39 ± 0.49 (Brand B), 0.22 ± 0.41 (Brand C), 2.91 ± 0.79 (Positive control) and 0.02 ± 0.13 (Negative control). The mean score of Brand A (Sun Pharma product) was significantly lower than Brand B (p=0.001) and was comparable with Brand C (p=0.21). The combined mean erythema score (± standard deviation) were: 0.09 ± 0.29 (Brand A), 0.27 ± 0.5 (Brand B), 0.18 ± 0.39 (Brand C), 2.02 ± 0.49 (Positive control) and 0.0 ± 0.0 (Negative control). The mean erythema score of Brand A was significantly lower than Brand B (p=0.01) and was comparable with Brand C (p=0.16). Any reaction observed at 24hours after patch removal subsided in a week. All the three topical formulation of minoxidil 5% were non-irritant. Brand A of 5% minoxidil (Sun Pharma) was found to be least irritant than Brand B and Brand C based on the combined mean score and mean erythema score in the human patch test as per the BIS, IS 4011;2018.

Keywords: erythema, irritation, minoxidil, patch test

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5 Layouting Phase II of New Priok Using Adaptive Port Planning Frameworks

Authors: Mustarakh Gelfi, Tiedo Vellinga, Poonam Taneja, Delon Hamonangan


The development of New Priok/Kalibaru as an expansion terminal of the old port has been being done by IPC (Indonesia Port Cooperation) together with the subsidiary company, Port Developer (PT Pengembangan Pelabuhan Indonesia). As stated in the master plan, from 2 phases that had been proposed, phase I has shown its form and even Container Terminal I has been operated in 2016. It was planned principally, the development will be divided into Phase I (2013-2018) consist of 3 container terminals and 2 product terminals and Phase II (2018-2023) consist of 4 container terminals. In fact, the master plan has to be changed due to some major uncertainties which were escaped in prediction. This study is focused on the design scenario of phase II (2035- onwards) to deal with future uncertainty. The outcome is the robust design of phase II of the Kalibaru Terminal taking into account the future changes. Flexibility has to be a major goal in such a large infrastructure project like New Priok in order to deal and manage future uncertainty. The phasing of project needs to be adapted and re-look frequently before being irrelevant to future challenges. One of the frameworks that have been developed by an expert in port planning is Adaptive Port Planning (APP) with scenario-based planning. The idea behind APP framework is the adaptation that might be needed at any moment as an answer to a challenge. It is a continuous procedure that basically aims to increase the lifespan of waterborne transport infrastructure by increasing flexibility in the planning, contracting and design phases. Other methods used in this study are brainstorming with the port authority, desk study, interview and site visit to the real project. The result of the study is expected to be the insight for the port authority of Tanjung Priok over the future look and how it will impact the design of the port. There will be guidelines to do the design in an uncertain environment as well. Solutions of flexibility can be divided into: 1 - Physical solutions, all the items related hard infrastructure in the projects. The common things in this type of solution are using modularity, standardization, multi-functional, shorter and longer design lifetime, reusability, etc. 2 - Non-physical solutions, usually related to the planning processes, decision making and management of the projects. To conclude, APP framework seems quite robust to deal with the problem of designing phase II of New Priok Project for such a long period.

Keywords: Indonesia port, port's design, port planning, scenario-based planning

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4 Vibrational Spectra and Nonlinear Optical Investigations of a Chalcone Derivative (2e)-3-[4-(Methylsulfanyl) Phenyl]-1-(3-Bromophenyl) Prop-2-En-1-One

Authors: Amit Kumar, Archana Gupta, Poonam Tandon, E. D. D’Silva


Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials are the key materials for the fast processing of information and optical data storage applications. In the last decade, materials showing nonlinear optical properties have been the object of increasing attention by both experimental and computational points of view. Chalcones are one of the most important classes of cross conjugated NLO chromophores that are reported to exhibit good SHG efficiency, ultra fast optical nonlinearities and are easily crystallizable. The basic structure of chalcones is based on the π-conjugated system in which two aromatic rings are connected by a three-carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. Due to the overlap of π orbitals, delocalization of electronic charge distribution leads to a high mobility of the electron density. On a molecular scale, the extent of charge transfer across the NLO chromophore determines the level of SHG output. Hence, the functionalization of both ends of the π-bond system with appropriate electron donor and acceptor groups can enhance the asymmetric electronic distribution in either or both ground and excited states, leading to an increased optical nonlinearity. In this research, the experimental and theoretical study on the structure and vibrations of (2E)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(3-bromophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (3Br4MSP) is presented. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the NLO material in the solid phase have been recorded. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set were carried out to study the equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared absorbance and Raman scattering activities. The interpretation of vibrational features (normal mode assignments, for instance) has an invaluable aid from DFT calculations that provide a quantum-mechanical description of the electronic energies and forces involved. Perturbation theory allows one to obtain the vibrational normal modes by estimating the derivatives of the Kohn−Sham energy with respect to atomic displacements. The molecular hyperpolarizability β plays a chief role in the NLO properties, and a systematical study on β has been carried out. Furthermore, the first order hyperpolarizability (β) and the related properties such as dipole moment (μ) and polarizability (α) of the title molecule are evaluated by Finite Field (FF) approach. The electronic α and β of the studied molecule are 41.907×10-24 and 79.035×10-24 e.s.u. respectively, indicating that 3Br4MSP can be used as a good nonlinear optical material.

Keywords: DFT, MEP, NLO, vibrational spectra

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3 Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Lipid Profiling of Lipids in Mice Serum Using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS

Authors: Seema Dhariwal, Kiran Maan, Ruchi Baghel, Apoorva Sharma, Poonam Rana


Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as the temporary or permanent alteration in brain function and pathology caused by an external mechanical force. It represents the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children and youth individuals. Various models of TBI in rodents have been developed in the laboratory to mimic the scenario of injury. Blast overpressure injury is common among civilians and military personnel, followed by accidents or explosive devices. In addition to this, the lateral Controlled cortical impact (CCI) model mimics the blunt, penetrating injury. Method: In the present study, we have developed two different mild TBI models using blast and CCI injury. In the blast model, helium gas was used to create an overpressure of 130 kPa (±5) via a shock tube, and CCI injury was induced with an impact depth of 1.5mm to create diffusive and focal injury, respectively. C57BL/6J male mice (10-12 weeks) were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) Blast treated, (3) CCI treated, and were exposed to different injury models. Serum was collected on Day1 and day7, followed by biphasic extraction using MTBE/Methanol/Water. Prepared samples were separated on Charged Surface Hybrid (CSH) C18 column and acquired on UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS using ESI probe with inhouse optimized parameters and method. MS peak list was generated using Markerview TM. Data were normalized, Pareto-scaled, and log-transformed, followed by multivariate and univariate analysis in metaboanalyst. Result and discussion: Untargeted profiling of lipids generated extensive data features, which were annotated through LIPID MAPS® based on their m/z and were further confirmed based on their fragment pattern by LipidBlast. There is the final annotation of 269 features in the positive and 182 features in the negative mode of ionization. PCA and PLS-DA score plots showed clear segregation of injury groups to controls. Among various lipids in mild blast and CCI, five lipids (Glycerophospholipids {PC 30:2, PE O-33:3, PG 28:3;O3 and PS 36:1 } and fatty acyl { FA 21:3;O2}) were significantly altered in both injury groups at Day 1 and Day 7, and also had VIP score >1. Pathway analysis by Biopan has also shown hampered synthesis of Glycerolipids and Glycerophospholipiods, which coincides with earlier reports. It could be a direct result of alteration in the Acetylcholine signaling pathway in response to TBI. Understanding the role of a specific class of lipid metabolism, regulation and transport could be beneficial to TBI research since it could provide new targets and determine the best therapeutic intervention. This study demonstrates the potential lipid biomarkers which can be used for injury severity diagnosis and identification irrespective of injury type (diffusive or focal).

Keywords: LipidBlast, lipidomic biomarker, LIPID MAPS®, TBI

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2 Raman Spectroscopic Detection of the Diminishing Toxic Effect of Renal Waste Creatinine by Its in vitro Reaction with Drugs N-Acetylcysteine and Taurine

Authors: Debraj Gangopadhyay, Moumita Das, Ranjan K. Singh, Poonam Tandon


Creatinine is a toxic chemical waste generated from muscle metabolism. Abnormally high levels of creatinine in the body fluid indicate possible malfunction or failure of the kidneys. This leads to a condition termed as creatinine induced nephrotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine is an antioxidant drug which is capable of preventing creatinine induced nephrotoxicity and is helpful to treat renal failure in its early stages. Taurine is another antioxidant drug which serves similar purpose. The kidneys have a natural power that whenever reactive oxygen species radicals increase in the human body, the kidneys make an antioxidant shell so that these radicals cannot harm the kidney function. Taurine plays a vital role in increasing the power of that shell such that the glomerular filtration rate can remain in its normal level. Thus taurine protects the kidneys against several diseases. However, taurine also has some negative effects on the body as its chloramine derivative is a weak oxidant by nature. N-acetylcysteine is capable of inhibiting the residual oxidative property of taurine chloramine. Therefore, N-acetylcysteine is given to a patient along with taurine and this combination is capable of suppressing the negative effect of taurine. Both N-acetylcysteine and taurine being affordable, safe, and widely available medicines, knowledge of the mechanism of their combined effect on creatinine, the favored route of administration, and the proper dose may be highly useful in their use for treating renal patients. Raman spectroscopy is a precise technique to observe minor structural changes taking place when two or more molecules interact. The possibility of formation of a complex between a drug molecule and an analyte molecule in solution can be explored by analyzing the changes in the Raman spectra. The formation of a stable complex of creatinine with N-acetylcysteinein vitroin aqueous solution has been observed with the help of Raman spectroscopic technique. From the Raman spectra of the mixtures of aqueous solutions of creatinine and N-acetylcysteinein different molar ratios, it is observed that the most stable complex is formed at 1:1 ratio of creatinine andN-acetylcysteine. Upon drying, the complex obtained is gel-like in appearance and reddish yellow in color. The complex is hygroscopic and has much better water solubility compared to creatinine. This highlights that N-acetylcysteineplays an effective role in reducing the toxic effect of creatinine by forming this water soluble complex which can be removed through urine. Since the drug taurine is also known to be useful in reducing nephrotoxicity caused by creatinine, the aqueous solution of taurine with those of creatinine and N-acetylcysteinewere mixed in different molar ratios and were investigated by Raman spectroscopic technique. It is understood that taurine itself does not undergo complexation with creatinine as no additional changes are observed in the Raman spectra of creatinine when it is mixed with taurine. However, when creatinine, N-acetylcysteine and taurine are mixed in aqueous solution in molar ratio 1:1:3, several changes occurring in the Raman spectra of creatinine suggest the diminishing toxic effect of creatinine in the presence ofantioxidant drugs N-acetylcysteine and taurine.

Keywords: creatinine, creatinine induced nephrotoxicity, N-acetylcysteine, taurine

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1 On the Limits of Board Diversity: Impact of Network Effect on Director Appointments

Authors: Vijay Marisetty, Poonam Singh


Research on the effect of director's network connections on investor welfare is inconclusive. Some studies suggest that directors' connections are beneficial, in terms of, improving earnings information, firms valuation for new investors. On the other hand, adverse effects of directorial networks are also reported, in terms of higher earnings management, options back dating fraud, reduction in firm performance, lower board monitoring. From regulatory perspective, the role of directorial networks on corporate welfare is crucial. Cognizant of the possible ill effects associated with directorial networks, large investors, for better representation on the boards, are building their own database of prospective directors who are highly qualified, however, sourced from outside the highly connected directorial labor market. For instance, following Dodd-Frank Reform Act, California Public Employees' Retirement Systems (CalPERs) has initiated a database for registering aspiring and highly qualified directors to nominate them for board seats (proxy access). Our paper stems from this background and tries to explore the chances of outside directors getting directorships who lack established network connections. The paper is able to identify such aspiring directors' information by accessing a unique Indian data sourced from an online portal that aims to match the supply of registered aspirants with the growing demand for outside directors in India. The online portal's tie-up with stock exchanges ensures firms to access the new pool of directors. Such direct access to the background details of aspiring directors over a period of 10 years, allows us to examine the chances of aspiring directors without corporate network, to enter directorial network. Using this resume data of 16105 aspiring corporate directors in India, who have no prior board experience in the directorial labor market, the paper analyses the entry dynamics in corporate directors' labor market. The database also allows us to investigate the value of corporate network by comparing non-network new entrants with incumbent networked directors. The study develops measures of network centrality and network degree based on merit, i.e. network of individuals belonging to elite educational institutions, like Indian Institute of Management (IIM) or Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) and based on job or company, i.e. network of individuals serving in the same company. The paper then measures the impact of these networks on the appointment of first time directors and subsequent appointment of directors. The paper reports the following main results: 1. The likelihood of becoming a corporate director, without corporate network strength, is only 1 out 100 aspirants. This is inspite of comparable educational background and similar duration of corporate experience; 2. Aspiring non-network directors' elite educational ties help them to secure directorships. However, for post-board appointments, their newly acquired corporate network strength overtakes as their main determinant for subsequent board appointments and compensation. The results thus highlight the limitations in increasing board diversity.

Keywords: aspiring corporate directors, board diversity, director labor market, director networks

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