Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: N. M. Sulaiman

59 Study of Structural Styles and Hydrocarbon Potential of Rajan Pur Area, Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Abbassi

Abstract:

This research encompasses the study of structural styles and evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of Kotrum and Drigri anticlines located in Rajanpur Area, Midddle Indus Basin of Pakistan with the approach of geophysical data integration. The study area is situated between the Sulaiman Foldbelt on the west and Indus River in the east. It is an anticlinal fold, located to the southeast of Sakhi Sarwar anticline and separated from a prominent syncline. The structure has a narrow elongated crest, with the axis running in SSW-NNE direction. In the east, the structure is bounded by a gentle syncline. Structural Styles are trending East-West and perpendicular to tectonic transport and stress direction and the base of the structures gradually dipping Eastward beneath the deformation frontal part in Eastern Sulaiman Fold Belt. Middle Indus Basin can be divided into Foreland, Sulaiman fold belt and a broad foredeep. Sulaiman represents a blind thrust front, which suggests that all frontal folds of the fold belt are cored by blind thrust. The deformation of frontal part of Sulaiman Lobe represents the passive roof duplex stacked beneath the frontal passive roof thrust. The passive roof thrust, which has a back thrust sense of motion and extends into the interior of Fold belt. Left lateral Kingri Fault separates Eastern and Central Sulaiman fold belt. In Central Sulaiman fold belt the deformation front moved further towards fore deep as compared to Eastern Sulaiman. Two wells (Kotrum-01, Drigri-01) have been drilled in the study area with the objective to determine the potential of oil and gas in Habib Rahi Limestone of Eocene age, Dunghan Limestone of Paleocene age and Pab Sandstone of cretaceous age and role of structural styles in hydrocarbon potential of study area. Kotrum-01 well was drilled to its T.D of 4798m. Besides fishing and side tracking, tight whole conditions, high pressure, and losses of circulation were also encountered. During production, testing Pab sandstone were tested but abandoned found. Drigri-01 well was drilled to its T.D 3250 m. RFT was carried out at different points, but all points showed no pressure / seal failure and the well was plugged and declared abandoned.

Keywords: hydrocarbon potential, structural style, reserve calculation, enhance production

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58 The Sembar Cretaceous Shale Gas Bearing Formation at Hajipur

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

Abstract:

This research encompasses the study of Cretaceous Sembar Formation Shale Gas potential at Hajipur area. This study has been done with the approach of geophysical data integration. The structure is NE – SW trending anticline with two map able compartments at Cretaceous Sembar level. The study area is located within proven petroleum system. Cretaceous Sembar/Goru formation is in a Wet gas window and Tertiary source is possibly in the oil window. Potential seals are present in Upper Ranikot shale beds and Intra-Lower Ranikot shales. The effectiveness and presence of source and reservoir rocks are favorable in the area of interest. Cretaceous Sembar Shale and Goru Shale beds with good organic content (TOC upto 4%, Type II/III) are currently in gas generation window in the area. Source rock intervals are also reported in Eocene Kirthar Group (TOC upto 8%, Type –II). Good reservoir quality Paleocene Lower Ranikot and Cretaceous Sembar shale beds exist in the area. The collision between Indian and Eurasian Plates during Tertiary initiated folding and thrusting. The first phase of thrusting involved ophiolite emplacement along the western margins of the Indian Plate (west of the area under review). The main phase of thrusting in the Sulaiman region was from Late Miocene to the present. The study area contains Permian to Recent clastics and carbonates. The succession generally is younger in the southeast than in northwest. Intraformational sedimentation breaks are pronounced in Permian and Jurassic. Sulaiman Range is bounded by the Western Sulaiman Transform Fault Zone (of which the Kingri Fault is the major fault) to the west and by the Domanda Fault to the east. The Domanda Fault also constitutes the western boundary of the Sulaiman Foredeep, lies in sulaiman foredeep where subsurface having prominent independent closure. Several reservoir horizons of Jurassic to Eocene are established hydrocarbon producers in the Hajipur area.

Keywords: Shale Gas, enough size, good potential, structure closure

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
57 Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride by Coupling with Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline

Authors: Sulaiman Gafar Muhamad

Abstract:

A rapid spectrophotometric method for the micro-determination of phenylephrine-HCl (PHE) has been developed. The proposed method involves the coupling of phenylephrine-HCl with diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline in alkaline medium at λmax 455 nm. Under the present optimum condition, Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20 μg/ml of PHE with molar absorptivity of 1.915 ×104 l. mol-1.cm-1, with a relative error of 0.015 and a relative standard deviation of 0.024%. The current method has been applied successfully to estimate phenylephrine-HCl in pharmaceutical preparations (nose drop and syrup).

Keywords: spectrophotometry, diazo-coupling, phenylephrine-HCl

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
56 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi, N.Khairudin, P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam

Abstract:

In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: transesterification, calcinations, fish bone, waste catalyst

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55 Students’ Perception of Their M-Learning Readiness

Authors: Sulaiman Almutairy, Trevor Davies, Yota Dimitriadi

Abstract:

This paper presents study investigating how to understand better the psychological readiness for mobile learning (m-learning) among Saudi students, while also evaluating m-learning in Saudi Arabia-a topic that has not yet received adequate attention from researchers. Data was acquired through a questionnaire administered to 131 Saudi students at UK universities, in July 2013. The study confirmed that students are confident using mobile devices in their daily lives and that they would welcome more opportunities for mobile learning. The findings indicated that Saudi higher education students are highly familiar with, and are psychologically ready for, m-learning.

Keywords: Higher Education, M-Learning, Mobile Technologies, psychological readiness

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54 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: MEMS, Biomedical Application, NEMS, pressure sensor, diaphragm, automotive application

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53 A Comparative Study of Virus Detection Techniques

Authors: Sulaiman Al Amro, Ali Alkhalifah

Abstract:

The growing number of computer viruses and the detection of zero day malware have been the concern for security researchers for a large period of time. Existing antivirus products (AVs) rely on detecting virus signatures which do not provide a full solution to the problems associated with these viruses. The use of logic formulae to model the behaviour of viruses is one of the most encouraging recent developments in virus research, which provides alternatives to classic virus detection methods. In this paper, we proposed a comparative study about different virus detection techniques. This paper provides the advantages and drawbacks of different detection techniques. Different techniques will be used in this paper to provide a discussion about what technique is more effective to detect computer viruses.

Keywords: computer viruses, virus detection, signature-based, behaviour-based, heuristic-based

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52 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud

Abstract:

Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: packaging, Electric Vehicle, vanadium, redox flow battery

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51 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes, nanorods, Thin Film Solar Cells, nanocrystalline

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50 Bismuth-Inhibitory Effects on Bacteria and Stimulation of Fungal Growth In vitro

Authors: Milton Wainwright, Sulaiman B. Ali Alharbi, Bassam H. Mashat, Naif Abdullah Al-Harbi, Abeer S. Aloufi, Sulamain Alnaimat

Abstract:

Bismuth salicylate was found to inhibit the growth of a range of bacteria and yeast, Candida albican. In general the growth of bacteria did not result in the increase in bismuth solubilisation, in contrast, bismuth solubilisation increased following the growth of C. albicans. A significant increase in the biomass (dry weight) of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae occurred in vitro when these fungi were grown in the presence of bismuth salicylate. Biomass increase occurred over a range of bismuth compound additions, which in the case of A. oryzae was associated with the increase in the solubilisation of the insoluble bismuth compounds.

Keywords: bacterial inhibition, fungal growth stimulation, medical uses of bismuth, yeast inhibition

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49 Street Begging: A Loss of Human Resource in Nigeria

Authors: Sulaiman Kassim Ibrahim

Abstract:

Human Resource is one of the most important elements in any country. They are very important in actualizing the potential of every sector in the country, i.e Agric, Education, Finance, Judiciary and all formal and informal sectors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the loss of human resource in Nigeria through street begging. The study used intensive literature review. Finding from the review indicate that a significant number of human resource are into street begging in the country undeveloped and untapped. The paper recommend that policy should be initiated to discourage street begging, develop this resource through education and empowerment, stop rural-urban migration by providing infrastructure in the rural areas and abolish informal (Almajiri or beggars school) and transform it into formal school.

Keywords: Human Resource, Nigeria, street begging, Almajiri

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48 Graphene-Oxide-Supported Coal-Layered Double Hydroxides: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Mohamed Mokhtar, Shaeel A. Al Thabaiti, Sulaiman N. Basahel, Salem M. Bawaked

Abstract:

Nanosheets for cobalt-layered double hydroxide (Co-Al-LDH)/GO were successfully synthesized with different Co:M g:Al ratios (0:3:1, 1.5:1.5:1, and 3:0:1). The layered double hydroxide structure and morphology were determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature prgrammed reduction (TPR) of Co-Al-LDH showed reduction peaks at lower temperature which indicates the ease reducibility of this particular sample. The thermal behaviour was studied using thermal graviemetric technique (TG), and the BET-surface area was determined using N2 physisorption at -196°C. The C-C coupling reaction was carried out over all the investigated catalysts. The Mg–Al LDH catalyst without Co ions is inactive, but the isomorphic substitution of Mg by Co ions (Co:Mg:Al = 1.5:1.5:1) in the cationic sheet resulted in 88% conversion of iodobenzene under reflux. LDH/GO hybrid is up to 2 times higher activity than for the unsupported LDH.

Keywords: Adsorption, Graphene Oxide, co-precipitation, layer double hydroxide

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47 Transient Analysis of Laminated Rubber Bearing Bridge during High Intensity Earthquake

Authors: N. M. Amin, W. N. A. W. Sulaiman

Abstract:

The effectiveness of the seismic response between 3D solid elements model and simplified beam elements model has been investigated. At present, the studies of the numerical modelling using 3D solid element are minimal due to numerical software constraint. The finite element analysis using 3D solid element was chosen to study displacement response of laminated rubber bearing (LRB) during high intensity Kobe earthquake. In this research a simply supported bridge (single span), fixed at support was analysed by using transient analysis subjected to real time history loading of Kobe earthquake.

Keywords: Transient Analysis, solid element, laminated rubber bearing, simplified beam element

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46 Effect of Pulse Duration and Current to the EDM Process on Allegheny Ludlum D2 Tool Steel

Authors: A. A. Khan, S. Sulaiman, M. A. Razak, M. R. Ibrahim

Abstract:

An experimental work on the effect of different current and pulse duration on performance of EDM process of Allegheny Ludlum D2 Tool Steel (UNS T30402). The effect of varying the machining parameters on the machining responses such as material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and surface roughness (Ra) have been investigated. In this study, triangular shape and circular shape of copper was used as an electrode with surface area of 100 mm². The experiments were repeated for three different values of pulse duration (100 µs, 200 µs and 400 µs) with combination of three different values of discharge current (12 A, 16 A and 24 A). It was found that the pulse duration and current have significant effect on MRR, EWR and Ra. An increase in the pulse durations causes an increase in the MRR and Ra, but a decrease in the EWR. Meanwhile, the effect of currents on EDM performance shows that the increasing currents lead to an increase in the MRR, EWR and Ra.

Keywords: surface roughness, allegheny ludlum D2 tool steel, current, EDM, pulse duration

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45 Health Status and Psychology Wellbeing of Street Children in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Sabri Sulaiman, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Haris Abd Wahab

Abstract:

Street children is a global phenomenon and declared as a social problem by social researcher and scholars across the world. The insecure street environment exposes street children into various risk factors. One of them is the health and psychological problem. The objective of this study is to assess the health problem and psychological wellbeing of street children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The cross-sectional study involved 303 street children in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirmed that the majority (95.7%) of street children who participated in the study have a health problem. The findings also demonstrated that the majority of them have issues related to their psychological wellbeing. The inputs from this study are instrumental for the suggestion of specific intervention to improve the health and psychology wellbeing of street children in Malaysia. Agencies which are responsible for the street children well-being can utilise the inputs to framing and improving the social care programmes for the children.

Keywords: Homeless, health status, Street children, psychology wellbeing

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44 Biogenic-Sedimentary Structures of the Ordovician-Khabour Formation from the Northern Thrust Zone, Kurdistan, Iraq

Authors: Waleed Sulaiman Shingaly

Abstract:

The Ordivician-Khabour Formation from the Northern Thrust Zone of Iraqi-Kurdistan comprises between 500 and 800 m of alternating predominantly greenish-grey sandstones, siltstones and shales. The succession has revealed an abundant ichnofossils characterized by 11 ichnogenus, namely: Helminthopsis, Gordia, Cruziana, Rusophycus, Monomorphichnus, Rhizocorallium, Thalassinoide, Planolite, Paleophycus, Deplocraterion and Skolithose. Ethologically these ichnogenera display dwelling and feeding activities of the infaunal organisms. This association of ichnofossils contains elements of the Skolithose and Cruziana ichnofacies. The presence of Skolithos ichnofacies indicates sandy shifting substrate and high energy conditions in foreshore zone while the Cruziana ichnofacies indicate unconsolidated, poorly sorted soft substrate and low energy condition in the shore face/offshore zone. These ichnogenera indicate shoreface-offshore zone of shallow-marine environment for the deposition of the rocks of the Khabour Formation.

Keywords: Iraq, Ichnofossils, shoreface-offshore zone, Khabour Formation

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43 Characterization of Banana (Musa spp.) Pseudo-Stem and Fruit-Bunch-Stem as a Potential Renewable Energy Resource

Authors: Fauziah Sulaiman, Nurhayati Abdullah, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Rahmad Mohd Taib

Abstract:

Banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are agricultural residues that can be used for conversion to bio-char, bio-oil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 11.0 mf wt.% and 20.6 mf wt.%; while the carbon content of banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are 37.9 mf wt.% and 35.58 mf wt.% respectively. The molecular formulas for banana stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are C24H33NO26 and C19H29NO33 respectively. The measured higher heating values of banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 15.5MJ/kg and 12.7 MJ/kg respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The feasibility of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, biomass, banana waste, thermo-chemical characteristics

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42 Performance of Phytogreen Zone for BOD5 and SS Removal for Refurbishment Conventional Oxidation Pond in an Integrated Phytogreen System

Authors: S. Sulaiman, A. R. Abdul Syukor, A. W. Zularisam, Z. Ideris, M. S. Mohd Ismid, H. M. Nakmal, A. H. Hasmanie, M. R. Siti Norsita, M. Nasrullah

Abstract:

In this study, the effectiveness of integrated aquatic plants in phytogreen zone was studied and statistical analysis for the promotional integrated phytogreen system approached was discussed. It was found that the effectiveness of using aquatic plant such as Typha angustifolia sp., Lepironia articulata sp., Limnocharis flava sp., Monochoria vaginalis sp., Pistia stratiotes sp., and Eichhornia crassipes sp. in the conventional oxidation pond process in order to comply the standard A according to Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127); Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009 for effluent discharge into inland water near the residential area was successfully shown. It was concluded that the integrated phytogreen system developed in this study has great potential for refurbishment wastewater in conventional oxidation pond.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Aquatic Plants, integrated phytogreen system, sewage treatment plant, oxidation pond

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41 Total Lipid of Mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, Zaki Zainudin, Azlin S Azmi, Mus’ab Zainal, Azura Amid

Abstract:

Microalgae lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this work was to study growth factors affecting marine mutant Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002) for high lipid production. Four growth factors were investigated; nitrogen-phosporus-potassium (NPK) concentration, light intensity, temperature and NaNO3 concentration on mutant strain growth and lipid production were studied. Design Expert v8.0 was used to design the experimental and analyze the data. The experimental design selected was Min-Run Res IV which consists of 12 runs and the response surfaces measured were specific growth rate and lipid concentration. The extraction of lipid was conducted by chloroform/methanol solvents system. Based on the study, mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 gave the highest specific growth rate of 0.0014 h-1 at 0% NPK, 2500 lux, 40oC and 0% NaNO3. On the other hand, the highest lipid concentration was obtained at 0% NPK, 3500 lux, 30°C and 1% NaNO3.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, lipid, mutant, marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002), specific growth rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
40 The Arab Spring Rebellion or Revolution: An Analysis of the Text

Authors: Sulaiman Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper will analyse the classical Islamic text in order to determine whether the Arab spring was a rebellion or a revolution. Commencing in 2010, we saw a series of revolutions or what some would call rebellions throughout the Arab peninsula. Many of the religious clergies came out emphatically in support of the people who wanted to overthrow the leaders. This brought forth the important question about the acceptability of rebelling against unjust leaders in Islamic theological texts. The paper will look to analyse the Islamic legal and theological position on the permissibility of rebelling, whether there is scholarly consensus on the issue, and how the texts are analysed in order to come to the current position we have today. The position of the clergy who supported the Arab spring will also be analysed in order to deduce if their position falls within the religious framework. An inquiry will be about to determine the ideology of those who joined the rebellion after the inception and whether these ideas can be found in classical Islamic texts. The nuances of these positions will be analysed in order to determine whether what we witnessed was a rebellion or a revolution.

Keywords: arab spring, Revolution, rebellion, scholarly consensus

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
39 The Proactive Approach of Digital Forensics Methodology against Targeted Attack Malware

Authors: Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah Mohd Ariffin

Abstract:

Each individual organization has their own mechanism to build up cyber defense capability in protecting their information infrastructures from data breaches and cyber espionage. But, we can not deny the possibility of failing to detect and stop cyber attacks especially for those targeting credential information and intellectual property (IP). In this paper, we would like to share the modern approach of effective digital forensic methodology in order to identify the artifacts in tracing the trails of evidence while mitigating the infection from the target machine/s. This proposed approach will suit the digital forensic investigation to be conducted while resuming the business critical operation after mitigating the infection and minimizing the risk from the identified attack to transpire. Therefore, traditional digital forensics methodology has to be improvised to be proactive which not only focusing to discover the root caused and the threat actor but to develop the relevant mitigation plan in order to prevent from the same attack.

Keywords: Malware, Detection, Digital Forensic, eradication, targeted attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
38 Comparison of Radiated Emissions in Offshore and Onshore Wind Turbine Towers

Authors: Sajeesh Sulaiman, Gomathisankar A., Aravind Devaraj, Aswin R., Vijay Kumar G., Rachana Raj

Abstract:

Wind turbines are the next big answer to the emerging and ever-growing demand for electricity, and this need is increasing day by day. These high mast structures, whether on land or on the sea, has also become one of the big sources of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the not so distant past. With the emergence of the AC-AC converter and drawing of large power cables through the wind turbine towers has made this clean and efficient source of renewable energy to become one of the culprits in creating electromagnetic interference. This paper will present the sources of such EMIs, a comparison of radiated emissions (both electric and magnetic field) patterns in wind turbine towers for both onshore and offshore wind turbines and close look into the IEC 61400-40 (new standard for EMC design on wind turbine). At present, offshore wind turbines are tested in onshore facilities. This paper will present the anomaly in results for offshore wind turbines when tested in onshore, which the existing standards and the upcoming standards have failed to address.

Keywords: Emissions, Standards and Regulations, Wind turbine, Magnetic Field, Electric Field, tower

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37 Multi-Wavelength Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Photonic Crystal Fiber and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Zian Cheak Tiu, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun

Abstract:

A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14 lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to 25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of 69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum pulse width of 4.4 µs was obtained at the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump power of 69.0 mW.

Keywords: multi-walled carbon nanotube, multi-wavelength Q-switched, photonic crystal fiber

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36 Where Is the Sultan of Aceh? Reconsidering the Return of the Aceh Sultanate

Authors: Muhammad Harya Ramdhoni, Nidzam Sulaiman, Muhammad Ridwan

Abstract:

The Helsinki Agreement between the Indonesian Government (RI) and the Aceh Liberation Movement (GAM) on 15th Aug. 2005 fails to reconcile social and political turmoil in Aceh Darussalam (NAD). The political powers that were once unified in their struggle against Indonesian Government prior to this agreement have now become divided due to differences in political and economic interests. Using descriptive analysis and intellectual discourse, this paper proposes that the Aceh Sultanate be revived as an attempt to unite these divided political powers and to curtail potential conflicts in the area. This proposal is based on three assumptions. First, the Aceh Sultanate is the only Sultanate in Sumatera that did not fall victim to the social revolution post 1945 proclamation of independence. Second, the Acehnese still acknowledge the Sultanate as a sovereign political power even though it was defeated by the Dutch in 1904. Third, there are emotional, historical and cultural ties between the Acehnese and the Sultanate as they still perceived them to be their patron. Consequently, the Sultanate is the unifying element of all political powers in the area. This, however, is not an attempt to reinstate feudalism in Aceh. It only seeks to facilitate the political reconciliation process in Aceh Darussalam founded on sociological and historical background of locals.

Keywords: Political Power, Sultanate Aceh, political reconciliation, patron-client

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35 The Impact of Non-Oil Revenue on Nigeria’s Economic Growth and Development

Authors: Abubakar O. Sulaiman

Abstract:

Agriculture was the main stay of Nigeria’s economy before the oil boom of the 1970s caused a gradual but steady shift from agriculture to crude oil as the major source of revenue and foreign exchange. The economy later experienced many symptoms of the 'Dutch disease', with exchange rate appreciation and erosion of competitiveness of the non-oil tradable goods. In order to reverse the worsening economic situations -high unemployment, galloping inflation, deteriorating balance of payment, declining economic growth, and fiscal deficits among others- the government, embarked on austerity measures in 1982 and Structure Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986. One of the cornerstones of SAP is the diversification of the economy from oil to non-oil. In the form of stocktaking, this paper investigates the impact of non-oil revenue on economic growth in Nigeria using quarterly time-series data from 1980 to 2019. The findings revealed that a long-run relationship exists between the variables (non-oil variables) and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables, (agriculture revenue, manufacturing revenue, revenue from services, and company income tax) contributed substantially to economic growth. The paper recommends that the government should continue to intensify efforts and policies in the diversification of the economy as it will bring about sustainable non-oil revenue and economic growth.

Keywords:

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34 Conversion of Jatropha curcas Oil to Ester Biolubricant Using Solid Catalyst Derived from Saltwater Clam Shell Waste (SCSW)

Authors: Said Nurdin, Rosli M. Yunus, Fatimah A. Misebah, Mohd S. Mahmud, Ahmad Z. Sulaiman

Abstract:

The discarded clam shell waste, fossil and edible oil as biolubricant feedstocks create environmental impacts and food chain dilemma, thus this work aims to circumvent these issues by using activated saltwater clam shell waste (SCSW) as solid catalyst for conversion of Jatropha curcas oil as non-edible sources to ester biolubricant. The characterization of solid catalyst was done by Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (DTA-TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The calcined catalyst was used in the transesterification of Jatropha oil to methyl ester as the first step, and the second stage was involved the reaction of Jatropha methyl ester (JME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) based on the various process parameters. The formated biolubricant was analyzed using the capillary column (DB-5HT) equipped Gas Chromatography (GC). The conversion results of Jatropha oil to ester biolubricant can be found nearly 96.66%, and the maximum distribution composition mainly contains 72.3% of triester (TE).

Keywords: jatropha curcas oil, conversion, ester biolubricant, solid catalyst

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33 The Impact of Nurse-Physician Interprofessional Relationship on Nurses' Willingness to Engage in Leadership Roles: A Multilevel Modelling Approach

Authors: Sulaiman D. Al Sabei, Amy M. Ross, Christopher S. Lee

Abstract:

Nurse leaders play a fundamental role in transforming healthcare system and improving quality of patient care. Several healthcare organizations have called to increase the number of nurse leaders across all levels and in every practice setting. Identification of factors influencing nurses’ willingness to lead can inform healthcare leaders and policy makers of potentially illuminating strategies for establishing favorable work environments that motivate nurses to engage in leadership roles. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of nurses’ willingness to engage in future leadership roles. The study was conducted at a public hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 171 registered nurses participated. A multilevel modeling was conducted. Findings revealed that 80% of nurses were likely to seek out opportunities to engage in leadership roles. The quality of the nurse-physician collegial relationships was a significant predictor of nurses’ willingness to lead. Establishing a work environment’s culture of positive nurse-physician relationships is critical to enhance nurses’ work attitude and engage them in leadership roles.

Keywords: Leadership, Motivation, Nurses, interprofessional relationship

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32 Effect of Ultrasound and Enzyme on the Extraction of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali)

Authors: He Yuhai, Ahmad Ziad Bin Sulaiman

Abstract:

Tongkat Ali, or Eurycoma longifolia, is a traditional Malay and Orang Asli herb used as aphrodisiac, general tonic, anti-Malaria, and anti-Pyretic. It has been recognized as a cashcrop by Malaysia due to its high value for the pharmaceutical use. In Tongkat Ali, eurycomanone, a quassinoid is usually chosen as a marker phytochemical as it is the most abundant phytochemical. In this research, ultrasound and enzyme were used to enhance the extraction of Eurycomanone from Tongkat Ali. Ultrasonic assisted extraction (USE) enhances extraction by facilitating the swelling and hydration of the plant material, enlarging the plant pores, breaking the plant cell, reducing the plant particle size and creating cavitation bubbles that enhance mass transfer in both the washing and diffusion phase of extraction. Enzyme hydrolyses the cell wall of the plant, loosening the structure of the cell wall, releasing more phytochemicals from the plant cell, enhancing the productivity of the extraction. Possible effects of ultrasound on the activity of the enzyme during the hydrolysis of the cell wall is under the investigation by this research. The extracts was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography for the yields of Eurycomanone. In this whole process, the conventional water extraction was used as a control of comparing the performance of the ultrasound and enzyme assisted extraction.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Extraction, enzymatic, Eurycoma longifolia

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31 Mapping of Arenga Pinnata Tree Using Remote Sensing

Authors: Zulkiflee Abd Latif, Sitinor Atikah Nordin, Alawi Sulaiman

Abstract:

Different tree species possess different and various benefits. Arenga Pinnata tree species own several potential uses that is valuable for the economy and the country. Mapping vegetation using remote sensing technique involves various process, techniques and consideration. Using satellite imagery, this method enables the access of inaccessible area and with the availability of near infra-red band; it is useful in vegetation analysis, especially in identifying tree species. Pixel-based and object-based classification technique is used as a method in this study. Pixel-based classification technique used in this study divided into unsupervised and supervised classification. Object based classification technique becomes more popular another alternative method in classification process. Using spectral, texture, color and other information, to classify the target make object-based classification is a promising technique for classification. Classification of Arenga Pinnata trees is overlaid with elevation, slope and aspect, soil and river data and several other data to give information regarding the tree character and living environment. This paper will present the utilization of remote sensing technique in order to map Arenga Pinnata tree species

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Object-Based Classification, Arenga Pinnata, pixel-based classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
30 Antifungal Protein ~35kDa Produced by Bacillus cereus Inhibits the Growth of Some Molds and Yeasts

Authors: Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Saleh H. Salmen, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Hany M. Yehia, Mohammad A. Khiyami, Milton Wainwright, Naiyf S. Alharbi

Abstract:

An antifungal protein synthesized by Bacillus cereus has been partially purified by the use of ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex-G-200 column chromatography. The protein was produced from Bacillus cereus grown in potato Dextrose Broth Medium (PDB) at 30 ºC for 3 days at 100 rpm. The protein showed antagonistic effect against some fungi and yeasts. Crude extract from medium and semi-purified protein were tested in vitro against both fungi and yeasts using the disc diffusion method in order to detect the inhibitory effect of the protein. Zones of inhibition of the following diameter were found (mm) were Alternaria alternate (28), Rhodotorula glutinis (20), Fusarium sp. (16), Rhizopus sp. (15), Penicillium digitatum (13), Mucor sp. (13) and Aspergillus niger (10). The isolated protein was found to have a molecular weight of ~35kDa by sodium deodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The data showed that the protein of Bacillus cereus has antifungal activity, a fact which points to the possibility of using it as a bio-control agent against some fungi, findings which emphasize the potential role of B. cereus as an important bio-control agent.

Keywords: Molds, bacillus cereus, ~35kDa protein, yeasts

Procedia PDF Downloads 113