Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: gelatinization

17 Influence of [Emim][OAc] and Water on Gelatinization Process and Interactions with Starch

Authors: Shajaratuldur Ismail, Nurlidia Mansor, Zakaria Man

Abstract:

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] were obtained through gelatinization process. The gelatinization process occurred in the presence of water and [Emim][OAc] as plasticizer at high temperature (90˚C). The influence of [Emim][OAc] and water on the gelatinization and interactions with starch have been studied over a range of compositions. The homogenous mass was obtained for the samples containing 35, 40 and 43.5 % of water contents which showed that water plays important role in gelatinization process. Detailed IR spectroscopy analysis showed decrease in hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups in the presence of [Emim][OAc]. Starch-[Emim][OAc]-water mixture at 10-3-8.7 presented homogenous mass, less hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups.

Keywords: starch, ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, plasticizer, gelatinization, IR spectroscopy

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16 Optimal Consume of NaOH in Starches Gelatinization for Froth Flotation

Authors: André C. Silva, Débora N. Sousa, Elenice M. S. Silva, Thales P. Fontes, Raphael S. Tomaz

Abstract:

Starches are widely used as depressant in froth flotation operations in Brazil due to their efficiency, increasing the selectivity in the inverse flotation of quartz depressing iron ore. Starches market have been growing and improving in recent years, leading to better products attending the requirements of the mineral industry. The major source of starch used for iron ore is corn starch, which needs to be gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to use. This stage has a direct impact on industrials costs, once the lowest consumption of NaOH in gelatinization provides better control of the pH in the froth flotation and reduces the amount of electrolytes present in the pulp. In order to evaluate the gelatinization degree of different starches and flour were subjected to the addiction of NaOH and temperature variation experiments. Samples of starch (corn, cassava, HIPIX 100, HIPIX 101 and HIPIX 102 commercialized by Ingredion) and flour (cassava and potato) were tested. The starch samples were characterized through Scanning Electronic Microscopy and the amylose content were determined through spectrometry, swelling and solubility tests. The gelatinization was carried out through titration with NaOH, keeping the solution temperature constant at 40 oC. At the end of the tests, the optimal amount of NaOH consumed to gelatinize the starch or flour from different botanical sources was established and a correlation between the content of amylopectin in the starch and the starch/NaOH ratio needed for its gelatinization.

Keywords: froth flotation, gelatinization, sodium hydroxide, starches and flours

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15 The Hydrotrope-Mediated, Low-Temperature, Aqueous Dissolution of Maize Starch

Authors: Jeroen Vinkx, Jan A. Delcour, Bart Goderis

Abstract:

Complete aqueous dissolution of starch is notoriously difficult. A high-temperature autoclaving process is necessary, followed by cooling the solution below its boiling point. The cooled solution is inherently unstable over time. Gelation and retrogradation processes, along with aggregation-induced by undissolved starch remnants, result in starch precipitation. We recently observed the spontaneous gelatinization of native maize starch (MS) in aqueous sodium salicylate (NaSal) solutions at room temperature. A hydrotropic mode of solubilization is hypothesized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM) of starch dispersions in NaSal solution were used to demonstrate the room temperature gelatinization of MS at different concentrations of MS and NaSal. The DSC gelatinization peak shifts to lower temperatures, and the gelatinization enthalpy decreases with increasing NaSal concentration. POM images confirm the same trend through the disappearance of the ‘Maltese cross’ interference pattern of starch granules. The minimal NaSal concentration to induce complete room temperature dissolution of MS was found to be around 15-20 wt%. The MS content of the dispersion has little influence on the amount of NaSal needed to dissolve it. The effect of the NaSal solution on the MS molecular weight was checked with HPSEC. It is speculated that, because of its amphiphilic character, NaSal enhances the solubility of MS in water by association with the more hydrophobic MS moieties, much like urea, which has also been used to enhance starch dissolution in alkaline aqueous media. As such small molecules do not tend to form micelles in water, they are called hydrotropes rather than surfactants. A minimal hydrotrope concentration (MHC) is necessary for the hydrotropes to structure themselves in water, resulting in a higher solubility of MS. This is the case for the system MS/NaSal/H₂O. Further investigations into the putative hydrotropic dissolution mechanism are necessary.

Keywords: hydrotrope, dissolution, maize starch, sodium salicylate, gelatinization

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14 Physicochemical and Thermal Characterization of Starch from Three Different Plantain Cultivars in Puerto Rico

Authors: Carmen E. Pérez-Donado, Fernando Pérez-Muñoz, Rosa N. Chávez-Jáuregui

Abstract:

Plantain contains starch as the majority component and represents a relevant source of this carbohydrate. Starches from different cultivars of plantain and bananas have been studied for industrialization purposes due to their morphological and thermal characteristics and their influence on food products. This study aimed to characterize the physical, chemical, and thermal properties of starch from three different plantains cultivated in Puerto Rico: Maricongo, Maiden, and FHIA 20. Amylose and amylopectin content, color, granular size, morphology, and thermal properties were determined. According to the content of amylose in starches, FHIA 20 starch presented minor content of the three cultivars studied. In terms of color, Maiden and FHIA 20 starch exhibited a significantly higher whiteness index comparing their values with Maricongo starch. The starches of the three cultivars had an elongated-ovoid morphology, with a smooth surface and a non-porous appearance. Regardless of similarities in their morphology, FHIA 20 showed a lower aspect ratio, which meant that their granules tended to be more elongated granules. Comparing the thermal properties of starches, it was found that the initial gelatinization temperature of the starch of the cultivars was similar. However, the final gelatinization temperatures of the starches belonging to the cultivars Maricongo (79.69°C) and Maiden (77.40°C) were similar, whereas FHIA 20 starch presented a noticeably higher final gelatinization temperature (87.95°C) and transition enthalpy. Despite source similarities, starches from plantain cultivars showed differences in their composition and thermal behavior. Therefore, this represents an opportunity to diversify their use in food-related applications.

Keywords: aspect ratio, morphology, Musa spp., starch, thermal properties

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13 Characteristics of Oil-In-Water Emulsion Stabilized with Pregelatinized Waxy Rice Starch

Authors: R. Yulianingsih, S. Gohtani

Abstract:

Characteristics of pregelatinized waxy rice starch (PWR) gelatinized at different temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C, abbreviated as PWR 65, 75 and 85 respectively) and their emulsion-stabilizing properties at different starch concentrations (3, 5, 7, and 9%) were studied. The yield stress and consistency index value of PWR solution increased with an increase in starch concentration. The pseudoplasticity of PWR 65 solution increased and that for both PWR 75 and 85 solution decreased with an increase in starch concentration. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profiles analyzed by Kratky Plot indicated that PWR 65 is natively unfolded particles while PWR 75 and 85 are the globular particles. The characteristics of emulsions stabilized with PWR were influenced by the temperature of gelatinization process and starch concentration. Elevated concentration of starch decreased the value of yield stress and increased the consistency index. PWR 65 produce stable emulsion to creaming at starch concentrations more than 5%, while PWR 85 is able to produce stable emulsion to both creaming and coalescence of droplets.

Keywords: emulsion, gelatinization temperature, rheology, small-angle X-ray scattering, waxy rice starch

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12 Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Starch Chainat 1 Variety by Physical Modification

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Sarawut Wattanawongpitak

Abstract:

The Chainat 1 variety (CN1) of rice, which generally has high amylose starch, is distributed in the lower part of Northern Thailand. CN1 rice starch can be used in both food and non-food products. In this research, the CN1 rice starch from the wet-milling process was prepared by Pre-Gelatinization (Heat-Moisture Treatments, HMT) under different conditions: percentage of moisture contents (20% and 30%) and duration time in minutes (0, 30, 60, and 90) at a specific temperature 110°C. The physicochemical characteristics of CN1 rice starch modification, such as amylose content, viscosity, swelling, and solubility property, were evaluated and compared with native CN1 rice starch. The results showed that modification CN1 rice starch tends to have some characteristics better than native starch. The appearance color and starch granule of modified CN1 by HMT have more effective characteristics than native starch when increased duration time. The duration time and moisture content are significant factors to the CN1 starch characteristic by HMT. Moreover, physical modification of CN1 starch by HMT can be described as a modified rice starch providing in many applications and the advantage of biodegradability development.

Keywords: physicochemical characteristics, physical modification, pre-gelatinization, Heat-Moisture Treatments, rice starch, Chainat 1 variety (CN1)

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11 Changes of Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Banana during Ethylene-Induced Ripening

Authors: Chiun-C.R. Wang, Po-Wen Yen, Chien-Chun Huang

Abstract:

Banana is produced in large quantities in tropical and subtropical areas. Banana is one of the important fruits which constitute a valuable source of energy, vitamins and minerals. The ripening and maturity standards of banana vary from country to country depending on the expected shelf life of market. The compositions of bananas change dramatically during ethylene-induced ripening that are categorized as nutritive values and commercial utilization. Nevertheless, there is few study reporting the changes of physicochemical properties of banana starch during ethylene-induced ripening of green banana. The objectives of this study were to investigate the changes of chemical composition and enzyme activity of banana and physicochemical properties of banana starch during ethylene-induced ripening. Green bananas were harvested and ripened by ethylene gas at low temperature (15℃) for seven stages. At each stage, banana was sliced and freeze-dried for banana flour preparation. The changes of total starch, resistant starch, chemical compositions, physicochemical properties, activity of amylase, polyphenolic oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) of banana were analyzed each stage during ripening. The banana starch was isolated and analyzed for gelatinization properties, pasting properties and microscopic appearance each stage of ripening. The results indicated that the highest total starch and resistant starch content of green banana were 76.2% and 34.6%, respectively at the harvest stage. Both total starch and resistant starch content were significantly declined to 25.3% and 8.8%, respectively at the seventh stage. Soluble sugars content of banana increased from 1.21% at harvest stage to 37.72% at seventh stage during ethylene-induced ripening. Swelling power of banana flour decreased with the progress of ripening stage, but solubility increased. These results strongly related with the decreases of starch content of banana flour during ethylene-induced ripening. Both water insoluble and alcohol insoluble solids of banana flour decreased with the progress of ripening stage. Both activity of PPO and PAL increased, but the total free phenolics content decreased, with the increases of ripening stages. As ripening stage extended, the gelatinization enthalpy of banana starch significantly decreased from 15.31 J/g at the harvest stage to 10.55 J/g at the seventh stage. The peak viscosity and setback increased with the progress of ripening stages in the pasting properties of banana starch. The highest final viscosity, 5701 RVU, of banana starch slurry was found at the seventh stage. The scanning electron micrograph of banana starch showed the shapes of banana starch appeared to be round and elongated forms, ranging in 10-50 μm at the harvest stage. As the banana closed to ripe status, some parallel striations were observed on the surface of banana starch granular which could be caused by enzyme reaction during ripening. These results inferred that the highest resistant starch was found in the green banana at the harvest stage could be considered as a potential application of healthy foods. The changes of chemical composition and physicochemical properties of banana could be caused by the hydrolysis of enzymes during the ethylene-induced ripening treatment.

Keywords: ethylene-induced ripening, banana starch, resistant starch, soluble sugars, physicochemical properties, gelatinization enthalpy, pasting characteristics, microscopic appearance

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10 Effect of Maturation on the Characteristics and Physicochemical Properties of Banana and Its Starch

Authors: Chien-Chun Huang, P. W. Yuan

Abstract:

Banana is one of the important fruits which constitute a valuable source of energy, vitamins and minerals and an important food component throughout the world. The fruit ripening and maturity standards vary from country to country depending on the expected shelf life of market. During ripening there are changes in appearance, texture and chemical composition of banana. The changes of component of banana during ethylene-induced ripening are categorized as nutritive values and commercial utilization. The objectives of this study were to investigate the changes of chemical composition and physicochemical properties of banana during ethylene-induced ripening. Green bananas were harvested and ripened by ethylene gas at low temperature (15℃) for seven stages. At each stage, banana was sliced and freeze-dried for banana flour preparation. The changes of total starch, resistant starch, chemical compositions, physicochemical properties, activity of amylase, polyphenolic oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) of banana were analyzed each stage during ripening. The banana starch was isolated and analyzed for gelatinization properties, pasting properties and microscopic appearance each stage of ripening. The results indicated that the highest total starch and resistant starch content of green banana were 76.2% and 34.6%, respectively at the harvest stage. Both total starch and resistant starch content were significantly declined to 25.3% and 8.8%, respectively at the seventh stage. Soluble sugars content of banana increased from 1.21% at harvest stage to 37.72% at seventh stage during ethylene-induced ripening. Swelling power of banana flour decreased with the progress of ripening stage, but solubility increased. These results strongly related with the decreases of starch content of banana flour during ethylene-induced ripening. Both water insoluble and alcohol insoluble solids of banana flour decreased with the progress of ripening stage. Both activity of PPO and PAL increased, but the total free phenolics content decreased, with the increases of ripening stages. As ripening stage extended, the gelatinization enthalpy of banana starch significantly decreased from 15.31 J/g at the harvest stage to 10.55 J/g at the seventh stage. The peak viscosity and setback increased with the progress of ripening stages in the pasting properties of banana starch. The highest final viscosity, 5701 RVU, of banana starch slurry was found at the seventh stage. The scanning electron micrograph of banana starch showed the shapes of banana starch appeared to be round and elongated forms, ranging in 10-50 μm at the harvest stage. As the banana closed to ripe status, some parallel striations were observed on the surface of banana starch granular which could be caused by enzyme reaction during ripening. These results inferred that the highest resistant starch was found in the green banana could be considered as a potential application of healthy foods. The changes of chemical composition and physicochemical properties of banana could be caused by the hydrolysis of enzymes during the ethylene-induced ripening treatment.

Keywords: maturation of banana, appearance, texture, soluble sugars, resistant starch, enzyme activities, physicochemical properties of banana starch

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9 Tensile Retention Properties of Thermoplastic Starch Based Biocomposites Modified with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Jen-Taut Yeh, Yuan-jing Hou, Li Cheng, Ya Zhou Wang, Zhi Yu Zhang

Abstract:

Tensile retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were successfully improved by reacting with glutaraldehyde (GA) in their gelatinization processes. Small amounts of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were blended with GA modified TPS resins to improve their processability. As evidenced by the newly developed ether (-C-O-C-) stretching bands on FT-IR spectra of TPS100BC0.02GAx series specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the aldehyde groups of GA molecules during their modification processes. The retention values of tensile strengths (σf) of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as GA contents approached an optimal value at 0.5 part per hundred parts of TPS resin (PHR). By addition of 0.5 PHR GA in biocomposite specimens, the initial tensile strength and elongation at break values of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen improved to 24.6 MPa and 5.6%, respectively, which were slightly improved than those of (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. However, the retention values of tensile strengths of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen reached around 82.5%, after placing the specimen under 20oC/50% relative humidity for 56 days, which were significantly better than those of the (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. In order to understand these interesting tensile retention properties found for (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens. Thermal analyses of initial and aged TPS100BC0.02, TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens were also performed in this investigation. Possible reasons accounting for the significantly improved tensile retention properties of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens are proposed.

Keywords: biocomposite, strength retention, thermoplastic starch, tensile retention

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8 3-D Numerical Simulation of Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger with Helical Screw

Authors: Rabeb Triki, Hassene Djemel, Mounir Baccar

Abstract:

Surface scraping is a passive heat transfer enhancement technique that is directly used in scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE). The scraping action prevents the accumulation of the product on the inner wall, which intensifies the heat transfer and avoids the formation of dead zones. SSHEs are widely used in industry for several applications such as crystallization, sterilization, freezing, gelatinization, and many other continuous processes. They are designed to deal with products that are viscous, sticky or that contain particulate matter. This research work presents a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the coupled thermal and hydrodynamic behavior within a SSHE which includes Archimedes’ screw instead of scraper blades. The finite volume Fluent 15.0 was used to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations using multiple reference frame formulation. The process fluid investigated under this study is the pure glycerin. Different geometrical parameters were studied in the case of steady, non-isothermal, laminar flow. In particular, attention is focused on the effect of the conicity of the rotor and the pitch of Archimedes’ screw on temperature and velocity distribution and heat transfer rate. Numerical investigations show that the increase of the number of turns in the screw from five to seven turns leads to amelioration of heat transfer coefficient, and the increase of the conicity of the rotor from 0.1 to 0.15 leads to an increase in the rate of heat transfer. Further studies should investigate the effect of different operating parameters (axial and rotational Reynolds number) on the hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of the SSHE.

Keywords: ANSYS-Fluent, hydrodynamic behavior, scraped surface heat exchange, thermal behavior

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7 Extraction, Synthesis, Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Oxidized Starch from an Abundant Source in Nigeria

Authors: Okafor E. Ijeoma, Isimi C. Yetunde, Okoh E. Judith, Kunle O. Olobayo, Emeje O. Martins

Abstract:

Starch has gained interest as a renewable and environmentally compatible polymer due to the increase in its use. However, starch by itself could not be satisfactorily applied in industrial processes due to some inherent disadvantages such as its hydrophilic character, poor mechanical properties, its inability to withstand processing conditions such as extreme temperatures, diverse pH, high shear rate, freeze-thaw variation and dimensional stability. The range of physical properties of parent starch can be enlarged by chemical modification which invariably enhances their use in a number of applications found in industrial processes and food manufacture. In this study, Manihot esculentus starch was subjected to modification by oxidation. Fourier Transmittance Infra- Red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies were used to confirm the synthesis while Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the new polymer. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) free radical assay was used to determine the antioxidant property of the oxidized starch. Our results show that the modification had no significant effect on the foaming capacity as well as on the emulsion capacity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxidation did not alter the predominantly circular-shaped starch granules, while the X-ray pattern of both starch, native and modified were similar. FTIR results revealed a new band at 3007 and 3283cm-1. Differential scanning calorimetry returned two new endothermic peaks in the oxidized starch with an improved gelation capacity and increased enthalpy of gelatinization. The IC50 of oxidized starch was notably higher than that of the reference standard, ascorbic acid.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, DPPH, M. esculentus, oxidation, starch

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6 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified - Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Cooking Quality and Sensory Properties

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Agus Slamet, Sri Luwihana, Septian Albar Dwi Suprayogi

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Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice, which has a low glycemic index for diabetics. However, diabetics also have a chromium (Cr) deficiency. Thus, it is important to fortify rice with Cr to increase the Cr content. Moreover, parboiled rice becomes rancid easily and has a musty odor, rendering the rice unfavorable. Natural herbs such as pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.), bay leaves (Syzygium polyanthum [Wigh] Walp) and cinnamon bark powder (Cinnamomon cassia) are commonly added to food as aroma enhancers. Previous research has shown that these herbs could improve insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbal extract coatings on the cooking quality and the preference level of chromium fortified - parboiled rice (CFPR). The rice grain variety used for this experiment was Ciherang and the fortificant was CrCl3. The three herbal extracts used for coating the CFPR were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf, with concentration variations of 3%, 6%, and 9% (w/w) for each of the extracts. The samples were analyzed for their alkali spreading value, cooking time, elongation, water uptake ratio, solid loss, colour and lightness; and their sensory properties were determined by means of an organoleptic test. The research showed that coating the CFPR with pandan and cinnamon extracts at a concentration of 3% each produced a preferred CFPR. When coated with those herbal extracts the CFPR had the following cooking quality properties: alkali spreading value 5 (intermediate gelatinization temperature), cooking time, 26-27 min, color value, 14.95-15.00, lightness, 42.30 – 44.06, elongation, 1.53 – 1.54, water uptake ratio , 4.05-4.06, and solid loss, 0.09/100 g – 0.13 g/100 g.

Keywords: bay leaves, chromium, cinnamon, pandan leaves, parboiled rice

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5 Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

Authors: Supat Chaiyakul, Direk Sukkasem, Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith

Abstract:

Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the effects of rice flour concentration and retrogradation treatment on the physical properties of instant Sinlek brown rice. The native rice flour, gelatinized rice flour, and flour gels retrograded under 4 °C for 3 and 7 days were investigated. From the statistical results, significant differences between native and retrograded flour were observed. The concentration of rice flour was the main factor influencing the swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties. With the increase in rice flour content from 10 to 15%, swelling power, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased; but, solubility, pasting temperature, peak time, breakdown, and setback increased. The peak time, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased as the storage period increased from 3 to 7 days. The retrograded rice flour powders had lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and final viscosity than the gelatinized and native flour powders. Reduction of starch viscosity by gelatinization and controlling starch retrogradation could allow for increased quantities of rice flour in instant rice beverages. Also, the treatment could increase the energy and nutrient densities of rice beverages without affecting the viscosity of this product.

Keywords: instant rice, pasting properties, pregelatinization, retrogradation

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4 X-Ray Diffraction and Crosslink Density Analysis of Starch/Natural Rubber Polymer Composites Prepared by Latex Compounding Method

Authors: Raymond Dominic Uzoh

Abstract:

Starch fillers were extracted from three plant sources namely amora tuber (a wild variety of Irish potato), sweet potato and yam starch and their particle size, pH, amylose, and amylopectin percentage decomposition determined accordingly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The starch was introduced into natural rubber in liquid phase (through gelatinization) by the latex compounding method and compounded according to standard method. The prepared starch/natural rubber composites was characterized by Instron Universal testing machine (UTM) for tensile mechanical properties. The composites was further characterized by x-ray diffraction and crosslink density analysis. The particle size determination showed that amora starch granules have the highest particle size (156 × 47 μm) followed by yam starch (155× 40 μm) and then the sweet potato starch (153 × 46 μm). The pH test also revealed that amora starch has a near neutral pH of 6.9, yam 6.8, and sweet potato 5.2 respectively. Amylose and amylopectin determination showed that yam starch has a higher percentage of amylose (29.68), followed by potato (22.34) and then amora starch with the lowest value (14.86) respectively. The tensile mechanical properties testing revealed that yam starch produced the best tensile mechanical properties followed by amora starch and then sweet potato starch. The structure, crystallinity/amorphous nature of the product composite was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, while the nature of crosslinking was confirmed by swelling test in toluene solvent using the Flory-Rehner approach. This research study has rendered a workable strategy for enhancing interfacial interaction between a hydrophilic filler (starch) and hydrophobic polymeric matrix (natural rubber) yielding moderately good tensile mechanical properties for further exploitation development and application in the rubber processing industry.

Keywords: natural rubber, fillers, starch, amylose, amylopectin, crosslink density

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3 Preparation and Properties of Chloroacetated Natural Rubber Rubber Foam Using Corn Starch as Curing Agent

Authors: Ploenpit Boochathum, Pitchayanad Kaolim, Phimjutha Srisangkaew

Abstract:

In general, rubber foam is produced based on the sulfur curing system. However, the remaining sulfur in the rubber product waste is burned to sulfur dioxide gas causing the environment pollution. To avoid using sulfur as curing agent in the rubber foam products, this research work proposes non-sulfur curing system by using corn starch as a curing agent. The ether crosslinks were proposed to be produced via the functional bonding between hydroxyl groups of the starch molecules and chloroacetate groups added on the natural rubber molecules. The chloroacetated natural rubber (CNR) latex was prepared via the epoxidation reaction of the concentrated natural rubber latex, subsequently, epoxy rings were attacked by chloroacetic acid to produce hydroxyl groups and chloroacetate groups on the rubber molecules. Foaming agent namely NaHCO3 was selected to add in the CNR latex due to the low decomposition temperature at about 50°C. The appropriate curing temperature was assigned to be 90°C that is above gelatinization temperature; 60-70°C, of starch. The effect of weight ratio of starch, i.e., 0 phr, 3 phr and 5 phr, on the physical properties of CNR rubber foam was investigated. It was found that density reduced from 0.81 g/cm3 for 0 phr to 0.75 g/cm3 for 3 phr and 0.79 g/cm3 for 5 phr. The ability to return to its original thickness after prolonged compressive stresses of CNR rubber foam cured with starch loading of 5 phr was found to be considerably better than that of CNR rubber foam cured with starch 3 phr and CNR rubber foam without addition of starch according to the compression set that was determined to decrease from 66.67% to 40% and 26.67% with the increase loading of starch. The mechanical properties including tensile strength and modulus of CNR rubber foams cured using starch were determined to increase except that the elongation at break was found to decrease. In addition, all mechanical properties of CNR rubber foams cured with the starch 3 phr and 5 phr were found to be slightly different and drastically higher than those of CNR rubber foam without the addition of starch. This research work indicates that starch can be applicable as a curing agent for CNR rubber. This is confirmed by the increase of the elastic modulus (G') of CNR rubber foams that was cured with the starch over the CNR rubber foam without curing agent. This type of rubber foam is believed to be one of the biodegradable and environment-friendly product that can be cured at low temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: chloroacetated natural rubber, corn starch, non-sulfur curing system, rubber foam

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2 In vitro Method to Evaluate the Effect of Steam-Flaking on the Quality of Common Cereal Grains

Authors: Wanbao Chen, Qianqian Yao, Zhenming Zhou

Abstract:

Whole grains with intact pericarp are largely resistant to digestion by ruminants because entire kernels are not conducive to bacterial attachment. But processing methods makes the starch more accessible to microbes, and increases the rate and extent of starch degradation in the rumen. To estimate the feasibility of applying a steam-flaking as the processing technique of grains for ruminants, cereal grains (maize, wheat, barley and sorghum) were processed by steam-flaking (steam temperature 105°C, heating time, 45 min). And chemical analysis, in vitro gas production, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and energetic values were adopted to evaluate the effects of steam-flaking. In vitro cultivation was conducted for 48h with the rumen fluid collected from steers fed a total mixed ration consisted of 40% hay and 60% concentrates. The results showed that steam-flaking processing had a significant effect on the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (P < 0.01). The concentration of starch gelatinization degree in all grains was also great improved in steam-flaking grains, as steam-flaking processing disintegrates the crystal structure of cereal starch, which may subsequently facilitate absorption of moisture and swelling. Theoretical maximum gas production after steam-flaking processing showed no great difference. However, compared with intact grains, total gas production at 48 h and the rate of gas production were significantly (P < 0.01) increased in all types of grain. Furthermore, there was no effect of steam-flaking processing on total volatile fatty acid, but a decrease in the ratio between acetate and propionate was observed in the current in vitro fermentation. The present study also found that steam-flaking processing increased (P < 0.05) organic matter digestibility and energy concentration of the grains. The collective findings of the present study suggest that steam-flaking processing of grains could improve their rumen fermentation and energy utilization by ruminants. In conclusion, the utilization of steam-flaking would be practical to improve the quality of common cereal grains.

Keywords: cereal grains, gas production, in vitro rumen fermentation, steam-flaking processing

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1 Development and Structural Characterization of a Snack Food with Added Type 4 Extruded Resistant Starch

Authors: Alberto A. Escobar Puentes, G. Adriana García, Luis F. Cuevas G., Alejandro P. Zepeda, Fernando B. Martínez, Susana A. Rincón

Abstract:

Snack foods are usually classified as ‘junk food’ because have little nutritional value. However, due to the increase on the demand and third generation (3G) snacks market, low price and easy to prepare, can be considered as carriers of compounds with certain nutritional value. Resistant starch (RS) is classified as a prebiotic fiber it helps to control metabolic problems and has anti-cancer colon properties. The active compound can be developed by chemical cross-linking of starch with phosphate salts to obtain a type 4 resistant starch (RS4). The chemical reaction can be achieved by extrusion, a process widely used to produce snack foods, since it's versatile and a low-cost procedure. Starch is the major ingredient for snacks 3G manufacture, and the seeds of sorghum contain high levels of starch (70%), the most drought-tolerant gluten-free cereal. Due to this, the aim of this research was to develop a snack (3G), with RS4 in optimal conditions extrusion (previously determined) from sorghum starch, and carry on a sensory, chemically and structural characterization. A sample (200 g) of sorghum starch was conditioned with 4% sodium trimetaphosphate/ sodium tripolyphosphate (99:1) and set to 28.5% of moisture content. Then, the sample was processed in a single screw extruder equipped with rectangular die. The inlet, transport and output temperatures were 60°C, 134°C and 70°C, respectively. The resulting pellets were expanded in a microwave oven. The expansion index (EI), penetration force (PF) and sensory analysis were evaluated in the expanded pellets. The pellets were milled to obtain flour and RS content, degree of substitution (DS), and percentage of phosphorus (% P) were measured. Spectroscopy [Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)], X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were performed in order to determine structural changes after the process. The results in 3G were as follows: RS, 17.14 ± 0.29%; EI, 5.66 ± 0.35 and PF, 5.73 ± 0.15 (N). Groups of phosphate were identified in the starch molecule by FTIR: DS, 0.024 ± 0.003 and %P, 0.35±0.15 [values permitted as food additives (<4 %P)]. In this work an increase of the gelatinization temperature after the crosslinking of starch was detected; the loss of granular and vapor bubbles after expansion were observed by SEM; By using X-ray diffraction, loss of crystallinity was observed after extrusion process. Finally, a snack (3G) was obtained with RS4 developed by extrusion technology. The sorghum starch was efficient for snack 3G production.

Keywords: extrusion, resistant starch, snack (3G), Sorghum

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