Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2142

Search results for: selective extraction

2142 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur


The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals, nickel

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2141 Selective Extraction of Couple Nickel(II) / Cobalt(II) by a Series of Schiff Bases in Sulfate Medium, in the Chloroforme-Water

Authors: N. Belhadj, M. Hadj Youcef, T. Benabdallah, Belbachir Ibtissem, N. Boceiri


This work deals with the synthesis, the structural elucidation and the exploration the extracting properties of a series of ortho-hydroxy Schiff base in sulfate medium. After the synthesis and characterization of their structures, the study of their behavior in solution was carried out by pH-metric titration in different media homogeneous and heterogeneous solution. This allowed to explore and to quantify in each of these media, some of their properties in solution such as, their acid-base behavior (determination and comparison of pKa), their distribution powers (determination and comparison of logKd), and their thermodynamic constants (determining ∆H°, ΔS° and ∆G°moy) by optimizing both the temperature and ionic strength. Study of the extraction of nickel (II) and cobalt(II) separately was undertaken in the aqueous-organic system, chloroform-water. Different extraction parameters have been thus optimized such, the pH, the concentration of extractant and the ionic strength, and the extraction constants established in each case. The extracted metal complexes have been isolated and their spatial configurations elucidated. The selective extraction of the couple cobalt (II)/nickel (II) was finally performed by our series of Schiff base in the chloroforme/water.

Keywords: selective extraction, Schiff base, distribution, cobalt(II), nickel(II)

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2140 Fractionation of Biosynthetic Mixture of Gentamicins by Reactive Extraction

Authors: L. Kloetzer, M. Poştaru, A. I. Galaction, D. Caşcaval


Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic industrially obtained by biosynthesis of Micromonospora purpurea or echinospora, the product being a complex mixture of components with very similar structures. Among them, three exhibit the most important biological activity: gentamicins C1, C1a, C2, and C2a. The separation of gentamicin from the fermentation broths at industrial scale is rather difficult and it does not allow the fractionation of the complex mixture of gentamicins in order to increase the therapeutic activity of the product. The aim of our experiments is to analyze the possibility to selectively separate the less active gentamicin, namely gentamicin C1, from the biosynthetic mixture by reactive extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in dichloromethane, followed selective re-extraction of the most active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. The experiments on the reactive extraction of gentamicins indicated the possibility to separate selectively the gentamicin C1 from the mixture obtained by biosynthesis. The extraction selectivity is positively influenced by increasing the pH-value of an aqueous solution and by using a D2EHPA concentration in organic phase closer to the value needed for an equimolecular ratio between the extractant and this gentamicin. For quantifying the selectivity of separation, the selectivity factor, calculated as the ratio between the degree of reactive extraction of gentamicin C1 and the overall extraction degree of gentamicins were used. The possibility to remove the gentamicin C1 at an extractant concentration of 10 g l-1 and pH = 8 is presented. In these conditions, it was obtained the maximum value of the selectivity factor of 2.14, which corresponds to the modification of the gentamicin C1 concentration from 31.92% in the biosynthetic mixture to 72% in the extract. The re-extraction of gentamicins C1, C1a, C2, and C2a with sulfuric acid from the extract previously obtained by reactive extraction (mixture A – extract obtained by non-selective reactive extraction; mixture B – extract obtained by selective reactive extraction) allows for separating selectively the most active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. For recovering only the active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a, the re-extraction must be carried out at very low acid concentrations, far below those corresponding to the stoichiometry of its chemical reactions with these gentamicins. Therefore, the mixture resulted by re-extraction contained 92.6% gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. By bringing together the aqueous solutions obtained by reactive extraction and re-extraction, the overall content of the active gentamicins in the final product becomes 89%, their loss reaching 0.3% related to the initial biosynthetic product.

Keywords: di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, gentamicin, reactive extraction, selectivity factor

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2139 Selective Extraction Separation of Vanadium and Chromium in the Leaching/Aqueous Solution with Trioctylamine

Authors: Xiaohua Jing


Efficient extraction for separation of V and Cr in the leaching/aqueous solution is essential to the reuse of V and Cr in the V-Cr slag. Trioctylamine, a common tertiary amine extractant, with some good characters (e.g., weak base, insoluble in water and good stability) different from N1923, was investigated in this paper. The separation factor of Cr and V can be reached to 230.71 when initial pH of the aqueous solution is 0.5, so trioctylamine can be used for extracting Cr from the leaching/aqueous solution contained V and Cr. The highest extraction percentages of Cr and V were 98.73% and 90.22% when the initial pH values were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively. Via FT-IR spectra of loaded organic phase and trioctylamine, the hydrogen bond association mechanism of extracting V and Cr was investigated, which was the same with the way of extracting the two metals with primary amine N1923.

Keywords: selective extraction, trioctylamine, V and Cr, separation factor, hydrogen bond association

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2138 Removal Cobalt (II) and Copper (II) by Solvent Extraction from Sulfate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform

Authors: A. Bara, D. Barkat


Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most useful techniques for selective removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions, applied in purification processes in numerous chemical and metallurgical industries. In this work, The liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. Our interest in this paper is to study the effect of concentration of capric acid on the extraction of Co(II) and Cu(II) to see the complexes could be formed in the organic phase using various concentration of capric acid. The extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) is extracted as the complex CoL2 (HL )2, CuL2 (HL)2.

Keywords: capric acid, Cobalt(II), copper(II), liquid-liquid extraction

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2137 Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of Sc, Zr and Sn isotopes from target materials

Authors: Steffen Happel


Non-standard isotopes such as Sc-44/47, Zr-89, and Sn-117mare finding interest is increasing in radiopharmaceutical applications. Methods for the separation of these elements from typical target materials were developed. The methods used in this paper are based on the use of extraction chromatographic resins such as UTEVA, TBP, and DGA resin. Information on the selectivity of the resins (Dw values of selected elements in HCl and HNO3 of varying concentration) will be presented as well as results of the method development such as elution studies, chemical recoveries, and decontamination factors. Developed methods are based on the use of vacuum supported separation allowing for fast and selective separation.

Keywords: elution, extraction chromatography, radiopharmacy, decontamination factors

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2136 Nanofluid-Based Emulsion Liquid Membrane for Selective Extraction and Separation of Dysprosium

Authors: Maliheh Raji, Hossein Abolghasemi, Jaber Safdari, Ali Kargari


Dysprosium is a rare earth element which is essential for many growing high-technology applications. Dysprosium along with neodymium plays a significant role in different applications such as metal halide lamps, permanent magnets, and nuclear reactor control rods preparation. The purification and separation of rare earth elements are challenging because of their similar chemical and physical properties. Among the various methods, membrane processes provide many advantages over the conventional separation processes such as ion exchange and solvent extraction. In this work, selective extraction and separation of dysprosium from aqueous solutions containing an equimolar mixture of dysprosium and neodymium by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was investigated. The organic membrane phase of the ELM was a nanofluid consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Span80 as surfactant, Cyanex 272 as carrier, kerosene as base fluid, and nitric acid solution as internal aqueous phase. Factors affecting separation of dysprosium such as carrier concentration, MWCNT concentration, feed phase pH and stripping phase concentration were analyzed using Taguchi method. Optimal experimental condition was obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA) after 10 min extraction. Based on the results, using MWCNT nanofluid in ELM process leads to increase the extraction due to higher stability of membrane and mass transfer enhancement and separation factor of 6 for dysprosium over neodymium can be achieved under the optimum conditions. Additionally, demulsification process was successfully performed and the membrane phase reused effectively in the optimum condition.

Keywords: emulsion liquid membrane, MWCNT nanofluid, separation, Taguchi method

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2135 Mechanisms of Ginger Bioactive Compounds Extract Using Soxhlet and Accelerated Water Extraction

Authors: M. N. Azian, A. N. Ilia Anisa, Y. Iwai


The mechanism for extraction bioactive compounds from plant matrix is essential for optimizing the extraction process. As a benchmark technique, a soxhlet extraction has been utilized for discussing the mechanism and compared with an accelerated water extraction. The trends of both techniques show that the process involves extraction and degradation. The highest yields of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in soxhlet extraction were 13.948, 7.12, 10.312 and 2.306 mg/g, respectively. The optimum 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol extracted by the accelerated water extraction at 140oC were 68.97±3.95 mg/g at 3min, 18.98±3.04 mg/g at 5min, 5.167±2.35 mg/g at 3min and 14.57±6.27 mg/g at 3min, respectively. The effect of temperature at 3mins shows that the concentration of 6-shogaol increased rapidly as decreasing the recovery of 6-gingerol.

Keywords: mechanism, ginger bioactive compounds, soxhlet extraction, accelerated water extraction

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2134 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami


A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometry

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2133 Extractive Desulfurization of Atmospheric Gasoil with N,N-Dimethylformamide

Authors: Kahina Bedda, Boudjema Hamada


Environmental regulations have been introduced in many countries around the world to reduce the sulfur content of diesel fuel to ultra low levels with the intention of lowering diesel engine’s harmful exhaust emissions and improving air quality. Removal of sulfur containing compounds from diesel feedstocks to produce ultra low sulfur diesel fuel by extraction with selective solvents has received increasing attention in recent years. This is because the sulfur extraction technologies compared to the hydrotreating processes could reduce the cost of desulfurization substantially since they do not demand hydrogen, and are carried out at atmospheric pressure. In this work, the desulfurization of distillate gasoil by liquid-liquid extraction with N, N-dimethylformamide was investigated. This fraction was recovered from a mixture of Hassi Messaoud crude oils and Hassi R'Mel gas-condensate in Algiers refinery. The sulfur content of this cut is 281 ppm. Experiments were performed in six-stage with a ratio of solvent:feed equal to 3:1. The effect of the extraction temperature was investigated in the interval 30 ÷ 110°C. At 110°C the yield of refined gas oil was 82% and its sulfur content was 69 ppm.

Keywords: desulfurization, gasoil, N, N-dimethylformamide, sulfur content

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2132 The Need for Selective Credit Policy Implementation: Case of Croatia

Authors: Drago Jakovcevic, Mihovil Andelinovic, Igor Husak


The aim of this paper is to explore the economic circumstances in which the selective credit policy, the least used instrument of four types of instruments on disposal to central banks, should be used. The most significant example includes the use of selective credit policies in response to the emergence of the global financial crisis by the FED. Specifics of the potential use of selective credit policies as the instigator of economic growth in Croatia, a small open economy, are determined by high euroization of financial system, fixed exchange rate and long-term trend growth of external debt that is related to the need to maintain high levels of foreign reserves. In such conditions, the classic forms of selective credit policies are unsuitable for the introduction. Several alternative approaches to implement selective credit policies are examined in this paper. Also, thorough analysis of distribution of selective monetary policy loans among economic sectors in Croatia is conducted in order to minimize the risk of investing funds and maximize the return, in order to influence the GDP growth.

Keywords: global crisis, selective credit policy, small open economy, Croatia

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2131 Selective Separation of Amino Acids by Reactive Extraction with Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid

Authors: Alexandra C. Blaga, Dan Caşcaval, Alexandra Tucaliuc, Madalina Poştaru, Anca I. Galaction


Amino acids are valuable chemical products used in in human foods, in animal feed additives and in the pharmaceutical field. Recently, there has been a noticeable rise of amino acids utilization throughout the world to include their use as raw materials in the production of various industrial chemicals: oil gelating agents (amino acid-based surfactants) to recover effluent oil in seas and rivers and poly(amino acids), which are attracting attention for biodegradable plastics manufacture. The amino acids can be obtained by biosynthesis or from protein hydrolysis, but their separation from the obtained mixtures can be challenging. In the last decades there has been a continuous interest in developing processes that will improve the selectivity and yield of downstream processing steps. The liquid-liquid extraction of amino acids (dissociated at any pH-value of the aqueous solutions) is possible only by using the reactive extraction technique, mainly with extractants of organophosphoric acid derivatives, high molecular weight amines and crown-ethers. The purpose of this study was to analyse the separation of nine amino acids of acidic character (l-aspartic acid, l-glutamic acid), basic character (l-histidine, l-lysine, l-arginine) and neutral character (l-glycine, l-tryptophan, l-cysteine, l-alanine) by reactive extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in butyl acetate. The results showed that the separation yield is controlled by the pH value of the aqueous phase: the reactive extraction of amino acids with D2EHPA is possible only if the amino acids exist in aqueous solution in their cationic forms (pH of aqueous phase below the isoeletric point). The studies for individual amino acids indicated the possibility of selectively separate different groups of amino acids with similar acidic properties as a function of aqueous solution pH-value: the maximum yields are reached for a pH domain of 2–3, then strongly decreasing with the pH increase. Thus, for acidic and neutral amino acids, the extraction becomes impossible at the isolelectric point (pHi) and for basic amino acids at a pH value lower than pHi, as a result of the carboxylic group dissociation. From the results obtained for the separation from the mixture of the nine amino acids, at different pH, it can be observed that all amino acids are extracted with different yields, for a pH domain of 1.5–3. Over this interval, the extract contains only the amino acids with neutral and basic character. For pH 5–6, only the neutral amino acids are extracted and for pH > 6 the extraction becomes impossible. Using this technique, the total separation of the following amino acids groups has been performed: neutral amino acids at pH 5–5.5, basic amino acids and l-cysteine at pH 4–4.5, l-histidine at pH 3–3.5 and acidic amino acids at pH 2–2.5.

Keywords: amino acids, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, reactive extraction, selective extraction

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2130 Soybean Lecithin Based Reverse Micellar Extraction of Pectinase from Synthetic Solution

Authors: Sivananth Murugesan, I. Regupathi, B. Vishwas Prabhu, Ankit Devatwal, Vishnu Sivan Pillai


Pectinase is an important enzyme which has a wide range of applications including textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, purification of plant viruses, oil extraction etc. Selective separation and purification of pectinase from fermentation broth and recover the enzyme form process stream for reuse are cost consuming process in most of the enzyme based industries. It is difficult to identify a suitable medium to enhance enzyme activity and retain its enzyme characteristics during such processes. The cost effective, selective separation of enzymes through the modified Liquid-liquid extraction is of current research interest worldwide. Reverse micellar extraction, globally acclaimed Liquid-liquid extraction technique is well known for its separation and purification of solutes from the feed which offers higher solute specificity and partitioning, ease of operation and recycling of extractants used. Surfactant concentrations above critical micelle concentration to an apolar solvent form micelles and addition of micellar phase to water in turn forms reverse micelles or water-in-oil emulsions. Since, electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the separation/purification of solutes using reverse micelles. These interaction parameters can be altered with the change in pH, addition of cosolvent, surfactant and electrolyte and non-electrolyte. Even though many chemical based commercial surfactant had been utilized for this purpose, the biosurfactants are more suitable for the purification of enzymes which are used in food application. The present work focused on the partitioning of pectinase from the synthetic aqueous solution within the reverse micelle phase formed by a biosurfactant, Soybean Lecithin dissolved in chloroform. The critical micelle concentration of soybean lecithin/chloroform solution was identified through refractive index and density measurements. Effect of surfactant concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration was considered to study its effect on enzyme activity, enzyme partitioning within the reverse micelle phase. The effect of pH and electrolyte salts on the partitioning behavior was studied by varying the system pH and concentration of different salts during forward and back extraction steps. It was observed that lower concentrations of soybean lecithin enhanced the enzyme activity within the water core of the reverse micelle with maximizing extraction efficiency. The maximum yield of pectinase of 85% with a partitioning coefficient of 5.7 was achieved at 4.8 pH during forward extraction and 88% yield with a partitioning coefficient of 7.1 was observed during backward extraction at a pH value of 5.0. However, addition of salt decreased the enzyme activity and especially at higher salt concentrations enzyme activity declined drastically during both forward and back extraction steps. The results proved that reverse micelles formed by Soybean Lecithin and chloroform may be used for the extraction of pectinase from aqueous solution. Further, the reverse micelles can be considered as nanoreactors to enhance enzyme activity and maximum utilization of substrate at optimized conditions, which are paving a way to process intensification and scale-down.

Keywords: pectinase, reverse micelles, soybean lecithin, selective partitioning

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2129 Analytical Study of Cobalt(II) and Nickel(II) Extraction with Salicylidene O-, M-, and P-Toluidine in Chloroform

Authors: Sana Almi, Djamel Barkat


The solvent extraction of cobalt (II) and nickel (II) from aqueous sulfate solutions were investigated with the analytical methods of slope analysis using salicylidene aniline and the three isomeric o-, m- and p-salicylidene toluidine diluted with chloroform at 25°C. By a statistical analysis of the extraction data, it was concluded that the extracted species are CoL2 with CoL2(HL) and NiL2 (HL denotes HSA, HSOT, HSMT, and HSPT). The extraction efficiency of Co(II) was higher than Ni(II). This tendency is confirmed from numerical extraction constants for each metal cations. The best extraction was according to the following order: HSMT > HSPT > HSOT > HSA for Co2+ and Ni2+.

Keywords: solvent extraction, nickel(II), cobalt(II), salicylidene aniline, o-, m-, and p-salicylidene toluidine

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2128 Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Lycopene from Gac Arils (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng)

Authors: Yardfon Tanongkankit, Kanjana Narkprasom, Nukrob Narkprasom, Khwanruthai Saiupparat, Phatthareeya Siriwat


Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng) possesses high potential for health food as it contains high lycopene contents. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils using the microwave extraction method. Response surface method was used to find the conditions that optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils. The parameters of extraction used in this study were extraction time (120-600 seconds), the solvent to sample ratio (10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1 and 50:1 mL/g) and set microwave power (100-800 watts). The results showed that the microwave extraction condition at the extraction time of 360 seconds, the sample ratio of 30:1 mL/g and the microwave power of 450 watts were suggested since it exhibited the highest value of lycopene content of 9.86 mg/gDW. It was also observed that lycopene contents extracted from gac arils by microwave method were higher than that by the conventional method.

Keywords: conventional extraction, Gac arils, microwave-assisted extraction, Lycopene

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2127 Optimization of Titanium Leaching Process Using Experimental Design

Authors: Arash Rafiei, Carroll Moore


Leaching process as the first stage of hydrometallurgy is a multidisciplinary system including material properties, chemistry, reactor design, mechanics and fluid dynamics. Therefore, doing leaching system optimization by pure scientific methods need lots of times and expenses. In this work, a mixture of two titanium ores and one titanium slag are used for extracting titanium for leaching stage of TiO2 pigment production procedure. Optimum titanium extraction can be obtained from following strategies: i) Maximizing titanium extraction without selective digestion; and ii) Optimizing selective titanium extraction by balancing between maximum titanium extraction and minimum impurity digestion. The main difference between two strategies is due to process optimization framework. For the first strategy, the most important stage of production process is concerned as the main stage and rest of stages would be adopted with respect to the main stage. The second strategy optimizes performance of more than one stage at once. The second strategy has more technical complexity compared to the first one but it brings more economical and technical advantages for the leaching system. Obviously, each strategy has its own optimum operational zone that is not as same as the other one and the best operational zone is chosen due to complexity, economical and practical aspects of the leaching system. Experimental design has been carried out by using Taguchi method. The most important advantages of this methodology are involving different technical aspects of leaching process; minimizing the number of needed experiments as well as time and expense; and concerning the role of parameter interactions due to principles of multifactor-at-time optimization. Leaching tests have been done at batch scale on lab with appropriate control on temperature. The leaching tank geometry has been concerned as an important factor to provide comparable agitation conditions. Data analysis has been done by using reactor design and mass balancing principles. Finally, optimum zone for operational parameters are determined for each leaching strategy and discussed due to their economical and practical aspects.

Keywords: titanium leaching, optimization, experimental design, performance analysis

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2126 Solvent extraction of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents TBP and D2EHPA under microwave irradiations

Authors: Ahmed Boucherit, Hussein Khalaf, Eduardo Paredes, José Luis Todolí


Solvent extraction studies of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents namely TBP and D2EHPA have been carried out from aqueous acidic solutions of HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 under microwave irradiations. The extraction efficiencies of the investigated extractants in the extraction of molybdenum (Vl) were compared. Extraction yield was found unchanged when microwave power varied in the range 20-100 Watts from H2SO4 or H3PO4 but it decreases in the range 20-60 Watts and increases in the range 60-100 Watts when TBP is used for extraction of molybdenum (VI) from 1 M HCl solutions. Extraction yield of molybdenum (VI) was found higher with TBP for HCl molarities greater than 1 M than with D2EHPA for H3PO4 molarities lower than 1 M. Extraction yield increases with HCl molarities in the range 0.50 - 1.80 M but it decreases with the increase in H2SO4 and H3PO4 molarities in the range of 0.05 - 1 M and 0.50 - 1 M, respectively.

Keywords: extraction, molybdenum, microwave, solvent

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2125 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra Scoparia Coss and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Chabrouk Farid, Dehak Karima, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj


The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (acetone, ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

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2124 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss. and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Dehak Karima, Chabrouk Farid, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj


The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (Acetone, Ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. the optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

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2123 Change of Flavor Characteristics of Flavor Oil Made Using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito) According to Extraction Temperature and Extraction Time

Authors: Gyeong-Suk Jo, Soo-Hyun Ji, You-Seok Lee, Jeong-Hwa Kang


To develop an flavor oil using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito), infiltration extraction method was used to add dried mushroom flavor of Sarcodon aspratus to base olive oil. Edible base oil used during infiltration extraction was pressed olive oil, and infiltration extraction was done while varying extraction temperature to 20, 30, 40 and 50(℃) extraction time to 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Amount of Sarcodon aspratus added to base oil was 20% compared to 100% of base oil. Production yield of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil decreased with increasing extraction frequency. Aroma intensity was 2195~2447 (A.U./1㎖), and it increased with increasing extraction temperature and extraction time. Chromaticity of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil was bright pale yellow with pH of 4.5, sugar content of 71~72 (°Brix), and highest average turbidity of 16.74 (Haze %) shown by the 40℃ group. In the aromatic evaluation, increasing extraction temperature and extraction time resulted in increase of cheese aroma, savory sweet aroma and beef jerky aroma, as well as spicy taste comprised of slight bitter taste, savory taste and slight acrid taste, to make aromatic oil with unique flavor.

Keywords: Flavor Characteristics, Flavor Oil, Infiltration extraction method, mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito)

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2122 Determinaton of Processing Parameters of Decaffeinated Black Tea by Using Pilot-Scale Supercritical CO₂ Extraction

Authors: Saziye Ilgaz, Atilla Polat


There is a need for development of new processing techniques to ensure safety and quality of final product while minimizing the adverse impact of extraction solvents on environment and residue levels of these solvents in final product, decaffeinated black tea. In this study pilot scale supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction was used to produce decaffeinated black tea in place of solvent extraction. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO₂ flow rate (1, 2 ,3 LPM) and co-solvent quantity (0, 2.5, 5 %mol) were selected as extraction parameters. The five factors BoxBehnken experimental design with three center points was performed to generate 46 different processing conditions for caffeine removal from black tea samples. As a result of these 46 experiments caffeine content of black tea samples were reduced from 2.16 % to 0 – 1.81 %. The experiments showed that extraction time, pressure, CO₂ flow rate and co-solvent quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Optimum extraction parameters obtained of decaffeinated black tea were as follows: extraction temperature of 62,5 °C, extraction pressure of 375 bar, CO₂ flow rate of 3 LPM, extraction time of 176.5 min and co-solvent quantity of 5 %mol.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, decaffeination, black tea, extraction

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2121 Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Polyphenols

Authors: Senem Suna


Extraction of bioactive compounds from several food/food products comes as an important topic and new trend related with health promoting effects. As a result of the increasing interest in natural foods, different methods are used for the acquisition of these components especially polyphenols. However, special attention has to be paid to the selection of proper techniques or several processing technologies (supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, powdered extracts production) for each kind of food to get maximum benefit as well as the obtainment of phenolic compounds. In order to meet consumer’s demand for healthy food and the management of quality and safety requirements, advanced research and development are needed. In this review, advantages, and disadvantages of different extraction methods, their opportunities to be used in food industry and the effects of polyphenols are mentioned in details. Consequently, with the evaluation of the results of several studies, the selection of the most suitable food specific method was aimed.

Keywords: bioactives, extraction, powdered extracts, supercritical fluid extraction

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2120 Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP

Authors: Zhang Haiyan, Su Zujun, Zhao Fengqi


Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.

Keywords: cesium, jarosite slag, rubidium, solvent extraction, t-BAMBP

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2119 Parameters Estimation of Power Function Distribution Based on Selective Order Statistics

Authors: Moh'd Alodat


In this paper, we discuss the power function distribution and derive the maximum likelihood estimator of its parameter as well as the reliability parameter. We derive the large sample properties of the estimators based on the selective order statistic scheme. We conduct simulation studies to investigate the significance of the selective order statistic scheme in our setup and to compare the efficiency of the new proposed estimators.

Keywords: fisher information, maximum likelihood estimator, power function distribution, ranked set sampling, selective order statistics sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
2118 Urdu Text Extraction Method from Images

Authors: Samabia Tehsin, Sumaira Kausar


Due to the vast increase in the multimedia data in recent years, efficient and robust retrieval techniques are needed to retrieve and index images/ videos. Text embedded in the images can serve as the strong retrieval tool for images. This is the reason that text extraction is an area of research with increasing attention. English text extraction is the focus of many researchers but very less work has been done on other languages like Urdu. This paper is focusing on Urdu text extraction from video frames. This paper presents a text detection feature set, which has the ability to deal up with most of the problems connected with the text extraction process. To test the validity of the method, it is tested on Urdu news dataset, which gives promising results.

Keywords: caption text, content-based image retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

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2117 Estimation of Opc, Fly Ash and Slag Contents in Blended and Composite Cements by Selective Dissolution Method

Authors: Suresh Palla


This research paper presents the results of the study on the estimation of fly ash, slag and cement contents in blended and composite cements by novel selective dissolution method. Types of cement samples investigated include OPC with fly ash as performance improver, OPC with slag as performance improver, PPC, PSC and Composite cement confirming to respective Indian Standards. Slag and OPC contents in PSC were estimated by selectively dissolving OPC in stage 1 and selectively dissolving slag in stage 2. In the case of composite cement sample, the percentage of cement, slag and fly ash were estimated systematically by selective dissolution of cement, slag and fly ash in three stages. In the first stage, cement dissolved and separated by leaving the residue of slag and fly ash, designated as R1. The second stage involves gravimetric estimation of fractions of OPC, residue and selective dissolution of fly ash and slag contents. Fly ash content, R2 was estimated through gravimetric analysis. Thereafter, the difference between the R1 and R2 is considered as slag content. The obtained results of cement, fly ash and slag using selective dissolution method showed 10% of standard deviation with the corresponding percentage of respective constituents. The results suggest that this novel selective dissolution method can be successfully used for estimation of OPC and SCMs contents in different types of cements.

Keywords: selective dissolution method , fly ash, ggbfs slag, edta

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2116 Fear of Isolation, Online Efficacy, and Selective Exposure in Online Political Discourse

Authors: Kyujin Shim


This study explores how individual motivations in political psychology will lead to political expression and online discourse, and how those online political discourses result in individuals’ exposure to extreme/ personally-entertaining/ disinhibiting content. This study argues that a new framework beyond the conventional paradigm (e.g., selective exposure based on partisanship/ ideology) is needed for better grasp of non-ideological/ anarchic, and/or of nonpartisan yet anonymity-/ extremity-/ disinhibition-related online behaviors regarding political conversations. Further, this study proposes a new definition of ‘selective exposure,’ with special attention to online efficacy and psychological motivations/gratifications sought in the online sphere.

Keywords: selective exposure, fear of isolation, political psychology, online discourse

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2115 Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cymbopogon martini Essential Oil and Comparison of Its Composition with Traditionally Extracted Oils

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad


Essential oil was extracted from lemon grass (Cymbopogon martini) with supercritical carbondioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure of 140 bar and temperature of 55 °C and CO2 flow rate of 8 gmin-1, and its composition and yield were compared with other conventional extraction methods of oil, HD (Hydrodistillation), SE (Solvent Extraction), UAE (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction). SC-CO2 extraction is a green and sustainable extraction technique. Each oil was analysed by GC-MS, the major constituents were neral (44%), Z-citral (43%), geranial (27%), caryophyllene (4.6%) and linalool (1%). The essential oil of lemon grass is valued for its neral and citral concentration. The oil obtained by supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction contained maximum concentration of neral (55.05%) whereas ultrasonication extracted oil contained minimum content (5.24%) and it was absent in solvent extracted oil. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods.

Keywords: cymbopogon martini, essential oil, FT-IR, GC-MS, HPTLC, SC-CO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
2114 Modeling and Prediction of Zinc Extraction Efficiency from Concentrate by Operating Condition and Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, N. Ghazinia


PH, temperature, and time of extraction of each stage, agitation speed, and delay time between stages effect on efficiency of zinc extraction from concentrate. In this research, efficiency of zinc extraction was predicted as a function of mentioned variable by artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN with different layer was employed and the result show that the networks with 8 neurons in hidden layer has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: zinc extraction, efficiency, neural networks, operating condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
2113 Synergistic Extraction Study of Cobalt (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Tri-N-Octylphosphine Oxide in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, S. Almi, D. Barkat


The synergistic solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from 0.33 mol dm-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is CoL2(HL)2. In the presence of TOPO, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.0025 to 0.01 mol dm-3 TOPO in chloroform. From an synergistic extraction- equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation CoL2(HL)2 n(TOPO). The TOPO-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of cobalt (II) with capric acid and TOPO is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cobalt (II), capric acid, TOPO, synergism

Procedia PDF Downloads 446