Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Duygu Gulgun

33 An Investigation on the Removal of Synthetic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by a Functional Polymer

Authors: Ali Kara, Asim Olgun, Sevgi Sozugecer, Sahin Ozel, Kubra Nur Yildiz, P. Sevinç, Abdurrahman Kuresh, Guliz Turhan, Duygu Gulgun

Abstract:

The synthetic dyes, one of the most hazardous chemical compound classes, are important potential water pollutions since their presence in water bodies reduces light penetration, precluding the photosynthesis of aqueous flora and causing various diseases. Some the synthetic dyes are highly toxic and/or carcinogenic, and their biodegradation can produce even more toxic aromatic amines. The adsorption procedure is one of the most effective means of removing synthetic dye pollutants, and has been described in a number of previous studies by using the functional polymers. In this study, we investigated the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solution by using a functional polymer as an adsorbent material. The effect of initial solution concentration, pH, and contact time on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were studied in details. The results showed that functional polymer has a potential to be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbent for the treatment of aqueous solutions from textile industries.

Keywords: functional polymers, synhetic dyes, adsorption, physicochemical parameters

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32 Occupational Health and Safety Servicing in Turkey: A New Approach

Authors: Duygu Çelgin

Abstract:

Until the new Occupational Health and Safety Law of Turkey, most of the workers were excluded from the mandatory occupational health and safety services. This new law, made the OHS services mandatory for all workers from all sectors including both public and private. However, in the application some problems and disadvantageous cases are occurred and the government also considered these cases. In this study, the new OHS law of Turkey and the regulations prepared according to the law are studied with the literature search.

Keywords: occupational health and safety in Turkey, OHS servicing in Turkey, safety experts, OHS support

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31 Synthesis of Some 1h-Benzimidazoles as Inhibitors of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase

Authors: İsmail Çeli̇k, Gülgün Ayhan-Kılcıgi̇l, Arzu Onay-Beşi̇kçi̇

Abstract:

In this study, some 2-(2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl)- lH-benzo[d]'imidazol-l-yl)-N'-(alkylthiosemicarbazide were designed and prepared. Firstly, 2-phenyl/ suhstitutedphenyl-lH-Benzo[d]imidazole was prepared via oxidative condensation of o-phenylenediamine, benzaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. Treatment of the benzimidazole compound with ethyl chloroacetate in KOH/DMSO gave the ester compound ethyl 2-(2-substitutedphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-l-yl)acetate. Hydrazine hydrate and the ester in ethanol were refluxed for 4 h to give 2-(2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-l-yl)acetohydrazide. Thiosemicarbazides were obtained by condensing acyl hydrazide with the alkylisothiocyanate in ethanol. Following the structure elucidation, benzimidazole compounds were tested for their EGFR kinase inhibitory activities by using ADP-GloTM Kinase Assay.

Keywords: benzimidazole, EGFR kinase inhibitor, synthesis, thiosemicarbazide

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30 The Role of Phytoremediation in Reclamation of Soil Pollution and Suitability of Certain Ornamental Plants to Phytoremediation

Authors: Bahriye Gülgün, Gökhan Balik, Şükrü Dursun, Kübra Yazici

Abstract:

The main reasons such as economic growth of society increase of the world population and rapid changes of industrialization cause the amount and the types of pollutants to increase over time. Soil pollution is the typical side effect of industrial activities. As a result of industrial activities, there are large amounts of heavy metal emission every year. Heavy metals are one of the highest pollution sources according to the soil pollution aspect. The usage of hyperaccumulator plants to clean heavy metal polluted soils and the selection of plants for phytoremediation gain importance recently. There are limited numbers of researches on the ornamental plant types of phytoremediation thus; researches on this subject are important. This research is prepared based on the ornamental plant types with phytoremediation abilities.

Keywords: phytoremediation, ornamental plants, landscape reclamation, soil reclamation, environmental pollution

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29 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Protein C Purification

Authors: Duygu Çimen, Nilay Bereli, Adil Denizli

Abstract:

In this study is to synthesis magnetic nanoparticles for purify protein C. For this aim, N-Methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by using micro-emulsion polymerization technique for templating protein C via metal chelation. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta-size analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After that, they were used for protein C purification from aqueous solution to evaluate/optimize the adsorption condition. Hereby, the effecting factors such as concentration, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and reusability were evaluated. As the last step, protein C was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Keywords: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), magnetic nanoparticle, protein C, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

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28 Impact of Foreign Trade on Economic Growth: A Panel Data Analysis for OECD Countries

Authors: Burcu Guvenek, Duygu Baysal Kurt

Abstract:

The impact of foreign trade on economic growth has been discussed since the Classical Economists. Today, foreign trade has become more important for the country's economy with the increasing globalization. When it comes to foreign trade, policies which may vary from country to country and from time to time as protectionism or free trade are implemented. In general, the positive effect of foreign trade on economic growth is alleged. However, as studies supporting this general acceptance take place in the economics literature, there are also studies in the opposite direction. In this paper, the impact of foreign trade on economic growth will be investigated with the help of panel data analysis. For this research, 24 OECD countries’ GDP and foreign trade data, including the period of 1990 and 2010, will be used.

Keywords: foreign trade, economic growth, OECD countries, panel data analysis

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27 Parallel Evaluation of Sommerfeld Integrals for Multilayer Dyadic Green's Function

Authors: Duygu Kan, Mehmet Cayoren

Abstract:

Sommerfeld-integrals (SIs) are commonly encountered in electromagnetics problems involving analysis of antennas and scatterers embedded in planar multilayered media. Generally speaking, the analytical solution of SIs is unavailable, and it is well known that numerical evaluation of SIs is very time consuming and computationally expensive due to the highly oscillating and slowly decaying nature of the integrands. Therefore, fast computation of SIs has a paramount importance. In this paper, a parallel code has been developed to speed up the computation of SI in the framework of calculation of dyadic Green’s function in multilayered media. OpenMP shared memory approach is used to parallelize the SI algorithm and resulted in significant time savings. Moreover accelerating the computation of dyadic Green’s function is discussed based on the parallel SI algorithm developed.

Keywords: Sommerfeld-integrals, multilayer dyadic Green’s function, OpenMP, shared memory parallel programming

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26 The Effects of Sous Vide Technology Combined with Different Herbals on Sensorial and Physical Quality of Fish Species Caught in the Northern Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea

Authors: Zafer Ceylan, Gülgün F.Unal Şengör, Onur Gönülal

Abstract:

In this study, sous vide technology were treated with different herbs into different fish species which were caught from northern Aegean and Marmara Sea. Before samples were packaged under vacuum, herbs had been cut and added at the same ratio into the package. Samples were sliced, the weight of each sample was about 150 g, and packaged under vacuum. During the storage period at 4ºC, taste, odor, texture properties of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by trained panelists. Meanwhile, the effect of different herbs on pH values of the samples was investigated. These results were correlated with sensorial results. Furthermore, the effects of different herbs on L, a, b values of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by color measurement. All sensorial results indicated that the values of samples treated with herbs were higher than that of the control group. Color measurement results and pH values were found parallel with sensorial results.

Keywords: Sous vide, fish, herbs, consumer preferences, pH, color measurement

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25 Comparison of Acid and Base Pretreatment of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Mustafa Ümi̇t Ünal, Nafi̇z Çeli̇ktaş, Aysun Şener, Sara Betül Dolgun, Duygu Keser

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare acid and base pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production. Switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (v/v) at 120, 140, 180 °C for 10, 60 and 90. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated switchgrass samples were carried out using three different enzyme mixtures (22.5 mg cellulase and 75 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 45 mg cellulase and 150 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase /g biomass). Samples were removed at 24-h interval for fermentable sugar analyses with HPLC. The results showed that use of 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase/g biomass resulted in the highest fermentable sugar formation. Furthermore, the highest fermentable sugar yield was obtained by pretreatment at 120 °C for 10 min using 1.0 % sodium hydroxide.

Keywords: switchgrass, acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, base pretreatment, ethanol production

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24 Scanning Electron Microscopy of Cement Clinkers Produced Using Alternative Fuels

Authors: Sorour Semsari Parapari, Mehmet Ali Gülgün, Melih Papila

Abstract:

Cement production is one of the most energy-intensive processes consuming a high amount of thermal energy. Nowadays, alternative fuels are being used in cement manufacturing in a large scale as a help to provide the necessary energy. The alternative fuels could consist of any disposal like waste plastics, used tires and biomass. It has been suggested that the clinker properties might be affected by using these fuels because of foreign elements incorporation to the composition. Studying the distribution of clinker phases and their chemical composition is possible with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, clinker samples were produced using different alternative fuels in cement firing kilns. The microstructural observations by back-scattered electrons (BSE) mode in SEM (JEOL JSM-6010LV) showed that the clinker phase distribution was dissimilar in samples prepared with different alternative fuels. The alite to belite (a/b) phase content of samples was quantified by image analysis. The results showed that the a/b varied between 5.2 and 1.5 among samples as the average value for six clinker nodules. The elemental analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mounted on SEM indicated the variation in chemical composition among samples. Higher amounts of sulfur and alkalis seemed to reduce the alite phase formation in clinkers.

Keywords: alternative fuels, cement clinker, microstructure, SEM

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23 A Study of Shigeru Ban's Environmentally-Sensitive Design Approach

Authors: Duygu Merve Bulut, Fehime Yesim Gurani

Abstract:

The Japanese architect Shigeru Ban has succeeded in bringing a different understanding to the modern architectural design approach with both the material selection and the techniques he used while combining the material with the design. Ban, who reflects his respect to people and nature with his designs, has encouraged that design should be done with economic materials, easily accessible and understandable for everyone. Because of this, Ban has attracted attention and appreciated in the architectural world with his environmentally-sensitive design ideology and humanitarian projects. In order to understand Ban’s environmentally-sensitive design approach, with this article, Ban’s projects which have used natural materials; the projects of Ban’s Japenese Pavilion in Germany, Papertainer Museum in South Korea, Centre Pompidou-Metz in France and Cardboard Cathedral in New Zealand were examined and analyzed. In the following parts, 'paper tube' technology that creates awareness in architectural area, which developed and applied by Ban; has been examined in terms of building material and structure of sustainable space design. As a result of this review, Ban’s approach is evaluated in terms of its contribution to the understanding of sustainable design.

Keywords: ecological design, environmentally-sensitive design, paper tube, Shigeru Ban, sustainability

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22 A Qualitative Study: Teaching Fractions with Augmented Reality for 5th Grade Students in Turkey

Authors: Duygu Özdemir, Bilal Özçakır

Abstract:

Usage of augmented reality in education helps students to make sense of the three-dimensional world of mathematics. In this study, it was aimed to develop activities about fractions for 5th-grade students by augmented reality and also aimed to assess these activities in terms of students’ understanding and views. Data obtained from 60 students in a private school in Marmaris, Turkey was obtained through classroom observations, students’ worksheets and semi-structured interviews during two weeks. Data analysis was conducted by using constant-comparative analysis which leads to meaningful categories of findings. Findings of this study indicated that usage of augmented reality is a facilitator to make concretize and provide real-life application for fractions. Moreover, students’ opinions about its usage were lead to categories as benefit for learning, enjoyment and creating awareness of usage of augmented reality in mathematics education. In general, this study could be a bridge to show the contributions of augmented reality applications to mathematics education and also highlights that augmented reality could be used with subjects like fractions rather than subjects only in geometry learning domain.

Keywords: augmented reality, mathematics, fractions, students

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21 Analyzing Energy Consumption Behavior of Migrated Population in Turkey Using Bayesian Belief Approach

Authors: Ebru Acuner, Gulgun Kayakutlu, M. Ozgur Kayalica, Sermin Onaygil

Abstract:

In Turkey, emigration, especially from Syria, has been continuously increasing together with rapid urbanization. In parallel to this, total energy consumption has been growing, rapidly. Unfortunately, domestic energy sources could not meet this energy demand. Hence, there is a need for reliable predictions. For this reason, before making a survey study for the migrated people, an informative questionnaire was prepared to take the opinions of the experts on the main drivers that shape the energy consumption behavior of the migrated people. Totally, 17 experts were answered, and they were analyzed by means of Netica program considering Bayesian belief analysis method. In the analysis, factors affecting energy consumption behaviors as well as strategies, institutions, tools and financing methods to change these behaviors towards efficient consumption were investigated. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that changing the energy consumption behavior of the migrated people is crucial. In order to be successful, electricity and natural gas prices and tariffs in the market should be arranged considering energy efficiency. In addition, support mechanisms by not only the government but also municipalities should be taken into account while preparing related policies. Also, electric appliance producers should develop and implement strategies and action in favor of the usage of more efficient appliances. Last but not least, non-governmental organizations should support the migrated people to improve their awareness on the efficient consumption for the sustainable future.

Keywords: Bayesian belief, behavior, energy consumption, energy efficiency, migrated people

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20 An Online Adaptive Thresholding Method to Classify Google Trends Data Anomalies for Investor Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Duygu Dere, Mert Ergeneci, Kaan Gokcesu

Abstract:

Google Trends data has gained increasing popularity in the applications of behavioral finance, decision science and risk management. Because of Google’s wide range of use, the Trends statistics provide significant information about the investor sentiment and intention, which can be used as decisive factors for corporate and risk management fields. However, an anomaly, a significant increase or decrease, in a certain query cannot be detected by the state of the art applications of computation due to the random baseline noise of the Trends data, which is modelled as an Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Since through time, the baseline noise power shows a gradual change an adaptive thresholding method is required to track and learn the baseline noise for a correct classification. To this end, we introduce an online method to classify meaningful deviations in Google Trends data. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our method can successfully classify various anomalies for plenty of different data.

Keywords: adaptive data processing, behavioral finance , convex optimization, online learning, soft minimum thresholding

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19 Antioxidant Properties of Snack Crackers Incorporated with Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L.) Powder

Authors: Elif Yildiz, Gizem Gungor, Hatice Yilmaz, Duygu Gocmen

Abstract:

Nowadays, consumer demand has been increasing for the healthy and functional food. In this context, some natural products rich in phenolic compounds are also added to cereal based food for health benefits. Natural phenolic compounds have many beneficial bioactivities such as anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic activities. It has been found that various plant species contain natural bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant function. One of these plant species is mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L). Mahaleb berries with dark blue or red colours have the highest antioxidant capacities among all common fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine the possibilities of improving the antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers by supplementing with mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L) powder. For this purpose mahaleb powder were used to replace wheat flour in the snack cracker formulation at two different levels (5%, and 7.5% w/w). As a result, mahaleb supplementation caused an increase in total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of crackers. It can be say that mahaleb powder can be used as an alternative functional and nutritional ingredient in bakery products.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cracker, mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L), phenolic contents

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18 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu

Abstract:

Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: cell culture, keratin, nanofibers, UV-reactive electrospinning

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17 Investigation of Nutritional Values, Sensorial, Flesh Productivity of Parapenaus longirostris between Populations in the Sea of Marmara and in the Northern Aegean Sea

Authors: Onur Gönülal, Zafer Ceylan, Gülgün F. Unal Sengor

Abstract:

The differences of Parapenaus longirostris caught from The North Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea on proximate composition, sensorial analysis (for raw and cooked samples), flesh productivity of the samples were investigated. The moisture, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, energy contents of shrimp caught from The North Aegean Sea were 74.92 ± 0.1, 20.32 ± 0.16, 2.55 ± 0.1, 2.13 ± 0.08, 0.08, 110.1 kcal/100g, respectively. The moisture, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, energy contents of shrimp caught from Marmara Sea were 76.9 ± 0.02, 19.06 ± 0.03, 2.22 ± 0.08, 1.51 ± 0.04, 0.33, 102.77 kcal/100g, respectively. The protein, lipid, ash and energy values of the Northern Aegean Sea shrimp were higher than The Marmara Sea shrimp. On the other hand, The moisture, carbohydrate values of the Northern Aegean Sea shrimp were lower than the other one. Sensorial analysis was done for raw and cooked samples. Among all properties for raw samples, flesh color, shrimp connective tissue, shrimp body parameters were found different each other according to the result of the panel. According to the result of the cooked shrimp samples among all properties, cooked odour, flavours, texture were found to be different from each other, as well. Especially, flavours and textural properties of cooked shrimps of the Northern Aegean Sea were higher than the Marmara Sea shrimp. Flesh productivity of Northern Aegean Sea shrimp was found as 46.42 %, while that of the Marmara Sea shrimp was found as 47.74 %.

Keywords: shrimp, biological differences, proximate value, sensory, Parapenaus longirostris, flesh productivity

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16 Inquiry of Gender Discrimination in Contrast Emotions: A Study on Perception of Gender of Youth University

Authors: Duygu Alptekin

Abstract:

Patriarchal social structure is based on a gender-based discrimination. Due to confrontational nature of discrimination; in a patriarchal society men and women exists in a based on contrasts and inequalities interaction patterns and this situation continues as socio-cultural with dominant gender perception in society. In this context gender perception of youth is a required vision tool for multidimensional understanding and resolving of gender discrimination problem and making projections about future. The aim of the study is explaining the gender discrimination by helping of Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and hostile benevolent sexism which are subdimensions of (ASI). Additionally the sexism perception of youth will be try to analyse ın the context of conflict of conventionalism and modernism. For that purpose survey have carried aout with the participation of students at the Selcuk University and the conclusions revealed that reached ampirically Young people's perceptions about the hierarchy of power revealed between men and women; sexual, economic and occupational segregation by pointing to statements about male-female relationships commitment, guardianship, gratitude, expressions containing highlights the superiority of socio-psychological (ASI) where results are determined by the application. The results of the factor analysis performed in this direction with the detection of the previous studies were evaluated by blending.

Keywords: ambivalent sexism inventory, gender discrimination, youth, conventionalism

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15 The Effectiveness of Banks’ Web Sites: A Study of Turkish Banking Sector

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Duygu Irdiren

Abstract:

By the development of World Wide Web, the usage rate of Internet has rapidly grown globally; and provided a basis for the emergence of electronic business. As well as other sectors, the banking sector has adopted the use of internet with the developments in information and communication technologies. Due to the public disclosure and transparency principle of Corporate Governance, the importance of information disclosure of banks on their web sites has increased significantly. For the purpose of this study, a Bank Disclosure Attribute Index (BDAI) in Turkey has been constructed through classifying the information disclosure on banks’ web sites into general, financial, investors and corporate governance attributes. All 47 banks in Turkish Banking System have been evaluated according to the index with the aim of providing a comparison between banks. By Chi Square Test, Pearson Correlation, T-Test, and ANOVA statistical tools, it has been concluded that the majority of banks in Turkey have shared information on their web sites adequately with respect to their total index score. Although there is a positive correlation between various types of information on banks’ web sites, there is no uniformity among them. Also, no significant difference between various types of information disclosure and bank types has been observed. Compared with the total index score averages of the five largest banks in Turkey, there are some banks that need to improve the content of their web sites.

Keywords: internet banking, websites evaluation, customer adoption, Turkey

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14 Design and Synthesis of Some Oxadiazole Bearing Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors

Authors: Ismail Celik, Gulgun Ayhan Kilcigil, Berna Guven, Zumra Kara, Arzu Onay-Besikci

Abstract:

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor is the cell-surface receptor of the ErbB (erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homologue receptors) family of tyrosine kinases. It plays a vital role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of cells. However, a variety of mechanisms, such as EGFR expression, mutation, and ligand-dependent receptor dimerization, are associated with the development of various activated EGFR tumors. EGFR is highly expressed in most solid tumors, including breast, head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal, ovarian, and colon cancers. Thus, specific EGFR inhibition plays one of the key roles in cancer treatment. The compounds used in the treatment as tyrosine kinase inhibitors are known to contain the benzimidazole isosterium indole, pazopanib, and axitinibin indazole rings. In addition, benzimidazoles have been shown to exhibit protein kinase inhibitory activity in addition to their different biological activities.Based on these data, it was planned and synthesized of some oxadiazole bearing benzimidazole derivatives [N-cyclohexyl-5-((2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-1-yl) methyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-amine]. EGFR kinase inhibitory efficiency of the synthesized compounds was determined by comparing them with a known kinase inhibitor erlotinib in vitro, and two of the compounds bearing phenyl (19a) and 3,4-dibenzyloxyphenyl (21a) ring exhibited significant activities.

Keywords: benzimidazole, EGFR kinase inhibitory, oxadiazole, synthesis

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13 String as a Design Element: The Work of Students for International Architecture Biennale, Antalya and Lohberg Coal Mine, Germany

Authors: Ayşe Duygu Kaçar

Abstract:

Industrial regions and buildings that have stopped their primary functions are in the interest of the discipline of architecture in the last decades. The renewal of these spaces of production for different functions is a common aspect for contemporary world countries. Totally different functions can be added to the existing as well, which can help improving the social, cultural and aesthetic character of these beings and sustaining their uniqueness. Therefore, these sites linking the past and future can be used as museums, exhibition centers, art ateliers, city parks, recreational centers, botanic gardens, sculpture parks, theatres, etc. in order to continue their place in the collective memory of the cities. The present paper depicts a way of shedding light on the Cotton Textile Industry (İplik ve Dokuma Fabrikası A.Ş), a local industrial site in Antalya, the most popular tourism center of Turkey, as a part of International Architecture Biennale, 2011 and on Lohberg coal mine, a local industrial site in the Ruhr region of Germany. As a transparent, fragile, temporary and economical material, the string was used as a design element in both experiential architecture works with architecture students and the outcomes will be discussed and presented through the theme 'rejecting / reversing architecture'.

Keywords: industrial sites, the Cotton Textile Industry Antalya, Lohberg coal mine, architectural design, identity

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12 Turkish University Level EFL Learners’ Collocational Knowledge at Receptive and Productive Levels

Authors: Nazife Duygu Bagci

Abstract:

Collocations are an important part of vocabulary knowledge, and it is a subject that has recently attracted attention, while still in need of more research. The aim of this study is to answer three research questions related to the collocational knowledge of Turkish university level EFL learners at different proficiency levels of English. The first research question aims to compare the pre-intermediate (PIN) and the advanced (ADV) level learners’ collocational knowledge at receptive and productive levels. The second one is to analyze the performance of the PIN and the ADV students in two main collocation categories; lexical and grammatical. Lastly, the performance of both groups are focused on to find the collocation type (among verb-noun, adjective- noun, adjective-preposition, noun-preposition collocation types) they show the best performance in. Two offline tests were used to answer these questions. The results show that there is a significant difference between the PIN and the ADV groups at both receptive and productive levels. It can be concluded that proficiency is an important criterion in collocational knowledge, and learners do not necessarily know the collocates of the vocabulary items that they know. Although there is no significant difference between the PIN group’s performance in lexical and grammatical collocations, the ADV group showed a better performance in lexical collocations. Lastly, the PIN group at receptive and the ADV group at both receptive and productive levels showed the best performance in verb-noun collocations, which is in line with the previous research focusing on different collocation types.

Keywords: collocational knowledge, EFL, language proficiency, testing

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11 Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Mechanical Strength and Physical Properties in Engineered Quartz Stone

Authors: Esra Arici, Duygu Olmez, Murat Ozkan, Nurcan Topcu, Furkan Capraz, Gokhan Deniz, Arman Altinyay

Abstract:

Engineered quartz stone is a composite material comprising approximately 90 wt.% fine quartz aggregate with a variety of particle size ranges and `10 wt.% unsaturated polyester resin (UPR). In this study, the objective is to investigate the influence of particle size distribution on mechanical strength and physical properties of the engineered stone slabs. For this purpose, granular quartz with two particle size ranges of 63-200 µm and 100-300 µm were used individually and mixed with a difference in ratios of mixing. The void volume of each granular packing was measured in order to define the amount of filler; quartz powder with the size of less than 38 µm, and UPR required filling inter-particle spaces. Test slabs were prepared using vibration-compression under vacuum. The study reports that both impact strength and flexural strength of samples increased as the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm increased. On the other hand, the values of water absorption rate, apparent density and abrasion resistance were not affected by the particle size distribution owing to vacuum compaction. It is found that increasing the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm caused the higher porosity. This led to increasing in the amount of the binder paste needed. It is also observed that homogeneity in the slabs was improved with the particle size range of 63-200 µm.

Keywords: engineered quartz stone, fine quartz aggregate, granular packing, mechanical strength, particle size distribution, physical properties.

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10 Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effect of Mitoxantrone Conjugated Magnetite Nanoparticles and Graphene Oxide-Magnetite Nanocomposites on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Abbas Jafarizad, Duygu Ekinci

Abstract:

In this work targeted drug delivery is proposed to decrease adverse effect of drugs with concomitant reduces in consumption and treatment outgoings. Nanoparticles (NPs) can be prepared from a variety of materials such as lipid, biodegradable polymer that prevent the drugs cytotoxicity in healthy cells, etc. One of the most important drugs used in chemotherapy is mitoxantrone (MTX) which prevents cell proliferation by inhibition of topoisomerase II and DNA repair; however, it is not selective and has some serious side effects. In this study, mentioned aim is achieved by using several nanocarriers like magnetite (Fe3O4) and their composites with magnetic graphene oxide ([email protected]). Also, cytotoxic potential of Fe3O4, Fe3O4-MTX, and [email protected] nanocomposite were evaluated on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we reported the synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4 NPs and [email protected] nanocomposite and their structures were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brauneur Emmet Teller (BET) isotherm and contact angle studies. Moreover, we used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to evaluate cytotoxic effects of MTX, Fe3O4 NPs, Fe3O4-MTX and [email protected] nanocomposite on MSCs. The in-vitro MTT results indicated that all concentrations of MTX and [email protected] nanocomposites showed cytotoxic effects while all concentrations of Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4-MTX NPs did not show any cytotoxic effect on stem cells. The results from this study indicated that using Fe3O4 NPs as anticancer drug delivery systems could be a trustworthy method for cancer treatment. But for reaching excellent and accurate results, further investigation is necessary.

Keywords: mitoxantrone, magnetite, magnetic graphene oxide, MTT assay, mesenchymal stem cells

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9 Treatment of Drug-Induced Oral Ulceration with Hyaluronic Acid Gel: A Case Report

Authors: Meltem Koray, Arda Ozgon, Duygu Ofluoglu, Mehmet Yaltirik

Abstract:

Oral ulcerations can be seen as a side effect of different drugs. These ulcers usually appear within a few weeks following drug treatment. In most of cases, these ulcers resist to conventional treatments, such as anesthetics, antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, cauterization, topical tetracycline and corticosteroid treatment. The diagnosis is usually difficult, especially in patients receiving multiple drug therapies. Hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid (HA) is a biomaterial that has been introduced as an alternative approach to enhance wound healing and also used for oral ulcer treatment. The aim of this report is to present the treatment of drug-induced oral ulceration on maxillary mucosa with HA gel. 60-year-old male patient was referred to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery complaining of oral ulcerations during few weeks. He had received chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 2014 with the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and he has accompanying systemic diseases such as; cardiological, neurological diseases and gout. He is medicated with Escitalopram (Cipralex® 20mg), Quetiapine (Seroquel® 100mg), Mirtazapine (Zestat® 15mg), Acetylsalicylic acid (Coraspin® 100mg), Ramipril-hydrochlorothiazide (Delix® 2.5mg), Theophylline anhydrous (Teokap Sr® 200mg), Colchicine (Colchicum Dispert® 0.5mg), Spironolactone (Aldactone® 100mg), Levothyroxine sodium (Levotiron® 50mg). He had painful oral ulceration on the right side of maxillary mucosa. The diagnosis was 'drug-induced oral ulceration' and HA oral gel (Aftamed® Oral gel) was prescribed 3 times a day for 2 weeks. Complete healing was achieved within 3 weeks without any side effect and discomfort. We suggest that HA oral gel is a potentially useful local drug which can be an alternative for management of drug-induced oral ulcerations.

Keywords: drug-induced, hyaluronic acid, oral ulceration, maxillary mucosa

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8 New 5’-O- and 6-Substituted Purine Nucleoside Analogs: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity on Selected Human Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Meral Tuncbilek, Duygu Sac, Irem Durmaz, Rengul Cetin Atalay

Abstract:

Nucleoside analogs are a pharmacologically diverse family that includes cytotoxic compounds, antiviral agents, and immunosuppressive molecules. Purine nucleoside derivatives such as fludarabine, cladribine, and pentostatin are significant drugs used in chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In this study, we synthesized novel purine ribonucleoside analogs containing a 4-(4-substituted phenylsulfonyl) piperazine in the substituent at N6- and O-substituted sulfonyl group at 5’-position as putative cytotoxic agents. The newly obtained compounds were then characterized for their cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines. The 5’, 6-disubstituted 9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)purine derivatives (44-67) were readily obtained from commercially available inosine in seven steps in very cost effective synthesis approach. The newly synthesized compounds were first evaluated for their anti-tumor activities against human liver (Huh7), colon (HCT116) and breast (MCF7) carcinoma cell lines. The IC50 values were in micromolar concentrations with 5’, 6-disubstituted purine nucleoside derivatives. Time-dependent IC50 values for each molecule were also calculated in comparison with known cytotoxic agents Camptothecin (CPT), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Cladribine, Pentostatine and Fludarabine. N6-(4-trifluoromethyl phenyl) / N6-(4-bromophenyl) and 5’-O-(4-methoxybenzene sulfonyl) / 5’-O-(benzenesulfonyl) derivatives 54, 64 displayed the best cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 8.8, 7 µM against MCF7 cell line. The N6-(4-methylphenyl) analog 50 was also very active (IC50= 10.7 μM) against HCT116 cell line. Furthermore, compound 64 had a better cytotoxic activity than the known cell growth inhibitors 5-FU and Fludarabine on Huh7 (1.5 vs 30.7, 29.9 μM for 5-FU and Fludarabine).

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, Huh7, HCT116, MCF7, nucleoside, synthesis

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7 Bioaccessible Phenolics, Phenolic Bioaccessibilities and Antioxidant Activities of Cookies Supplemented with Pumpkin Flour

Authors: Emine Aydin, Duygu Gocmen

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In this study, pumpkin flours (PFs) were used to replace wheat flour in cookie formulation at three different levels (10%, 20% and 30% w/w). For this purpose PFs produced by two different applications (with or without metabisulfite pre-treatment) and then dried in freeze dryer. Control sample included no PFs. The total phenolic contents of the cookies supplemented with PFs were higher than that of control and gradually increased in total phenolic contents of cookies with increasing PF supplementation levels. Phenolic content makes also significant contribution on nutritional excellence of the developed cookies. Pre-treatment with metabisulfite (MS) had a positive effect on free, bound and total phenolics of cookies which are supplemented with various levels of MS-PF. This is due to a protective effect of metabisulfite pretreatment for phenolic compounds in the pumpkin flour. Phenolic antioxidants may act and absorb in a different way in humans and thus their antioxidant and health effects will be changed accordingly. In the present study phenolics’ bioavailability of cookies was investigated in order to assess PF as sources of accessible phenolics. The content of bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies supplemented with PFs had higher than those of control sample. Cookies enriched with 30% MS-PF had the highest bioaccessible phenolics (597.86 mg GAE 100g-1) and phenolic bioaccessibility (41.71%). MS application in PF production caused a significant increase in phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies. According to all assay (ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH), antioxidant activities of cookies with PFs higher than that of control cookie. It was also observed that the cookies supplemented with MS-PF had significantly higher antioxidant activities than those of cookies including PF. In presented study, antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies were also determined. The cookies with PFs had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidative bioaccessibilities than control ones. Increasing PFs levels enhanced antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies. As a result, PFs addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of cookie by causing increase in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibilities.

Keywords: phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, dietary fiber, pumpkin, freeze drying, cookie

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6 Using the Notion of Terrorism Irrespective of the Principle of Legality While Countering Terrorism

Authors: Tugce Duygu Koksal

Abstract:

In recent years, given the fact that the acts of terrorism and the threat of the latter are taking place without any border and distinction, it has led the states to deal with the terrorism as a priority issue. More recently, as seen in different countries during state of emergency, the adoption of anti-terrorism measures motivated by the sole need of the prevention of terrorism targets directly the fundamental rights of individuals. Therefore, a contribution to the understanding of the value of the principle of legality is becoming more and more important nowadays. This paper aims to reflect the probable effects of the adoption of anti-terrorism measures regardless of the principle of legality, on the fundamental rights. In this respect, this paper will first discuss the margin of appreciation of the national authorities by countering terrorism, and then, the importance of the respect of the legality of the anti-terrorism measures will be examined in the light of actual examples. Indeed, one of the major findings of this study is the fact that the anti-terrorism laws and measures were taken in this framework must be subject to close scrutiny in democracies, which adopted the principle of the rule of law and respect human rights. Although the state's margin of appreciation in the field of counter-terrorism is broad, these measures which are based on the legitimate aim of a democracies’ legitimate right to protect itself against the activities of terrorist organizations should have the legal basis and be strictly required by the exigencies of the fight against terrorism. While combating terrorism, the legal basis shall only be achieved if the legal consequences of an individuals’ actions related to terrorism shall be clear and foreseeable by the individuals of a society. On the other hand, particularly during the state of emergency, the ambiguity of the law might be used to include a wide range of actions under acts of terrorism. This is becoming more dangerous where freedom of expression, freedom of the press, freedom of association and the right to information is in the substance of these actions. Disregarding the principle of legality is susceptible to create a chilling effect on the exercise of human rights, and therefore, the fight against terrorism can be transformed into a repressive regime on opponents. As a result, the efforts to counter terrorism of the national authorities irrespective of the principle of legality are susceptible to cause a transformation of the rule of law to a state of law which cannot be appreciated in a democratic society.

Keywords: anti-terrorism measures, chilling effect, predictability, the principle of legality, state of emergency

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5 Creating Renewable Energy Investment Portfolio in Turkey between 2018-2023: An Approach on Multi-Objective Linear Programming Method

Authors: Berker Bayazit, Gulgun Kayakutlu

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The World Energy Outlook shows that energy markets will substantially change within a few forthcoming decades. First, determined action plans according to COP21 and aim of CO₂ emission reduction have already impact on policies of countries. Secondly, swiftly changed technological developments in the field of renewable energy will be influential upon medium and long-term energy generation and consumption behaviors of countries. Furthermore, share of electricity on global energy consumption is to be expected as high as 40 percent in 2040. Electrical vehicles, heat pumps, new electronical devices and digital improvements will be outstanding technologies and innovations will be the testimony of the market modifications. In order to meet highly increasing electricity demand caused by technologies, countries have to make new investments in the field of electricity production, transmission and distribution. Specifically, electricity generation mix becomes vital for both prevention of CO₂ emission and reduction of power prices. Majority of the research and development investments are made in the field of electricity generation. Hence, the prime source diversity and source planning of electricity generation are crucial for improving the wealth of citizen life. Approaches considering the CO₂ emission and total cost of generation, are necessary but not sufficient to evaluate and construct the product mix. On the other hand, employment and positive contribution to macroeconomic values are important factors that have to be taken into consideration. This study aims to constitute new investments in renewable energies (solar, wind, geothermal, biogas and hydropower) between 2018-2023 under 4 different goals. Therefore, a multi-objective programming model is proposed to optimize the goals of minimizing the CO₂ emission, investment amount and electricity sales price while maximizing the total employment and positive contribution to current deficit. In order to avoid the user preference among the goals, Dinkelbach’s algorithm and Guzel’s approach have been combined. The achievements are discussed with comparison to the current policies. Our study shows that new policies like huge capacity allotment might be discussible although obligation for local production is positive. The improvements in grid infrastructure and re-design support for the biogas and geothermal can be recommended.

Keywords: energy generation policies, multi-objective linear programming, portfolio planning, renewable energy

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4 Research Trends in Fine Arts Education Dissertations in Turkey

Authors: Suzan Duygu Bedir Erişti

Abstract:

The present study tried to make a general evaluation of the dissertations conducted in the last decade in the field of art education in the Department of Fine Arts Education in the Institutes of Education Sciences in Turkey. In the study, most of the universities which involved an Institute of Education Sciences within their bodies in Turkey were reached. As a result, a total of a hundred dissertations conducted in the departments of Fine Arts Education at several universities (Anadolu, Gazi, Ankara, Marmara, Dokuz Eylul, Ondokuz Mayıs, Selcuk and Necmettin Erbakan) were determined via the open access systems of universities as well as via the Thesis Search System of Higher Education Council. Most of the dissertations were reached via the latter system, and in cases of failure, the dissertations were reached via the former system. Consequently, most of the dissertations which did not have any access restriction and which had appropriate content were reached. The dissertations reached were examined based on document analysis in terms of their research topics, research paradigms, contents, purposes, methodologies, data collection tools, and analysis techniques. The dissertations conducted in institutes of Education Sciences could be said to have demonstrated a development, especially in recent years with respect to their qualities. It was also found that a great majority of the dissertations were carried out at Gazi University and Marmara University and that a similar number of dissertations were conducted in other universities. When all the dissertations were taken into account, in general, they were found to differ a lot in their subject areas. In most of the dissertations, the quantitative paradigm was adopted, while especially in recent years, more importance has been given to methods based on the qualitative paradigm. In addition, most of the dissertations conducted with quantitative paradigm were structured based on the general survey model and experimental research model. In terms of statistical techniques, university-focused approaches were used. In some universities, advanced statistical techniques were applied, while in some other universities, there was a moderate use of statistical techniques. Most of the studies produced results generalizable to the levels of postgraduate education and elementary school education. The studies were generally structured in face-to-face teaching processes, while some of them were designed in environments which did not include results generalizable to the face-to-face education system. In the present study, it was seen that the dissertations conducted in the departments of Fine Arts Education at the Institutes of Education Sciences in Turkey did not involve application-based approaches which included art-based or visual research in terms of either research topic or methodology.

Keywords: fine arts education, dissertations, evaluation of dissertations, research trends in fine arts education

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