Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: cisplatin

30 Lack of Functional Interaction between Nitric Oxide and ET-A Receptors in Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Failure

Authors: Mai M. Helmy


Although the role of either nitric oxide (NO) or endothelin receptors modulation in the severity of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity has been recognized in previous studies including our own, the possible interaction between the two pathways remains obscure. In this study, we tested the possible interaction between the nitrergic and endothelin pathways in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Sprague Dawley male rats (200 to 250 g) were divided into four groups: Control (given a single dose of normal saline, i.p.), cisplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.), cisplatin+Sildenafil (2 mg/kg, i.p.), cisplatin+Sildenafil+BQ-123 (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Each of the co-administered drugs was given in two doses; one hour before and one day after the cisplatin dose. Acute cisplatin administration resulted in significant increases in BUN and serum creatinine levels at 96 h following cisplatin injection. Increased levels of MDA, TNF-α and caspase-3, decreased nitrite/nitrate level and SOD activity in kidney homogenates were also observed following cisplatin injection. According to the obtained results, the co-adminstration of sildenafil alone with cisplatin offered a reno-protective effect comparable to that obtained following the concurrent administration of both sildenafil and the selective ETAR antagonist BQ-123. Thus, the current study is the first to reveal that the presence of an intact NO/cGMP system may offer a moderate reno-protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity even in the presence of ETAR-mediated vasoconstriction, suggesting the absence of obvious functional interaction between the nitrergic and endothelin pathways in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats.

Keywords: BQ-123, cisplatin, endothelin-1, nephrotoxicity, sildenafil

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29 Zingiberofficinale Potential Effect on Nephrin mRNA Expression in Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Mehrevan M. Abdel-Moniem


Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been cultivated for medicinal purposes due to their various proprieties both in vitro and in vivo, so we designed to evaluate the ginger’s potential effect on nephrin m RNA expression in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats. Method: Forty male albino rats were divided into group I was injected (IP) with one ml saline, group II(cisplatin) injected (IP) with a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin, group III (ginger) received (PO) 310 mg/kg for 30 successive days, and group IV(cisplatin and ginger) rats received ginger extract (310 mg/kg) daily for 20 successive days (PO), and then on day 20 of ginger extract administration each rat was injected(IP) with a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin. The blood was sampled to assess urea, creatinine (SC), while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and paraoxonase (PON1) were measured in kidney tissue homogenate. Expression of urinary nephrin gene (nephrin mRNA) was detected using qRT-PCR. Results: Treatment with ginger significantly decreased the levels of kidney function parameters as well as MDA and NO elevated by cisplatin injection, while PON1 was significantly reduced in the cisplatin group. However, the protection of male rats with ginger significantly increased the levels of nephrin gene expression and PON1 compared with the cisplatin-treated group. Our results generated a proposal on the ameliorating effect of ginger on nephrin mRNA gene expression reduction in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: nephrin mRNA, ginger, cisplatin, nephrotoxicity

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28 The Role of Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-182 and Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-214 in Cisplatin Resistance of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Bahadir Batar, Elif Serdal, Berna Erdal, Hasan Ogul


Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are small short non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules about 22 nucleotides long. miRNAs play a key role in response to chemotherapeutic agents. WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein. Loss or reduction of Wwox protein is observed in many breast cancer cases. WWOX protein deficiency is increased in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is a heterogeneous, highly aggressive, and difficult to treat tumor type. WWOX loss contributes to resistance to cisplatin therapy in patients with TNBC. Here, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential role of miRNAs in cisplatin therapy resistance of WWOX-deficient TNBC cells. This was a cell culture study. miRNA expression profiling was analyzed by LightCycler 480 system. miRNA Set Enrichment Analysis tool was used to integrate experimental data with literature-based biological knowledge to infer a new hypothesis. Increased miR-182 and decreased miR-214 were significantly correlated with cisplatin resistance in WWOX-deficient TNBC cells. miR-182 and miR-214 may involve in cisplatin resistance of WWOX-deficient TNBC cells by deregulating the DNA repair, apoptosis, or protein kinase B signaling pathways. These data highlight the mechanism by which WWOX regulates cisplatin resistance of TNBC and the potential use of WWOX as a predictor biomarker for cisplatin resistance.

Keywords: cisplatin, microRNA, triple-negative breast cancer, WWOX

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27 Lipid-Chitosan Hybrid Nanoparticles for Controlled Delivery of Cisplatin

Authors: Muhammad Muzamil Khan, Asadullah Madni, Nina Filipczek, Jiayi Pan, Nayab Tahir, Hassan Shah, Vladimir Torchilin


Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNP) are delivery systems for controlled drug delivery at tumor sites. The superior biocompatible properties of lipid and structural advantages of polymer can be obtained via this system for controlled drug delivery. In the present study, cisplatin-loaded lipid-chitosan hybrid nanoparticles were formulated by the single step ionic gelation method based on ionic interaction of positively charged chitosan and negatively charged lipid. Formulations with various chitosan to lipid ratio were investigated to obtain the optimal particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and controlled release pattern. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated a size range of 181-245 nm and a zeta potential range of 20-30 mV. Compatibility among the components and the stability of formulation were demonstrated with FTIR analysis and thermal studies, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy and cellular interaction of cisplatin-loaded LPHNP were investigated using in vitro cell-based assays in A2780/ADR ovarian carcinoma cell line. Additionally, the cisplatin loaded LPHNP exhibited a low toxicity profile in rats. The in-vivo pharmacokinetics study also proved a controlled delivery of cisplatin with enhanced mean residual time and half-life. Our studies suggested that the cisplatin-loaded LPHNP being a promising platform for controlled delivery of cisplatin in cancer therapy.

Keywords: cisplatin, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle, chitosan, in vitro cell line study

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26 Intensive Crosstalk between Autophagy and Intracellular Signaling Regulates Osteosarcoma Cell Survival Response under Cisplatin Stress

Authors: Jyothi Nagraj, Sudeshna Mukherjee, Rajdeep Chowdhury


Autophagy has recently been linked with cancer cell survival post drug insult contributing to acquisition of resistance. However, the molecular signaling governing autophagic survival response is poorly explored. In our study, in osteosarcoma (OS) cells cisplatin shock was found to activate both MAPK and autophagy signaling. An activation of JNK and autophagy acted as pro-survival strategy, while ERK1/2 triggered apoptotic signals upon cisplatin stress. An increased sensitivity of the cells to cisplatin was obtained with simultaneous inhibition of both autophagy and JNK pathway. Furthermore, we observed that the autophagic stimulation upon drug stress regulates other developmentally active signaling pathways like the Hippo pathway in OS cells. Cisplatin resistant cells were thereafter developed by repetitive drug exposure followed by clonal selection. Basal levels of autophagy were found to be high in resistant cells to. However, the signaling mechanism leading to autophagic up-regulation and its regulatory effect differed in OS cells upon attaining drug resistance. Our results provide valuable clues to regulatory dynamics of autophagy that can be considered for development of improved therapeutic strategy against resistant type cancers.

Keywords: JNK, autophagy, drug resistance, cancer

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25 Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Experimental Rats

Authors: Prerna Kalra, Surender Singh


Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic agent used in different solid tumors, but its main limiting factor is dose-dependent nephrotoxicity by generating reactive oxygen species, by stimulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Additional adjuvant therapies to decrease the toxicity of this chemotherapeutic drug are essential. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of Emblica officinalis Geartn (Indian gooseberry) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Emblica officinalis was orally administered to Wistar rats (n=6) for 10 days in 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight. On day 7, 8mg/kg of cisplatin was administered intra-peritoneally to rats in all groups. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and antioxidant levels were measured on day10. The renal damage was evaluated by histopathological and transmission electron microscopy. We found that 200mg/kg dose of Emblica officinalis significantly inhibited the elevation of biochemical parameters i.e. serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, oxidant stress marker (malondialdehyde) and increased the reduced levels of antioxidant marker (endogenous glutathione and superoxide dismutase). Cisplatin treated rats have shown acute tubular necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rat kidney which was reversed after treating the animals with Emblica officinalis in the treatment group. In ultrastructural changes cisplatin treated group showed the damaged mitochondria (M) with dissolved cristae and large number of lysosomes (L) and vacuole (V) formation in tubular epithelial cells. EOE administered group showed visible cristae formation and sign of autophagy vacuoles at a dose of 200mg/kg. Further in-silico studies revealed that ellagic acid is responsible for its nephroprotective effect. The above findings conclude that the Emblica officinalis may be used as an adjuvant therapy in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: antioxidant, cisplatin, Emblica officinalis, in silico, nephrotoxicity

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24 Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and Taxol in Overcoming Taxol Resistance through the Inhibition of LDHA in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Lin Feng, Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu


The development of chemoresistance in patients represents a major challenge in cancer treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase‑A (LDHA) is one of the principle isoforms of LDH that is expressed in breast tissue, controlling the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and also playing a significant role in the metabolism of glucose. The aim of this study was to identify whether LDHA was involved in oral cancer cell resistance to Taxol and whether the downregulation of LDHA, as a result of cisplatin treatment, may overcome Taxol resistance in human oral squamous cells. The OECM‑1 oral epidermal carcinoma cell line was used, which has been widely used as a model of oral cancer in previous studies. The role of LDHA in Taxol and cisplatin resistance was investigated and the synergistic cytotoxicity of cisplatin and/or Taxol in oral squamous cells was analyzed. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay, LDHA expression was analyzed by western blot analysis and siRNA transfection was performed to knock down LDHA expression. The present study results showed that decreased levels of LDHA were responsible for the resistance of oral cancer cells to cisplatin (CDDP). CDDP treatments downregulated LDHA expression and lower levels of LDHA were detected in the CDDP‑resistant oral cancer cells compared with the CDDP‑sensitive cells. By contrast, the Taxol‑resistant cancer cells showed elevated LDHA expression levels. In addition, small interfering RNA‑knockdown of LDHA sensitized the cells to Taxol but desensitized them to CDDP treatment while exogenous expression of LDHA sensitized the cells to CDDP, but desensitized them to Taxol. The present study also revealed the synergistic cytotoxicity of CDDP and Taxol for killing oral cancer cells through the inhibition of LDHA. This study highlights LDHA as a novel therapeutic target for overcoming Taxol resistance in oral cancer patients using the combined treatments of Taxol and CDDP.

Keywords: cisplatin, Taxol, carcinoma, oral squamous cells

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23 Applications of Copper Sensitive Fluorescent Dye to the Studies of the Role of Copper in Cisplatin Resistance in Human Cancer

Authors: Sumayah Mohammed Asiri A., Aviva Levina B., Elizabeth New C., Peter Lay D.


Pt compounds have been among the most successful anticancer drugs in the last 40 years, but the development of resistance to them is an increasing problem. Cellular homeostasis of an essential metal, Cu, is known to be involved in Pt resistance, but mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. We used a novel ratiometric Cu(I)-sensitive fluorescent probeInCCu1 dye to detect Cu(I) in the mitochondria. Total Cu and labile Cu pool measured using AAS and InCCu1 dye in A2780 cells and their corresponding resistant cells A2780-cis.R cells treated with Cu and cisplatin. The main difference between both cell lines in the presence and absence of Cu(II) is that resistant cells have lower total Cu content but higher labile Cu levels than cisplatin-sensitive cells. This means that resistant cells can metabolize and export excess Cu more efficiently. Furthermore, InCCu1 has emerged not only as an indicator of labile cellular Cu levels in the mitochondria but as a potentially versatile multi-organelle probe.

Keywords: AAS and ICPMS, A2780 and its resistant cells, ratiometric fluorescent sensors, inCCu1, and total and labile Cu

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22 Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Ameliorate Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Failure through Autophagy Induction and Inhibition of Apoptosis

Authors: Soniya Nityanand, Ekta Minocha, Manali Jain, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Chandra Prakash Chaturvedi


Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) have been shown to contribute towards the amelioration of Acute Renal Failure (ARF), but the mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effect are largely unknown. Therefore, the main goal of the current study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC in a cisplatin-induced rat model of ARF and to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for its renoprotective effect. To study the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC, ARF was induced in Wistar rats by an intra-peritoneal injection of cisplatin, and five days after administration, the rats were randomized into two groups and injected with either AFSC or normal saline intravenously. On day 8 and 12 after cisplatin injection, i.e., day 3 and day7 post-therapy respectively, the blood biochemical parameters, histopathological changes, apoptosis and expression of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins in renal tissues were studied in both groups of rats. Administration of AFSC in ARF rats resulted in improvement of renal function and attenuation of renal damage as reflected by significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine levels, tubular cell apoptosis as assessed by Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins viz. PUMA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 as compared to saline-treated group. Furthermore, in the AFSC-treated group as compared to saline-treated group, there was a significant increase in the activation of autophagy as evident by increased expression of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin1 and phospho-AMPK levels with a concomitant decrease in phospho-p70S6K and p62 expression levels. To further confirm whether the protective effects of AFSC on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were dependent on autophagy, chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor was administered by the intra-peritoneal route. Chloroquine administration led to significant reduction in the anti-apoptotic effects of the AFSC therapy and further deterioration in the renal structure and function caused by cisplatin. Collectively, our results put forth that AFSC ameliorates cisplatin-induced ARF through induction of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective effects of AFSC were blunted by chloroquine, highlighting that activation of autophagy is an important mechanism of action for the protective role of AFSC in cisplatin-induced renal injury.

Keywords: amniotic fluid stem cells, acute renal failure, autophagy, cisplatin

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21 The Balancing of the Parental Responsibilities and Right and the Best Interest of the Child within the Parent-Child Relationship

Authors: R. Prinsloo


Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) have been shown to contribute towards the amelioration of Acute Renal Failure (ARF), but the mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effect are largely unknown. Therefore, the main goal of the current study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC in a cisplatin-induced rat model of ARF and to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for its renoprotective effect. To study the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC, ARF was induced in Wistar rats by an intra-peritoneal injection of cisplatin, and five days after administration, the rats were randomized into two groups and injected with either AFSC or normal saline intravenously. On day 8 and 12 after cisplatin injection, i.e., day 3 and day7 post-therapy respectively, the blood biochemical parameters, histopathological changes, apoptosis, and expression of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins in renal tissues were studied in both groups of rats. Administration of AFSC in ARF rats resulted in improvement of renal function and attenuation of renal damage as reflected by significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine levels, tubular cell apoptosis as assessed by Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins viz. PUMA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 as compared to saline-treated group. Furthermore, in the AFSC-treated group as compared to saline-treated group, there was a significant increase in the activation of autophagy as evident by increased expression of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin1 and phospho-AMPK levels with a concomitant decrease in phospho-p70S6K and p62 expression levels. To further confirm whether the protective effects of AFSC on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were dependent on autophagy, chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor was administered by the intra-peritoneal route. Chloroquine administration led to significant reduction in the anti-apoptotic effects of the AFSC therapy and further deterioration in the renal structure and function caused by cisplatin. Collectively, our results put forth that AFSC ameliorates cisplatin-induced ARF through induction of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective effects of AFSC were blunted by chloroquine, highlighting that activation of autophagy is an important mechanism of action for the protective role of AFSC in cisplatin-induced renal injury.

Keywords: best interest of the child, children's rights, parent and child relationship, parental responsibilities and rights

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20 Hepatoprotective Effect of Oleuropein against Cisplatin-Induced Liver Damage in Rat

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Murat Bakir, Suat Colak, Merve Sonmez, Kubra Koc


Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most effective an anticancer drug and also toxic to cells by activating oxidative stress. Oleuropein (OLE) has key role against oxidative stress in mammalian cells, but the role of this antioxidant in the toxicity of CIS remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of OLE on CIS-induced liver damages in male rats. With this aim, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of eight groups: Control group; the group treated with 7 mg/kg/day CIS; the groups treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day OLE (i.p.); and the groups treated with OLE for three days starting at 24 h following CIS injection. After 4 days of injections, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. The liver tissues were removed for histological, biochemical (TAC, TOS and MDA) and genotoxic evaluations. In the CIS treated group, the whole liver tissue showed significant histological changes. Also, CIS significantly increased both the incidence of oxidative stress and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Moreover, the rats taking CIS have abnormal results on liver function tests. However, these parameters reached to the normal range after administration of OLE for 3 days. Finally, OLE demonstrated an acceptable high potential and was effective in attenuating CIS-induced liver injury. In this trial, the 200 mg/kg dose of OLE firstly appeared to induce the most optimal protective response.

Keywords: antioxidant response, cisplatin, histology, liver, oleuropein, 8-OhdG

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19 Mediation Analysis of the Efficacy of the Nimotuzumab-Cisplatin-Radiation (NCR) Improve Overall Survival (OS): A HPV Negative Oropharyngeal Cancer Patient (HPVNOCP) Cohort

Authors: Akshay Patil


Objective: Mediation analysis identifies causal pathways by testing the relationships between the NCR, the OS, and an intermediate variable that mediates the relationship between the Nimotuzumab-cisplatin-radiation (NCR) and OS. Introduction: In randomized controlled trials, the primary interest is in the mechanisms by which an intervention exerts its effects on the outcomes. Clinicians are often interested in how the intervention works (or why it does not work) through hypothesized causal mechanisms. In this work, we highlight the value of understanding causal mechanisms in randomized trial by applying causal mediation analysis in a randomized trial in oncology. Methods: Data was obtained from a phase III randomized trial (Subgroup of HPVNOCP). NCR is reported to significantly improve the OS of patients locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing definitive chemoradiation. Here, based on trial data, the mediating effect of NCR on patient overall survival was systematically quantified through progression-free survival(PFS), disease free survival (DFS), Loco-regional failure (LRF), and the disease control rate (DCR), Overall response rate (ORR). Effects of potential mediators on the HR for OS with NCR versus cisplatin-radiation (CR) were analyzed by Cox regression models. Statistical analyses were performed using R software Version 3.6.3 (The R Foundation for Statistical Computing) Results: Effects of potential mediator PFS was an association between NCR treatment and OS, with an indirect-effect (IE) 0.76(0.62 – 0.95), which mediated 60.69% of the treatment effect. Taking into account baseline confounders, the overall adjusted hazard ratio of death was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 – 0.96; P=0.03). The DFS was also a significant mediator and had an IE 0.77 (95% CI; 0.62-0.93), 58% mediated). Smaller mediation effects (maximum 27%) were observed for LRF with IE 0.88(0.74 – 1.06). Both DCR and ORR mediated 10% and 15%, respectively, of the effect of NCR vs. CR on the OS with IE 0.65 (95% CI; 0.81 – 1.08) and 0.94(95% CI; 0.79 – 1.04). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PFS and DFS were the most important mediators of the OS with nimotuzumab to weekly cisplatin-radiation in HPVNOCP.

Keywords: mediation analysis, cancer data, survival, NCR, HPV negative oropharyngeal

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18 Evaluation of Naringenin Role in Inhibiton of Lung Tumor Progression in Mice

Authors: Vishnu Varthan Vaithiyalingamjagannathan, M. N. Sathishkumar, K. S. Lakhsmi, D. Satheeshkumar, Srividyaammayappanrajam


Background:Naringenin, aglycone flavonoid possess certain activities like anti-oxidant, anti-estrogenic, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, anti-obesity,anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and also have anti-cancer characteristics like carcinogenic inactivation, cell cycle arrest, anti-proliferation, apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis and enhances anti-oxidant activity. Methodology:The inhibitory effect of Naringenin in lung tumor progression estimated with adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines (in vitro) and C57BL/6 mice injected with 5 X 106A549 cell lines (in vivo) in a tri-dose manner (Naringenin 100mg/kg,150mg/kg, and 200mg/kg) compared with standard chemotherapy drug cisplatin (7mg/kg). Results:The results of the present study revealed a dose-dependent activity in Naringenin and combination with cisplatin at a higher dose which showed decreased tumor progression in mice. In vitro studies carried out for estimation of cell survival and Nitric Oxide (NO) level, shows dose dependent action of Naringenin with IC50 value of 42µg/ml. In vivo studies were carried out in C57BL/6 mice. Naringenin satisfied the condition of an anti-cancer molecule with its characteristics in fragmentation assay, Zymography assay, anti-oxidant, and myeloperoxidase studies, than cisplatin which failed in anti-oxidant and myeloperoxidase effect. Both in vitro and in vivo establishes dose dependent decrease in NO levels. But whereas, Naringenin showed adverse results in Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymatic levels with increase in dose levels. Conclusion:From the present study, Naringenin could suppress the lung tumor progression when given individually and also in combinatorial with standard chemotherapy drug.

Keywords: naringenin, in vitro, cell line, anticancer

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17 Nephroprotective Activity of Aqueous Methanolic Extract of Aerva Lanata (Busehri Booti) against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mohd Aslam Aslam


Chronic renal failure is a debilitating condition responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Because of its costs and the complexity of its treatment, proper care is available to very few patients in India. According to researchers, the number of adults aged 30 or older who have chronic kidney disease is projected to increase from 13.2 percent currently, to 14.4 percent in 2020 and 16.7 percent in 2030. The aerial part of Aerva lanata (Busehri booti) have been used in kidney disorders by the Unani physicians. In the present study, the effect of extract of Aerva lanata was investigated on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The renal effects of this drug was evaluated by monitoring levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum uric acid in blood and histopathological examination of kidney. Aerva lanata was evaluated at two different doses (1400 mg/kg and 2800 mg/kg). The effect of higher dose was more pronounced in terms of inhibition in the rise of BUN, serum creatinine and uric acid. Higher dose show greater prevention in the rise of BUN, serum creatinine, and uric acid. The histopathological examination of the kidney tissue of the rats treated with aqueous methanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Higher dose-2800 mg/kg) showed marked inhibition of glomerular congestion, tubular casts, peritubular congestion, epithelial desquamation, blood vessel congestion, interstitial edema and inflammatory cells produced by the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This finding clearly indicates the protective role of Aerva lanata at higher dose. Present investigation validates the use of Aerva lanata in kidney disorders by Unani physicians.

Keywords: Aerva lanata, Busehri booti, nephroprotective, unani medicine

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16 Potential Impact of Sodium Salicylate Nanoemulsion on Expression of Nephrin in Nephrotoxic Experimental Rat

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Zakaria El-Khayat, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Mehrez E. El-Naggar


Drug nephrotoxicity is still a problem for patients who have taken drugs for elongated periods or permanently. Ultrasound-assisted sol−gel method was used to prepare hollow structured poroussilica nanoemulsion loaded with sodium salicylate as a model drug. The work was extended to achieve the target of the current work via investigating the protective role of this nanoemulsion model as anti-inflammatory drug or ginger for its antioxidant effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rats. The results clarify that the nanoemulsion model was synthesized using ultrasonic assisted with small size and well stabilization as proved by TEM and DLS analysis. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Serum creatinine (SC) and Urinary total protein (UTP) were increased, and the level of creatinine clearance (Crcl) was decreased. All those were met with disorders in oxidative stress and downregulation in the expression of the nephrin gene. Also, histopathological changes of the kidney tissue were observed. These changes back to normal by treatment with silica nanoparticles loaded sodium salicylate (Si-Sc-NPs), ginger or both. Conclusions oil/water nanoemulsion of (Si-Sc NPs) and ginger showed a protective and promising preventive strategy against nephrotoxicity due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and that offers a new approach in attenuating drug induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: sodium salicylate nanoencapsulation, nephrin mRNA, drug nephrotoxicity, cisplatin, experimental rats

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15 Neo-Adjuvant B-CAT Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Muneeb Nasir, Misbah Masood, Farrukh Rashid, Abubabakar Shahid


Introduction: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a potent option for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) as these tumours lack a clearly defined therapeutic target. Several recent studies lend support that pathological complete remission (pCR) is associated with improved disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and could be used as surrogate marker for DFS and OS in breast cancer patients. Methods: We have used a four-drug protocol in T3 and T4 TNBC patients either N+ or N- in the neo-adjuvant setting. The 15 patients enrolled in this study had a median age of 45 years. 12 patients went on to complete four planned cycles of B-CAT protocol. The chemotherapy regimen included inj. Bevacizumab 5mg/kg D1, inj. Adriamycin 50mg/m2 D1 and Docetaxel 65mg/m2 on D1. Inj. Cisplatin 60mg/m2 on D2. All patients received GCF support from D4 to D9 of each cycle. Results: Radiological assessment using ultrasound and PET-CT revealed a high percentage of responses. Radiological CR was documented in half of the patients (6/12) after four cycles. Remaining patients went on to receive 2 more cycles before undergoing radical surgery. pCR was documented in 7/12 patients and 3 more had a good partial response. The regimen was toxic and grade ¾ neutropenia was seen in 58% of patients. Four episodes of febrile neutropenia were reported and managed. Non-hematatological toxicities were common with mucositis, diarrhea, asthenia and neuropathy topping the list. Conclusion: B-CAT is a very active combination with very high pCR rates in TNBC. Toxicities though frequent, were manageable on outpatient basis. This protocol warrants further investigation.

Keywords: B-CAT:bevacizumab, cisplatin, adriamycin, taxotere, CR: complete response, pCR: pathological complete response, TNBC: triple negative breast cancer

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14 Calpain-Mediated, Cisplain-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Khadija Al-Bulushi, Zuweina Al-Hadidi, Buthaina Al-Dhahl, Nadia Al-Abri


Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. However, the role of calpain in cisplatin (CDDP)-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells is not fully understood. Here, TNBC (MDA-MB231) cells were treated with different concentration of CDDP (0, 20 & 40 µM) and calpain activation and apoptosis were measured by western blot and Hoechst Stain respectively. In addition, calpain modulation by either activation and/or inhibition and its effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis were assessed by the same above approaches. Our findings showed that CDDP induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and thus Calcium release and subsequently activate calpain α-fodrin cleavage indicated by the increase in GRP78 and Calmodulin protein expression and respectively in MDA-MB231 cells. It also induced apoptosis as measured by Hoechst stain and caspase-12 cleavage. Calpain activation by both Cyclopiazonic acid and Thapsigargin showed similar effect and enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to CDDP treatment. On the other hand, calpain inhibition by either specific siRNA and/or exogenous inhibitor (Calpeptin) had an adverse effect where it attenuated calpain activation and thus CDDP- induced apoptosis in these cells. Altogether, these findings suggested that calpain activation play an essential role in sensitizing the TNBC cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis. This might lead to the discovery of novel treatment to over this aggressive type of breast cancer.

Keywords: calpain, cisplatin, apoptosis, breast cancer

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13 Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy of Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas: Patterns of Loco Regional Relapse

Authors: Omar Nouri, Wafa Mnejja, Nejla Fourati, Fatma Dhouib, Wicem Siala, Ilhem Charfeddine, Afef Khanfir, Jamel Daoud


Background and objective: Induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concomitant chemo radiotherapy with intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) technique is actually the recommended treatment modality for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors predicting loco regional relapse with this new treatment protocol. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of 52 patients with NPC treated between June 2016 and July 2019. All patients received IC according to the protocol of the Head and Neck Radiotherapy Oncology Group (Gortec) NPC 2006 (3 TPF courses) followed by concomitant chemo radiotherapy with weekly cisplatin (40 mg / m2). Patients received IMRT with integrated simultaneous boost (SIB) of 33 daily fractions at a dose of 69.96 Gy for high-risk volume, 60 Gy for intermediate risk volume and 54 Gy for low-risk volume. Median age was 49 years (19-69) with a sex ratio of 3.3. Forty five tumors (86.5%) were classified as stages III - IV according to the 2017 UICC TNM classification. Loco regional relapse (LRR) was defined as a local and/or regional progression that occurs at least 6 months after the end of treatment. Survival analysis was performed according to Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test was used to compare anatomy clinical and therapeutic factors that may influence loco regional free survival (LRFS). Results: After a median follow up of 42 months, 6 patients (11.5%) experienced LRR. A metastatic relapse was also noted for 3 of these patients (50%). Target volumes coverage was optimal for all patient with LRR. Four relapses (66.6%) were in high-risk target volume and two (33.3%) were borderline. Three years LRFS was 85,9%. Four factors predicted loco regional relapses: histologic type other than undifferentiated (UCNT) (p=0.027), a macroscopic pre chemotherapy tumor volume exceeding 100 cm³ (p=0.005), a reduction in IC doses exceeding 20% (p=0.016) and a total cumulative cisplatin dose less than 380 mg/m² (p=0.0.34). TNM classification and response to IC did not impact loco regional relapses. Conclusion: For nasopharyngeal carcinoma, tumors with initial high volume and/or histologic type other than UCNT, have a higher risk of loco regional relapse. Therefore, they require a more aggressive therapeutic approaches and a suitable monitoring protocol.

Keywords: loco regional relapse, modulation intensity radiotherapy, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, prognostic factors

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12 Giant Cancer Cell Formation: A Link between Cell Survival and Morphological Changes in Cancer Cells

Authors: Rostyslav Horbay, Nick Korolis, Vahid Anvari, Rostyslav Stoika


Introduction: Giant cancer cells (GCC) are common in all types of cancer, especially after poor therapy. Some specific features of such cells include ~10-fold enlargement, drug resistance, and the ability to propagate similar daughter cells. We used murine NK/Ly lymphoma, an aggressive and fast growing lymphoma model that has already shown drastic changes in GCC comparing to parental cells (chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, tighter OXPHOS/cellular respiration coupling, multidrug resistance). Materials and methods: In this study, we compared morpho-functional changes of GCC that predominantly show either a cytostatic or a cytotoxic effect after treatment with drugs. We studied the effect of a combined cytostatic/cytotoxic drug treatment to determine the correlation of drug efficiency and GCC formation. Doses of G1/S-specific drug paclitaxel/PTX (G2/M-specific, 50 mg/mouse), vinblastine/VBL (50 mg/mouse), and DNA-targeting agents doxorubicin/DOX (125 ng/mouse) and cisplatin/CP (225 ng/mouse) on C57 black mice. Several tests were chosen to estimate morphological and physiological state (propidium iodide, Rhodamine-123, DAPI, JC-1, Janus Green, Giemsa staining and other), which included cell integrity, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation, mitochondrial activity, and others. A single and double factor ANOVA analysis were performed to determine correlation between the criteria of applied drugs and cytomorphological changes. Results: In all cases of treatment, several morphological changes were observed (intracellular vacuolization, membrane blebbing, and interconnected mitochondrial network). A lower gain in ascites (49.97% comparing to control group) and longest lifespan (22+9 days) after tumor injection was obtained with single VBL and single DOX injections. Such ascites contained the highest number of GCC (83.7%+9.2%), lowest cell count number (72.7+31.0 mln/ml), and a strong correlation coefficient between increased mitochondrial activity and percentage of giant NK/Ly cells. A high number of viable GCC (82.1+9.2%) was observed compared to the parental forms (15.4+11.9%) indicating that GCC are more drug resistant than the parental cells. All this indicates that the giant cell formation and its ability to obtain drug resistance is an expanding field in cancer research.

Keywords: ANOVA, cisplatin, doxorubicin, drug resistance, giant cancer cells, NK/Ly lymphoma, paclitaxel, vinblastine

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11 Using Lysosomal Immunogenic Cell Death to Target Breast Cancer via Xanthine Oxidase/Micro-Antibody Fusion Protein

Authors: Iulianna Taritsa, Kuldeep Neote, Eric Fossel


Lysosome-induced immunogenic cell death (LIICD) is a powerful mechanism of targeting cancer cells that kills circulating malignant cells and primes the host’s immune cells against future remission. Current immunotherapies for cancer are limited in preventing recurrence – a gap that can be bridged by training the immune system to recognize cancer neoantigens. Lysosomal leakage can be induced therapeutically to traffic antigens from dying cells to dendritic cells, which can later present those tumorigenic antigens to T cells. Previous research has shown that oxidative agents administered in the tumor microenvironment can initiate LIICD. We generated a fusion protein between an oxidative agent known as xanthine oxidase (XO) and a mini-antibody specific for EGFR/HER2-sensitive breast tumor cells. The anti-EGFR single domain antibody fragment is uniquely sourced from llama, which is functional without the presence of a light chain. These llama micro-antibodies have been shown to be better able to penetrate tissues and have improved physicochemical stability as compared to traditional monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrate that the fusion protein created is stable and can induce early markers of immunogenic cell death in an in vitro human breast cancer cell line (SkBr3). Specifically, we measured overall cell death, as well as surface-expressed calreticulin, extracellular ATP release, and HMGB1 production. These markers are consensus indicators of ICD. Flow cytometry, luminescence assays, and ELISA were used respectively to quantify biomarker levels between treated versus untreated cells. We also included a positive control group of SkBr3 cells dosed with doxorubicin (a known inducer of LIICD) and a negative control dosed with cisplatin (a known inducer of cell death, but not of the immunogenic variety). We looked at each marker at various time points after cancer cells were treated with the XO/antibody fusion protein, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. Upregulated biomarkers after treatment with the fusion protein indicate an immunogenic response. We thus show the potential for this fusion protein to induce an anticancer effect paired with an adaptive immune response against EGFR/HER2+ cells. Our research in human cell lines here provides evidence for the success of the same therapeutic method for patients and serves as the gateway to developing a new treatment approach against breast cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, breast cancer, immunogenic cell death, lysosome

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10 Targeted Nano Anti-Cancer Drugs for Curing Cancers

Authors: Imran Ali


General chemotherapy for cancer treatment has many side and toxic effects. A new approach of targeting nano anti-cancer drug is under development stage and only few drugs are available in the market today. The unique features of these drugs are targeted action on cancer cells only without any side effect. Sometimes, these are called magic drugs. The important molecules used for nano anti-cancer drugs are cisplatin, carboplatin, bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, dactinomycin, 6-mercaptopurine, paclitaxel, topotecan, vinblastin and etoposide etc. The most commonly used materials for preparing nano particles carriers are dendrimers, polymeric, liposomal, micelles inorganic, organic etc. The proposed lecture will comprise the-of-art of nano drugs in cancer chemo-therapy including preparation, types of drugs, mechanism, future perspectives etc.

Keywords: cancer, nano-anti-cancer drugs, chemo-therapy, mechanism of action, future perspectives

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9 Biomolecular Interaction of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes

Authors: S. N. Harun, H. Ahmad


A series of ruthenium(II) complexes, including two novel compounds [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+ where dppz = dipyrido-[3,2-a:2’,3’-c]phenazine, and L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (PIP) or 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (p-HPIP) have been synthesized and characterized. The previously reported complexes [Ru(bpy)2L]2+ and [Ru(phen)2L]2+ were also prepared. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, ESI-Mass spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The photophysical properties were analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ and [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ displayed ‘molecular light-switch’ effect as they have high emission in acetonitrile but no emission in water. The cytotoxicity of all complexes against cancer cell lines Hela and MCF-7 were investigated through standard MTT assay. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ showed moderate toxicity on both MCF-7 and Hela with IC50 of 37.64 µM and 28.02 µM, respectively. Interestingly, [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity results with IC50 of 13.52 µM on Hela and 11.63 µM on MCF-7 cell lines which are comparable to the infamous anti-cancer drug, cisplatin. The cytotoxicity of this complex series increased as the ligands size extended in order of [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(phen)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+.

Keywords: ruthenium, cytotoxicity, molecular light-switch, anticancer

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8 Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions with Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

Authors: Meena Kumari, Ajitha Sharma, Mohan Babu Amberkar, Hasitha Manohar, Joseph Thomas, K. L. Bairy


Aim: To evaluate the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive case record study done on patients admitted to the medical oncology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from July to November 2012. Inclusion criteria comprised of patients of both sexes and all ages diagnosed with cancer and were on platinum compounds, who developed at least one adverse drug reaction during or after the treatment period. CDSCO proforma was used for reporting ADRs. Causality was assessed using Naranjo Algorithm. Results: A total of 65 patients was included in the study. Females comprised of 67.69% and rest males. Around 49.23% of the ADRs were seen in the age group of 41-60 years, followed by 20 % in 21-40 years, 18.46% in patients over 60 years and 12.31% in 1-20 years age group. The anticancer agents which caused adverse drug reactions in our study were carboplatin (41.54%), cisplatin (36.92%) and oxaliplatin (21.54%). Most common adverse drug reactions observed were oral candidiasis (21.53%), vomiting (16.92%), anaemia (12.3%), diarrhoea (12.3%) and febrile neutropenia (0.08%). The results of the causality assessment of most of the cases were probable. Conclusion: The adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents is a matter of concern in the pharmacological management of cancer as it affects the quality of life of patients. This information would be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable adverse drug reactions while generally enhancing the knowledge of the prescribers to deal with these adverse drug reactions more efficiently.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, platinum compounds, cancer, chemotherapy

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7 Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Choledochoduodenostomy in an Advanced Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

Authors: Diego Carrasco, Catarina Freitas, Hugo Rio Tinto, Ricardo Rio Tinto, Nuno Couto, Joaquim Gago, Carlos Carvalho


Introduction: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CD) to drain the gallbladder can be a palliative care procedure for non-surgical oncologic patients with cholelithiasis and cholangitis process. Case description: A 59-years old Caucasian male diagnosed with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with multiple liver, lung and peritoneum metastasis, unresponsive to treatment with gemcitabine/cisplatin, presented in the institution with fever, hypotension, and severe upper right abdominal pain secondary to cholelithiasis and cholangitis process. The patient was admitted and started on large spectrum antibiotics plus fluid-challenge. Afterward, a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed to drain the gallbladder. This procedure temporarily stabilized the patient. However, the definitive solution required gallbladder removal. Since the patient exhibited an advanced oncologic disease and poor response to the chemotherapy, he was not a candidate for surgical intervention. Diagnostic Pathways: A self-expanding metal stent was placed from the duodenum into the bile duct by endoscopic ultrasound-guided. The stent allowed efficient drainage of the contrast from the gallbladder at the end of the endoscopic procedure. Conclusion and Discussion: The stent allowed efficient drainage of the contrast from the gallbladder at the end of the endoscopic procedure and successfully reversed the cholangitis process. EUS-CD is an effective and safe technique and can be used as a palliative care procedure for non-surgical oncologic patients.

Keywords: palliative care, cholangiocarcinoma, choledochoduodenostomy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided

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6 Early Hypothyroidism after Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Authors: Nejla Fourati, Zied Fessi, Fatma Dhouib, Wicem Siala, Leila Farhat, Afef Khanfir, Wafa Mnejja, Jamel Daoud


Purpose: Radiation induced hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) ranged from 15% to 55%. In reported data, it is considered as a common late complication of definitive radiation and is mainly observed 2 years after the end of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of early hypothyroidism within 6 months after radiotherapy. Patients and methods: From June 2017 to February 2020, 35 patients treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCR) for NPC were included in this prospective study. Median age was 49 years [23-68] with a sex ratio of 2.88. All patients received intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at a dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 daily fractions with weekly cisplatin (40mg/m²) chemotherapy. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxine 4 (FT4) dosage was performed before the start of radiotherapy and 6 months after. Different dosimetric parameters for the thyroid gland were reported: the volume (cc); the mean dose (Dmean) and the %age of volume receiving more than 45 Gy (V45Gy). Wilcoxon Test was used to compare these different parameters between patients with or without hypothyroidism. Results: At baseline, 5 patients (14.3%) had hypothyroidism and were excluded from the analysis. For the remaining 30 patients, 9 patients (30%) developed a hypothyroidism 6 months after the end of radiotherapy. The median thyroid volume was 10.3 cc [4.6-23]. The median Dmean and V45Gy were 48.3 Gy [43.15-55.4] and 74.8 [38.2-97.9] respectively. No significant difference was noted for all studied parameters. Conclusion: Early hypothyroidism occurring within 6 months after CCR for NPC seems to be a common complication (30%) that should be screened. Good patient monitoring with regular dosage of TSH and FT4 makes it possible to treat hypothyroidism in asymptomatic phase. This would be correlated with an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. The results of our study do not show a correlation between the thyroid doses and the occurrence of hypothyroidism. This is probably related to the high doses received by the thyroid in our series. These findings encourage more optimization to limit thyroid doses and then the risk of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, hypothyroidism, early complication, thyroid dose

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5 Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Properties of Half-Sandwich Complexes of Ruthenium(II), Rhodium(II) and Iridium(III)

Authors: A. Gilewska, J. Masternak, K. Kazimierczuk, L. Turlej, J. Wietrzyk, B. Barszcz


Platinum-based drugs are now widely used as chemotherapeutic agents. However the platinum complexes show the toxic side-effects: i) the development of platinum resistance; ii) the occurrence of severe side effects, such as nephro-, neuro- and ototoxicity; iii) the high toxicity towards human fibroblast. Therefore the development of new anticancer drugs containing different transition-metal ions, for example, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium is a valid strategy in cancer treatment. In this paper, we reported the synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and biological properties of complexes of ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium containing N,N-chelating ligand (2,2’-bisimidazole). These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis. These complexes exhibit a typical pseudotetrahedral three-legged piano-stool geometry, in which the aromatic arene ring forms the seat of the piano-stool, while the bidentate 2,2’-bisimidazole (ligand) and the one chlorido ligand form the three legs of the stool. The spectroscopy data (IR, UV-Vis) and elemental analysis correlate very well with molecular structures. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was carried out on human cancer cell lines: LoVo (colorectal adenoma), MV-4-11 (myelomonocytic leukaemia), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and normal healthy mouse fibroblast BALB/3T3 cell lines. To predict a binding mode, a potential interaction of metal complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and protein (BSA) has been explored using UV absorption and circular dichroism (CD). It is interesting to note that the investigated complexes show no cytotoxic effect towards the normal BALB/3T3 cell line, compared to cisplatin, which IC₅₀ values was determined as 2.20 µM. Importantly, Ru(II) displayed the highest activity against HL-60 (IC₅₀ 4.35 µM). The biological studies (UV-Vis and circular dichroism) suggest that arene-complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA probably via an outside binding mode and interact with protein (BSA).

Keywords: ruthenium(II) complex, rhodium(III) complex, iridium(III) complex, biological activity

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4 Structure-Reactivity Relationship of Some Rhᴵᴵᴵ and Osᴵᴵᴵ Complexes with N-Inert Ligands in Ionic Liquids

Authors: Jovana Bogojeski, Dusan Cocic, Nenad Jankovic, Angelina Petrovic


Kinetically-inert transition metal complexes, such as Rh(III) and Os(III) complexes, attract increasing attention as leading scaffolds for the development of potential pharmacological agents due to their inertness and stability. Therefore, we have designed and fully characterized a few novel rhodium(III) and osmium(III) complexes with a tridentate nitrogen−donor chelate system. For some complexes, the crystal X-ray structure analysis was performed. Reactivity of the newly synthesized complexes towards small biomolecules, such as L-methionine (L-Met), guanosine-5’-monophosphate (5’-GMP), and glutathione (GSH) has been examined. Also, the reactivity of these complexes towards the DNA/RNA (Ribonucleic acid) duplexes was investigated. Obtained results show that the newly synthesized complexes exhibit good affinity towards the studied ligands. Results also show that the complexes react faster with the RNA duplex than with the DNA and that in the DNA duplex reaction is faster with 15mer GG than with the 22mer GG. The UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy) is absorption spectroscopy, and the EB (Ethidium bromide) displacement studies were used to examine the interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA and BSA (Bovine serum albumin). All studied complex showed good interaction ability with both the DNA and BSA. Furthermore, the DFT (Density-functional theory) calculation and docking studies were performed. The impact of the metal complex on the cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assay (a colorimetric assay for assessing cell metabolic activity) on HCT-116 lines (human colon cancer cell line). In addition, all these tests were repeated in the presence of several water-soluble biologically active ionic liquids. Attained results indicate that the ionic liquids increase the activity of the investigated complexes. All obtained results in this study imply that the introduction of different spectator ligand can be used to improve the reactivity of rhodium(III) and osmium(III) complexes. Finally, these results indicate that the examined complexes show reactivity characteristics needed for potential anti-tumor agents, with possible targets being both the DNA and proteins. Every new contribution in this field is highly warranted due to the current lack of clinically used Metallo-based alternatives to cisplatin.

Keywords: biomolecules, ionic liquids, osmium(III), rhodium(III)

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3 Phage Capsid for Efficient Delivery of Cytotoxic Drugs

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Dita Munzova, Ana Maria Jimenez Jimenez, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek


The boom of nanomedicine in recent years has led to the development of numerous new nanomaterials that can be used as nanocarriers in the drug delivery. These nanocarriers can either be synthetic or natural-based. The disadvantage of many synthetic nanocarriers is their toxicity in patient’s body. Protein cages that can naturally be found in human body do not exhibit such disadvantage. However, the release of cargo from some protein cages in target cells can be problematic. As a special type of protein cages can serve the capsid of many viruses, including phage. Phages infect bacterial cells; therefore they are not harmful to human cells. The targeting of phage particles to cancer cells can be solved by producing of empty phage capsids during which the targeting moieties (e.g. peptides) can be cloned into genes of phage capsid to decorate its surface. Moreover, the produced capsids do not contain viral nucleic acid and are therefore not infectious to beneficial bacteria in the patient’s body. The protein cage composed of viral capsid is larger than other frequently used apoferritin cage but its size is still small enough to benefit from passive targeting by Enhanced Permeability and Retention effect. In this work, bacteriophage λ was used, both whole and its empty capsid for delivery of different cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, etoposide and doxorubicin). Large quantities of phage λ were obtained from phage λ-producing strain of E. coli cultivated in medium with 0.2 % maltose. After killing of E. coli with chloroform and its removal by centrifugation, the phage was concentrated by ultracentrifugation at 130 000 g and 4 °C for 3 h. The encapsulation of the drugs was performed by infusion method and four different concentrations of the drugs were encapsulated (200; 100; 50; 25 µg/ml). Free molecules of drugs were removed by dialysis. The encapsulation was verified using spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods. The amount of encapsulated drug linearly increased with the amount of applied drug (determination coefficient R2=0.8013). 76% of applied drug was encapsulated in phage λ particles (concentration of 10 µg/ml), even with the highest applied concentration of drugs, 200 µg/ml. Only 1% of encapsulated drug was detected in phage DNA. Similar results were obtained with encapsulation in phage empty capsid. Therefore, it can be concluded that the encapsulation of drugs into phage particles is efficient and mostly occurs by interaction of drugs with protein capsid.

Keywords: cytostatics, drug delivery, nanocarriers, phage capsid

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2 Evaluation of Role of Surgery in Management of Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors According to Risk Adapted Therapy Protocols

Authors: Ahmed Abdallatif


Background: Patients with malignant germ cell tumors have age distribution in two peaks, with the first one during infancy and the second after the onset of puberty. Gonadal germ cell tumors are the most common malignant ovarian tumor in females aged below twenty years. Sacrococcygeal and retroperitoneal abdominal tumors usually presents in a large size before the onset of symptoms. Methods: Patients with pediatric germ cell tumors presenting to Children’s Cancer Hospital Egypt and National Cancer Institute Egypt from January 2008 to June 2011 Patients underwent stratification according to risk into low, intermediate and high risk groups according to children oncology group classification. Objectives: Assessment of the clinicopathologic features of all cases of pediatric germ cell tumors and classification of malignant cases according to their stage, and the primary site to low, intermediate and high risk patients. Evaluation of surgical management in each group of patients focusing on surgical approach, the extent of surgical resection according to each site, ability to achieve complete surgical resection and perioperative complications. Finally, determination of the three years overall and disease-free survival in different groups and the relation to different prognostic factors including the extent of surgical resection. Results: Out of 131 cases surgically explored only 26 cases had re exploration with 8 cases explored for residual disease 9 cases for remote recurrence or metastatic disease and the other 9 cases for other complications. Patients with low risk kept under follow up after surgery, out of those of low risk group (48 patients) only 8 patients (16.5%) shifted to intermediate risk. There were 20 patients (14.6%) diagnosed as intermediate risk received 3 cycles of compressed (Cisplatin, Etoposide and Bleomycin) and all high risk group patients 69patients (50.4%) received chemotherapy. Stage of disease was strongly and significantly related to overall survival with a poorer survival in late stages (stage IV) as compared to earlier stages. Conclusion: Overall survival rate at 3 three years was (76.7% ± 5.4, 3) years EFS was (77.8 % ±4.0), however 3 years DFS was much better (89.8 ± 3.4) in whole study group with ovarian tumors had significantly higher Overall survival (90% ± 5.1). Event Free Survival analysis showed that Male gender was 3 times likely to have bad events than females. Patients who underwent incomplete resection were 4 times more than patients with complete resection to have bad events. Disease free survival analysis showed that Patients who underwent incomplete surgery were 18.8 times liable for recurrence compared to those who underwent complete surgery, and patients who were exposed to re-excision were 21 times more prone to recurrence compared to other patients.

Keywords: extragonadal, germ cell tumors, gonadal, pediatric

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1 Investigating Role of Autophagy in Cispaltin Induced Stemness and Chemoresistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Prajna Paramita Naik, Sujit Kumar Bhutia


Background: Regardless of the development multimodal treatment strategies, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often associated with a high rate of recurrence, metastasis and chemo- and radio- resistance. The present study inspected the relevance of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression as a putative stem cell compartment in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and deciphered the role of autophagy in regulating the expression of aforementioned proteins, stemness and chemoresistance. Methods: A retrospective analysis of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression with respect to the various clinicopathological factors of sixty OSCC patients were determined via immunohistochemistry. The correlation among CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression was established. Sphere formation assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were conducted to elucidate the stemness and chemoresistance nature of established cisplatin-resistant oral cancer cells (FaDu). The pattern of expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 in parental (FaDu-P) and resistant FaDu cells (FaDu-CDDP-R) were investigated through fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analysis of autophagy marker proteins was performed to compare the status of autophagy in parental and resistant FaDu cell. To investigate the role of autophagy in chemoresistance and stemness, sphere formation assay, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis was performed post transfection with siATG14 and the level of expression of autophagic proteins, mitochondrial protein and stemness-associated proteins were analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 4.0 software. p-value was defined as follows: not significant (n.s.): p > 0.05;*: p ≤ 0.05; **: p ≤ 0.01; ***: p ≤ 0.001; ****: p ≤ 0.0001 were considered statistically significant. Results: In OSCC, high CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression were significantly correlated with higher tumor grades and poor differentiation. However, the expression of these proteins was not related to the age and sex of OSCC patients. Moreover, the expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 were positively correlated with each other. In vitro and OSCC tissue double labeling experiment data showed that CD44+ cells were highly associated with ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression. Further, FaDu-CDDP-R cells showed higher sphere forming capacity along with increased fraction of the CD44+ population and β-catenin expression FaDu-CDDP-R cells also showed accelerated expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17. A comparatively higher autophagic flux was observed in FaDu-CDDP-R against FaDu-P cells. The expression of mitochondrial proteins was noticeably reduced in resistant cells as compared to parental cells indicating the occurrence of autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation in oral cancer. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy was coupled with the decreased formation of orospheres suggesting autophagy-mediated stemness in oral cancer. Blockade of autophagy was also found to induce the restoration of mitochondrial proteins in FaDu-CDDP-R cells indicating the involvement of mitophagy in chemoresistance. Furthermore, a reduced expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 was also observed in ATG14 deficient cells FaDu-P and FaDu-CDDP-R cells. Conclusion: The CD44+ ⁄ABCB1+ ⁄ADAM17+ expression in OSCC might be associated with chemoresistance and a putative CSC compartment. Further, the present study highlights the contribution of mitophagy in chemoresistance and confirms the potential involvement of autophagic regulation in acquisition of stem-like characteristics in OSCC.

Keywords: ABCB1, ADAM17, autophagy, CD44, chemoresistance, mitophagy, OSCC, stemness

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