Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Smruti Pragya Samal

19 Evaluation of ROS Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Tuber Extract of Dioscorea Bulbifera on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Debasmita Dubey, Rajesh Kumar Meher, Smruti Pragya Samal, Pradeep Kumar Naik

Abstract:

Background: To determine antioxidant properties and anticancer activity by ROS and mitochondrial transmembrane potential mediated apoptosis against MCF7, MDA-MB-231, cell line. Methods: Leaf sample was extracted using methanol by microwave digestion technique. The antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract were determined by a DPPH scavenging assay. In vitro anticancer activity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, apoptosis activity and DNA fragmentation study, as well as intracellular ROS activity of most potential leaf extract, were also determined by using the MDA-MB-231cell line. In vivo animal toxicity study was carried out using mice model. Results: Methanolic leaf extract has shown the highest antioxidant, as well as anticancer activity, is based on the assay conducted. For the identification of active phytochemicals from methanolic extract, High-resolution mass spectroscopy-LCMS was used. In vitro cytotoxicity study against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell line and IC 50 value was found to be 37.5µg/ml. From histopathological studies, no toxicity in liver and kidney tissue was identified. Conclusion: This plant tuber can be used as a regular diet to reduce the chance of breast cancer. Further, more studies should be conducted to isolate and identify the responsible compound.

Keywords: human breast adenocarcinoma, ROS, mitochondrial transmembrane, apoptosis

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18 Waste Analysis and Classification Study (WACS) in Ecotourism Sites of Samal Island, Philippines Towards a Circular Economy Perspective

Authors: Reeden Bicomong

Abstract:

Ecotourism activities, though geared towards conservation efforts, still put pressures against the natural state of the environment. Influx of visitors that goes beyond carrying capacity of the ecotourism site, the wastes generated, greenhouse gas emissions, are just few of the potential negative impacts of a not well-managed ecotourism activities. According to Girard and Nocca (2017) tourism produces many negative impacts because it is configured according to the model of linear economy, operating on a linear model of take, make and dispose (Ellen MacArthur Foundation 2015). With the influx of tourists in an ecotourism area, more wastes are generated, and if unregulated, natural state of the environment will be at risk. It is in this light that a study on waste analysis and classification study in five different ecotourism sites of Samal Island, Philippines was conducted. The major objective of the study was to analyze the amount and content of wastes generated from ecotourism sites in Samal Island, Philippines and make recommendations based on the circular economy perspective. Five ecotourism sites in Samal Island, Philippines was identified such as Hagimit Falls, Sanipaan Vanishing Shoal, Taklobo Giant Clams, Monfort Bat Cave, and Tagbaobo Community Based Ecotourism. Ocular inspection of each ecotourism site was conducted. Likewise, key informant interview of ecotourism operators and staff was done. Wastes generated from these ecotourism sites were analyzed and characterized to come up with recommendations that are based on the concept of circular economy. Wastes generated were classified into biodegradables, recyclables, residuals and special wastes. Regression analysis was conducted to determine if increase in number of visitors would equate to increase in the amount of wastes generated. Ocular inspection indicated that all of the five ecotourism sites have their own system of waste collection. All of the sites inspected were found to be conducting waste separation at source since there are different types of garbage bins for all of the four classification of wastes such as biodegradables, recyclables, residuals and special wastes. Furthermore, all five ecotourism sites practice composting of biodegradable wastes and recycling of recyclables. Therefore, only residuals are being collected by the municipal waste collectors. Key informant interview revealed that all five ecotourism sites offer mostly nature based activities such as swimming, diving, site seeing, bat watching, rice farming experiences and community living. Among the five ecotourism sites, Sanipaan Vanishing Shoal has the highest average number of visitors in a weekly basis. At the same time, in the wastes assessment study conducted, Sanipaan has the highest amount of wastes generated. Further results of wastes analysis revealed that biodegradables constitute majority of the wastes generated in all of the five selected ecotourism sites. Meanwhile, special wastes proved to be the least generated as there was no amount of this type was observed during the three consecutive weeks WACS was conducted.

Keywords: Circular economy, ecotourism, sustainable development, WACS

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17 Role of Family for Grooming a Child: A Protective Step for Vulnerable Child

Authors: Arpita Sabat, Kanaklata Samal

Abstract:

A child is the most innocent being on the earth. It is born innocent but the family, the community, the institution and the world at large always butcher its innocence. This paper aims at the role of family for the development of a child in different ethnic or social groups. Family, in fact, is the nucleus in the growth and development of the child. A child grows up with the idea that a family is the world around him. The child tries to emulate consciously or unconsciously from the surrounding. This imitation has serious impact on the development of the child. It even sometimes cripples or stunts the growth of a mind. It results in the disability of the child. All policies about education or changing of curriculum can not bring about a change in the plight of a child’s life unless there is a serious thinking about the role of a family and the contribution of a family to the development of a child.

Keywords: vulnerable child, grooming, surrounding, role of family

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16 Self-Organizing Control Systems for Unstable and Deterministic Chaotic Processes

Authors: Mamyrbek A. Beisenbi, Nurgul M. Kissikova, Saltanat E. Beisembina, Salamat T. Suleimenova, Samal A. Kaliyeva

Abstract:

The paper proposes a method for constructing a self-organizing control system for unstable and deterministic chaotic processes in the class of catastrophe “hyperbolic umbilic” for objects with m-inputs and n-outputs. The self-organizing control system is investigated by the universal gradient-velocity method of Lyapunov vector functions. The conditions for self-organization of the control system in the class of catastrophes “hyperbolic umbilic” are shown in the form of a system of algebraic inequalities that characterize the aperiodic robust stability in the stationary states of the system.

Keywords: gradient-velocity method of Lyapunov vector-functions, hyperbolic umbilic, self-organizing control system, stability

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15 Contrast Enhancement of Masses in Mammograms Using Multiscale Morphology

Authors: Amit Kamra, V. K. Jain, Pragya

Abstract:

Mammography is widely used technique for breast cancer screening. There are various other techniques for breast cancer screening but mammography is the most reliable and effective technique. The images obtained through mammography are of low contrast which causes problem for the radiologists to interpret. Hence, a high quality image is mandatory for the processing of the image for extracting any kind of information from it. Many contrast enhancement algorithms have been developed over the years. In the present work, an efficient morphology based technique is proposed for contrast enhancement of masses in mammographic images. The proposed method is based on Multiscale Morphology and it takes into consideration the scale of the structuring element. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better both qualitatively and quantitatively than the other standard contrast enhancement techniques.

Keywords: enhancement, mammography, multi-scale, mathematical morphology

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14 Influence of Grain Shape, Size and Grain Boundary Diffusion on High Temperature Oxidation of Metal

Authors: Sneha Samal, Iva Petrikova, Bohdana Marvalova

Abstract:

Influence of grain size, shape and grain boundary diffusion at high temperature oxidation of pure metal is investigated as the function of microstructure evolution in this article. The oxidized scale depends on the geometrical parameter of the metal-scale system and grain shape, size, diffusion through boundary layers and influence of the contamination. The creation of the inner layer and the morphological structure develops from the internal stress generated during the growth of the scale. The oxidation rate depends on the cation and anion mobile transport of the metal in the inward and outward direction of the diffusion layer. Oxidation rate decreases with decreasing the grain size of the pure metal, whereas zinc deviates from this principle. A strong correlation between the surface roughness evolution, grain size, crystalline properties and oxidation mechanism of the oxidized metal was established.

Keywords: high temperature oxidation, pure metals, grain size, shape and grain boundary

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13 An Exploratory Study of Nasik Small and Medium Enterprises Cluster

Authors: Pragya Bhawsar, Utpal Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Small and Medium Enterprises play crucial role in contributing to economic objectives of an emerging nation. To support SMEs, the idea of creation of clusters has been prevalent since past two decades. In this paper, an attempt has been done to explore the impact of being in the cluster on the competitiveness of SMEs. To meet the objective, Nasik Cluster (India) has been selected. The information was collected by means of two focus group discussions and survey of thirty SMEs. The finding generates interest revealing the fact that under the concept ‘Cluster’ a lot of ambiguity flourish. Besides the problems and opportunities of the firms in the cluster the results bring to notice that the benefits of clusterization can only reach to SMEs when the whole location can be considered/understood as a cluster, rather than many subsets (various forms of clusters) prevailing under it. Fostering such an understanding calls for harmony among the various stakeholders of the clusters. The dynamics of interaction among government, local industry associations, relevant institutions, large firms and finally SMEs which makes the most of the location based cluster, are significant in shaping the host cluster’s competitiveness and vice versa.

Keywords: SMEs, industry clusters, common facility centres, co-creation, policy

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12 Prevalence of Headache among Adult Population in Urban Varanasi, India

Authors: Hari Shankar, Kshitij Raj, Priya Keshari, Pragya Singh

Abstract:

Headache is one of the most ubiquitous and frequent neurological disorders interfering with everyday life in all countries. India appears to be no exception. Objectives are to assess the prevalence of headache among adult population in urban area of Varanasi and to find out factors influencing the occurrence of headache. A community based cross sectional study was conducted among adult population in urban area of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Total 151 eligible respondents were interviewed by simple random sampling technique. Proportion percentage and Chisquare test were applied for data analysis. Out of 151 respondents, majority (58.3%) were females. In this study, 92.8% respondents belonged to age group 18-60 years while 7.2% was either 60 year of age or above. The overall prevalence of headache was found to be 51.1%. Highest and lowest prevalence of headache was recorded in age groups 18-29 year & 40-49 year respectively. Headache was 62.1% in illiterate and was 40.0% among graduate & above. Unskilled workers had more headache 73.1% than other type of occupation. Headache was more prevalent among unemployed (35.9%) than employed (6.4%). Females had higher family history of headache (48.9%) as compared to males (41.3%). Study subjects having peaceful relation with family members, relatives and neighbors had more headache than those having no peaceful relation.  

Keywords: family relationship, headache, neighbors, ration cards

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11 Electroencephalogram Based Approach for Mental Stress Detection during Gameplay with Level Prediction

Authors: Priyadarsini Samal, Rajesh Singla

Abstract:

Many mobile games come with the benefits of entertainment by introducing stress to the human brain. In recognizing this mental stress, the brain-computer interface (BCI) plays an important role. It has various neuroimaging approaches which help in analyzing the brain signals. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the most commonly used method among them as it is non-invasive, portable, and economical. Here, this paper investigates the pattern in brain signals when introduced with mental stress. Two healthy volunteers played a game whose aim was to search hidden words from the grid, and the levels were chosen randomly. The EEG signals during gameplay were recorded to investigate the impacts of stress with the changing levels from easy to medium to hard. A total of 16 features of EEG were analyzed for this experiment which includes power band features with relative powers, event-related desynchronization, along statistical features. Support vector machine was used as the classifier, which resulted in an accuracy of 93.9% for three-level stress analysis; for two levels, the accuracy of 92% and 98% are achieved. In addition to that, another game that was similar in nature was played by the volunteers. A suitable regression model was designed for prediction where the feature sets of the first and second game were used for testing and training purposes, respectively, and an accuracy of 73% was found.

Keywords: brain computer interface, electroencephalogram, regression model, stress, word search

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10 The Effectiveness of Implementing Interactive Training for Teaching Kazakh Language

Authors: Samal Abzhanova, Saule Mussabekova

Abstract:

Today, a new system of education is being created in Kazakhstan in order to develop the system of education and to satisfy the world class standards. For this purpose, there have been established new requirements and responsibilities to the instructors. Students should not be limited with providing only theoretical knowledge. Also, they should be encouraged to be competitive, to think creatively and critically. Moreover, students should be able to implement these skills into practice. These issues could be resolved through the permanent improvement of teaching methods. Therefore, a specialist who teaches the languages should use up-to-date methods and introduce new technologies. The result of the investigation suggests that an interactive teaching method is one of the new technologies in this field. This paper aims to provide information about implementing new technologies in the process of teaching language. The paper will discuss about necessity of introducing innovative technologies and the techniques of organizing interactive lessons. At the same time, the structure of the interactive lesson, conditions, principles, discussions, small group works and role-playing games will be considered. Interactive methods are carried out with the help of several types of activities, such as working in a team (with two or more group of people), playing situational or role-playing games, working with different sources of information, discussions, presentations, creative works and learning through solving situational tasks and etc.

Keywords: interactive education, interactive methods, system of education, teaching a language

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9 Developing Kazakh Language Fluency Test in Nazarbayev University

Authors: Saule Mussabekova, Samal Abzhanova

Abstract:

The Kazakh Language Fluency Test, based on the IELTS exam, was implemented in 2012 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. We would like to share our experience in developing this exam and some exam results with other language instructors. In this paper, we will cover all these peculiarities and their related issues. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test is a young exam. During its development, we faced many difficulties. One of the goals of the university and the country is to encourage fluency in the Kazakh language for all citizens of the Republic. Nazarbayev University has introduced a Kazakh language program to assist in achieving this goal. This policy is one-step in ensuring that NU students have a thorough understanding of the Kazakh language through a fluency test based on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). The Kazakh Language Fluency Test exam aims to determine student’s knowledge of Kazakh language. The fact is that there are three types of students at Nazarbayev University: Kazakh-speaking heritage learners, Russian-speaking and English-speaking students. Unfortunately, we have Kazakh students who do not speak Kazakh. All students who finished school with Russian language instruction are given Kazakh Language Fluency Test in order to determine their Kazakh level. After the test exam, all students can choose appropriate Kazakh course: Basic Kazakh, Intermediate Kazakh and Upper-Intermediate Kazakh. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test consists of four parts: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. They are taken on the same day in the abovementioned order.

Keywords: diagnostic test, kazakh language, placement test, test result

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8 Evolving Maritime Geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific

Authors: Pragya Pandey

Abstract:

A major discussion in the 21st -century international affairs has been around the shifting economic and political center of gravity to Asia. In the maritime realm, it translates into a shift in focus from the Atlantic to the Pacific-Indian Ocean region or what is now popularly called the Indo-Pacific region. The Indo-Pacific is rapidly eclipsing once dominant Asia-Pacific as center of trade, investment, competition and cooperation. The growing inter-connectivity between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean is bringing forth the ‘confluence of the two seas’. Therefore, the Indo-Pacific strategic arc is acquiring greater salience in consonance with the changing realities of the time. The region is undergoing unprecedented transformation in its security outlook. At present, the region is at an interesting historic epoch- witnessing the simultaneous rise India and China, their economic growth, naval modernization and power projection capabilities, alongside the continued presence of the United States, particularly with its rebalancing strategy. Besides the interplay among the three major stakeholders, other regional players like Japan, Australia, and Indonesia, would play a crucial role in the geopolitical re-arrangement of the Indo-Pacific region. The region will be the future theater of activities to determine the shifts and distribution of sea power, by the virtue of its strategic location, intrinsic value of the energy resources and significant maritime trade routes of the region. Therefore, the central theme of the paper would be to scrutinize the maritime security environment of the region against the backdrop of the tricky geopolitical landscape, contributing to the change in the regional and global balance of power.

Keywords: China, geopolitics, India, United States

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7 A Benchtop Experiment to Study Changes in Tracer Distribution in the Subarachnoid Space

Authors: Smruti Mahapatra, Dipankar Biswas, Richard Um, Michael Meggyesy, Riccardo Serra, Noah Gorelick, Steven Marra, Amir Manbachi, Mark G. Luciano

Abstract:

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is profoundly regulated by the effects of cardiac pulsation and the volume of the incoming blood. Furthermore, these effects on ICP are incremented by the presence of a rigid skull that does not allow for changes in total volume during the cardiac cycle. These factors play a pivotal role in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and distribution, with consequences that are not well understood to this date and that may have a deep effect on the Central Nervous System (CNS) functioning. We designed this study with two specific aims: (a) To study how pulsatility influences local CSF flow, and (b) To study how modulating intracranial pressure affects drug distribution throughout the SAS globally. In order to achieve these aims, we built an elaborate in-vitro model of the SAS closely mimicking the dimensions and flow rates of physiological systems. To modulate intracranial pressure, we used an intracranially implanted, cardiac-gated, volume-oscillating balloon (CADENCE device). Commercially available dye was used to visualize changes in CSF flow. We first implemented two control cases, seeing how the tracer behaves in the presence of pulsations from the brain phantom and the balloon individually. After establishing the controls, we tested 2 cases, having the brain and the balloon pulsate together in sync and out of sync. We then analyzed the distribution area using image processing software. The in-sync case produced a significant increase, 5x times, in the tracer distribution area relative to the out-of-sync case. Assuming that the tracer fluid would mimic blood flow movement, a drug introduced in the SAS with such a system in place would enhance drug distribution and increase the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs to a wider spectrum of brain tissue.

Keywords: blood-brain barrier, cardiac-gated, cerebrospinal fluid, drug delivery, neurosurgery

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6 Aitys as the Kazakh Traditional Music Genre in the Sense of Cognitive Musicology

Authors: Indira Makhazhan, Azamat Taigarayev, Perizat Yerlan, Batyrbay Gulbike, Samal Abzhanova

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Aitys is a competitional performance of two or more poets creating instantly the lyrics of music concerning the social issues accompanied with the traditional instrument dombra. It is an unique music genre, because it is not practical to create music and lyrics spontaneous in anywhere else. This research study tends to approach to this particular music genre Aitys and identify its significance not only in the sense of the Kazakh cultural heritage, but also from the perspective of personal development as the improvisational , oratory, public performance skills within the ability to think critically over the social problems and represent them in convenient to public form. Through conducting this research, this paper aims to reveal the importance and beneficence of aitys in terms of both prevalence of cultural heritage and its function in personal development of the singer. In order to answer to the research question, we conducted a survey and an in-depth interview with the students of Nazarbayev University. In the survey it was asked to answer the general questions about aitys and its importance, whereas in the interview part, we asked their opinion on the importance of aitys in improving the personal skills. The results of findings was more surprising than it was expected. They agreed that the aitys lessons, workshops and concerts have high outcomes in terms improvements of improvisational, oratory, and leadership skills. Students of NU as a representors of young generation have shown a great interest in aitys, and even more interested in the topics/social issues, where the poets have to defend their usually controversial position. To conclude, the research study has focused on the importance of the aitys in personal development of different leadership skills. The given research lead us to think about the aitys as a part of cognitive musicology, where within the learning of music it represents the process of cognition as well.

Keywords: aitys, cultural heritage, Kazakh language, musicology, personal development

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5 Polymeric Micelles Based on Block Copolymer α-Tocopherol Succinate-g-Carboxymethyl Chitosan for Tamoxifen Delivery

Authors: Sunil K. Jena, Sanjaya K. Samal, Mahesh Chand, Abhay T. Sangamwar

Abstract:

Tamoxifen (TMX) and its analogues are approved as a first line therapy for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive tumors. However, clinical development of TMX has been hampered by its low bioavailability and severe hepatotoxicity. Herein, we attempt to design a new drug delivery vehicle that could enhance the pharmacokinetic performance of TMX. Initially, high-molecular weight carboxymethyl chitosan was hydrolyzed to low-molecular weight carboxymethyl chitosan (LMW CMC) with hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. Amphiphilic block copolymers of LMW CMC were synthesized via amidation reaction between the carboxyl group of α-tocopherol succinate (TS) and an amine group of LMW CMC. These amphiphilic block copolymers were self-assembled to nanosize core-shell-structural micelles in the aqueous medium. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreased with the increasing substitution of TS on LMW CMC, which ranged from 1.58 × 10-6 to 7.94 × 10-8 g/mL. Maximum TMX loading up to 8.08 ± 0.98% was achieved with Cmc-TS4.5 (TMX/Cmc-TS4.5 with 1:8 weight ratio). Both blank and TMX-loaded polymeric micelles (TMX-PM) of Cmc-TS4.5 exhibits spherical shape with the particle size below 200 nm. TMX-PM has been found to be stable in the gastrointestinal conditions and released only 44.5% of the total drug content by the first 72 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), pH 1.2. However, the presence of pepsin does not significantly increased the TMX release in SGF, pH 1.2, released only about 46.2% by the first 72 h suggesting its inability to cleave the peptide bond. In contrast, the release of TMX from TMX-PM4.5 in SIF, pH 6.8 (without pancreatin) was slow and sustained, released only about 10.43% of the total drug content within the first 30 min and nearly about 12.41% by the first 72 h. The presence of pancreatin in SIF, pH 6.8 led to an improvement in drug release. About 28.09% of incorporated TMX was released in the presence of pancreatin in 72 h. A cytotoxicity study demonstrated that TMX-PM exhibited time-delayed cytotoxicity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pharmacokinetic studies on Sprague-Dawley rats revealed a remarkable increase in oral bioavailability (1.87-fold) with significant (p < 0.0001) enhancement in AUC0-72 h, t1/2 and MRT of TMX-PM4.5 than that of TMX-suspension. Thus, the results suggested that CMC-TS micelles are a promising carrier for TMX delivery.

Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan, d-α-tocopherol succinate, pharmacokinetic, polymeric micelles, tamoxifen

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4 Placement Characteristics of Major Stream Vehicular Traffic at Median Openings

Authors: Tathagatha Khan, Smruti Sourava Mohapatra

Abstract:

Median openings are provided in raised median of multilane roads to facilitate U-turn movement. The U-turn movement is a highly complex and risky maneuver because U-turning vehicle (minor stream) makes 180° turns at median openings and merge with the approaching through traffic (major stream). A U-turning vehicle requires a suitable gap in the major stream to merge, and during this process, the possibility of merging conflict develops. Therefore, these median openings are potential hot spot of conflict and posses concern pertaining to safety. The traffic at the median openings could be managed efficiently with enhanced safety when the capacity of a traffic facility has been estimated correctly. The capacity of U-turns at median openings is estimated by Harder’s formula, which requires three basic parameters namely critical gap, follow up time and conflict flow rate. The estimation of conflicting flow rate under mixed traffic condition is very much complicated due to absence of lane discipline and discourteous behavior of the drivers. The understanding of placement of major stream vehicles at median opening is very much important for the estimation of conflicting traffic faced by U-turning movement. The placement data of major stream vehicles at different section in 4-lane and 6-lane divided multilane roads were collected. All the test sections were free from the effect of intersection, bus stop, parked vehicles, curvature, pedestrian movements or any other side friction. For the purpose of analysis, all the vehicles were divided into 6 categories such as motorized 2W, autorickshaw (3-W), small car, big car, light commercial vehicle, and heavy vehicle. For the collection of placement data of major stream vehicles, the entire road width was divided into sections of 25 cm each and these were numbered seriatim from the pavement edge (curbside) to the end of the road. The placement major stream vehicle crossing the reference line was recorded by video graphic technique on various weekdays. The collected data for individual category of vehicles at all the test sections were converted into a frequency table with a class interval of 25 cm each and the placement frequency curve. Separate distribution fittings were tried for 4- lane and 6-lane divided roads. The variation of major stream traffic volume on the placement characteristics of major stream vehicles has also been explored. The findings of this study will be helpful to determine the conflict volume at the median openings. So, the present work holds significance in traffic planning, operation and design to alleviate the bottleneck, prospect of collision and delay at median opening in general and at median opening in developing countries in particular.

Keywords: median opening, U-turn, conflicting traffic, placement, mixed traffic

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3 Parallelization of Random Accessible Progressive Streaming of Compressed 3D Models over Web

Authors: Aayushi Somani, Siba P. Samal

Abstract:

Three-dimensional (3D) meshes are data structures, which store geometric information of an object or scene, generally in the form of vertices and edges. Current technology in laser scanning and other geometric data acquisition technologies acquire high resolution sampling which leads to high resolution meshes. While high resolution meshes give better quality rendering and hence is used often, the processing, as well as storage of 3D meshes, is currently resource-intensive. At the same time, web applications for data processing have become ubiquitous owing to their accessibility. For 3D meshes, the advancement of 3D web technologies, such as WebGL, WebVR, has enabled high fidelity rendering of huge meshes. However, there exists a gap in ability to stream huge meshes to a native client and browser application due to high network latency. Also, there is an inherent delay of loading WebGL pages due to large and complex models. The focus of our work is to identify the challenges faced when such meshes are streamed into and processed on hand-held devices, owing to its limited resources. One of the solutions that are conventionally used in the graphics community to alleviate resource limitations is mesh compression. Our approach deals with a two-step approach for random accessible progressive compression and its parallel implementation. The first step includes partition of the original mesh to multiple sub-meshes, and then we invoke data parallelism on these sub-meshes for its compression. Subsequent threaded decompression logic is implemented inside the Web Browser Engine with modification of WebGL implementation in Chromium open source engine. This concept can be used to completely revolutionize the way e-commerce and Virtual Reality technology works for consumer electronic devices. These objects can be compressed in the server and can be transmitted over the network. The progressive decompression can be performed on the client device and rendered. Multiple views currently used in e-commerce sites for viewing the same product from different angles can be replaced by a single progressive model for better UX and smoother user experience. Can also be used in WebVR for commonly and most widely used activities like virtual reality shopping, watching movies and playing games. Our experiments and comparison with existing techniques show encouraging results in terms of latency (compressed size is ~10-15% of the original mesh), processing time (20-22% increase over serial implementation) and quality of user experience in web browser.

Keywords: 3D compression, 3D mesh, 3D web, chromium, client-server architecture, e-commerce, level of details, parallelization, progressive compression, WebGL, WebVR

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2 An Integrated Lightweight Naïve Bayes Based Webpage Classification Service for Smartphone Browsers

Authors: Mayank Gupta, Siba Prasad Samal, Vasu Kakkirala

Abstract:

The internet world and its priorities have changed considerably in the last decade. Browsing on smart phones has increased manifold and is set to explode much more. Users spent considerable time browsing different websites, that gives a great deal of insight into user’s preferences. Instead of plain information classifying different aspects of browsing like Bookmarks, History, and Download Manager into useful categories would improve and enhance the user’s experience. Most of the classification solutions are server side that involves maintaining server and other heavy resources. It has security constraints and maybe misses on contextual data during classification. On device, classification solves many such problems, but the challenge is to achieve accuracy on classification with resource constraints. This on device classification can be much more useful in personalization, reducing dependency on cloud connectivity and better privacy/security. This approach provides more relevant results as compared to current standalone solutions because it uses content rendered by browser which is customized by the content provider based on user’s profile. This paper proposes a Naive Bayes based lightweight classification engine targeted for a resource constraint devices. Our solution integrates with Web Browser that in turn triggers classification algorithm. Whenever a user browses a webpage, this solution extracts DOM Tree data from the browser’s rendering engine. This DOM data is a dynamic, contextual and secure data that can’t be replicated. This proposal extracts different features of the webpage that runs on an algorithm to classify into multiple categories. Naive Bayes based engine is chosen in this solution for its inherent advantages in using limited resources compared to other classification algorithms like Support Vector Machine, Neural Networks, etc. Naive Bayes classification requires small memory footprint and less computation suitable for smartphone environment. This solution has a feature to partition the model into multiple chunks that in turn will facilitate less usage of memory instead of loading a complete model. Classification of the webpages done through integrated engine is faster, more relevant and energy efficient than other standalone on device solution. This classification engine has been tested on Samsung Z3 Tizen hardware. The Engine is integrated into Tizen Browser that uses Chromium Rendering Engine. For this solution, extensive dataset is sourced from dmoztools.net and cleaned. This cleaned dataset has 227.5K webpages which are divided into 8 generic categories ('education', 'games', 'health', 'entertainment', 'news', 'shopping', 'sports', 'travel'). Our browser integrated solution has resulted in 15% less memory usage (due to partition method) and 24% less power consumption in comparison with standalone solution. This solution considered 70% of the dataset for training the data model and the rest 30% dataset for testing. An average accuracy of ~96.3% is achieved across the above mentioned 8 categories. This engine can be further extended for suggesting Dynamic tags and using the classification for differential uses cases to enhance browsing experience.

Keywords: chromium, lightweight engine, mobile computing, Naive Bayes, Tizen, web browser, webpage classification

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1 Sandstone Petrology of the Kolhan Basin, Eastern India: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of a Half-Graben

Authors: Rohini Das, Subhasish Das, Smruti Rekha Sahoo, Shagupta Yesmin

Abstract:

The Paleoproterozoic Kolhan Group (Purana) ensemble constitutes the youngest lithostratigraphic 'outlier' in the Singhbhum Archaean craton. The Kolhan unconformably overlies both the Singhbhum granite and the Iron Ore Group (IOG). Representing a typical sandstone-shale ( +/- carbonates) sequence, the Kolhan is characterized by the development of thin and discontinuous patches of basal conglomerates draped by sandstone beds. The IOG-fault limits the western 'distal' margin of the Kolhan basin showing evidence of passive subsidence subsequent to the initial rifting stage. The basin evolved as a half-graben under the influence of an extensional stress regime. The assumption of a tectonic setting for the NE-SW trending Kolhan basin possibly relates to the basin opening to the E-W extensional stress system that prevailed during the development of the Newer Dolerite dyke. The Paleoproterozoic age of the Kolhan basin is based on the consideration of the conformable stress pattern responsible both for the basin opening and the development of the conjugate fracture system along which the Newer Dolerite dykes intruded the Singhbhum Archaean craton. The Kolhan sandstones show progressive change towards greater textural and mineralogical maturity in its upbuilding. The trend of variations in different mineralogical and textural attributes, however, exhibits inflections at different lithological levels. Petrological studies collectively indicate that the sandstones were dominantly derived from a weathered granitic crust under a humid climatic condition. Provenance-derived variations in sandstone compositions are therefore a key in unraveling regional tectonic histories. The basin axis controlled the progradation direction which was likely driven by climatically induced sediment influx, a eustatic fall, or both. In the case of the incongruent shift, increased sediment supply permitted the rivers to cross the basinal deep. Temporal association of the Kolhan with tectonic structures in the belt indicates that syn-tectonic thrust uplift, not isostatic uplift or climate, caused the influx of quartz. The sedimentation pattern in the Kolhan reflects a change from braided fluvial-ephemeral pattern to a fan-delta-lacustrine type. The channel geometries and the climate exerted a major control on the processes of sediment transfer. Repeated fault controlled uplift of the source followed by subsidence and forced regression, generated multiple sediment cyclicity that led to the fluvial-fan delta sedimentation pattern. Intermittent uplift of the faulted blocks exposed fresh bedrock to mechanical weathering that generated a large amount of detritus and resulted to forced regressions, repeatedly disrupting the cycles which may reflect a stratigraphic response of connected rift basins at the early stage of extension. The marked variations in the thickness of the fan delta succession and the stacking pattern in different measured profiles reflect the overriding tectonic controls on fan delta evolution. The accumulated fault displacement created higher accommodation and thicker delta sequences. Intermittent uplift of fault blocks exposed fresh bedrock to mechanical weathering, generated a large amount of detritus, and resulted in forced closure of the land-locked basin, repeatedly disrupting the fining upward pattern. The control of source rock lithology or climate was of secondary importance to tectonic effects. Such a retrograding fan delta could be a stratigraphic response of connected rift basins at the early stage of extension.

Keywords: Kolhan basin, petrology, sandstone, tectonics

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