Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 201

Search results for: mitochondrial transmembrane

201 Evaluation of ROS Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Tuber Extract of Dioscorea Bulbifera on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Debasmita Dubey, Rajesh Kumar Meher, Smruti Pragya Samal, Pradeep Kumar Naik


Background: To determine antioxidant properties and anticancer activity by ROS and mitochondrial transmembrane potential mediated apoptosis against MCF7, MDA-MB-231, cell line. Methods: Leaf sample was extracted using methanol by microwave digestion technique. The antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract were determined by a DPPH scavenging assay. In vitro anticancer activity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, apoptosis activity and DNA fragmentation study, as well as intracellular ROS activity of most potential leaf extract, were also determined by using the MDA-MB-231cell line. In vivo animal toxicity study was carried out using mice model. Results: Methanolic leaf extract has shown the highest antioxidant, as well as anticancer activity, is based on the assay conducted. For the identification of active phytochemicals from methanolic extract, High-resolution mass spectroscopy-LCMS was used. In vitro cytotoxicity study against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell line and IC 50 value was found to be 37.5µg/ml. From histopathological studies, no toxicity in liver and kidney tissue was identified. Conclusion: This plant tuber can be used as a regular diet to reduce the chance of breast cancer. Further, more studies should be conducted to isolate and identify the responsible compound.

Keywords: human breast adenocarcinoma, ROS, mitochondrial transmembrane, apoptosis

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200 Human LACE1 Functions Pro-Apoptotic and Interacts with Mitochondrial YME1L Protease

Authors: Lukas Stiburek, Jana Cesnekova, Josef Houstek, Jiri Zeman


Cellular function depends on mitochondrial function and integrity that is therefore maintained by several classes of proteins possessing chaperone and/or proteolytic activities. In this work, we focused on characterization of LACE1 (lactation elevated 1) function in mitochondrial protein homeostasis maintenance. LACE1 is the human homologue of yeast mitochondrial Afg1 ATPase, a member of SEC18-NSF, PAS1, CDC48-VCP, TBP family. Yeast Afg1 was shown to be involved in mitochondrial complex IV biogenesis, and based on its similarity with CDC48 (p97/VCP) it was suggested to facilitate extraction of polytopic membrane proteins. Here we show that LACE1, which is a mitochondrial integral membrane protein, exists as part of three complexes of approx. 140, 400 and 500 kDa and is essential for maintenance of fused mitochondrial reticulum and lamellar cristae morphology. Using affinity purification of LACE1-FLAG expressed in LACE1 knockdown background we show that the protein physically interacts with mitochondrial inner membrane protease YME1L. We further show that human LACE1 exhibits significant pro-apoptotic activity and that the protein is required for normal function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Thus, our work establishes LACE1 as a novel factor with the crucial role in mitochondrial homeostasis maintenance.

Keywords: LACE1, mitochondria, apoptosis, protease

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
199 Characterization of Transmembrane Proteins with Five Alpha-Helical Regions

Authors: Misty Attwood, Helgi Schioth


Transmembrane proteins are important components in many essential cell processes such as signal transduction, cell-cell signalling, transport of solutes, structural adhesion activities, and protein trafficking. Due to their involvement in diverse critical activities, transmembrane proteins are implicated in different disease pathways and hence are the focus of intense interest in understanding functional activities, their pathogenesis in disease, and their potential as pharmaceutical targets. Further, as the structure and function of proteins are correlated, investigating a group of proteins with the same tertiary structure, i.e., the same number of transmembrane regions, may give understanding about their functional roles and potential as therapeutic targets. In this in silico bioinformatics analysis, we identify and comprehensively characterize the previously unstudied group of proteins with five transmembrane-spanning regions (5TM). We classify nearly 60 5TM proteins in which 31 are members of ten families that contain two or more family members and all members are predicted to contain the 5TM architecture. Furthermore, nine singlet proteins that contain the 5TM architecture without paralogues detected in humans were also identifying, indicating the evolution of single unique proteins with the 5TM structure. Interestingly, more than half of these proteins function in localization activities through movement or tethering of cell components and more than one-third are involved in transport activities, particularly in the mitochondria. Surprisingly, no receptor activity was identified within this family in sharp contrast with other TM families. Three major 5TM families were identified and include the Tweety family, which are pore-forming subunits of the swelling-dependent volume regulated anion channel in astrocytes; the sidoreflexin family that acts as mitochondrial amino acid transporters; and the Yip1 domain family engaged in vesicle budding and intra-Golgi transport. About 30% of the proteins have enhanced expression in the brain, liver, or testis. Importantly, 60% of these proteins are identified as cancer prognostic markers, where they are associated with clinical outcomes of various tumour types, indicating further investigation into the function and expression of these proteins is important. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of proteins with 5TM regions and provides details of the unique characteristics and application in pharmaceutical development.

Keywords: 5TM, cancer prognostic marker, drug targets, transmembrane protein

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198 Mitochondrial Energy Utilization is Unchanged with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

Authors: Chia-Ying Yen, Chin-Yuan Hsu


The lifespans of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera) are much longer than those of worker bees. The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of worker bees, but they are unknown in queen bees. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules were evaluated in the trophocytes and oenocytes of young and old queen bees by biochemical techniques. The results showed that mitochondrial density and mitochondrial membrane potential; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels; the NAD+/NADH ratio; and relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase normalized against mitochondrial density were not significantly different between young and old queen bees. These findings reveal that mitochondrial energy utilization maintains a young status in the trophocytes and oenocytes of old queen bees and that trophocytes and oenocytes have aging-delaying mechanisms and can be used to study cellular longevity.

Keywords: aging, longevity, mitochondrial energy, queen bees

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197 Compensatory Increased Activities of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes from Eyes of Glucose-Immersed Zebrafish

Authors: Jisun Jun, Eun Ko, Sooim Shin, Kitae Kim, Moonsung Choi


Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistant, mitochondrial dysfunction. Diabetes is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy resulting in worsening vision and eventual blindness. In this study, eyes were enucleated from glucose-immersed zebrafish which is a good animal model to generate diabetes, and then mitochondria were isolated to evaluate activities of mitochondrial electron transfer complexes. Surprisingly, the amount of isolated mitochondria was increased in eyes from glucose-immersed zebrafish compared to those from non-glucose-immerged zebrafish. Spectrophotometric analysis for measuring activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, and IV revealed that mitochondria functions was even enhanced in eyes from glucose-immersed zebrafish. These results indicated that 3 days or 7 days glucose-immersion on zebrafish to induce diabetes might contribute metabolic compensatory mechanism to restore their mitochondrial homeostasis on the early stage of diabetes in eyes.

Keywords: diabetes, glucose immersion, mitochondrial complexes, zebrafish

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
196 Mitochondrial Apolipoprotein A-1 Binding Protein Promotes Repolarization of Inflammatory Macrophage by Repairing Mitochondrial Respiration

Authors: Hainan Chen, Jina Qing, Xiao Zhu, Ling Gao, Ampadu O. Jackson, Min Zhang, Kai Yin


Objective: Editing macrophage activation to dampen inflammatory diseases by promoting the repolarization of inflammatory (M1) macrophages to anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages is highly associated with mitochondrial respiration. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial apolipoprotein A-1 binding protein (APOA1BP) was essential for the cellular metabolite NADHX repair to NADH, which is necessary for the mitochondrial function. The exact role of APOA1BP in the repolarization of M1 to M2, however, is uncertain. Material and method: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with LPS (10 ng/ml) or/and IL-4 (100 U/ml) for 24 hours. Biochemical parameters of oxidative phosphorylation and M1/M2 markers were analyzed after overexpression of APOA1BP in cells. Results: Compared with control and IL-4-exposed M2 cells, APOA1BP was downregulated in M1 macrophages. APOA1BP restored the decline in mitochondrial function to improve metabolic and phenotypic reprogramming of M1 to M2 macrophages. Blocking oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin blunts the effects of APOA1BP on M1 to M2 repolarization. Mechanistically, LPS triggered the hydration of NADH and increased its hydrate NADHX which inhibit cellular NADH dehydrogenases, a key component of electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation. APOA1BP decreased the level of NADHX via converting R-NADHX to biologically useful S-NADHX. The mutant of APOA1BP aspartate188, the binding site of NADHX, fail to repair oxidative phosphorylation, thereby preventing repolarization. Conclusions: Restoring mitochondrial function by increasing mitochondrial APOA1BP might be useful to improve the reprogramming of inflammatory macrophages into anti-inflammatory cells to control inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: inflammatory diseases, macrophage repolarization, mitochondrial respiration, apolipoprotein A-1 binding protein, NADHX, NADH

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195 The Role of Txnrd2 Deficiency in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) and Tumor Formation in Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Chao Wu


Thioredoxin reductase 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that belongs to the cellular defense against oxidative stress. We deleted mitochondrial Txnrd2 in a KrasG12D-driven pancreatic tumor model. Despite an initial increase in precursor lesions, tumor incidence decreased significantly. We isolated cancer cell lines from these genetically engineered mice and observed an impaired proliferation and colony formation. Reactive Oxygen Species, as determined by DCF fluorescence, were increased. We detected a higher mitochondrial copy number in Txnrd2-deficient cells (KTP). However, measurement of mitochondrial bioenergetics showed no impairment of mitochondrial function and comparable O₂-consumption and extracellular acidification rates. In addition, the mitochondrial complex composition was affected in Txnrd2 deleted cell lines. To gain better insight into the role of Txnrd2, we deleted Txnrd2 in clones from parental KrasG12D cell lines using Crispr/Cas9 technology. The deletion was confirmed by western blot and activity assay. Interestingly, and in line with previous RNA expression analysis, we saw changes in EMT markers in Txnrd2 deleted cell lines and control cell lines. This might help us explain the reduced tumor incidence in KrasG12D; Txnrd2∆panc mice.

Keywords: PDAC, TXNRD2, epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition, ROS

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194 Prediction and Analysis of Human Transmembrane Transporter Proteins Based on SCM

Authors: Hui-Ling Huang, Tamara Vasylenko, Phasit Charoenkwan, Shih-Hsiang Chiu, Shinn-Ying Ho


The knowledge of the human transporters is still limited due to technically demanding procedure of crystallization for the structural characterization of transporters by spectroscopic methods. It is desirable to develop bioinformatics tools for effective analysis of available sequences in order to identify human transmembrane transporter proteins (HMTPs). This study proposes a scoring card method (SCM) based method for predicting HMTPs. We estimated a set of propensity scores of dipeptides to be HMTPs using SCM from the training dataset (HTS732) consisting of 366 HMTPs and 366 non-HMTPs. SCM using the estimated propensity scores of 20 amino acids and 400 dipeptides -as HMTPs, has a training accuracy of 87.63% and a test accuracy of 66.46%. The five top-ranked dipeptides include LD, NV, LI, KY, and MN with scores 996, 992, 989, 987, and 985, respectively. Five amino acids with the highest propensity scores are Ile, Phe, Met, Gly, and Leu, that hydrophobic residues are mostly highly-scored. Furthermore, obtained propensity scores were used to analyze physicochemical properties of human transporters.

Keywords: dipeptide composition, physicochemical property, human transmembrane transporter proteins, human transmembrane transporters binding propensity, scoring card method

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193 Short-Term Exposing Effects of 4,4'-DDT on Mitochondrial Electron Transport Complexes in Eyes of Zebrafish

Authors: Eun Ko, Moonsung Choi, Sooim Shin


4,4’-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4’-DDT) is colorless, odorless organochlorine and known as persistent toxic organic pollutant accumulated in organs. In this study, effects of 4,4’-DDT on activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain system was analyzed. 4,4’-DDT is directly treated to isolated mitochondria from eyes of zebrafish and then activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, IV were measured spectrophotometrically. The reaction was proceeded immediately after adding 4,4’-DDT to examine the short-term exposing effects of persistent organic pollutant. As a result, high concentration of 4,4’-DDT treated mitochondria exhibited slightly enhanced activity in all complexes than non-treated one except complex III in male. Particularly, 4,4’-DDT was more effective on enzymatic activity in mitochondria isolated from eyes of male zebrafish. These results represented that 4,4’-DDT might temporarily induce to open up ion channel on isolated mitochondria resulting in increasing the functional activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain system.

Keywords: electron transport chain, mitochondrial function, persistent organic pollutant, spectrophotometric assay, zebrafish

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192 Beneficial Effects of Curcumin against Stress Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulphonic Acid in Colon

Authors: Souad Mouzaoui, Bahia Djerdjouri


Oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in the onset and chronicity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of a potent natural antioxidant, curcumin (Cur) on colitis and mitochondrial dysfunction in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Rectal instillation of the chemical irritant TNBS (30 mg kg-1) induced the disruption of distal colonic architecture and a massive inflammatory cells influx to the mucosa and submucosa layers. Under these conditions, daily administration of Cur (25 mg kg-1) efficiently decreased colitis scores in the inflamed distal colon by reducing leukocyte infiltrate as attested by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, the levels of nitrite, an end product of inducible NO synthase activity (iNOS) and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation increased in a time depending manner in response to TNBS challenge. Conversely, the markers of the antioxidant pool, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) were drastically reduced. Cur attenuated oxidative stress markers and partially restored CAT and GSH levels. Moreover, our results expanded the effect of Cur on TNBS-induced colonic mitochondrial dysfunction. In fact, TNBS induced mitochondrial swelling and lipids peroxidation. These events reflected in the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and could be an initial indication in the cascade process leading to cell death. TNBS inhibited also mitochondrial respiratory activity, caused overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) and reduced level of mitochondrial GSH. Nevertheless, Cur reduced the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by TNBS and restored colonic mitochondrial function. In conclusion, our results showed the critical role of oxidative stress in TNBS-induced colitis. They highlight the role of colonic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by TNBS, as a potential source of oxidative damages. Due to its potent antioxidant properties, Cur opens a promising therapeutic approach against oxidative inflammation in IBD.

Keywords: colitis, curcumin, mitochondria, oxidative stress, TNBS

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
191 Mitochondrial DNA Defect and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetic Nephropathy: The Role of Hyperglycemia-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species

Authors: Ghada Al-Kafaji, Mohamed Sabry


Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylation. They are the major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also direct target to ROS attack. Oxidative stress and ROS-mediated disruptions of mitochondrial function are major components involved in the pathogenicity of diabetic complications. In this work, the changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, biogenesis, gene expression of mtDNA-encoded subunits of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, and mitochondrial function in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS and the effect of direct inhibition of ROS on mitochondria were investigated in an in vitro model of diabetic nephropathy using human renal mesangial cells. The cells were exposed to normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions in the presence and absence of Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) or catalase for 1, 4 and 7 days. ROS production was assessed by the confocal microscope and flow cytometry. mtDNA copy number and PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as ND2, CYTB, COI, and ATPase 6 transcripts, were all analyzed by real-time PCR. PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as ND2, CYTB, COI, and ATPase 6 proteins, were analyzed by Western blotting. Mitochondrial function was determined by assessing mitochondrial membrane potential and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Hyperglycemia-induced a significant increase in the production of mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide at day 1 (P < 0.05), and this increase remained significantly elevated at days 4 and 7 (P < 0.05). The copy number of mtDNA and expression of PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM as well as ND2, CYTB, CO1 and ATPase 6 increased after one day of hyperglycemia (P < 0.05), with a significant reduction in all those parameters at 4 and 7 days (P < 0.05). The mitochondrial membrane potential decreased progressively at 1 to 7 days of hyperglycemia with the parallel progressive reduction in ATP levels over time (P < 0.05). MnTBAP and catalase treatment of cells cultured under hyperglycemic conditions attenuated ROS production reversed renal mitochondrial oxidative stress and improved mtDNA, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function. These results show that hyperglycemia-induced ROS caused an early increase in mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA-encoded gene expression of the ETC subunits in human mesangial cells as a compensatory response to the decline in mitochondrial function, which precede the mtDNA defect and mitochondrial dysfunction with a progressive oxidative response. Protection from ROS-mediated damage to renal mitochondria induced by hyperglycemia may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention/treatment of DN.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, mtDNA, mitochondrial dysfunction, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
190 Effects of Cassia tora Seeds Extract on Type 2 Diabetes Induced Mice

Authors: Min-Ju Jo, Min-Young Um, Moonsung Choi, Sooim Shin


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance, the inability of β-cell and the dysfunction of mitochondria. To characterize effects of Cassia tora extract on mitochondrial dysfunction related T2D, the reduced glutathione level, amount of mitochondrial complexes and activities of mitochondrial complexes were measured. Three groups of mice were modeled; a control group was fed a normal diet, a diabetic group was fed a diabetic diet high in fat and carbohydrates, and a third group was fed a diabetic diet + 70% ethanol extracted Cassia tora seeds for 12 weeks. The amount of mitochondria was determined by Bradford assay after isolation of mitochondria in liver from each group. During isolation of mitochondria, cytosolic fractions of the tissue were collected to measure the reduced glutathione level. Interestingly, high level of the reduced glutathione was observed in Cassia tora treated group and decreased activities of mitochondrial complexes in Cassia tora treated group compared to the diabetic diet group. It indicates that Cassia tora has the potential to increase the reduced form of glutathione functioned as an important antioxidant in cells, and to reduce mitochondrial metabolic compensatory mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant, Cassia tora, diabetes, electron transport chain, glutathione, mitochondria, spectrophotometry

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189 Various Sources of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Modulate Mitochondria Membrane Composition and Function

Authors: Wen-Ting Wang, Wei-An Tsai, Rong-Hong Hsieh


Long term taking high fat diet can lead to over production of energy, result in accumulation of body fat, dyslipidemia and increased lipid metabolism in the body. Over metabolism of lipid results in excessive reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, may also cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Krill oil, fish oil and linseed oil are good sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The present study investigated the effect of high fat diet and various oil rich of n-3 fatty acids on mitochondrial function and cell membrane composition. Six-weeks old male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups including: control group, high fat diet group, low dosage and high dosage krill oil group, low dosage and high dosage fish oil group, and low dosage and high dosage linseed oil group. After 12 weeks of experimental period, the low dosage krill oil, fish oil group and linseed oil group with different dosage prevented mitochondrial dysfunction caused by high fat diet. The supplementation of different oils increased plasma, erythrocyte and mitochondrial n-3/n-6 ratio and further increased the proportion of PUFA in erythrocyte and mitochondrial membrane. It also decreased serum triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. However, there was no significant change in serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), biomarker of liver function, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma malonadialdehyde (MDA) concentration when compared with high fat diet group. The supplementation of different sources of n-3 PUFA can maintain mitochondrial function and modulate cell membrane fatty acid composition in high fat diet conditions, and there is a positive relationship between mitochondrial function and mitochondrial membrane composition.

Keywords: fish oil, linseed oil, mitochondria, n-3 PUFA

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
188 Induction of G1 Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Panaxydol

Authors: Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Sang Yoon Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee


In this study, we focused on the anti-proliferative effects of panaxydol, a C17 polyacetylenic compound derived from Panax ginseng roots, against various human cancer cells. We treated with panaxydol to various cancer cells and panaxydol treatment was found to significantly inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549) and human pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2), of which AsPC-1 cells were most sensitive to its treatment. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that panaxydol blocked cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in A549 cells, which accompanied by a parallel reduction of protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and cyclin E. CDK inhibitors (CDKIs), such as p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIP1, were gradually upregulated after panaxydol treatment at the protein levels. Furthermore, panaxydol induced the activation of p53 in A549 cells. In addition, panaxydol also induced apoptosis of AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, as shown by accumulation of subG1 and apoptotic cell populations. Panaxydol triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by panaxydol was determined by staining with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, panaxydol suppressed the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-2, and increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bax and Bad. In addition, panaxydol inhibited the activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPK). Our results suggest that panaxydol is an anti-tumor compound that causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in various cancer cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, cancer, G1 arrest, panaxydol

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187 Molecular Evidence for Three Species of Giraffa

Authors: Alice Petzold, Alexandre Hassanin


The number of giraffe species has been in focus of interest since the exploration of sub-Saharan Africa by European naturalists during the 18th and 19th centuries, as previous taxonomists, like Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Richard Owen or William Edward de Winton, recognized two or three species of Giraffa. For the last decades, giraffes were commonly considered as a single species subdivided into nine subspecies. In this study, we have re-examined available nuclear and mitochondrial data. Our genetic admixture analyses of seven introns support three species: G. camelopardalis (i.e., northern giraffes including reticulated giraffes), G. giraffa (southern giraffe) and G. tippelskirchi (Masai giraffe). However, the nuclear alignments show small variation and our phylogenetic analyses provide high support only for the monophyly of G. camelopardalis. Comparisons with the mitochondrial tree revealed a robust conflict for the position and monophyly of G. giraffa and G. tippelskirchi, which is explained firstly by a mitochondrial introgression from Masai giraffe to southeastern giraffe, and secondly, by gene flow mediated by male dispersal between southern populations (subspecies angolensis and giraffa). We conclude that current data gives only moderate support for three giraffe species and point out that additional nuclear data need to be studied to revise giraffe taxonomy.

Keywords: autosomal markers, Giraffidae, mitochondrial introgression, taxonomy

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186 Dynamic Cardiac Mitochondrial Proteome Alterations after Ischemic Preconditioning

Authors: Abdelbary Prince, Said Moussa, Hyungkyu Kim, Eman Gouda, Jin Han


We compared the dynamic alterations of mitochondrial proteome of control, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ischemic preconditioned (IPC) rabbit hearts. Using 2-DE, we identified 29 mitochondrial proteins that were differentially expressed in the IR heart compared with the control and IPC hearts. For two of the spots, the expression patterns were confirmed by Western blotting analysis. These proteins included succinate dehydrogenase complex, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine acetyltransferase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, Atpase, ATP synthase, dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, translation elongation factor, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, actin alpha, succinyl-CoA Ligase, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase, citrate synthase, acetyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, prohibitin, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein, enoyl Coenzyme A hydratase, superoxide dismutase [Mn], and 24-kDa subunit of complex I. Interestingly, most of these proteins are associated with the mitochondrial respiratory chain, antioxidant enzyme system, and energy metabolism. The results provide clues as to the cardioprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning at the protein level and may serve as potential biomarkers for detection of ischemia-induced cardiac injury.

Keywords: ischemic preconditioning, mitochondria, proteome, cardioprotection

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185 Oxidative Stress Related Alteration of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cellular Models

Authors: Orsolya Horvath, Laszlo Deres, Krisztian Eros, Katalin Ordog, Tamas Habon, Balazs Sumegi, Kalman Toth, Robert Halmosi


Introduction: Oxidative stress induces an imbalance in mitochondrial fusion and fission processes, finally leading to cell death. The two antioxidant molecules, BGP-15 and L2286 have beneficial effects on mitochondrial functions and on cellular oxidative stress response. In this work, we studied the effects of these compounds on the processes of mitochondrial quality control. Methods: We used H9c2 cardiomyoblast and isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) for the experiments. The concentration of stressors and antioxidants was beforehand determined with MTT test. We applied 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in 125 µM, 400 µM and 800 µM concentrations for 4 and 8 hours on H9c2 cells. H₂O₂ was applied in 150 µM and 300 µM concentration for 0.5 and 4 hours on both models. L2286 was administered in 10 µM, while BGP-15 in 50 µM doses. Cellular levels of the key proteins playing role in mitochondrial dynamics were measured in Western blot samples. For the analysis of mitochondrial network dynamics, we applied electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Results: Due to MNNG treatment the level of fusion proteins (OPA1, MFN2) decreased, while the level of fission protein DRP1 elevated markedly. The levels of fusion proteins OPA1 and MNF2 increased in the L2286 and BGP-15 treated groups. During the 8 hour treatment period, the level of DRP1 also increased in the treated cells (p < 0.05). In the H₂O₂ stressed cells, administration of L2286 increased the level of OPA1 in both H9c2 and NRCM models. MFN2 levels in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes raised considerably due to BGP-15 treatment (p < 0.05). L2286 administration decreased the DRP1 level in H9c2 cells (p < 0.05). We observed that the H₂O₂-induced mitochondrial fragmentation could be decreased by L2286 treatment. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the PARP-inhibitor L2286 has beneficial effect on mitochondrial dynamics during oxidative stress scenario, and also in the case of directly induced DNA damage. We could make the similar conclusions in case of BGP-15 administration, which, via reducing ROS accumulation, propagates fusion processes, this way aids preserving cellular viability. Funding: GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00049; GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00048; GINOP-2.3.3-15-2016-00025; EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00004; ÚNKP-17-4-I-PTE-209

Keywords: H9c2, mitochondrial dynamics, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, oxidative stress

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184 Association of Nuclear – Mitochondrial Epistasis with BMI in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Agnieszka H. Ludwig-Slomczynska, Michal T. Seweryn, Przemyslaw Kapusta, Ewelina Pitera, Katarzyna Cyganek, Urszula Mantaj, Lucja Dobrucka, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Maciej T. Malecki, Pawel Wolkow


Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyses have led to discovery of only about 100 variants influencing body mass index (BMI), which explain only a small portion of genetic variability. Analysis of gene epistasis gives a chance to discover another part. Since it was shown that interaction and communication between nuclear and mitochondrial genome are indispensable for normal cell function, we have looked for epistatic interactions between the two genomes to find their correlation with BMI. Methods: The analysis was performed on 366 T1DM patients using Illumina Infinium OmniExpressExome-8 chip and followed by imputation on Michigan Imputation Server. Only genes which influence mitochondrial functioning (listed in Human MitoCarta 2.0) were included in the analysis – variants of nuclear origin (MAF > 5%) in 1140 genes and 42 mitochondrial variants (MAF > 1%). Gene expression analysis was performed on GTex data. Association analysis between genetic variants and BMI was performed with the use of Linear Mixed Models as implemented in the package 'GENESIS' in R. Analysis of association between mRNA expression and BMI was performed with the use of linear models and standard significance tests in R. Results: Among variants involved in epistasis between mitochondria and nucleus we have identified one in mitochondrial transcription factor, TFB2M (rs6701836). It interacted with mitochondrial variants localized to MT-RNR1 (p=0.0004, MAF=15%), MT-ND2 (p=0.07, MAF=5%) and MT-ND4 (p=0.01, MAF=1.1%). Analysis of the interaction between nuclear variant rs6701836 (nuc) and rs3021088 localized to MT-ND2 mitochondrial gene (mito) has shown that the combination of the two led to BMI decrease (p=0.024). Each of the variants on its own does not correlate with higher BMI [p(nuc)=0.856, p(mito)=0.116)]. Although rs6701836 is intronic, it influences gene expression in the thyroid (p=0.000037). rs3021088 is a missense variant that leads to alanine to threonine substitution in the MT-ND2 gene which belongs to complex I of the electron transport chain. The analysis of the influence of genetic variants on gene expression has confirmed the trend explained above – the interaction of the two genes leads to BMI decrease (p=0.0308). Each of the mRNAs on its own is associated with higher BMI (p(mito)=0.0244 and p(nuc)=0.0269). Conclusıons: Our results show that nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis can influence BMI in T1DM patients. The correlation between transcription factor expression and mitochondrial genetic variants will be subject to further analysis.

Keywords: body mass index, epistasis, mitochondria, type 1 diabetes

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183 Annona muricata Leaves Induced Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Cells

Authors: Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Mohammadjavad Paydar, Elham Rouhollahi, Hamed Karimian


The present study was designed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of Annona muricata leaves ethyl acetate extract (AMEAE) against lung cancer A549 cells. Cell viability analysis revealed the selective cytotoxic effect of AMEAE towards A549 cells. Treatment of A549 cells with AMEAE significantly elevated the reactive oxygen species formation, followed by attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential via upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, accompanied by cytochrome c release to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. In addition, AMEAE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Our data showed for the first time that AMEAE inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death through activation of the mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway.

Keywords: Annona muricata, lung cancer, apoptosis, mitochondria

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182 Nuclear Mitochondrial Pseudogenes in Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck, Jason Stanley, Leroy Whilby


Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major threat to fruit and vegetable industries in the United States. The establishment of pest fruit fly in the agricultural industries and produce severe ecological and economic impacts on agricultural diversification and trade. Detection and identification of these agricultural pests in a timely manner will facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult, but is required to determine pest loads and their pathways into the United States. The aim of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha which includes pests of major economic importance. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level. During phylogenetics analysis numerous nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) were discovered in different specimens. The numts are nonfunctional copies of the mtDNA present in the nucleus and are easily coamplified with the mitochondrial COI gene copy by using conserved universal primers. This is problematic for DNA Barcoding, which attempts to characterize all living organisms by using the COI gene. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed.

Keywords: tephritid, Anastrepha fraterculus, COI, numts

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181 Iron Response Element-mRNA Binding to Iron Response Protein: Metal Ion Sensing

Authors: Mateen A. Khan, Elizabeth J. Theil, Dixie J. Goss


Cellular iron homeostasis is accomplished by the coordinated regulated expression of iron uptake, storage, and export. Iron regulate the translation of ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA by interaction with an iron regulatory protein (IRPs). Iron increases protein biosynthesis encoded in iron responsive element. The noncoding structure IRE-mRNA, approximately 30-nt, folds into a stem loop to control synthesis of proteins in iron trafficking, cell cycling, and nervous system function. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed the presence of one binding site on IRP1 for ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase IRE-mRNA. Scatchard analysis revealed the binding affinity (Kₐ) and average binding sites (n) for ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase IRE-mRNA were 68.7 x 10⁶ M⁻¹ and 9.2 x 10⁶ M⁻¹, respectively. In order to understand the relative importance of equilibrium and stability, we further report the contribution of electrostatic interactions in the overall binding of two IRE-mRNA with IRP1. The fluorescence quenching of IRP1 protein was measured at different ionic strengths. The binding affinity of IRE-mRNA to IRP1 decreases with increasing ionic strength, but the number of binding sites was independent of ionic strength. Such results indicate a differential contribution of electrostatics to the interaction of IRE-mRNA with IRP1, possibly related to helix bending or stem interactions and an overall conformational change. Selective destabilization of ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase RNA/protein complexes as reported here explain in part the quantitative differences in signal response to iron in vivo and indicate possible new regulatory interactions.

Keywords: IRE-mRNA, IRP1, binding, ionic strength

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180 Forensic Analysis of MTDNA Hypervariable Region HVII by Sanger Sequence Method in Iraq Population

Authors: H. Imad, Y. Cheah, O. Aamera


The aims of this research are to study the mitochondrial non-coding region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristics of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. A portion of a non-coding region encompassing positions 37 to 340 amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column then sequenced and detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer. New polymorphic positions 57, 63, and 101 are described may in future be suitable sources for identification purpose. The data obtained can be used to identify variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence most promising for identification variants.

Keywords: encompassing nucleotide positions 37 to 340, HVII, Iraq, mitochondrial DNA, polymorphism, frequency

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179 In vitro Effects of Amygdalin on the Functional Competence of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Tomáš Slanina, Ľubomír Ondruška, Eduard Kolesár, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová


The present in vitro study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin (AMG) is able to cause changes to the motility, viability and mitochondrial activity of rabbit spermatozoa. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) aged four months were used in the study. Semen samples were collected from each animal and used for the in vitro incubation. The samples were divided into five equal parts and diluted with saline supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL AMG. At times 0h, 3h and 5h spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision™ computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system, cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the viability of rabbit spermatozoa. All AMG concentrations exhibited stimulating effects on the spermatozoa activity, as shown by a significant preservation of the motility (P<0.05 with respect to 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h) and mitochondrial activity (P< 0.05 in case of 0.5 mg/mL AMG; P< 0.01 in case of 1 mg/mL AMG; P < 0.001 with respect to 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h). None of the AMG doses supplemented had any significant impact of the spermatozoa viability. In conclusion, the data revealed that short-term co-incubation of spermatozoa with AMG may result in a higher preservation of the sperm structural integrity and functional activity.

Keywords: amygdalin, CASA, mitochondrial activity, motility, rabbits, spermatozoa, viability

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178 Determination of the Phosphate Activated Glutaminase Localization in the Astrocyte Mitochondria Using Kinetic Approach

Authors: N. V. Kazmiruk, Y. R. Nartsissov


Phosphate activated glutaminase (GA, E.C. plays a key role in glutamine/glutamate homeostasis in mammalian brain, catalyzing the hydrolytic deamidation of glutamine to glutamate and ammonium ions. GA is mainly localized in mitochondria, where it has the catalytically active form on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and the other soluble form, which is supposed to be dormant. At present time, the exact localization of the membrane glutaminase active site remains a controversial and an unresolved issue. The first hypothesis called c-side localization suggests that the catalytic site of GA faces the inter-membrane space and products of the deamidation reaction have immediate access to cytosolic metabolism. According to the alternative m-side localization hypothesis, GA orients to the matrix, making glutamate and ammonium available for the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in mitochondria directly. In our study, we used a multi-compartment kinetic approach to simulate metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in the astrocytic cytosol and mitochondria. We used physiologically important ratio between the concentrations of glutamine inside the matrix of mitochondria [Glnₘᵢₜ] and glutamine in the cytosol [Glncyt] as a marker for precise functioning of the system. Since this ratio directly depends on the mitochondrial glutamine carrier (MGC) flow parameters, key observation was to investigate the dependence of the [Glnmit]/[Glncyt] ratio on the maximal velocity of MGC at different initial concentrations of mitochondrial glutamate. Another important task was to observe the similar dependence at different inhibition constants of the soluble GA. The simulation results confirmed the experimental c-side localization hypothesis, in which the glutaminase active site faces the outer surface of the IMM. Moreover, in the case of such localization of the enzyme, a 3-fold decrease in ammonium production was predicted.

Keywords: glutamate metabolism, glutaminase, kinetic approach, mitochondrial membrane, multi-compartment modeling

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177 Phylogenetic Relationships of Aproaerema Simplexella (Walker) and the Groundnut Leaf Miner Aproaerema Modicella (Deventer) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Collected from Australia, India, Mozambique, and South Africa

Authors: Makhosi Buthelezi


Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene analyses linked the South African groundnut leaf miner (GLM) to the Australian soya bean moth Aproaerema simplexella (Walker) and Indian Aproaerema modicella (Deventer). Thus, the genetic relatedness of GLM, A. simplexela, and A. modicella was examined by performing mitochondrial and nuclear (COI, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII), mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB), nuclear ribosomal 28S (28S) and intergenic spacer elongation factor-1 alpha ( EF-1 ALPHA) on 44 specimens collected from South Africa, four from Mozambique, and three each from single locations in India and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Neighbour-Joining (NJ) methods. All of the datasets of the five DNA gene regions that were sequenced were also analyzed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to find the closest matches for inclusion in the phylogenetic trees as outgroups and for purposes of information. In the phylogenetic trees for COI, COII, cytb and EF-1 ALPHA, a similar pattern was observed in the way that the sequences assembled into different groups; i.e., some sequences of A. simplexella from Australia were grouped separately from the others, but some Australian sequences grouped with those of the GLM from South Africa, India, and Mozambique. In the phylogenetic tree for 28S, all sequences from South Africa, Australia, India, and Mozambique grouped together and formed one group. For COI, genetic pairwise distance ranged from 0.97 to 3.60 %, for COII it ranged from 0.19% to 2.32%, for cytb it ranged from 0.25 to 9.77% and for EF-1 ALPHA it ranged 0.48 to 6.99%. Results of this study indicate that these populations are genetically related and presumably constitute a single species. Thus, further molecular and morphological studies need to be undertaken in order to resolve this apparent conundrum on the taxonomy of these populations.

Keywords: aproaerema modicella, aproaerema simplexella, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA

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176 Identification and Characterization of Nuclear Envelope Protein Interactions

Authors: Mohammed Hakim Jafferali, Balaje Vijayaraghavan, Ricardo A. Figueroa, Ellinor Crafoord, Veronica J. Larsson, Einar Hallberg, Santhosh Gudise


The nuclear envelope which surrounds the chromatin of eukaryotic cells contains more than a hundred transmembrane proteins. Mutations in some genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins give rise to human diseases including neurological disorders. The function of many nuclear envelope proteins is not well established. This is partly because nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions are difficult to study due to the inherent resistance to extraction of nuclear envelope proteins. We have developed a novel method called MCLIP, to identify interacting partners of nuclear envelope proteins in live cells. Using MCLIP, we found three new binding partners of the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1: the intermediate filament protein Lamin B1, the LINC complex protein Sun1 and the G-protein Ran. Furthermore, using in vitro studies, we show that Samp1 binds both Emerin and Ran directly. We have also studied the interaction between Samp1 and Ran in detail. The results show that the Samp1 binds stronger to RanGTP than RanGDP. Samp1 is the first transmembrane protein known to bind Ran and it is tempting to speculate that Samp1 may provide local binding sites for RanGTP at membranes.

Keywords: MCLIP, nuclear envelope, ran, Samp1

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175 Activation of TNF-α from Human Endothelial Cells by Exposure of the Mitochondrial Stress Protein (Hsp60) Secreted from THP-1 Monocytes to High Glucose

Authors: Ryan D. Martinus


Inflammation of the endothelium is an important process leading to diabetic atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which diabetes contributes to endothelial inflammation remain to be established. Using In-vitro cultured Human cells and Hsp60 specific ELISA assays, we show that Hsp60 is not only induced in Human monocyte cells under hyperglycaemic conditions but that the Hsp60 is also secreted from these cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the Hsp60 secreted from these monocyte cells is also able to activate Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) from Human endothelial cells. This suggests that a potential link may exist between the hyperglycaemia-induced expression of Hsp60 in monocyte cells and vascular inflammation. Circulating levels of Hsp60 due to mitochondrial stress in diabetes patients could, therefore, be an important modulator of inflammation in endothelial cells and thus contribute to the increased incidences of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: mitochondria, Hsp60, inflammation, diabetes mellitus

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174 Sex Differences in Age-Related AMPK-Sirt1 Axis Alteration in Human Heart

Authors: Maria Luisa Barcena De Arellano, Sofya Pozdniakova, Pavelas Karkacas, Anja Kuhl, Istvan Baczko, Yury Ladilov, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek


Introduction: Aging is associated with deterioration of the physiological function, leading to systemic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction that promote the development of cardiovascular diseases. Sex differences in aging-related cardiovascular diseases have been postulated. However, their precise mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the sex difference in the age-related alteration in Sirt1-AMPK signaling and its relation to the mitochondrial biogenesis and inflammation. Methods: Male and female human non-disease lateral left ventricular wall tissue (young (17–40 years; n= 7 male and 7 female) and old (50–68 years; n= 9 male and 8 female)) were used. qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry assays were performed for expression analyses of Sirt1, AMPK, pAMPK, ac-Ku70, TFAM, PGC-1α, Sirt3, SOD2 and catalase. CD68 was used as a marker for macrophages and the ratio of IL-12:IL10 (pro-inflammatory phenotype (high IL-12/low IL-10) and anti-inflammatory phenotype (low IL-12/high IL-10) was used to examine the inflammatory stage in the heart. Results: Sirt1 expression was significantly higher in young females compared to young males, whereas in aged hearts Sirt1 expression was significantly downregulated in females, but not in males. In line with the Sirt1 downregulation in aged females, acetylation of nuclear Ku70, a direct target of Sirt1, in aged female hearts was significantly elevated. The activity of AMPK was significantly decreased in aged individuals, however no sex differences in the AMPK expression or activity were found in young or old individuals. The expression of mitochondrial proteins TOM40, SOD2 and Sirt3 was significantly higher in young females compared to young males, while in aged female hearts SOD2 and TOM40 were downregulated. In addition, the expression of catalase, a key cytosolic and mitochondrial anti-oxidative enzyme was significantly higher in young females and this female sex benefit was lost in aged hearts. In addition, the number of cardiac macrophages was significantly increased in old female, but not in male hearts. Consistently, the pro-inflammatory shift in old females was further confirmed by differences in the IL12/IL10 ratio in young female cardiac tissue in a favour of the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 (ratio 1:4) compared to young males (ratio 1:1). The anti-inflammatory environment in the heart was lost in aged females (ratio 1:1). Conclusion: Aging leads to the significant downregulation of Sirt1 expression and elevated acetylation of Ku70 in female, but not in male hearts. Furthermore, a beneficial upregulation of mitochondrial and anti-oxidative proteins in young females is lost with aging. Moreover, the malfunctions in the expression of Sirt1 and mitochondrial proteins in aged female hearts is accompanied by a significant pro-inflammatory shift. The study provides a molecular basis for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases in old women.

Keywords: inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, aging, Sirt1-AMPK axis

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173 Constraint-Based Computational Modelling of Bioenergetic Pathway Switching in Synaptic Mitochondria from Parkinson's Disease Patients

Authors: Diana C. El Assal, Fatima Monteiro, Caroline May, Peter Barbuti, Silvia Bolognin, Averina Nicolae, Hulda Haraldsdottir, Lemmer R. P. El Assal, Swagatika Sahoo, Longfei Mao, Jens Schwamborn, Rejko Kruger, Ines Thiele, Kathrin Marcus, Ronan M. T. Fleming


Degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons is one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. These neurons have a highly complex axonal arborisation and a high energy demand, so any reduction in ATP synthesis could lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, thereby impeding normal neuronal bioenergetic requirements. Synaptic mitochondria exhibit increased vulnerability to dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. After biogenesis in and transport from the cell body, synaptic mitochondria become highly dependent upon oxidative phosphorylation. We applied a systems biochemistry approach to identify the metabolic pathways used by neuronal mitochondria for energy generation. The mitochondrial component of an existing manual reconstruction of human metabolism was extended with manual curation of the biochemical literature and specialised using omics data from Parkinson's disease patients and controls, to generate reconstructions of synaptic and somal mitochondrial metabolism. These reconstructions were converted into stoichiometrically- and fluxconsistent constraint-based computational models. These models predict that Parkinson's disease is accompanied by an increase in the rate of glycolysis and a decrease in the rate of oxidative phosphorylation within synaptic mitochondria. This is consistent with independent experimental reports of a compensatory switching of bioenergetic pathways in the putamen of post-mortem Parkinson's disease patients. Ongoing work, in the context of the SysMedPD project is aimed at computational prediction of mitochondrial drug targets to slow the progression of neurodegeneration in the subset of Parkinson's disease patients with overt mitochondrial dysfunction.

Keywords: bioenergetics, mitochondria, Parkinson's disease, systems biochemistry

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172 Expression Regulation of Membrane Protein by Codon Variation of Amino Acid at N-Terminal Region

Authors: Ahreum Choi, Otgontuya Tsogbadrakh, Kwang-Hwan Jung


Microbial rhodopsins are well-known seven-transmembrane proteins that have been extensively studied. These retinal-binding proteins have divided into two types. The type I is microbial rhodopsin, and type II (visual pigment) is expressed mostly in mammalian eyes. For type I rhodopsin, there are two main functions that are ion pumping activity and sensory transduction. Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is one of the microbial rhodopsin with main function as photo-sensory transduction. Although ASR is expressed fairly well in Escherichia coli, the expression level is relatively less compare to Proteorhodopsin. In this study, full length of ASR was used to test for the expression influence by codon usage in E. coli. Eight amino acids of codon at N-terminal part of ASR were changed randomly with designed primers, which allow 8,192 nucleotide different cases. The codon changes were screened for the preferable codons of each residue, which have given higher expression yield. Among those 57 selected mutations, there are 24 color-enhanced E. coli colonies that contain ASR proteins, and it showed better expression level than the wild type ASR codon usage. This strongly suggests that high codon usage of only partial N-terminal of protein can increase the expression level of whole protein.

Keywords: 7-transmembrane, all-trans retinal, rhodopsin, codon-usage, protein expression

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