Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: anthraquinone

14 Effects of New Anthraquinone Derivatives on Resistance Ovarian Cancer Cells and The Mechanism Investigation

Authors: Hui-Hsin Huang, Sheng-Tung Huang, Chi-Ming Lee, Chiao-Han Yen, Chun-Mao Lin

Abstract:

At initiation stage, there are no symptoms at initiation stage; however, at late stage, patients suffer symptoms as soon as ovarian cancer metastasis. Moreover, ovarian cancer cells are resistant to some anti-ovarian cancer drugs in clinical. Thus, it is very important to find an effective treatment for resistant ovarian cancer. Anthraquinone derivatives are able to induce DNA damage and lead to cell apoptosis, so several derivatives have been used for clinical application. Therefore, to explore more effective anti-ovarian cancer drugs, this study investigates the mechanism of three new anthraquinone compounds bearing different functional groups to camptothecin-resistance ovarian cell line A2780R2000. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay after treating A2780R2000 with the three new anthraquinone compounds. The results indicated that IC50 values are 33.44μM (Compound I), 25.77μM (Compound II) and 24.59μM (Compound III). Next, through cell cycle analysis, the results demonstrated that three new anthraquinone compounds not only induced A2780R2000 cell cycle arrest at early stage but also apoptosis at late stage. Besides, through apoptosis assay, the results indicated new anthraquinone compound induced apoptosis at late stage. Furthermore, the results of western blot show that the three new anthraquinone compounds lead to A2780R2000 apoptosis through intrinsic pathway. Theses results suggested that three new anthraquinone compounds may be potential new drugs for clinical cancer treatment in the future.

Keywords: anthraquinone, camptothecin, resistance, ovarian cancer

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13 Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Anthraquinone Derivatives

Authors: Dmitry Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about biosynthetic routs formation anthraquinone molecules in natural cells. The basic possibilities of various ways of biosynthesis of different quinoid substances are shown.

Keywords: anthraquinones, biochemical evolution, biosynthesis, metabolism

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12 Physiological Action of Anthraquinone-Containing Preparations

Authors: Dmitry Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina, Evgenii N. Kojaev

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about biological activity of anthraquinone-containing plants and specimens on their basis is presented. Data of traditional medicine, results of bioscreening and clinical researches of specimens are analyzed.

Keywords: anthraquinones, physiologically active substances, phytopreparation, Ramon

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11 Anthraquinone Labelled DNA for Direct Detection and Discrimination of Closely Related DNA Targets

Authors: Sarah A. Goodchild, Rachel Gao, Philip N. Bartlett

Abstract:

A novel detection approach using immobilized DNA probes labeled with Anthraquinone (AQ) as an electrochemically active reporter moiety has been successfully developed as a new, simple, reliable method for the detection of DNA. This method represents a step forward in DNA detection as it can discriminate between multiple nucleotide polymorphisms within target DNA strands without the need for any additional reagents, reporters or processes such as melting of DNA strands. The detection approach utilizes single-stranded DNA probes immobilized on gold surfaces labeled at the distal terminus with AQ. The effective immobilization has been monitored using techniques such as AC impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Simple voltammetry techniques (Differential Pulse Voltammetry, Cyclic Voltammetry) are then used to monitor the reduction potential of the AQ before and after the addition of complementary strand of target DNA. A reliable relationship between the shift in reduction potential and the number of base pair mismatch has been established and can be used to discriminate between DNA from highly related pathogenic organisms of clinical importance. This indicates that this approach may have great potential to be exploited within biosensor kits for detection and diagnosis of pathogenic organisms in Point of Care devices.

Keywords: Anthraquinone, discrimination, DNA detection, electrochemical biosensor

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10 A Study of Anthraquinone Dye Removal by Using Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Pyar S. Jassal, Sonal Gupta, Neema Chand, Rajni Johar

Abstract:

In present study, Low molecular weight chitosan naoparticles (LMWCNP) were synthesized by using low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) and sodium tripolyphosphate for the adsorption of anthraquinone dyes from waste water. The ionic-gel technique was used for this purpose. Size of nanoparticles was determined by “Scherrer equation”. The absorbance was carried out with UV-visible spectrophotometer for Acid Green 25 (AG25) and Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) dyes solutions at λmax 644 and λmax 598 nm respectively. The removal of dyes was dependent on the pH and the optimum adsorption was between pH 2 to 9. The extraction of dyes was linearly dependent on temperature. The equilibrium parameters, RL was calculated by using the Langmuir isotherm and shows that adsorption of dyes is favorable on the LMWCNP. The XRD images of LMWC show a crystalline nature whereas LMWCNP is amorphous one. The thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that LMWCNP thermally more stable than LMWC. As the contact time increases, percentage removal of Acid Green 25 and Reactive Blue 4 dyes also increases. TEM images reveal the size of the LMWCNP were in the range of 45-50 nm. The capacity of AG25 dye on LMWC was 5.23 mg/g, it compared with LMWCNP capacity which was 6.83 mg/g respectively. The capacity of RB4 dye on LMWC was 2.30 mg/g and 2.34 mg/g was on LMWCNP.

Keywords: low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles, anthraquinone dye, removal efficiency, adsorption isotherm

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9 Technologies of Isolation and Separation of Anthraquinone Derivatives

Authors: Dmitry Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about different methods of extraction, separation and purification of natural and modify anthraquinones is presented. The basic regularity of an isolation process is analyzed. Action of temperature, pH, and polarity of extragent, catalysts and other factors on an isolation process is revealed.

Keywords: anthraquinones; isolation; extraction; polarity; chromatography; precipitation; bioactivity; phytopreparation; chrysophanol; aloe-emodin; emodin; physcion.

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8 Microbial Effects of Iron Elution from Hematite into Seawater Mediated via Dissolved Organic Matter

Authors: Apichaya Aneksampant, Xuefei Tu, Masami Fukushima, Mitsuo Yamamoto

Abstract:

The restoration of seaweed beds recovery has been developed using a fertilization technique for supplying dissolved iron to barren coastal areas. The fertilizer is composed of iron oxides as a source of iron and compost as humic substance (HS) source, which can serve as chelator of iron to stabilize the dissolved species under oxic seawater condition. However, elution mechanisms of iron from iron oxide surfaces have not sufficiently elucidated. In particular, roles of microbial activities in the elution of iron from the fertilizer are not sufficiently understood. In the present study, a fertilizer (iron oxide/compost = 1/1, v/v) was incubated in a water tank at Mashike coast, Hokkaido Japan. Microorganisms in the 6-month fertilizer were isolated and identified as Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans sp. (T-2-2). The identified bacteria were inoculated to perform iron elution test in a postgate B medium, prepared in artificial seawater. Hematite was used as a model iron oxide and anthraquinone-2,7-disolfonate (AQDS) as a model for HSs. The elution test performed in presence and absence of bacteria inoculation. ICP-AES was used to analyze total iron and a colorimetric technique using ferrozine employed for the determination of ferrous ion. During the incubation period, sample contained hematite and T-2-2 in both presence and absence of AQDS continuously showed the iron elution and reached at the highest concentration after 9 days of incubation and then slightly decrease to stabilize within 20 days. Comparison to the sample without T-2-2, trace amount of iron was observed, suggesting that iron elution to seawater can be attributed to bacterial activities. The levels of total organic carbon (TOC) in the culture solution with hematite decreased. This may be to the adsorption of organic compound, AQDS, to hematite surfaces. The decrease in UV-vis absorption of AQDS in the culture solution also support the results of TOC that AQDS was adsorbed to hematite surfaces. AQDS can enhance the iron elution, while the adsorption of organic matter suppresses the iron elution from hematite.

Keywords: anthraquinone-2, 7-disolfonate, barren ground, E.oxidotolerans sp., hematite, humic substances, iron elution

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7 Conducting Glove Leathers Prepared through in-situ Polymerization of Pyrrole

Authors: Wegene Demisie Jima

Abstract:

Leather is a durable and flexible material used for various purposes including clothing, footwear, upholstery and gloves. However, the use of leather for smart product applications is a challenge since it is electrically insulating material. Here, we report a simple method to produce conducting glove leathers using an in-situ polymerization of pyrrole. The concentrations of pyrrole, ferric chloride and anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate were optimized to produce maximum conductivity in the treated leathers. The coating of polypyrrole in the treated leathers was probed using FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic analysis. FTIR confirms that the formation of polypyrrole on the leather surface as well as presence of prominent N-C stretching band. X-ray diffraction analysis suggests para-crystallinity in the PPy-treated leathers.We further demonstrate that the treated leathers, with maximum conductivity of 7.4 S/cm, can be used for making conductive gloves for operating touch-screen devices apart from other smart product applications.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, in-situ polymerization, pyrrole, smart product

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6 Isolation of Cytotoxic Compound from Tectona grandis Stem to Be Used as Thai Medicinal Preparation for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Pakakrong Thondeeying, Jipisute Chunthorng-Orn, Bhanuz Dechayont, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

A Thai medicinal preparation has been used for cancer treatment more than ten years ago in Khampramong Temple. Tectona grandis stem is one ingredient of this Thai medicinal remedy. The ethanolic extract of Tectona grandis stem showed the highest cytotoxic activities against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), but was less cytotoxic against large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23) (IC50 = 3.92 and 7.78 µg/ml, respectively). It was isolated by bioassay-guided isolation method. Tectoquinone, a anthraquinone compound was isolated from this plant. This compound showed high specific cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), but was less cytotoxic against large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23)(IC50 =16.15 and 47.56 µg/ml or 72.67 and 214.00 µM, respectively). However, it showed less cytotoxic activity than the crude extract. In conclusion, tectoquinone as a main compound, is not the best cytotoxic compound from Tectona grandis, so there are more active cytotoxic compounds in this extract which should be isolated in the future. Moreover, tectoquinone displayed specific cytotoxicity against only human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) which is a good criterion for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Tectona grandis, SRB assay, cytotoxicity, tectoquinone

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5 Electrochemical Studies of Nickel Nanoparticles Decorated the Surface of Some Conducting Polymers for Glucose Oxidation in Biofuel Cells

Authors: Z. Khalifa, K. M. Hassan, M. Abdel Azzem

Abstract:

Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of renewable high density energy from abundant energy stored in carbohydrates is direct conversion of glucose (GLU) to electrical power. A three novel versatile modified electrodes, synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of organic monomers on glassy carbon electrodes (GC), have been developed for biofuel cells results in stable and long-term power production. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution on conducting polymers electrodes modified by incorporation of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) onto poly(1,5-aminonaphthalene) (1,5-PDAN), poly(1,8-diaminonaphthalene) (1,8-PDAN) and poly(1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone) (PAMAQ) was investigated. The electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose at NiNPs-modified 1,5-PDAN/GC, 1,8-PDAN/GC and PAMAQ/GC electrodes has been studied using voltammetry technique. The PDAN electrodes show a slight activity in the potential of interest. The prepared NiNPs/PAMAQ/GC catalyst showed a very interesting catalytic activity that was nicely comparable to the NiNPs/1,5-PDAN/GC, NiNPs/1,8-PDAN/GC modified electrodes. In advance, both shows a significant more catalytic activity compared to the reported data for electrodes for glucose electrocatalytic oxidation.

Keywords: biofuel cells, glucose oxidation, electrocatalysis, nanoparticles and modified electrodes

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4 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Potential, and Mineral Composition of Dried Abelmoschus esculentus L. Fruits Consume in Gada Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is very common especially in northern part of Nigeria, but people are ignorant of its medicinal and pharmacological benefits. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant potential and mineral composition of the dried form of this fruit were determined. The Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. Antioxidant potential screening was carried out using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) method, while, the mineral compositions were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer by wet digest method. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the fruits contain saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and terpenoids, while, anthraquinone, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, and phlobatannins were not detected. The quantitative analysis revealed that the fruits contain saponnins (380 ± 0.020 mg/g), flavonoids (240±0.01 mg/g), and tannins (21.71 ± 0.66 mg/ml). The antioxidant potential was determined to be 54.1 ± 0.19%. The mineral composition revealed that 100 g of the fruits contains 97.52 ± 1.04 mg of magnesium (Mg), 94.53 ± 3.21 mg of calcium (Ca), 77.10 ± 0.79 mg of iron (Fe), 47.14 ± 0.41 mg of zinc (Zn), 43.96 ± 1.49 mg of potassium (K), 42.02 ± 1.09 mg of sodium (Na), 0.47 ± 0.08 mg of copper (Cu) and 0.10 ± 0.02 mg of lead (Pb). These results showed that the Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is a good source of antioxidants, and contains an appreciable amount of phytochemicals, therefore, it has some pharmacological attributes. On the other side, the fruit can serve as a nutritional supplement for Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, K, and Na, but a poor source of Cu, and contains no significant amount of Pb.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Fruits, antioxidant potential, mineral composition, phytochemical screening

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3 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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2 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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1 Phytochemical Composition, Antimicrobial Potential and Antioxidant Activity of Peganum harmala L. Extracts

Authors: Narayana Bhat, Majda Khalil, Hamad Al-Mansour, Anitha Manuvel, Vimla Yeddu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential and phytochemical composition of Peganum harmala L. For this purpose, powdered shoot, root, and seed samples were extracted in an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with methanol, ethanol, acetone, and dichloromethane. The residues were reconstituted in the above solvents and 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). The antimicrobial activity of these extracts was tested against two bacterial (Escherichia coli E49 and Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507) and two fungi Candida albicans ATCC 24433, Candida glabrata ATCC 15545) strains using the well-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and growth pattern of these test strains were determined using microbroth dilution method, and the phospholipase assay was performed to detect tissue damage in the host cells. Results revealed that ethanolic, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts of seeds exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against all tested strains, whereas the acetone extract of seeds was effective against E. coli only. Similarly, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of roots were effective against two bacterial strains only. One sixth of percent (0.6%) yield of methanol extract of seeds was found to be the MIC for Escherichia coli E49, Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507, and Candida glabrata ATCC 15545. Overall, seed extracts had greater antimicrobial activities compared to roots and shoot extracts. The original plant extract and MIC dilutions prevented phospholipase secretion in Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507 and Candida albicans ATCC 24433. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay revealed radical scavenging activities ranging from 71.80 ± 4.36% to 87.75 ± 1.70%. The main compound present in the root extract was 1-methyl-7-methoxy-beta-carboline (RT: 44.171), followed by norlapachol (3.62%), benzopyrazine (2.20%), palmitic acid (2.12%) and vasicinone (1.96%). In contrast, phenol,4-ethenyl-2-methoxy was in abundance in the methonolic extract of the shoot, whereas 1-methyl-7-methoxy-beta-carboline (79.59%), linoleic acid (9.05%), delta-tocopherol (5.02%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (2.65%), benzene, 1,1-1,2 ethanediyl bis 3,4dimethyl (1.15%), anthraquinone (0.58%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (0.54%), palmitic acid (0.35%) and methyl stearate (0.18%) were present in the methanol extract of seeds. Major findings of this study, along with their relevance to developing effective, safe drugs, will be discussed in this presentation.

Keywords: medicinal plants, secondary metabolites, phytochemical screening, bioprospecting, radical scavenging

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