Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: calpain

6 Calpain-Mediated, Cisplain-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Khadija Al-Bulushi, Zuweina Al-Hadidi, Buthaina Al-Dhahl, Nadia Al-Abri


Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. However, the role of calpain in cisplatin (CDDP)-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells is not fully understood. Here, TNBC (MDA-MB231) cells were treated with different concentration of CDDP (0, 20 & 40 µM) and calpain activation and apoptosis were measured by western blot and Hoechst Stain respectively. In addition, calpain modulation by either activation and/or inhibition and its effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis were assessed by the same above approaches. Our findings showed that CDDP induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and thus Calcium release and subsequently activate calpain α-fodrin cleavage indicated by the increase in GRP78 and Calmodulin protein expression and respectively in MDA-MB231 cells. It also induced apoptosis as measured by Hoechst stain and caspase-12 cleavage. Calpain activation by both Cyclopiazonic acid and Thapsigargin showed similar effect and enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to CDDP treatment. On the other hand, calpain inhibition by either specific siRNA and/or exogenous inhibitor (Calpeptin) had an adverse effect where it attenuated calpain activation and thus CDDP- induced apoptosis in these cells. Altogether, these findings suggested that calpain activation play an essential role in sensitizing the TNBC cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis. This might lead to the discovery of novel treatment to over this aggressive type of breast cancer.

Keywords: calpain, cisplatin, apoptosis, breast cancer

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5 Correlation between Calpain 1 Expression and Proliferating/Apoptotic Index and Prognostic Factors in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Ruqaya Al-Rashdi, Shadia Al-Sinawi, Maya Al-Bahri


Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and Human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. The role of clapins in pathogenesis and tumor progression has been studied in certain cancer types; however, its definite role is not yet established in breast cancer especially in the TNBC subtype. Objectives: This study aims to measure calpain-1 expression and correlate this measurement with the proliferating/apoptotic index as well with the prognostic factors in TNBC patients’ tissue. Materials and Methods: Thirty nine paraffin blocks from patients diagnosed with TNBC were used to measure the expression of calpain-1 and Ki-67 (proliferating marker) proteins using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was assessed morphological and biochemically using conventional Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining method and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediate dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) assay respectively. Data was statistically analyzed using Pearson X2 test of association. Results: Calpain-1 content was visualized in the nucleus of the TNBC cells and its expression varied from low to high among the patients tissue. Calpain expression showed no significant correlation with the proliferating/apoptotic index as well with the clinicopathological variables. Apoptotic counts quantified by H&E staining showed significant association with the apoptotic TUNEL assay, validating both approaches. Conclusion: Although calpain-1 expression showed no significant association with the clinical outcome, its variable level of expression might indicate a hidden role in breast cancer tissue. Larger number of samples and different mode of assessments are needed to fully investigate such role. Exploring the involvement of calpain-1 in cancer progression might help in considering it as a biomarker of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, calpain, apoptosis, prognosis

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4 Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Calpain1 Gene and Meat Tenderness Traits in Different Genotypes of Chicken: Malaysian Native and Commercial Broiler Line

Authors: Abtehal Y. Anaas, Mohd. Nazmi Bin Abd. Manap


Meat Tenderness is one of the most important factors affecting consumers' assessment of meat quality. Variation in meat tenderness is genetically controlled and varies among breeds, and it is also influenced by environmental factors that can affect its creation during rigor mortis and postmortem. The final postmortem meat tenderization relies on the extent of proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins caused by the endogenous activity of the proteolytic calpain system. This calpain system includes different calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, and an inhibitor, calpastatin. It is widely accepted that in farm animals including chickens, the μ-calpain gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. This study aimed to identify the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the CAPN1 gene with the tenderness of chicken breast meat from two Malaysian native and commercial broiler breed crosses. Ten, five months old native chickens and ten, 42 days commercial broilers were collected from the local market and breast muscles were removed two hours after slaughter, packed separately in plastic bags and kept at -20ºC for 24 h. The tenderness phenotype for all chickens’ breast meats was determined by Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF). Thawing and cooking losses were also measured in the same breast samples before using in WBSF determination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the previously reported C7198A and G9950A SNPs in the CAPN1 gene and assess their associations with meat tenderness in the two breeds. The broiler breast meat showed lower shear force values and lower thawing loss rates than the native chickens (p<0.05), whereas there were similar in the rates of cooking loss. The study confirms some previous results that the markers CAPN1 C7198A and G9950A were not significantly associated with the variation in meat tenderness in chickens. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm the functional molecular mechanism of these SNPs and evaluate their associations in different chicken populations.

Keywords: CAPNl, chicken, meat tenderness, meat quality, SNPs

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3 Understanding Inhibitory Mechanism of the Selective Inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 Complex by Molecular Modeling Studies

Authors: Amir Zeb, Shailima Rampogu, Minky Son, Ayoung Baek, Sang H. Yoon, Keun W. Lee


Neurotoxic insults activate calpain, which in turn produces truncated p25 from p35. p25 forms hyperactivated Cdk5/p25 complex, and thereby induces severe neuropathological aberrations including hyperphosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and neuronal death. Inhibition of Cdk5/p25 complex alleviates aberrant phosphorylation of tau to mitigate AD pathology. PHA-793887 and Roscovitine have been investigated as selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 with IC50 values 5nM and 160nM, respectively, but their mechanistic studies remain unknown. Herein, computational simulations have explored the binding mode and interaction mechanism of PHA-793887 and Roscovitine with Cdk5/p25. Docking results suggested that PHA-793887 and Rsocovitine have occupied the ATP-binding site of Cdk5 and obtained highest docking (GOLD) score of 66.54 and 84.03, respectively. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation demonstrated that PHA-793887 and Roscovitine established stable RMSD of 1.09 Å and 1.48 Å with Cdk5/p25, respectively. Profiling of polar interactions suggested that each inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds (H-bond) with catalytic residues of Cdk5 and could remain stable throughout the molecular dynamics simulation. Additionally, binding free energy calculation by molecular mechanics/Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) suggested that PHA-793887 and Roscovitine had lowest binding free energies of -150.05 kJ/mol and -113.14 kJ/mol, respectively with Cdk5/p25. Free energy decomposition demonstrated that polar energy by H-bond between the Glu81 of Cdk5 and PHA-793887 is the essential factor to make PHA-793887 highly selective towards Cdk5/p25. Overall, this study provided substantial evidences to explore mechanistic interactions of the selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 and could be used as fundamental considerations in the development of structure-based selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25.

Keywords: Cdk5/p25 inhibition, molecular modeling of Cdk5/p25, PHA-793887 and roscovitine, selective inhibition of Cdk5/p25

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2 Proteomic Analysis of the Inhibition of Prolyl Oligopeptidase Induced by Z-Pro-Prolinal in Filarial Parasites

Authors: Mohit Wadhawan, Sushma Rathaur


Lymphatic filariasis, also called elephantiasis is a tropical disease afflicting over 120 million people in 81 countries worldwide. Existing anti filarial drugs are effective against the larval stages of filarial parasites which call for an urgent need of drugs which are macrofilaricidal. Identification of molecular targets crucial for survival of filarial parasites is a prerequisite for drug designing. Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is one such crucial enzyme involved in the maturation and degradation of neuropeptides and peptide hormones. We have identified this peptidase in the bovine filarial parasite, Setaria cervi. Effect of inhibition of POP on the proteome profile of filarial parasite has been discussed in this study. Filarial parasites were exposed to Z-pro-prolinal (ZPP), a specific POP inhibitor for 8 h and the motility and viability of the parasites was observed. It significantly reduced the motility and viability of the parasites. To study the proteome profile, the cytosolic, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial extracts of the adult female parasites were subjected to 2-dimensional electrophoresis. As analyzed by the PD-Quest software, the ZPP caused the alteration in the different subcellular proteins, and the significantly altered proteins were identified using MALDI-MS/MS spectrometry. The major proteins identified were found to play important role in diverse biological functions like signaling, redox regulation, energy metabolism, stress response, and cytoskeleton formation. Moreover, we found upregulation in the calcium binding proteins such as calreticulin, calponin, and calpain-6 suggesting that POP inhibition regulates calcium release. This relates to earlier reports that POP plays non-catalytic role in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) signaling inducing release of calcium from ER. Taken together, the data demonstrated that inhibition of prolyl oligopeptidase alter the overall proteome signifying its role in survival of the filarial parasites. Thus this study provides a basis for the use of POP as a chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis.

Keywords: lymphatic filariasis, setaria cervi, prolyl oligopeptidase, proteomics

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1 Altered Proteostasis Contributes to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy during Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia: An Insight into Signaling Mechanisms

Authors: Akanksha Agrawal, Richa Rathor, Geetha Suryakumar


Muscle represents about ¾ of the body mass, and a healthy muscular system is required for human performance. A healthy muscular system is dynamically balanced via the catabolic and anabolic process. High altitude associated hypoxia altered this redox balance via producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that ultimately modulates protein structure and function, hence, disrupts proteostasis or protein homeostasis. The mechanism by which proteostasis is clinched includes regulated protein translation, protein folding, and protein degradation machinery. Perturbation in any of these mechanisms could increase proteome imbalance in the cellular processes. Altered proteostasis in skeletal muscle is likely to be responsible for contributing muscular atrophy in response to hypoxia. Therefore, we planned to elucidate the mechanism involving altered proteostasis leading to skeletal muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods-Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing about 200-220 were divided into five groups - Control (Normoxic animals), 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d hypobaric hypoxia exposed animals. The animals were exposed to simulated hypoxia equivalent to 282 torr pressure (equivalent to an altitude of 7620m, 8% oxygen) at 25°C. On completion of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) exposure, rats were sacrificed, muscle was excised and biochemical, histopathological and protein synthesis signaling were studied. Results-A number of changes were observed with the CHH exposure time period. ROS was increased significantly on 07 and 14 days which were attributed to protein oxidation via damaging muscle protein structure by oxidation of amino acids moiety. The oxidative damage to the protein further enhanced the various protein degradation pathways. Calcium activated cysteine proteases and other intracellular proteases participate in protein turnover in muscles. Therefore, we analysed calpain and 20S proteosome activity which were noticeably increased at CHH exposure as compared to control group representing enhanced muscle protein catabolism. Since inflammatory markers (myokines) affect protein synthesis and triggers degradation machinery. So, we determined inflammatory pathway regulated under hypoxic environment. Other striking finding of the study was upregulation of Akt/PKB translational machinery that was increased on CHH exposure. Akt, p-Akt, p70 S6kinase, and GSK- 3β expression were upregulated till 7d of CHH exposure. Apoptosis related markers, caspase-3, caspase-9 and annexin V was also increased on CHH exposure. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence of disrupted proteostasis under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. A profound loss of muscle mass is accompanied by the muscle damage leading to apoptosis and cell death under CHH. These cellular stress response pathways may play a pivotal role in hypobaric hypoxia induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Further research in these signaling pathways will lead to development of therapeutic interventions for amelioration of hypoxia induced muscle atrophy.

Keywords: Akt/PKB translational machinery, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, muscle atrophy, protein degradation

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