Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Khadija Al-Bulushi

23 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards

Authors: Khadija Ali

Abstract:

Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay: Has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: conflict, gender, international criminal law, sexual violence

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22 Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City

Authors: Khadija Raissi, Bechir Ben Gouissem

Abstract:

In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.

Keywords: VANET, smart city, AODV, OLSR, DSR, OLSR, VMASC, routing protocols, NS3

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21 Numerical Solutions of Fractional Order Epidemic Model

Authors: Sadia Arshad, Ayesha Sohail, Sana Javed, Khadija Maqbool, Salma Kanwal

Abstract:

The dynamical study of the carriers play an essential role in the evolution and global transmission of infectious diseases and will be discussed in this study. To make this approach novel, we will consider the fractional order model which is generalization of integer order derivative to an arbitrary number. Since the integration involved is non local therefore this property of fractional operator is very useful to study epidemic model for infectious diseases. An extended numerical method (ODE solver) is implemented on the model equations and we will present the simulations of the model for different values of fractional order to study the effect of carriers on transmission dynamics. Global dynamics of fractional model are established by using the reproduction number.

Keywords: Fractional differential equation, Numerical simulations, epidemic model, transmission dynamics

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20 Optimization of Fenton Process for the Treatment of Young Municipal Leachate

Authors: Bouchra Wassate, Younes Karhat, Khadija El Falaki

Abstract:

Leachate is a source of surface water and groundwater contamination if it has not been pretreated. Indeed, due to its complex structure and its pollution load make its treatment extremely difficult to achieve the standard limits required. The objective of this work is to show the interest of advanced oxidation processes on leachate treatment of urban waste containing high concentrations of organic pollutants. The efficiency of Fenton (Fe2+ +H2O2 + H+) reagent for young leachate recovered from collection trucks household waste in the city of Casablanca, Morocco, was evaluated with the objectives of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and discoloration reductions. The optimization of certain physicochemical parameters (initial pH value, reaction time, and [Fe2+], [H2O2]/ [Fe2+] ratio) has yielded good results in terms of reduction of COD and discoloration of the leachate.

Keywords: COD removal, color removal, Fenton process, oxidation process, leachate

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19 Effects from Maillard Reactions on the Alleginicity of Peanuts

Authors: Khadija Radhi

Abstract:

Food allergy is a serious public health problem, especially in developed countries. As one of the most significant allergies, peanut allergy was investigated in this research. Peanut was mixed with treacle under different heating conditions. The results of glycation analyses revealed that proteins from peanuts interacted with the carbohydrates. Further studies also indicated that Millard reactions were determined by different heating treatment. It is noted that denatured peanut proteins accelerated the first stage of Millard reactions but prevented the third one. From the ELISA results, it was found that Millard reactions between proteins with sugars had no effects on the allergenicity of peanuts. Besides, there was no significant difference in allergenicity between digested and non-digested peanut proteins. However, pre-boiled peanut with denatured proteins displayed lower allergenicity after mixing with sugars. Such results indicated that denaturation is the key factor to reduce the allergenicity of the peanut proteins and it seemed that the second-staged Maillard products had less allergenicity.

Keywords: allergenicity, heating treatment, peanut, Maillard reaction

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18 Study of Education Learning Techniques and Game Genres

Authors: Khadija Al Farei, Prakash Kumar, Vikas Rao Naidu

Abstract:

Games are being developed with different genres for different age groups, for many decades. In many places, educational games are playing a vital role for active classroom environment and better learning among students. Currently, the educational games have assumed an important place in children and teenagers lives. The role of educational games is important for improving the learning capability among the students especially of this generation, who really live among electronic gadgets. Hence, it is now important to make sure that in our educational system, we are updated with all such advancement in technologies. Already much research is going on in this area of edutainment. This research paper will review around ten different research papers to find the relation between the education learning techniques and games. The result of this review provides guidelines for enhanced teaching and learning solutions in education. In-house developed educational games proved to be more effective, compared to the one which is readily available in the market.

Keywords: education, education game, educational technology, edutainment, game genres, gaming in education

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17 Reinforcement Learning for Classification of Low-Resolution Satellite Images

Authors: Khadija Bouzaachane, El Mahdi El Guarmah

Abstract:

The classification of low-resolution satellite images has been a worthwhile and fertile field that attracts plenty of researchers due to its importance in monitoring geographical areas. It could be used for several purposes such as disaster management, military surveillance, agricultural monitoring. The main objective of this work is to classify efficiently and accurately low-resolution satellite images by using novel technics of deep learning and reinforcement learning. The images include roads, residential areas, industrial areas, rivers, sea lakes, and vegetation. To achieve that goal, we carried out experiments on the sentinel-2 images considering both high accuracy and efficiency classification. Our proposed model achieved a 91% accuracy on the testing dataset besides a good classification for land cover. Focus on the parameter precision; we have obtained 93% for the river, 92% for residential, 97% for residential, 96% for the forest, 87% for annual crop, 84% for herbaceous vegetation, 85% for pasture, 78% highway and 100% for Sea Lake.

Keywords: classification, deep learning, reinforcement learning, satellite imagery

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16 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad

Abstract:

The field of tissue engineering is an active area of research. Bone tissue engineering helps to resolve the clinical problems of critical size and non-healing defects by the creation of man-made bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature, with which we will not only be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately, but will also sort the issues arising due to anisotropy. We will fix these problems with the help of modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes, by adaptive grid refinement strategy and by transient analysis.

Keywords: scaffolds, porosity, diffusion, transient analysis

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15 Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance

Authors: Khadija Mushtaq, Mian Saqib Mehmood

Abstract:

This paper attempts to determine the impact of leadership style and learning orientation on organizational performance in Pakistan. A sample of 158 middle managers selected from sports and surgical factories from Sialkot. The empirical estimation is based on a multiple linear regression analysis of the relationship between leadership style, learning orientation and organizational performance. Leadership style is measure through transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The transformational leadership has insignificant impact on organizational performance. The transactional leadership has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Learning orientation also has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Linear regression used to estimate the relation between dependent and independent variables. This study suggests top manger should prefer continuous process for improvement for any change in system rather radical change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, learning orientation, organizational performance, Pakistan

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14 Association between Job Satisfaction, Motivation and Five Factors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Authors: Khadija Mushtaq, Muhammad Umar

Abstract:

The research aims to study the association between job satisfaction, motivation and the five factors of organizational citizenship behavior (i.e. Altruism, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, Courtesy and Civic virtue) among Public Sector Employees in Pakistan.In this research Structure Equation Modeling with confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the relationship between two independent and five dependent variables. Data was collected through questionnaire survey from 152 Public Servants Working in Gujrat District-Pakistan in different capacities. Stratified Random Sampling Technique was used to conduct this survey. The results of the study indicate that five factors of OCB have positive significant relation with both motivation and job satisfaction except the relationship of Civic Virtue with Motivation.The research findings implicate that factors other than motivation and job satisfaction may also affect OCB. Likewise, all the five factors of OCB may not be present in all populations. Thus, Managers must concentrate on increasing motivation and job satisfaction to increase OCB. Furthermore, the present research gives a direction to future researchers to use more independent variables (e.g. Culture, leadership, workplace environment, various job attitudes, types of motivation, etc.) on different types of populations with larger sample size in order to find the reasons behind insignificant relationship of civic virtue with Motivation in the research in hand and to generalize the tested model.

Keywords: five factors of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), motivation, job satisfaction, public sector employees in Pakistan

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13 Lead and Cadmium Residue Determination in Spices Available in Tripoli City Markets (Libya)

Authors: Mohamed Ziyaina, Ahlam Rajab, Khadija Alkhweldi, Wafia Algami, Omer Al. Toumi, Barbara Rasco1

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination in food products. Spices can improve the taste of food and can also be a source of many bioactive compounds but can unfortunately, also be contaminated with dangerous materials, potentially heavy metals. This study was conducted to investigate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in selected spices commonly consumed in Libya including Capsicum frutescens (chili pepper) Piper nigrum, (black pepper), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and mixed spices (HRARAT) which consist of a combination of: Alpinia officinarum, Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Spices were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide. The highest level of lead (Pb) was found in Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens in wholesale markets (1.05 ± 0.01 mg/kg, 0.96 ± 0.06 mg/kg). Cadmium (Cd) levels exceeded FAO/WHO permissible limit. Curcuma longa and Piper nigrum sold in retail markets had a high concentration of Cd (0.36 ± 0.09, 0.35 ± 0.07 mg/kg, respectively) followed by (0.32 ± 0.04 mg/kg) for Capsicum frutescens. Mixed spices purchased from wholesale markets also had high levels of Cd (0.31 ± 0.08 mg/kg). Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens may pose a food safety risk due to high levels of lead and cadmium. Cadmium levels exceeded FAO/WHO recommendations (0.2 ppm) for Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, and mixed spices (HRARAT).

Keywords: heavy metals, lead, cadmium determination, spice

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12 Concerns, Attitudes and Perceptions of Mothers about Child Vulnerability for Sexual Abuse

Authors: Rukhsana Kausar, Khadija Rasheed

Abstract:

This research explored general concerns, attitudes and perceptions of Pakistani mothers about their children’s vulnerability for sexual abuse and it also examined the effect of education and work status of mothers on their concerns and attitudes about the safety of their children. The sample consisted of 166 mothers comprising of 4 groups i.e. educated-working mothers, uneducated working mothers, educated non-working mothers and uneducated non-working mothers. This research comprised of two studies. Study 1 was carried out to construct two separate scales namely Maternal Concerns and Attitudes Scale for safety of Daughters (MCA-SD) and Maternal Concerns and Attitudes Scale for safety of Sons (MCA-SS) for assessing maternal concerns and attitudes about safety and protection of daughters and sons. These scales were used in study 2 with the objective to explore mothers’ general concerns, attitudes and perceptions of about child vulnerability for sexual abuse. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and independent-samples t-test. Educated mothers had more sense of responsibility, ensured more safety and provide more information about self-protection to their children as compared to uneducated mothers. Similarly non-working mothers showed more sense of responsibility and provided more information on self-protection to their children as compared to working mothers. Moreover, mothers living in nuclear family system trusted more on their relatives and other people for the protection of their children and ensured more safety of children than those living in joint family system. Findings have very important implications for protecting children from likely sexual abuse.

Keywords: mothers’ concerns, attitudes, perceptions, child vulnerability, child sexual abuse

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11 Effect of Tree Age on Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars of Sweet Orange

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Faheem Khadija, Zahoor Hussain, Raheel Anwar, M. Nawaz Khan, M. Raza Salik

Abstract:

Amongst citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) occupies a dominant position in the orange producing countries in the world. Sweet orange is widely consumed both as fresh fruit as well as juice and its global demand is attributed due to higher vitamin C and antioxidants. Fruit quality is most important for the external appearance and marketability of sweet orange fruit, especially for fresh consumption. There are so many factors affecting fruit quality, tree age is the most important one, but remains unexplored so far. The present study, we investigated the role of tree age on fruit quality of different cultivars of sweet oranges. The difference between fruit quality of 5-year young and 15-year old trees was discussed in the current study. In case of fruit weight, maximum fruit weight (238g) was recorded in 15-year old sweet orange cv. Sallustiana cultivar while minimum fruit weight (142g) was recorded in 5-year young tree of Succari sweet orange fruit. The results of the fruit diameter showed that the maximum fruit diameter (77.142mm) was recorded in 15-year old Sallustiana orange but the minimum fruit diameter (66.046mm) was observed in 5-year young tree of sweet orange cv. Succari. The minimum value of rind thickness (4.142mm) was noted in 15-year old tree of cv. Red blood. On the other hand maximum value of rind thickness was observed in 5-year young tree of cv. Sallustiana. The data regarding total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), TSS/TA, juice content, rind, flavedo thickness, pH and fruit diameter have also been discussed.

Keywords: age, cultivars, fruit, quality, sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck)

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10 Role of Zinc in Catch-Up Growth of Low-Birth Weight Neonates

Authors: M. A. Abdel-Wahed, Nayera Elmorsi Hassan, Safaa Shafik Imam, Ola G. El-Farghali, Khadija M. Alian

Abstract:

Low-birth-weight is a challenging public health problem. Aim: to clarify role of zinc on enhancing catch-up growth of low-birth-weight and find out a proposed relationship between zinc effect on growth and the main growth hormone mediator, IGF-1. Methods: Study is a double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled trial conducted on low-birth-weight-neonates delivered at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. It comprised 200 Low-birth-weight-neonates selected from those admitted to NICU. Neonates were randomly allocated into one of the following two groups: group I: low-birth-weight; AGA or SGA on oral zinc therapy at dose of 10 mg/day; group II: Low-birth-weight; AGA or SGA on placebo. Anthropometric measurements were taken including birth weight, length; head, waist, chest, mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps and sub-scapular skin-fold thicknesses. Results: At 12-month-old follow-up visit, mean weight, length; head (HC), waist, chest, mid-upper arm circumferences and triceps; also, infant’s proportions had values ≥ 10th percentile for weight, length and HC were significantly higher among infants of group I when compared to those of group II. Oral zinc therapy was associated with 24.88%, 25.98% and 19.6% higher proportion of values ≥ 10th percentile regarding weight, length and HC at 12-month-old visit, respectively [NNT = 4, 4 and 5, respectively]. Median IGF-1 levels measured at 6 months were significantly higher in group I compared to group II (median (range): 90 (19 – 130) ng/ml vs. 74 (21 – 130) ng/ml, respectively, p=0.023). Conclusion: Oral zinc therapy in low-birth-weight neonates was associated with significantly more catch-up growth at 12-months-old and significantly higher serum IGF-1 at 6-month-old.

Keywords: low-birth-weight, zinc, catch-up growth, neonates

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9 Calpain-Mediated, Cisplain-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Khadija Al-Bulushi, Zuweina Al-Hadidi, Buthaina Al-Dhahl, Nadia Al-Abri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. However, the role of calpain in cisplatin (CDDP)-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells is not fully understood. Here, TNBC (MDA-MB231) cells were treated with different concentration of CDDP (0, 20 & 40 µM) and calpain activation and apoptosis were measured by western blot and Hoechst Stain respectively. In addition, calpain modulation by either activation and/or inhibition and its effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis were assessed by the same above approaches. Our findings showed that CDDP induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and thus Calcium release and subsequently activate calpain α-fodrin cleavage indicated by the increase in GRP78 and Calmodulin protein expression and respectively in MDA-MB231 cells. It also induced apoptosis as measured by Hoechst stain and caspase-12 cleavage. Calpain activation by both Cyclopiazonic acid and Thapsigargin showed similar effect and enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to CDDP treatment. On the other hand, calpain inhibition by either specific siRNA and/or exogenous inhibitor (Calpeptin) had an adverse effect where it attenuated calpain activation and thus CDDP- induced apoptosis in these cells. Altogether, these findings suggested that calpain activation play an essential role in sensitizing the TNBC cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis. This might lead to the discovery of novel treatment to over this aggressive type of breast cancer.

Keywords: calpain, cisplatin, apoptosis, breast cancer

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8 Antibiotic Resistance and Susceptibility of Bacteria Strains Isolated from Sheep Milk

Authors: Fatima Bouazza, Rachida Hassikou, Lamiae Amallah, Jihane Ennadir, Khadija Khedid

Abstract:

This study evaluated the in vitro resistance and susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca strains) and Staphylococci strains, isolated from sheep’s milk, against antibiotics and essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium. Antibiotic resistance tests were done using disc diffusion while essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, and yields were calculated relative to plant dry matter. Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze each oil's chemical composition. The AMC, CTX, FOX, NA, CN, CIP, and OFX were very effective against the E. coli strains tested. Half of the strains were resistant to AMC, 60% to TIC, and 80% to TE. The K. oxytoca was resistant against AMC, FOX, and TIC (100%). Antibiotic-resistant testing on Staphylococci strains indicated Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus chromogenes as the most sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal exhibited less resistance to OX, TE, PT, E, and P. The M. pulegium resulted in a higher yield of essential oil of 3.2% oil compared to T. satureioides with only 1.85% yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal had lower OX, TE, PT, E, and P resistance. M. pulegium yielded 3.2% essential oil compared to 1.85% for T. satureioides. The monoterpene oxygenated derivatives, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and phenols are found in essential oil extracts. T. satureioides essential oil had high antibacterial activity even at low concentrations (0.2; 0.55 g/mL). The Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values indicate that the essential oils from the plants analyzed had bactericidal effects on all strains tested and are similar to the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values. The high antibacterial properties of these medicinal plants, against bacteria isolated from sheep’s milk, provide an opportunity to use these medicinal plants in the breeding sector as additives and preservatives in the dairy industry.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, medicinal plants, essential oils, enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, sheep milk

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7 Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Plant Extracts, and Characterized Microparticles to Modulate Antimicrobial Resistance of Epidemic Meca Positive S. Aureus of Dairy Origin

Authors: Amjad I. Aqib, Shanza R. Khan, Tanveer Ahmad, Syed A. R. Shah, Muhammad A. Naseer, Muhammad Shoaib, Iqra Sarwar, Muhammad F. A. Kulyar, Zeeshan A. Bhutta, Mumtaz A. Khan, Mahboob Ali, Khadija Yasmeen

Abstract:

The current study focused on resistance modulation of dairy linked epidemic mec A positive S. aureus for resistance modulation by plant extract (Eucalyptus globolus, Calotropis procera), NSAIDs, and star like microparticles. Zinc oxide {ZnO}c and {Zn (OH)₂} microparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method and characterized by calcination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Plant extracts were prepared by the Soxhlet extraction method. The study found 34% of subclinical samples (n=200) positive for S. aureus from dairy milk having significant (p < 0.05) association of assumed risk factors with pathogen. The antimicrobial assay showed 55, 42, 41, and 41% of S. aureus resistant to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and enoxacin. Amoxicillin showed the highest percentage of increase in zone of inhibitions (ZOI) at 100mg of Calotropis procera extract (31.29%) followed by 1mg/mL (28.91%) and 10mg/mL (21.68%) of Eucalyptus globolus. Amoxicillin increased ZOI by 42.85, 37.32, 29.05, and 22.78% in combination with 500 ug/ml with each of diclofenac, aspirin, ibuprofen, and meloxicam, respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) showed synergism of amoxicillin with diclofenac and aspirin and indifferent synergy with ibuprofen and meloxicam. The preliminary in vitro finding of combination of microparticles with amoxicillin proved to be synergistic, giving rise to 26.74% and 14.85% increase in ZOI of amoxicillin in combination with zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide, respectively. The modulated antimicrobial resistance incurred by NSAIDs, plant extracts, and microparticles against pathogenic S. aureus invite immediate attention to probe alternative antimicrobial sources.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, dairy milk, nanoparticles, NSIDs, plant extracts, resistance modulation, S. aureus

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6 Corpus-Based Neural Machine Translation: Empirical Study Multilingual Corpus for Machine Translation of Opaque Idioms - Cloud AutoML Platform

Authors: Khadija Refouh

Abstract:

Culture bound-expressions have been a bottleneck for Natural Language Processing (NLP) and comprehension, especially in the case of machine translation (MT). In the last decade, the field of machine translation has greatly advanced. Neural machine translation NMT has recently achieved considerable development in the quality of translation that outperformed previous traditional translation systems in many language pairs. Neural machine translation NMT is an Artificial Intelligence AI and deep neural networks applied to language processing. Despite this development, there remain some serious challenges that face neural machine translation NMT when translating culture bounded-expressions, especially for low resources language pairs such as Arabic-English and Arabic-French, which is not the case with well-established language pairs such as English-French. Machine translation of opaque idioms from English into French are likely to be more accurate than translating them from English into Arabic. For example, Google Translate Application translated the sentence “What a bad weather! It runs cats and dogs.” to “يا له من طقس سيء! تمطر القطط والكلاب” into the target language Arabic which is an inaccurate literal translation. The translation of the same sentence into the target language French was “Quel mauvais temps! Il pleut des cordes.” where Google Translate Application used the accurate French corresponding idioms. This paper aims to perform NMT experiments towards better translation of opaque idioms using high quality clean multilingual corpus. This Corpus will be collected analytically from human generated idiom translation. AutoML translation, a Google Neural Machine Translation Platform, is used as a custom translation model to improve the translation of opaque idioms. The automatic evaluation of the custom model will be compared to the Google NMT using Bilingual Evaluation Understudy Score BLEU. BLEU is an algorithm for evaluating the quality of text which has been machine-translated from one natural language to another. Human evaluation is integrated to test the reliability of the Blue Score. The researcher will examine syntactical, lexical, and semantic features using Halliday's functional theory.

Keywords: multilingual corpora, natural language processing (NLP), neural machine translation (NMT), opaque idioms

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5 Multilevel Modelling of Modern Contraceptive Use in Nigeria: Analysis of the 2013 NDHS

Authors: Akiode Ayobami, Akiode Akinsewa, Odeku Mojisola, Salako Busola, Odutolu Omobola, Nuhu Khadija

Abstract:

Purpose: Evidence exists that family planning use can contribute to reduction in infant and maternal mortality in any country. Despite these benefits, contraceptive use in Nigeria still remains very low, only 10% among married women. Understanding factors that predict contraceptive use is very important in order to improve the situation. In this paper, we analysed data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) to better understand predictors of contraceptive use in Nigeria. The use of logistics regression and other traditional models in this type of situation is not appropriate as they do not account for social structure influence brought about by the hierarchical nature of the data on response variable. We therefore used multilevel modelling to explore the determinants of contraceptive use in order to account for the significant variation in modern contraceptive use by socio-demographic, and other proximate variables across the different Nigerian states. Method: This data has a two-level hierarchical structure. We considered the data of 26, 403 married women of reproductive age at level 1 and nested them within the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja at level 2. We modelled use of modern contraceptive against demographic variables, being told about FP at health facility, heard of FP on TV, Magazine or radio, husband desire for more children nested within the state. Results: Our results showed that the independent variables in the model were significant predictors of modern contraceptive use. The estimated variance component for the null model, random intercept, and random slope models were significant (p=0.00), indicating that the variation in contraceptive use across the Nigerian states is significant, and needs to be accounted for in order to accurately determine the predictors of contraceptive use, hence the data is best fitted by the multilevel model. Only being told about family planning at the health facility and religion have a significant random effect, implying that their predictability of contraceptive use varies across the states. Conclusion and Recommendation: Results showed that providing FP information at the health facility and religion needs to be considered when programming to improve contraceptive use at the state levels.

Keywords: multilevel modelling, family planning, predictors, Nigeria

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4 Viability of EBT3 Film in Small Dimensions to Be Use for in-Vivo Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

Authors: Abdul Qadir Jangda, Khadija Mariam, Usman Ahmed, Sharib Ahmed

Abstract:

The Gafchromic EBT3 film has the characteristic of high spatial resolution, weak energy dependence and near tissue equivalence which makes them viable to be used for in-vivo dosimetry in External Beam and Brachytherapy applications. The aim of this study is to assess the smallest film dimension that may be feasible for the use in in-vivo dosimetry. To evaluate the viability, the film sizes from 3 x 3 mm to 20 x 20 mm were calibrated with 6 MV Photon and 6 MeV electron beams. The Gafchromic EBT3 (Lot no. A05151201, Make: ISP) film was cut into five different sizes in order to establish the relationship between absorbed dose vs. film dimensions. The film dimension were 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 15 x 15, and 20 x 20 mm. The films were irradiated on Varian Clinac® 2100C linear accelerator for dose range from 0 to 1000 cGy using PTW solid water phantom. The irradiation was performed as per clinical absolute dose rate calibratin setup, i.e. 100 cm SAD, 5.0 cm depth and field size of 10x10 cm2 and 100 cm SSD, 1.4 cm depth and 15x15 cm2 applicator for photon and electron respectively. The irradiated films were scanned with the landscape orientation and a post development time of 48 hours (minimum). Film scanning accomplished using Epson Expression 10000 XL Flatbed Scanner and quantitative analysis carried out with ImageJ freeware software. Results show that the dose variation with different film dimension ranging from 3 x 3 mm to 20 x 20 mm is very minimal with a maximum standard deviation of 0.0058 in Optical Density for a dose level of 3000 cGy and the the standard deviation increases with the increase in dose level. So the precaution must be taken while using the small dimension films for higher doses. Analysis shows that there is insignificant variation in the absorbed dose with a change in film dimension of EBT3 film. Study concludes that the film dimension upto 3 x 3 mm can safely be used up to a dose level of 3000 cGy without the need of recalibration for particular dimension in use for dosimetric application. However, for higher dose levels, one may need to calibrate the films for a particular dimension in use for higher accuracy. It was also noticed that the crystalline structure of the film got damage at the edges while cutting the film, which can contribute to the wrong dose if the region of interest includes the damage area of the film

Keywords: external beam radiotherapy, film calibration, film dosimetery, in-vivo dosimetery

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3 Composition Dependence of Ni 2p Core Level Shift in Fe1-xNix Alloys

Authors: Shakti S. Acharya, V. R. R. Medicherla, Rajeev Rawat, Komal Bapna, Deepnarayan Biswas, Khadija Ali, K. Maiti

Abstract:

The discovery of invar effect in 35% Ni concentration Fe1-xNix alloy has stimulated enormous experimental and theoretical research. Elemental Fe and low Ni concentration Fe1-xNix alloys which possess body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure at ambient temperature and pressure transform to hexagonally close packed (hcp) phase at around 13 GPa. Magnetic order was found to be absent at 11K for Fe92Ni8 alloy when subjected to a high pressure of 26 GPa. The density functional theoretical calculations predicted substantial hyperfine magnetic fields, but were not observed in Mossbaur spectroscopy. The bulk modulus of fcc Fe1-xNix alloys with Ni concentration more than 35%, is found to be independent of pressure. The magnetic moment of Fe is also found be almost same in these alloys from 4 to 10 GPa pressure. Fe1-xNix alloys exhibit a complex microstructure which is formed by a series of complex phase transformations like martensitic transformation, spinodal decomposition, ordering, mono-tectoid reaction, eutectoid reaction at temperatures below 400°C. Despite the existence of several theoretical models the field is still in its infancy lacking full knowledge about the anomalous properties exhibited by these alloys. Fe1-xNix alloys have been prepared by arc melting the high purity constituent metals in argon ambient. These alloys have annealed at around 3000C in vacuum sealed quartz tube for two days to make the samples homogeneous. These alloys have been structurally characterized by x-ray diffraction and were found to exhibit a transition from bcc to fcc for x > 0.3. Ni 2p core levels of the alloys have been measured using high resolution (0.45 eV) x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ni 2p core level shifts to lower binding energy with respect to that of pure Ni metal giving rise to negative core level shifts (CLSs). Measured CLSs exhibit a linear dependence in fcc region (x > 0.3) and were found to deviate slightly in bcc region (x < 0.3). ESCA potential model fails correlate CLSs with site potentials or charges in metallic alloys. CLSs in these alloys occur mainly due to shift in valence bands with composition due to intra atomic charge redistribution.

Keywords: arc melting, core level shift, ESCA potential model, valence band

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2 Physico-Chemical and Biotechnological Characterization of Sheep’s Milk (Ovis aries) by Three Medicinal Plants Extracts

Authors: Fatima Bouazza, Khadija Khedid, Lamiae Amallah, Aziz Mouhaddach, Basma Boukour, Jihane Ennadir, Rachida Hassikou

Abstract:

In order to combine milk and its derived products conservation and flavoring, Moroccans often used aromatic and medicinal plants. These plant extracts are endowed with several nutritive and therapeutic properties. This study constitutes a first national assessment of physico-chemical quality of sheep’s milk from moroccan Sardi breed and the evaluation of the antibacterial effect of three medicinal plants extracts: Aloe barbadensis Miller, Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium on flora isolated from this sheep's milk. 100 milk samples were collected in four regions of Morocco. The bacteria isolated were identified by classical and molecular methods (16S rRNA sequencing) and tested, according to the disk method, for their sensitivity to several antibiotics. The physico-chemical analyzes of sheep’s milk concerned the pH, titratable acidity, density, dry extract, freezing point and contents of: fat, proteins, lactose and calcium. The essential oils (EOs) of T. satureioides and M .pulegium were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC / MS, while the Aloe vera leaf pulp was analyzed by the methods of Harborne and HPLC. A total number of 125 bacteria have been identified. Significant resistance to chemical antibiotics has been noted in LABs. The average temperature value of milk is around 57.15 °C, the pH is 6.56, the titratable acidity is around 3.4 ° D, the density is 1.035g / cm³ , the total dry extract is around 169.5g / l, the ash (9.8g / l), the freezing point (- 0.556 °C) while the average fat content is 67.85g / l . The samples richest in fat belong to the region of Settat, cradle of the Sardi breed, with a maximum average value of 74.4g / l. The average protein is 56g / l, lactose (39.92g / l), and calcium (1.855g / l). Analysis of the major components of EOs revealed the dominance of borneol in the case of T. satureioides and of pulegone in M. pulegium. Aloe vera gel contains alkaloids, flavonoids, catechic tannins, saponins and 1.60 µg / ml of aloin. The plant extracts have a bactericidal effect on E. coli, Klebsiellaoxytoca and Staphylococci and bacteriostatic effect on LABs of technological interest (Lactobacillus). As a result of this study, it is believed that the consumption of sardi sheep’s milk would be of nutritional benefit. Its richness in fat and proteins predisposes it for biotechnological development in the manufacture of cheese and yogurt. Also, the use of aromatic and medicinal plants, as natural additives would be of great benefit to flavor and maintain its quality.

Keywords: sheep’s milk, lactic flora, antimicrobial power, aloe barbadensis miller, thymus satureioides, mentha pulegium

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1 Treatment of Wastewater by Constructed Wetland Eco-Technology: Plant Species Alters the Performance and the Enrichment of Bacteria Ries Alters the Performance and the Enrichment of Bacteria

Authors: Kraiem Khadija, Hamadi Kallali, Naceur Jedidi

Abstract:

Constructed wetland systems are eco-technology recognized as environmentally friendly and emerging innovative solutions remediation as these systems are cost-effective and sustainable wastewater treatment systems. The performance of these biological system is affected by various factors such as plant, substrate, wastewater type, hydraulic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, water depth, and operation mood. The objective of this study was to to assess the alters of plant species on pollutants reduction and enrichment of anammox and nitrifing denitrifing bacteria in a modified vertical flow (VFCW) constructed wetland. This tests were carried out using three modified vertical constructed wetlands with a surface of 0.23 m² and depth 80 cm. It was a saturated vertical constructed wetland at the bottom. The saturation zone is maintained by the siphon structure at the outlet. The VFCW (₁) system was unplanted, VFCW (₂) planted with Typha angustofolia, and VFCW(₃) planted with Phragmites australis. The experimental units were fed with domestic wastewater and were operated by batch mode during 8 months at an average hydraulic loading rate around 20 cm day− 1. The operation cycle was two days feeding and five days rest. Results indicated that plants presence improved the removal efficiency; the removal rates of organic matter (85.1–90.9%; COD and 81.8–88.9%; BOD5), nitrogen (54.2–73%; NTK and 66–77%; NH4 -N) were higher by 10.7–30.1% compared to the unplanted vertical constructed wetland. On the other hand, the plant species had no significant effect on removal efficiency of COD, The removal of COD was similar in VFCW (₂) and VFCW (₃) (p > 0.05), attaining average removal efficiencies of 88.7% and 85.2%, respectively. Whereas it had a significant effect on NTK removal (p > 0.05), with an average removal rate of 72% versus 51% for VFCW (₂) and VFCW (₃), respectively. Among the three sets of vertical flow constructed wetlands, the VFCW(₂) removed the highest percent of total streptococcus, fecal streptococcus total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli as 59, 62, 52, 63, and 58%, respectively. The presence and the plant species alters the community composition and abundance of the bacteria. The abundance of bacteria in the planted wetland was much higher than that in the unplanted one. VFCW(₃) had the highest relative abundance of nitrifying bacteria such as Nitrosospira (18%), Nitrosospira (12%), and Nitrobacter (8%). Whereas the vertical constructed wetland planted with typha had larger number of denitrifying species, with relative abundances of Aeromonas (13%), Paracoccus (11%), Thauera (7%), and Thiobacillus (6%). However, the abundance of nitrifying bacteria was very lower in this system than VFCW(₂). Interestingly, the presence of Thypha angustofolia species favored the enrichment of anammox bacteria compared to unplanted system and system planted with phragmites australis. The results showed that the middle layer had the most accumulation of anammox bacteria, which the anaerobic condition is better and the root system is moderate. Vegetation has several characteristics that make it an essential component of wetlands, but its exact effects are complex and debated.

Keywords: wastawater, constructed wetland, anammox, removal

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