Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5240

Search results for: natural antioxidant

5240 Evaluation of Achillea millefolium L. Biochemical Changes in Iran's Natural Habitat

Authors: Ghavamaldin Asadian, Aptin Rahnavard, Mariamalsadat Taghavi

Abstract:

Achillea millefolium L. is one of the most important medicinal plants with antioxidant compounds. The use of compounds derived from plants reduces the incidence of many chronic diseases. The purpose of this investigation is study of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity some of ecotypes yarrow grown in natural habitats in Iran. This experimental study was conducted in 2013 at the Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch. After identifying the natural sites, we have attempted to harvest of aerial part and after drying in lab temperature, essential oil was extracted by steam distillation. In this research for evaluate the antioxidant properties was used of three method, DPPH, Antioxidant capacity ferro revival and phosphomolybdenum, that all mechanism is based on the electron donating. All ecotypes had antioxidant activity and ecotypes grown in Kandovan region were measured with the most total phenolic (89.5 mg GA/g dew) and flavonoid (20.4 µg/g dew) and the lowest in Saveh (71.3 mg GA/g dew, 17.4 µg/g dew). Variation of the antioxidant properties were significant (P≤0.01) in areas and were accounted Kandovan with highest value and the lowest in Save. As a result, yarrow essential oil grown in Kandovan in terms of amount of total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant property, it was determined the best natural habitat.

Keywords: achillea millefolium L., antioxidant compounds, DPPH, total phenolic, flavonoid natural habitats

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5239 Antioxidant Properties of Snack Crackers Incorporated with Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L.) Powder

Authors: Elif Yildiz, Gizem Gungor, Hatice Yilmaz, Duygu Gocmen

Abstract:

Nowadays, consumer demand has been increasing for the healthy and functional food. In this context, some natural products rich in phenolic compounds are also added to cereal based food for health benefits. Natural phenolic compounds have many beneficial bioactivities such as anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic activities. It has been found that various plant species contain natural bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant function. One of these plant species is mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L). Mahaleb berries with dark blue or red colours have the highest antioxidant capacities among all common fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine the possibilities of improving the antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers by supplementing with mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L) powder. For this purpose mahaleb powder were used to replace wheat flour in the snack cracker formulation at two different levels (5%, and 7.5% w/w). As a result, mahaleb supplementation caused an increase in total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of crackers. It can be say that mahaleb powder can be used as an alternative functional and nutritional ingredient in bakery products.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cracker, mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L), phenolic contents

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5238 In vitro Antioxidant Scavenging of Root Fraction of Bryonia dioica

Authors: Yamani Amal, Lazaae Jamila, Elachouri Mostafa

Abstract:

Plants and their active agents – especially polyphenols – may have a principal role in the treatment of diseases that result from the defect of physiological antioxidant mechanisms. Bryonia dioica is well known in Moroccan traditional medicine for alleviatin pain and traiting many diseases. We have focused on plant belonging to Cucurbitaceae Family from around the world to understand their therapeutic uses and their potential antioxidant activities Although several biological activities and Chemical composition of Bryonia dioica are well characterized, no direct, in vitro study, of this natural product examined the antioxydant effect of the extract from the roots of Bryonia dioica. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro antioxidant activity of the B.dioica root, using antioxidant analysis methods based on determination of Hydroxyradical Scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging, Hydrogenperoxide Scavenging and Nitric Oxide Scavenging. In this study, it was demonstrated, that, B. dioica root extract showed excellent antioxidant properties. This investigation showed that the roots of this plant contain potent natural scavengers R. It may represent an interesting source of antioxidant phenolics that may favour the extension of their cultivation as new source of natural antioxidants in addition to containing high quality proteins for human or animal nutrition. Therefore, there is need for all stakeholders on the Morocco to strive towards taking advantage of our enormous biodiversity resources to free our people from diseases, abject poverty and stagnation.

Keywords: Morocco, bryoniadioica, in vitro, antioxydant

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5237 Antioxidant Extraction from Indonesian Crude Palm Oil and Its Antioxidation Activity

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Puti Pertiwi

Abstract:

Crude palm oil (CPO) is a vegetable oil that came from a palm tree bunch. Palm oil tree was known as highest vegetable oil yield. It was grown across Equatorial County, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. The greenish red color on CPO was came from carotenoid antioxidant, which could be extracted and use separately as functional food and other purposes as antioxidant source. Another antioxidant that also found in CPO is tocopherol. The aim of the research work is to find antioxidant activity on CPO comparing to the synthetic antioxidant that available in a market. On this research work, antioxidant was extracted by using a mixture of acetone and n. hexane, while activity of the antioxidant extract was determine by DPPH method. The extracted matter was shown that their antioxidant activity was about 45% compare to pure tocopherol and beta carotene.

Keywords: antioxidant, , beta carotene, , crude palm oil, , DPPH, , tocopherol

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5236 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Twenty Medicinal Plants

Authors: S. Krimat, T. Dob, L. Lamari, H. Metidji

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of hydromethanolic extract of selected Algerian medicinal flora. The antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was tested against five microorganisms Pseu-domonas aeruginosa Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The results showed that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50 = 4.60 μg/ml), while Populus trimula had the highest antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linolaic acid assay. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. The results indicate that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

Keywords: Algerian medicinal plants, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, disc diffusion method

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5235 Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.

Keywords: antioxidant status, maize corn, drought stress, heavy metal

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5234 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity as a Function of the Genetic Diversity of Canna indica Complex

Authors: A. Rattanapittayapron, O. Vanijajiva

Abstract:

Canna indica is a prominent species complex in tropical and subtropical areas. They become indigenous in Southeast Asia where they have been introduced. At present, C. indica complex comprises over hundred hybrids, are cultivated as commercial horticulture. The species complex contains starchy rhizome having economic value in terms of food and herbal medicine. In addition, bright color of the flowers makes it a valuable ornamental plant and potential source for natural colorant. This study aims to assess genetic diversity of four varieties of C. indica complex based on SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) and iPBS (inter primer binding site) markers. We also examined phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant properties of the flower extracts from four different color varieties. Results showed that despite of the genetic variation, there were no significant differences in phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant properties of flowers. The SRAP and iPBS results agree with the more primitive traits showed by morphological information and phytochemical and antioxidant characteristics from the flowers. Since Canna flowers has long been used as natural colorants together with the antioxidant activities from the ethanol extracts in this study, there are likely to be good source for cosmetics additives.

Keywords: Canna indica, antioxidant activity, genetic diversity, SRAP, iPBS

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5233 Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activity in in vivo and in vitro Samples of Purple Greater Yam (Dioscorea alata L).

Authors: Sakinah Abdullah, Rosna Mat Taha

Abstract:

Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite which result in oxidative stress leading to cellular damage. Natural antioxidant are in high demand because of their potential in health promotion and disease prevention and their improved safety and consumer acceptability. Plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant. Dioscorea alata L. known as 'ubi badak' in Malaysia were well known for their antioxidant content, but this plant was seasonal. Thus, tissue culture technique was used to mass propagate this plant. In the present work, a comparative study between in vitro (from tissue culture) and in vivo (from intact plant) samples of Dioscorea alata L. for their antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenil -1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were carried out. All samples had better radical scavenging activity but in vivo samples had the strongest radical scavenging activity compared to in vitro samples. Furthermore, tubers from in vivo samples showed the greatest free radical scavenging effect and comparatively greater phenolic content than in vitro samples.

Keywords: Dioscorea alata, tissue culture, antioxidant, in vivo, in vitro, DPPH

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5232 Study of the Effect of Extraction Solvent on the Content of Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoids and the Antioxidant Activity of an Endemic Medicinal Plant Growing in Morocco

Authors: Aghoutane Basma, Naama Amal, Talbi Hayat, El Manfalouti Hanae, Kartah Badreddine

Abstract:

Aromatic and medicinal plants are used by man for different needs, including food and medicinal needs for their biological properties attributed mainly to phenolic compounds and for their antioxidant capacity. In our study, the aim is to compare three extraction solvents by evaluating the contents of phenolic compounds, the contents of flavonoids, and the antioxidant activities of extracts from different methods of extracting the aerial part of an endemic medicinal plant from Morocco. This activity was also confirmed by three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidant reducing power of iron (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity (CAT)). The results showed that this plant is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, as well as it has a very important antioxidant capacity in whatever the solvent or the extraction method. This suggests the importance of using extracts from this plant as a new natural source of food additives and potent antioxidants in the food industry.

Keywords: endemic plant of Morocco, phenolic compound, solvent, extraction technique, antioxidant activity

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5231 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj

Abstract:

Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant, raw milk

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5230 Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract

Authors: Fatemeh Cheraghali, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini, Leila Mirmoghtadaie

Abstract:

In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.

Keywords: biopolymer, microencapsulation, spray-drying, walnut green husk

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5229 Antioxidant Efficacy of Lovi (Flacourtia inermis) Peel Extract in Edible Oils during Storage

Authors: Sasini U. G. Nanayakkara, Nishala E. Wedamulla, W. A. J. P. Wijesinghe

Abstract:

Lovi (Flacourtia inermis) is an underutilized fruit crop grown in Sri Lanka with promising antioxidant properties; thus, exhibits the great potential to use as a natural antioxidant. With the concern of synthetic antioxidants, there is a growing trend towards the addition of a natural antioxidant to retard the rancidity of edible oils. Hence, in this backdrop, extract obtained from the peel of F. inermis fruit was used to retard the rancidity of selected edible oils. Free fatty acid (FFA) content and peroxide value (PV) of sunflower oil (SO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were measured at 3-day intervals for 21 days at 65 ± 5°C after addition of extract at 500, 1000, 2000 ppm levels and α-tocopherol at 500 ppm level was used as positive control. SO and VCO without added extract was used as the control. The extract was prepared with 70% ethanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction, and antioxidant efficacy and total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract were measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and Folin-Ciocalteu method respectively. Antioxidant activity (IC50) and TPC of the extract were 227.14 ± 4.12 µgmL⁻¹ and 4.87 ± 0.01 mg GAE per gram, respectively. During the storage period, FFA content and PV of both oils were increased with time. However, SO showed comparatively high PV than that of VCO and thereby indicate the progression of lipid oxidation as PV is a good indicator of the extent of primary oxidative products formed in oils. The most effective extract concentration was 2000 ppm. After 21 days of storage, VCO (control) sample exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) high FFA (0.36%) and PV (1.93 meq kg⁻¹) than that of VCO with 1000 ppm (FFA: 0.35%; PV: 1.72 meq kg⁻¹) and 2000 ppm (FFA: 0.28%; PV: 1.19 meq kg-1) levels of extract. Thus, demonstrates the efficacy of lovi peel extract in retardation of lipid oxidation of edible oils during storage at higher concentrations of the extract addition. Moreover, FFA and PV of SO (FFA: 0.10%; PV: 12.38 meq kg⁻¹) and VCO (FFA: 0.28%; PV: 1.19 meq kg⁻¹) at 2000 ppm level of extract were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of positive control: SO with α-tocopherol (FFA: 0.22%, PV: 17.94 meq kg⁻¹) and VCO with α-tocopherol (FFA: 0.29%, PV: 1.39 meq kg⁻¹) after 21 days. Accordingly, lovi peel extract at 2000 ppm level was more effective than α-tocopherol in retardation of lipid oxidation of edible oils. In conclusion, lovi peel extract has strong antioxidant properties and can be used as a natural antioxidant to inhibit deteriorative oxidation of edible oils.

Keywords: antioxidant, Flacourtia inermis, peroxide value, virgin coconut oil

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5228 Crude Palm Oil Antioxidant Extraction and the Antioxidation Activity

Authors: Supriyono Supriyono, Sumardiyono Sumardiyono, Peni Pujiastuti, Dian Indriana Hapsari

Abstract:

Crude palm oil (CPO) is a vegetable oil that came from a palm tree bunch. The productivity of the oil is 12 ton/hectare/year. Thus palm oil tree was known as highest vegetable oil yield. It was grown across Equatorial County, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. The greenish-red color on CPO was come from carotenoid. Carotenoid is one of the antioxidants that could be extracted. Carotenoid could be used as functional food and other purposes. Another antioxidant that also found in CPO is tocopherol. The aim of the research work is to find antioxidant activity on CPO comparing to the synthetic antioxidant that available in a market. In this research work, antioxidant was extracted by a mixture of acetone and n.hexane, while the activity of the antioxidant extract was determined by DPPH method. Antioxidant activity of the extracted compound about 46% compared to pure tocopherol. While the solvent mixture compose by 90% acetone and 10% n. hexane meet the best on the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant, beta carotene, crude palm oil, DPPH, tocopherol

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5227 Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Cherry

Authors: Jasna M. Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana S. Ćetković, Jelena J. Vulić, Sonja M. Djilas, Vesna T. Tumbas Šaponjac, Sladjana M. Stajčić

Abstract:

Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, different inflammatory processes, and also prevent deteriorative oxidation reactions in foods such as enzymatic browning of fruit and vegetables. Honey is a natural saturated sugar solution, but it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. It is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits. The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried cherry on phenols (TPh) and flavonoids (Fl) contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral (PH), linden (LH) and acacia (AH) honey and also in their mixtures with dried cherry, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40, AH40), were determined. In comparison to honey, TPh increased 2.25 times for LH40, 2.16 times for AH40 and 1.45 times for PH40, while Fl increased 2.81-fold for PH40, 1.21-fold for LH40 and 1.44-fold for AH40. Antioxidant activity was investigated with two assays, DPPH test and reducing power (RP), and expressed as EC50DPPH and RP0.5 values. The EC50DPPH values were: EC50PH40 = 1.16 mg/ml; EC50LH40= 1.42 mg/ml and EC50AH40= 1.69 mg/ml, while RP0.5 were: RP0.5PH40 = 15.05 mg/ml; RP0.5LH40 = 16.09 mg/ml and P0.5AH40 = 17.60 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral, linden and acacia honey with 40% dried cherry improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, dried cherry, honey, phenolics

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5226 Effect of Red Cabbage Antioxidant Extracts on Lipid Oxidation of Fresh Tilapia

Authors: Ayse Demirbas, Bruce A. Welt, Yavuz Yagiz

Abstract:

Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish causes loss of product quality. Oxidative rancidity causes loss of nutritional value and undesirable color changes. Therefore, powerful antioxidant extracts may provide a relatively low cost and natural means to reduce oxidation, resulting in longer, higher quality and higher value shelf life of foods. In this study, we measured effects of red cabbage antioxidant on lipid oxidation in fresh tilapia filets using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, peroxide value (PV) and color assesment analysis. Extraction of red cabbage was performed using an efficient microwave method. Fresh tilapia filets were dipped in or sprayed with solutions containing different concentrations of extract. Samples were stored for up to 9 days at 4°C and analyzed every other day for color and lipid oxidation. Results showed that treated samples had lower oxidation than controls. Lipid peroxide values on treated samples showed benefits through day-7. Only slight differences were observed between spraying and dipping methods. This work shows that red cabbage antioxidant extracts may represent an inexpensive and all natural method for reducing oxidative spoilage of fresh fish.

Keywords: antioxidant, shelf life, fish, red cabbage, lipid oxidation

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5225 Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) Grown in Algeria

Authors: Asma Temagoult, Bariza Zitouni, Yassin Noui

Abstract:

Cactus fruit contains different nutritional and functional components, which are used because of their benefits to human health, such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamins C. It has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action, and antioxidant properties related to anticarcinogenic, antiulcerogenic and immunomodulatory effects. The antioxidant and nutritional properties have been characterized in cactus prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.), cultivar yellow, grown in Arris area; Eastern of Algeria. The antioxidant properties of this cactus cultivar were higher than the others cactus cultivar in the world. The amount of fruit phenolic compounds revealed contents between 20.65 and 45.70 mg / 100 g of FW for total polyphenols and 0.519 - 0.591 mg / 100 g of FW for the flavonoids. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The average recorded to the potassium content is about 1070 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight; sodium is 60.7 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight and 80 mg / 100g for the calcium. According to the high value of this cactus, it was considered as a good nutrient and important pharmaceutical resource. It could be used as a natural additive or substituted food supplement in many foodstuffs production, to benefit from these benefits.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, DPPH, FRAP, nutritional properties, Opuntia ficus indica

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5224 Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Apricots

Authors: Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Sonja Djilas, Vesna Tumbas-Šaponjac, Jelena Vulić, Sladjana Stajčić

Abstract:

Honey, produced by the honeybee, is a natural saturated sugar solution, which is mainly composed of a complex mixture of carbohydrates. Besides this, it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, and different inflammatory processes. Honey is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits (plums, figs, cranberries, apricots etc.). The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried apricot addition to polyphenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Some individual phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral honey (PH), linden honey (LH) and also in their mixtures with dried apricot, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40), were identified and quantified by HPLC. The most dominant phenolic compound was: gallic acid in LH (11.14 mg/100g), LH40 (42.65 mg/100g), PH (7.24 mg/100g) and catehin in PH40 (11.83 mg/100g). The antioxidant activity of PH, LH, PH40 and LH40 was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (OH) by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Honey samples with 40% dried apricot exhibited better antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The EC50 values, the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial concentration of OH radicals by 50%, were: EC50PH=3.36 mg/ml, EC50LH=13.36 mg/ml, EC50PH40=2.29 mg/ml, EC50 LH40=7.78 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral honey and linden honey with dried apricots improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: honey, dried apricot, HPLC, hydroxyl radical

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5223 Determination of Physicochemical Properties, Bioaccessibility of Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mineral Enriched Linden Herbal Tea Beverage

Authors: Senem Suna, Canan Ece Tamer, Ömer Utku Çopur

Abstract:

In this research, dried linden (Tilia argentea) leaves and blossoms were used as a raw material for mineral enriched herbal tea beverage production. For this aim, %1 dried linden was infused with boiling water (100 °C) for 5 minutes. After cooling, sucrose, citric acid, ascorbic acid, natural lemon flavor and natural mineral water were added. Beverage samples were plate filtered, filled into 200-mL glass bottles, capped then pasteurized at 98 °C for 15 minutes. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH, minerals (Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na), color (L*, a*, b*), turbidity, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, and ascorbic were determined as 7.66±0.28 g/100 g, 0.13±0.00 g/100 mL, and 19.42±0.62 mg/100 mL, respectively. pH was measured as 3.69. Fe, Ca, Mg, K and Na contents of the beverage were determined as 0.12±0.00, 115.48±0.05, 34.72±0.14, 48.67±0.43 and 85.72±1.01 mg/L, respectively. Color was measured as 13.63±0.05, -4.33±0.05, and 3.06±0.05 for L*, a*, and b* values. Turbidity was determined as 0.69±0.07 NTU. Bioaccessible phenolics were determined as 312.82±5.91 mg GAE/100 mL. Antioxidant capacities of chemical (MetOH:H2O:HCl) and physiological extracts (in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction) with DPPH (27.59±0.53 and 0.17±0.02 μmol trolox/mL), FRAP (21.01±0.97 and 13.27±0.19 μmol trolox/mL) and CUPRAC (44.71±9.42 and 2.80±0.64 μmol trolox/mL) methods were also evaluated. As a result, enrichment with natural mineral water was proposed for the development of functional and nutritional values together with a good potential for commercialization.

Keywords: linden, herbal tea beverage, bioaccessibility, antioxidant capacity

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5222 Propolis as Antioxidant Formulated in Nanoemulsion

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Irda Fidrianny, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Okti Alifiana

Abstract:

Natural products such as propolis, green tea and corncob are containing several compounds called antioxidant. Antioxidant can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that the extract of propolis that has the highest antioxidant activity was ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). It is important to make a dosage form that could keep the stability and could protect the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of the extracts. In this research, nanoemulsion (NE) was chosen to formulate those natural products. NE is a dispersion system between oil phase and water phase that formed by mechanical force with a lot amount of surfactants and has globule size below 100 nm. In pharmaceutical industries, NE was preferable for its stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, its ease to be absorbed and eliminated, and for its use as carrier for lipophilic drugs. First, all of the natural products were extracted using reflux methods. Green tea and corncob were extracted using 96% ethanol while propolis using 70% ethanol. Then, the extracts were concentrated using rotavapor to obtain viscous extracts. The yield of EEP was 11.12%; green tea extract (GTE) was 23.37%; and corncob extract (CCE) was 17.23%. EEP contained steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid and saponin. GTE contained flavonoid, tannin, and quinone while CCE contained flavonoid, phenol and tannin. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were then measured using DPPH scavenging capacity methods. The values of DPPH scavenging capacity were 61.14% for EEP; 97.16% for GTE; and 78.28% for CCE. The value of IC50 for EEP was 0.41629 ppm. After the extracts were evaluated, NE was prepared. Several surfactants and co-surfactants were used in many combinations and ratios in order to form a NE. Tween 80 and Kolliphor RH40 were used as surfactants while glycerin and propylene glycol were used as co-surfactants. The best NE consists of 26.25% of Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% of glycerin; 5% of rice bran oil; 3% of extracts; and 57% of water. EEP NE had globule size around 23.72 nm; polydispersity index below 0.5; and did not cause any irritation on rabbits. EEP NE was proven to be stable after passing stability test within 63 days at room temperature and 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. Based on TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) test, EEP NE had spherical structure with most of its size below 50 nm. The antioxidant activity of EEP NE was monitored for 6 weeks and showed no significant difference. The value of DPPH scavenging capacity for EEP NE was around 58%; for GTE NE was 96.75%; and for CCE NE was 55.69%.

Keywords: propolis, green tea, corncob, antioxidant, nanoemulsion

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5221 Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Puree

Authors: So Yae Koh, YeonWoo Song, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Jeong Yong Moon, Somi Kim Cho

Abstract:

Blueberry, a perennial shrub, is one of the most popular fruits due to its flavor and strong free radical scavenging properties. In this study, the blueberry puree was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 and the antioxidant activities of fermentation products were examined. Various conditions with different supplements (5% sucrose or 10% skim milk) were evaluated for fermentation efficiency and the effects on antioxidant properties. The viable cell count of lactic acid bacteria, pH, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were measured after 7 days of fermentation. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging activities were highly enhanced compared to non-fermented blueberry puree after fermentation. Interestingly, the antioxidant activities were greatly increased in the fermentation of blueberry puree alone without supplements. The present results indicate that the blueberry puree fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants and these findings will facilitate the utilization of blueberry as a resource for food additive.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, blueberry, lactobacillus plantarum CK10, fermentation

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5220 Assessement of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Lavandula antineae Maire from Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Krimat, Tahar Dob, Mohamed Toumi, Aicha Kesouri, Hafidha Metidji, Chelghoum Chabane

Abstract:

Lavandula antineae Maire is an endemic medicinal plant of Algeria which is traditionally used for the treatment of chills, bruises, oedema and rheumatism. The present study was designed to investigate the phytochemical screening, total phenolic and antioxidant activity of Lavandula antineae Maire for the first time. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of different kind of chemical groups (anthraquinones, terpenes, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, O-heterosides, C-heterosides, phenolic acids). The amounts of total phenolics in the extracts (hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extract) were determined spectrometrically. From the analyses, ethyl acetate extract had the highest total phenolic content (262.35 mg GA/g extract) and antioxidant activity (IC50=7.10 µg/ml) using DPPH method. The ethyl acetate extract was also more potent on reducing power compared to hydromethanolic extract. The results suggested that L. antineae could be considered as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for pharmaceuticals and food preservation.

Keywords: Lavandula antineae, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolics

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5219 Antioxidant Characteristics of Serbian Conifers

Authors: Dubravka Štajner, Boris M. Popović, Saša Orlović, Ružica Ždero, Milan Popović, Aleksandra Popović

Abstract:

Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provides efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Present article highlights an antioxidant capacity of Serbian conifer plants. Antioxidant activities of the crude extracts were assessed using different assays. In this study, quantities of phenolic compounds (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins), contents of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and proline were examined. MDA quantities and ability of extracts to remove reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) were also investigated. Furthermore, antioxidant activities of extracts against DPPH∙, ferric reducing antioxidant power, permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity were also determined. According to almost all used assays, antioxidant and scavenging capacities of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were superior compared to spruce. Presented results implicated that leaves of Douglas fir and silver fir possessed outstanding antioxidant characteristics that could diminish damage caused by oxygen radicals which are responsible for many of the bodily changes and susceptibility to different diseases.

Keywords: conifers, antioxidant activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
5218 Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Potential of Selected Nigerian Herbs and Spices: A Justification for Consumption and Use in the Food Industry

Authors: Amarachi Delight Onyemachi, Gregory Ikechukwu Onwuka

Abstract:

The growing consumer trend for natural ingredients, functional foods with health benefits and the perceived risk of carcinogenesis associated with synthetic antioxidants have forced food manufacturers to look for alternatives for producing healthy and safe food. Herbs and spices are cheap, natural and harmless sources of antioxidants which can delay and prevent lipid oxidation of food products and also confer its unique organoleptic properties and health benefits to food products. The Nigerian climate has been proven to be conducive for the production of spices and herbs and is blessed bountifully with a wide range of them. Five selected Nigerian herbs and spices Piper guieense, Xylopia aethopica, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum were evaluated for their ability to act as radical scavengers. The spices were extracted with 80% ethanol and evaluated using total phenolic capacity (TPC), DPPH (1,1-diph diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) ABTS (2,2’azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reducing power (RP) assays. The TPC ranged from 5.33 µg GAE/mg (in Gongronema latifolium) to 15.55 µg GAE/mg (in Ocimum gratissimum). The DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity of the extracts ranged from 0.23-0.36 IC50 mg/ml and 2.32-7.25 Trolox equivalent % respectively. The TAC and RP of the extract ranged from 6.73-10.64 µg AAE/mg and 3.52-10.19 µg AAE/mg. The result of percentage yield of the extract ranged from as low as 9.94% in Gongronema latifolium and to as high as 23.85% in Xylopia aethopica. A very strong positive relationship existed between the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the tested herbs and spices (R2=0.96). All of the extracts exhibited different extent of strong antioxidant activity, high antioxidant activity was found in Ocimum gratissimum and Gongronema latifolium with the least. However, Gongronema latifolium possessed the highest total antioxidant capacity. These data confirm the appreciable antioxidant potentials and high phenolic content of Nigerian herbs and spices, thereby providing justification for their use in dishes and functional foods, prevention of cellular damage caused by free radicals and use as natural antioxidants in the food industry for prevention of lipid oxidation in food products. However, to utilize these natural antioxidants in food products, further analysis and studies of their behaviour in food systems at varying temperature, pH conditions and ionic concentrations should be carried out to displace the use of synthetic antioxidants like BHT and BHA.

Keywords: Antioxidant, free radicals, herbs, phenolic, spices

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5217 In vitro Antioxidant and DNA Protectant Activity of Different Skin Colored Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Authors: K. M. Somawathie, V. Rizliya, H. A. M. Wickrmasinghe, Terrence Madhujith

Abstract:

The main objective of our study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant and DNA protectant activity of aqueous extract of S. melongena with different skin colors; dark purple (DP), moderately purple (MP), light purple (LP) and purple and green (PG). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and the egg yolk model. The effectiveness of eggplant extracts against radical induced DNA damage was also determined. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the skin color and antioxidant activity. TPC and FRAP values of eggplant extracts ranged from 48.67±0.27-61.11±0.26 (mg GAE/100 g fresh weight) and 4.19±0.11-7.46±0.26 (mmol of FeS04/g of fresh weight) respectively. MP displayed the highest percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity while, DP demonstrated the strongest total antioxidant capacity. In the FTC and egg yolk model, DP and MP showed better antioxidant activity than PG and LP. All eggplant extracts showed potent antioxidant activity in retaining DNA against AAPH mediated radical damage. DP and MP demonstrated better antioxidant activity which may be attributed to the higher phenolic content since a positive correlation was observed between the TPC and the antioxidant parameters.

Keywords: Solanum melongena, skin color, antioxidant, DNA protection, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
5216 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila (Algeria)

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7%. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and three fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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5215 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila, Algeria

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7 %. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and one fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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5214 Study of the in vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Roots of the Barks of Zizyphus lotus

Authors: Djemai Zoughlache Soumia, Yahia Mouloud, Lekbir Adel, Meslem Meriem, Maouchi Madiha, Bahi Ahlem, Benbia Souhila

Abstract:

Natural extracts is known for their contents of biologically active molecules. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract prepared from the bark of the roots of Zizyphus lotus. The quantitative analysis based on the dosage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins provided following values: 0.39 ± 0.007 ug EAG/mg of extract for phenolic compounds, 0.05 ± 0.02ug EQ/mg extract for flavonoids and 0.0025 ± 7.071 E-4 ECT ug/mg extract for tannins. The study of the antioxidant activity by the DPPH test in vitro showed a powerful antiradical power with an IC50 = 8,8 ug/ml. For the DPPH test in vivo we used two rats lots, one lot with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract and a control lot. We found a significant difference in antiradical activity with p < 0.05.

Keywords: Zizyphus lotus, antioxidant activity, DPPH, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
5213 A New Phenolic Compound Isolated from Laurus nobilis from Lebanon and Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of Different Parts

Authors: Turk Ayman, Ahn Jong Hoon, Khalife K. Hala, Gali-Muhtasib Hala, Lee Mi Kyeong

Abstract:

Laurus nobilis is an aromatic plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. The leaves of this plant are frequently used as a spice and as a traditional medicine for several diseases. In our present study, the methanolic extract of L. nobilis leaves showed antioxidant activity. Chromatographic separations of the EtOAc fraction which had the highest antioxidant activity led to the isolation of 12 compounds. Among them, there was a new phenylpropanoid derivative, which was identified by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as high resolution mass spectrometry. In addition, two major compounds, catechin and epicatechin, which showed strong antioxidant activity may be responsible for the antioxidant activity of L. nobilis leaves. Since different plant parts may contain different types of constituents which contribute to the biological activities, we investigated the antioxidant activity of different parts of L. nobilis such as leaves, stems and fruits. Stems of L. nobilis showed the most potent antioxidant activity, followed by leaves. Further quantitation of total phenol and flavonoids contents revealed a positive correlation between the content of these compounds and antioxidant activity. Taken together, phenolic compounds including flavonoids are responsible for antioxidant activity of L. nobilis. In addition, stem parts of L. nobilis are suggested as good sources for antioxidant activity. Conclusively, L. nobilis might be effective in several free radical mediated diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, different parts, Laurus nobilis, phenolic compound

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5212 Cotton Treated with Spent Coffee Extract for Realizing Functional Textiles

Authors: Kyung Hwa Hong

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of spent coffee extract to enhance the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of cotton fabrics. The emergence and spread of infectious diseases has raised a global interest in the antimicrobial substances. The safety of chemical agents, such as antimicrobials and dyes, which may irritate the skin, cause cellular and organ damage, and have adverse environmental impacts during their manufacturing, in relation to the human body has not been established. Nevertheless, there is a growing interest in natural antimicrobials that kill microorganisms or stop their growth without dangerous effects on human health. Spent coffee is the by-product of coffee brewing and amounted to 96,000 tons worldwide in 2015. Coffee components such as caffeine, melanoidins, and chlorogenic acid have been reported to possess multifunctional properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the current study examined the possibility of applying spent coffee in functional textile finishing. Spent coffee was extracted with 60% methanol solution, and the major components of the extract were quantified. In addition, cotton fabrics treated with spent coffee extract through a pad-dry-cure process were investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract showed an increase in yellowness, which is an unfavorable outcome from the fabric finishing process. However, the cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. In particular, the antioxidant ability significantly increased with increasing concentrations of the spent coffee extract. The finished cotton fabrics showed antimicrobial ability against S. aureus but relatively low antimicrobial ability against K. pneumoniae. Therefore, further investigations are needed to determine the appropriate concentration of spent coffee extract to inhibit the growth of various pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords: spent coffee grounds, cotton, natural finishing agent, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity

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5211 Walnut (Juglans Regia) Extracts: Investigation of Antioxidant Effect, Total Phenols and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity

Authors: N. Saki, S. Nalbantoglu, M. Akin, G. Arabaci

Abstract:

Walnut has a great range of phenolic profile and it is used in Asia and Africa for treatment of many diseases and cancer. Phenolic compounds play a number of crucial roles in complex metabolism of plants and of also fruit trees. Consumption of certain phenolics in the food is considered beneficial for human nutrition. Phenolic compounds known as anti-radical inactivators with their high antioxidant activities and these activities play an important role in inhibition of multi-metal corrosion. Many common corrosion inhibitors that are still in use today are health hazards. Therefore, there is still an increased attention directed towards the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. The present study reports the total phenols content, antioxidant potentials and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the walnut (Juglans regia L.) produced in Turkey. The anti-tyrosinase activity was investigated for walnut at 2 h extraction time and all extracts exhibited tyrosinase activity. The results of this study suggested that walnut can be used as an excellent, easily accessible source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Juglans Regia, total phenols, tyrosinase activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 221