Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1303

Search results for: membrane permeability

1303 Fabrication of a High-Performance Polyetherimide Membrane for Helium Separation

Authors: Y. Alqaheem, A. Alomair, F. Altarkait, F. Alswaileh, Nusrat Tanoli


Helium market is continuously growing due to its essential uses in the electronic and healthcare sectors. Currently, helium is produced by cryogenic distillation but the process is uneconomical especially for low production volumes. On the other hand, polymeric membranes can provide a cost-effective solution for helium purification due to their low operating energy. However, the preparation of membranes involves the use of very toxic solvents such as chloroform. In this work, polyetherimide membranes were prepared using a less toxic solvent, n-methylpyrrolidone with a polymer-to-solvent ratio of 27 wt%. The developed membrane showed a superior helium permeability of 15.9 Barrer that surpassed the permeability of membranes made by chloroform.

Keywords: helium separation, polyetherimide, dense membrane, gas permeability

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1302 Solid-Liquid-Polymer Mixed Matrix Membrane Using Liquid Additive Adsorbed on Activated Carbon Dispersed in Polymeric Membrane for CO2/CH4 Separation

Authors: P. Chultheera, T. Rirksomboon, S. Kulprathipanja, C. Liu, W. Chinsirikul, N. Kerddonfag


Gas separation by selective transport through polymeric membranes is one of the rapid growing branches of membrane technology. However, the tradeoff between the permeability and selectivity is one of the critical challenges encountered by pure polymer membranes, which in turn limits their large-scale application. To enhance gas separation performances, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have been developed. In this study, MMMs were prepared by a solution-coating method and tested for CO2/CH4 separation through permeability and selectivity using a membrane testing unit at room temperature and a pressure of 100 psig. The fabricated MMMs were composed of silicone rubber dispersed with the activated carbon individually absorbed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a liquid additive. PEG emulsified silicone rubber MMMs showed superior gas separation on cellulose acetate membrane with both high permeability and selectivity compared with silicone rubber membrane and alone support membrane. However, the MMMs performed limited stability resulting from the undesirable PEG leakage. To stabilize the MMMs, PEG was then incorporated into activated carbon by adsorption. It was found that the incorporation of solid and liquid was effective to improve the separation performance of MMMs.

Keywords: mixed matrix membrane, membrane, CO₂/CH₄ separation, activated carbon

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1301 Improving Gas Separation Performance of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Based Membranes Containing Ionic Liquid

Authors: S. Al-Enezi, J. Samuel, A. Al-Banna


Polymer based membranes are one of the low-cost technologies available for the gas separation. Three major elements required for a commercial gas separating membrane are high permeability, high selectivity, and good mechanical strength. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a commercially available fluoropolymer and a widely used membrane material in gas separation devices since it possesses remarkable thermal, chemical stability, and excellent mechanical strength. The PVDF membrane was chemically modified by soaking in different ionic liquids and dried. The thermal behavior of modified membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TGA), and the results clearly show the best affinity between the ionic liquid and the polymer support. The porous structure of the PVDF membranes was clearly seen in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The CO₂ permeability of blended membranes was explored in comparison with the unmodified matrix. The ionic liquid immobilized in the hydrophobic PVDF support exhibited good performance for separations of CO₂/N₂. The improved permeability of modified membrane (PVDF-IL) is attributed to the high concentration of nitrogen rich imidazolium moieties.

Keywords: PVDF, polymer membrane, gas permeability, CO₂ separation, nanotubes

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1300 Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Elisa Y. M. Ang, Teng Yong Ng, Jingjie Yeo, Rongming Lin, Zishun Liu, K. R. Geethalakshmi


By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, membrane desalination, transverse flow carbon nanotube membrane, molecular dynamics

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1299 Baby Bed Sheets with a Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Knizkova, Vladimir Bajzik


Nowadays there are countless kinds of bedsheets or mattress covers for little children which should stop any liquid getting into the mattress. It is quite easy to wash the cover of the mattress, but it is almost impossible to clean the body of a mattress which is made of latex foam, wool or synthetic materials. Children bedsheets or mattress covers are often made with plastic coating which is not steam or air permeable and therefore is not very hygienic. This is our goal: by laminating a nanofiber membrane to a suitable bedsheet textile material, we can create a bedsheet which is waterproof but at the same time steam permeable and also partially breathable, thanks to the membrane. For the same reason, nanofiber membranes are widely used in outdoor clothing. The comfort properties and durability of the new nano-membrane bedsheet were studied. The following comfort properties were investigated: steam permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 11902 hydrostatic resistances - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 811 and air permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 9237. The durability or more precisely the wash resistance of the nano-membrane bedsheet was also measured by submitting the sheet to 30 washing cycles. The result of our work is a children's bedsheet with a nano-membrane. The nano-membrane is made of polyurethane to keep maximum flexibility and elasticity which are essential for this product. The comfort properties of this new bedsheet are very good especially its steam permeability and hydrostatic resistance.

Keywords: bed sheet, hydrostatic resistance, nanofiber membrane, water vapour permeable

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1298 Preparation and Performance of Polyphenylene Oxide-Based Anion Exchange Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

Authors: Mi-Jung Park, Min-Hwa Lim, Ho-Young Jung


A polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based anion exchange membrane based on the functionalization of bromomethylated PPO using 1-methylimdazole was fabricated for vanadium redox flow application. The imidazolium-bromomethylated PPO (Im-bPPO) showed lower permeability VO2+ ions (2.9×10⁻¹⁴ m²/sec), compared to Nafion 212 (2.3×10⁻¹² m²/sec) and FAP-450 (7.9×10⁻¹⁴ m²/sec). Even though the Im-bPPO membrane has higher permeability, the energy efficiency of the VRFB with the Im-bPPO membrane was slightly lower than that of Nafion and FAP-450. The Im-bPPO membrane exhibits good voltage efficiency compared to FAP-450 and Nafion 212 because of its better ion conductivity. The Im-bPPo membrane showed up good performance, but a decline in performance at later cycles was observed.

Keywords: anion exchange membranes, vanadium redox flow battery, polyphenylene oxide, energy efficiency (EE)

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1297 Development of Numerical Method for Mass Transfer across the Moving Membrane with Selective Permeability: Approximation of the Membrane Shape by Level Set Method for Numerical Integral

Authors: Suguru Miyauchi, Toshiyuki Hayase


Biological membranes have selective permeability, and the capsules or cells enclosed by the membrane show the deformation by the osmotic flow. This mass transport phenomenon is observed everywhere in a living body. For the understanding of the mass transfer in a body, it is necessary to consider the mass transfer phenomenon across the membrane as well as the deformation of the membrane by a flow. To our knowledge, in the numerical analysis, the method for mass transfer across the moving membrane has not been established due to the difficulty of the treating of the mass flux permeating through the moving membrane with selective permeability. In the existing methods for the mass transfer across the membrane, the approximate delta function is used to communicate the quantities on the interface. The methods can reproduce the permeation of the solute, but cannot reproduce the non-permeation. Moreover, the computational accuracy decreases with decreasing of the permeable coefficient of the membrane. This study aims to develop the numerical method capable of treating three-dimensional problems of mass transfer across the moving flexible membrane. One of the authors developed the numerical method with high accuracy based on the finite element method. This method can capture the discontinuity on the membrane sharply due to the consideration of the jumps in concentration and concentration gradient in the finite element discretization. The formulation of the method takes into account the membrane movement, and both permeable and non-permeable membranes can be treated. However, searching the cross points of the membrane and fluid element boundaries and splitting the fluid element into sub-elements are needed for the numerical integral. Therefore, cumbersome operation is required for a three-dimensional problem. In this paper, we proposed an improved method to avoid the search and split operations, and confirmed its effectiveness. The membrane shape was treated implicitly by introducing the level set function. As the construction of the level set function, the membrane shape in one fluid element was expressed by the shape function of the finite element method. By the numerical experiment, it was found that the shape function with third order appropriately reproduces the membrane shapes. The same level of accuracy compared with the previous method using search and split operations was achieved by using a number of sampling points of the numerical integral. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed by solving several model problems.

Keywords: finite element method, level set method, mass transfer, membrane permeability

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1296 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani


Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

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1295 Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-Conditioning

Authors: Chun-Han Li, Tien-Fu Yang, Chen-Yu Chen, Wei-Mon Yan


The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet the set indoor condition that consumes a considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for the next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was set up to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, the coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has promising potential in the dehumidification process.

Keywords: vacuum membrane dehumidification, planar membrane dehumidifier, water vapour and air permeability, air conditioning

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1294 Morphology and Permeability of Biomimetic Cellulose Triacetate-Impregnated Membranes: in situ Synchrotron Imaging and Experimental Studies

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul


This study aimed to ascertain the controlled permeability of biomimetic cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes by investigating the electrical oscillatory behavior across impregnated membranes (IM). The biomimetic CTA membranes were infused with a fatty acid to induce electrical oscillatory behavior and, hence, to ensure controlled permeability. In situ synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT) at the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) Beamline at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) was used to evaluate the main morphology of IMs compared to neat CTA membranes to ensure fatty acid impregnation inside the pores of the membrane matrices. A monochromatic beam at 20 keV was used for the visualization of the morphology of the membrane. The X-ray radiographs were recorded by means of a beam monitor AA-40 (500 μm LuAG scintillator, Hamamatsu, Japan) coupled with a high-resolution camera, providing a pixel size of 5.5 μm and a field of view (FOV) of 4.4 mm × 2.2 mm. Changes were evident in the phase transition temperatures of the impregnated CTA membrane at the melting temperature of the fatty acid. The pulsations of measured voltages were related to changes in the salt concentration of KCl in the vicinity of the electrode. Amplitudes and frequencies of voltage pulsations were dependent on the temperature and concentration of the KCl solution, which controlled the permeability of the biomimetic membranes. The presented smart biomimetic membrane successfully combined porous polymer support and impregnating liquid not only imitate the main barrier properties of the biological membranes but could be easily modified to achieve some new properties, such as facilitated and active transport, regulation by chemical, physical and pharmaceutical factors. These results open new frontiers for the facilitation and regulation of active transport and permeability through biomimetic smart membranes for a variety of biomedical and drug delivery applications.

Keywords: biomimetic, membrane, synchrotron, permeability, morphology

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1293 Development of an Integrated Methodology for Fouling Control in Membrane Bioreactors

Authors: Petros Gkotsis, Anastasios Zouboulis, Manasis Mitrakas, Dimitrios Zamboulis, E. Peleka


The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is membrane fouling which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This work is part of a research project that aims to develop an integrated methodology for membrane fouling control, using specific chemicals which will enhance the coagulation and flocculation of compounds responsible for fouling, hence reducing biofilm formation on the membrane surface and limiting the fouling rate acting as a pre-treatment step. For this purpose, a pilot-scale plant with fully automatic operation achieved by means of programmable logic controller (PLC) has been constructed and tested. The experimental set-up consists of four units: wastewater feed unit, bioreactor, membrane (side-stream) filtration unit and permeate collection unit. Synthetic wastewater was fed as the substrate for the activated sludge. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the aerobic tank was maintained in the range of 2-3 mg/L during the entire operation by using an aerator below the membrane module. The membranes were operated at a flux of 18 LMH while membrane relaxation steps of 1 min were performed every 10 min. Both commercial and composite coagulants are added in different concentrations in the pilot-scale plant and their effect on the overall performance of the ΜΒR system is presented. Membrane fouling was assessed in terms of TMP, membrane permeability, sludge filterability tests, total resistance and the unified modified fouling index (UMFI). Preliminary tests showed that particular attention should be paid to the addition of the coagulant solution, indicating that pipe flocculation effectively increases hydraulic retention time and leads to voluminous sludge flocs. The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using MBRs is membrane fouling, which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This results in increased treatment cost, due to high energy consumption and the need for frequent membrane cleaning and replacement. Due to the widespread application of MBR technology over the past few years, it becomes clear that the development of a methodology to mitigate membrane fouling is of paramount importance. The present work aims to develop an integrated technique for membrane fouling control in MBR systems and, thus, contribute to sustainable wastewater treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, membrane bioreactor, membrane fouling, pilot plant

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1292 Unconventional Composite Inorganic Membrane Fabrication for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

Authors: Ngozi Nwogu, Godson Osueke, Mamdud Hossain, Edward Gobina


An unconventional composite inorganic ceramic membrane capable in carbon dioxide emission decline was fabricated and tested at laboratory scale to develop in conformism to various environmental guidelines to mitigate the effect of global warming. A review of the existing membrane technologies for carbon capture including the relevant gas transport mechanisms are presented and discussed. Single gas separation experiments using silica modified ceramic membrane with internal diameter 20mm, outside diameter 25mm and length of 368mm deposited on a macro porous supported reactor.was carried out to investigate individual gas permeation behaviours at different pressures and membrane efficiency after a dip coating method. Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Argon, Oxygen and Methane pure gases were used to investigate their individual permeation rates at various pressures. Results show that the gas flow rate increases with pressure drop. However at above a pressure of 3bar, CO2 permeability ratio to than the other gases indicated control of a more selective surface adsorptive transport mechanism.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, composite membranes, permeability, transport mechanisms

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1291 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour


Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: hydrogen separation, perovskite, proton conducting membrane.

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1290 The Development of a Nanofiber Membrane for Outdoor and Activity Related Purposes

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Knizkova


This paper describes the development of a nanofiber membrane for sport and outdoor use at the Technical University of Liberec (TUL) and the following cooperation with a private Czech company which launched this product onto the market. For making this membrane, Polyurethan was electrospun on the Nanospider spinning machine, and a wire string electrode was used. The created nanofiber membrane with a nanofiber diameter of 150 nm was subsequently hydrophobisied using a low vacuum plasma and Fluorocarbon monomer C6 type. After this hydrophobic treatment, the nanofiber membrane contact angle was higher than 125o, and its oleophobicity was 6. The last step was a lamination of this nanofiber membrane with a woven or knitted fabric to create a 3-layer laminate. Gravure printing technology and polyurethane hot-melt adhesive were used. The gravure roller has a mesh of 17. The resulting 3-layer laminate has a water vapor permeability Ret of 1.6 [Pa.m2.W-1] (– measured in compliance with ISO 11092), it is 100% windproof (– measured in compliance with ISO 9237), and the water column is above 10 000 mm (– measured in compliance with ISO 20811). This nanofiber membrane which was developed in the laboratories of the Technical University of Liberec was then produced industrially by a private company. A low vacuum plasma line and a lamination line were needed for industrial production, and the process had to be fine-tuned to achieve the same parameters as those achieved in the TUL laboratories. The result of this work is a newly developed nanofiber membrane which offers much better properties, especially water vapor permeability, than other competitive membranes. It is an example of product development and the consequent fine-tuning for industrial production; it is also an example of the cooperation between a Czech state university and a private company.

Keywords: nanofiber membrane, start-up, state university, private company, product

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1289 [Keynote Talk]: A Comparative Study on Air Permeability Properties of Multilayered Nonwoven Structures

Authors: M. Kucukali Ozturk, B. Nergis, C. Candan


Air permeability plays an important role for applications such as filtration, thermal and acoustic insulation. The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate air permeability property of various combinations of nonwovens. The PROWHITE air permeability tester was used for the measurement of the air permeability of the samples in accordance with the relevant standards and a comparative study of the results were made. It was found that the fabric mass per unit area was closely related to the air-permeability. The air permeability decreased with the increase in mass per unit area. Additionally, the air permeability of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness. Moreover, air permeability of multilayered SMS nonwoven structures was lower than those of single layered ones.

Keywords: air permeability, mass per unit area, nonwoven structure, polypropylene nonwoven, thickness

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1288 Effect of Lithium Bromide Concentration on the Structure and Performance of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Poojan Kothari, Yash Madhani, Chayan Jani, Bharti Saini


The requirements for quality drinking and industrial water are increasing and water resources are depleting. Moreover large amount of wastewater is being generated and dumped into water bodies without treatment. These have made improvement in water treatment efficiency and its reuse, an important agenda. Membrane technology for wastewater treatment is an advanced process and has become increasingly popular in past few decades. There are many traditional methods for tertiary treatment such as chemical coagulation, adsorption, etc. However recent developments in membrane technology field have led to manufacturing of better quality membranes at reduced costs. This along with the high costs of conventional treatment processes, high separation efficiency and relative simplicity of the membrane treatment process has made it an economically viable option for municipal and industrial purposes. Ultrafiltration polymeric membranes can be used for wastewater treatment and drinking water applications. The proposed work focuses on preparation of one such UF membrane - Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) doped with LiBr for wastewater treatment. Majorly all polymeric membranes are hydrophobic in nature. This property leads to repulsion of water and hence solute particles occupy the pores, decreasing the lifetime of a membrane. Thus modification of membrane through addition of small amount of salt such as LiBr helped us attain certain characteristics of membrane, which can then be used for wastewater treatment. The membrane characteristics are investigated through measuring its various properties such as porosity, contact angle and wettability to find out the hydrophilic nature of the membrane and morphology (surface as well as structure). Pure water flux, solute rejection and permeability of membrane is determined by permeation experiments. A study of membrane characteristics with various concentration of LiBr helped us to compare its effectivity.

Keywords: Lithium bromide (LiBr), morphology, permeability, Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), solute rejection, wastewater treatment

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1287 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye

Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi


Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.

Keywords: photocatalytic membrane, TiO₂, PVDF, nanoparticles

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1286 Membrane Permeability of Middle Molecules: A Computational Chemistry Approach

Authors: Sundaram Arulmozhiraja, Kanade Shimizu, Yuta Yamamoto, Satoshi Ichikawa, Maenaka Katsumi, Hiroaki Tokiwa


Drug discovery is shifting from small molecule based drugs targeting local active site to middle molecules (MM) targeting large, flat, and groove-shaped binding sites, for example, protein-protein interface because at least half of all targets assumed to be involved in human disease have been classified as “difficult to drug” with traditional small molecules. Hence, MMs such as peptides, natural products, glycans, nucleic acids with various high potent bioactivities become important targets for drug discovery programs in the recent years as they could be used for ‘undruggable” intracellular targets. Cell membrane permeability is one of the key properties of pharmacodynamically active MM drug compounds and so evaluating this property for the potential MMs is crucial. Computational prediction for cell membrane permeability of molecules is very challenging; however, recent advancement in the molecular dynamics simulations help to solve this issue partially. It is expected that MMs with high membrane permeability will enable drug discovery research to expand its borders towards intracellular targets. Further to understand the chemistry behind the permeability of MMs, it is necessary to investigate their conformational changes during the permeation through membrane and for that their interactions with the membrane field should be studied reliably because these interactions involve various non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonding, -stacking, charge-transfer, polarization dispersion, and non-classical weak hydrogen bonding. Therefore, parameters-based classical mechanics calculations are hardly sufficient to investigate these interactions rather, quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are essential. Fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method could be used for such purpose as it performs ab initio QM calculations by dividing the system into fragments. The present work is aimed to study the cell permeability of middle molecules using molecular dynamics simulations and FMO-QM calculations. For this purpose, a natural compound syringolin and its analogues were considered in this study. Molecular simulations were performed using NAMD and Gromacs programs with CHARMM force field. FMO calculations were performed using the PAICS program at the correlated Resolution-of-Identity second-order Moller Plesset (RI-MP2) level with the cc-pVDZ basis set. The simulations clearly show that while syringolin could not permeate the membrane, its selected analogues go through the medium in nano second scale. These correlates well with the existing experimental evidences that these syringolin analogues are membrane-permeable compounds. Further analyses indicate that intramolecular -stacking interactions in the syringolin analogues influenced their permeability positively. These intramolecular interactions reduce the polarity of these analogues so that they could permeate the lipophilic cell membrane. Conclusively, the cell membrane permeability of various middle molecules with potent bioactivities is efficiently studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Insight of this behavior is thoroughly investigated using FMO-QM calculations. Results obtained in the present study indicate that non-bonding intramolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding and -stacking along with the conformational flexibility of MMs are essential for amicable membrane permeation. These results are interesting and are nice example for this theoretical calculation approach that could be used to study the permeability of other middle molecules. This work was supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) under Grant Number 18ae0101047.

Keywords: fragment molecular orbital theory, membrane permeability, middle molecules, molecular dynamics simulation

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1285 Artificial Membrane Comparison for Skin Permeation in Skin PAMPA

Authors: Aurea C. L. Lacerda, Paulo R. H. Moreno, Bruna M. P. Vianna, Cristina H. R. Serra, Airton Martin, André R. Baby, Vladi O. Consiglieri, Telma M. Kaneko


The modified Franz cell is the most widely used model for in vitro permeation studies, however it still presents some disadvantages. Thus, some alternative methods have been developed such as Skin PAMPA, which is a bio- artificial membrane that has been applied for skin penetration estimation of xenobiotics based on HT permeability model consisting. Skin PAMPA greatest advantage is to carry out more tests, in a fast and inexpensive way. The membrane system mimics the stratum corneum characteristics, which is the primary skin barrier. The barrier properties are given by corneocytes embedded in a multilamellar lipid matrix. This layer is the main penetration route through the paracellular permeation pathway and it consists of a mixture of cholesterol, ceramides, and fatty acids as the dominant components. However, there is no consensus on the membrane composition. The objective of this work was to compare the performance among different bio-artificial membranes for studying the permeation in skin PAMPA system. Material and methods: In order to mimetize the lipid composition`s present in the human stratum corneum six membranes were developed. The membrane composition was equimolar mixture of cholesterol, ceramides 1-O-C18:1, C22, and C20, plus fatty acids C20 and C24. The membrane integrity assay was based on the transport of Brilliant Cresyl Blue, which has a low permeability; and Lucifer Yellow with very poor permeability and should effectively be completely rejected. The membrane characterization was performed using Confocal Laser Raman Spectroscopy, using stabilized laser at 785 nm with 10 second integration time and 2 accumulations. The membrane behaviour results on the PAMPA system were statistically evaluated and all of the compositions have shown integrity and permeability. The confocal Raman spectra were obtained in the region of 800-1200 cm-1 that is associated with the C-C stretches of the carbon scaffold from the stratum corneum lipids showed similar pattern for all the membranes. The ceramides, long chain fatty acids and cholesterol in equimolar ratio permitted to obtain lipid mixtures with self-organization capability, similar to that occurring into the stratum corneum. Conclusion: The artificial biological membranes studied for Skin PAMPA showed to be similar and with comparable properties to the stratum corneum.

Keywords: bio-artificial membranes, comparison, confocal Raman, skin PAMPA

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1284 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS) Destruction by Catalytic Oxidation for Environmental Applications

Authors: Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Edward Gobina


Pt/γ-Al2O3 membrane catalysts were prepared via an evaporative-crystallization deposition method. The obtained Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst activity was tested after characterization (SEM-EDAX observation, BET measurement, permeability assessment) in the catalytic oxidation of selected volatile organic compound (VOC) i.e. propane, fed in mixture of oxygen. The VOC conversion (nearly 90%) obtained by varying the operating temperature showed that flow-through membrane reactor might do better in the abatement of VOCs.

Keywords: VOC combustion, flow-through membrane reactor, platinum supported alumina catalysts

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1283 Contraction and Membrane Potential of C2C12 with GTXs

Authors: Bayan Almofty, Yuto Yamaki, Tadamasa Terai, Sadahito Uto


Culture techniques of skeletal muscle cells are advanced in the field of regenerative medicine and applied research of cultured muscle. As applied research of cultured muscle, myopathy (muscles disease) treatment is expected and development bio of actuator is also expected in biomedical engineering. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) is known as neurotoxins that enhance the permeability of cell membrane for Na ions. Grayanotoxins are extracted from a famous Pieris japonica and Ericaceae as well as a phytotoxin. In this study, we investigated the effect of GTXs on muscle cells (C2C12) contraction and membrane potential. Contraction of myotubes is induced by applied external electrical stimulation. Contraction and membrane potential change of skeletal muscle cells are induced by injection of current. We, therefore, concluded that effect of Grayanotoxins on contraction and membrane potential of C2C12 relate to acute toxicity of GTXs.

Keywords: skeletal muscle cells C2C12, grayanotoxins, contraction, membrane potential, acute toxicity, pytotoxin, motubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
1282 Anion Exchange Nanocomposite Membrane Doped with ZnO-Nanoparticles for Direct Methanol Alkaline Fuel Cell

Authors: Phumlani Msomi, Patrick Nonjola, Patrick Ndungu, James Ramontja


A series of quaternized poly (2.6 dimethyl – 1.4 phenylene oxide)/ polysulfone (QPPO/PSF) blend anion exchange membrane (AEM) were successfully fabricated and characterized for methanol alkaline fuel cell application. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were introduced in the polymer matrix to enhance the intrinsic properties of the AEM. To confirm successful fabrication, FT-IR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR and HMBC ¹⁵N NMR) were used. The membrane properties were enhanced by the addition of ZnO nanoparticles. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles resulted to a higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 3.72 mmol.g⁻¹and a 30-fold ion conductivity (IC) increase of the nanocomposite due to no (zero (0)) methanol permeability at 30 °C and increased water uptake. The QPPO/PSF/2% ZnO composite retained over 80 % of its initial IC when evaluated for alkaline stability at room temperature. The maximum power output reached for the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) constructed with QPPO/PSF/2%ZnO is 69⁻², which is about three times more than the parent QPPO membrane. The above results indicate that QPPO/PSF-ZnO is a good candidate as an anion exchange membrane for fuel cell application.

Keywords: anion exchange membrane, fuel cell, zinc oxide, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1281 The Effect of Particle Porosity in Mixed Matrix Membrane Permeation Models

Authors: Z. Sadeghi, M. R. Omidkhah, M. E. Masoomi


The purpose of this paper is to examine gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combined with porous particles. Main existing models are categorized in two main groups; two-phase (ideal contact) and three-phase (non-ideal contact). A new coefficient, J, was obtained to express equations for estimating effect of the particle porosity in two-phase and three-phase models. Modified models evaluates with existing models and experimental data using Matlab software. Comparison of gas permeability of proposed modified models with existing models in different MMMs shows a better prediction of gas permeability in MMMs.

Keywords: mixed matrix membrane, permeation models, porous particles, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1280 Effect of Hydraulic Residence Time on Aromatic Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Using Pilot-Scale Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Fatemeh Yousefi, Narges Fallah, Mohsen Kian, Mehrzad Pakzadeh


The petrochemical complex releases wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and could not be treated easily. Treatment of the wastewater from a petrochemical industry has been investigated using a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). For this purpose, a pilot-scale submerged MBR with a flat-sheet ultrafiltration membrane was used for treatment of petrochemical wastewater according to Bandar Imam Petrochemical complex (BIPC) Aromatic plant. The testing system ran continuously (24-h) over 6 months. Trials on different membrane fluxes and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were conducted and the performance evaluation of the system was done. During the 167 days operation of the MBR at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18, 12, 6, and 3 and at an infinite sludge retention time (SRT), the MBR effluent quality consistently met the requirement for discharge to the environment. A fluxes of 6.51 and 13.02 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) was sustainable and HRT of 6 and 12 h corresponding to these fluxes were applicable. Membrane permeability could be fully recovered after cleaning. In addition, there was no foaming issue in the process. It was concluded that it was feasible to treat the wastewater using submersed MBR technology.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR), petrochemical wastewater, COD removal, biological treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
1279 The Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Women in Geomatics Engineering: The Case of the SADC Region

Authors: Moreblessings Shoko


Polymersomes are materials which are considered as artificial counterparts of natural vesicles. The nanotechnology of such smart nanovesicles is very useful to enhance the efficiency of many therapeutic and diagnostic drugs. Those compounds show a higher stability, flexibility, and mechanical strength to the membrane compared to natural liposomes. Also, they can be designed in detail, the permeability of the membrane can be controlled by different stimuli, and the surface can be functionalized with different biological molecules to facilitate monitoring and target. For this purpose, this study demonstrates the formation of multifunctional and pH sensitive polymersomes and their functionalization with different reactive groups or biomolecules inside and outside of polymersomes´ membrane providing by crossing the membrane and docking/undocking processes for biomedical applications. Overall, they are highly versatile and thus present new opportunities for the design of targeted and selective recognition systems, for example, in mimicking cell functions and in synthetic biology.

Keywords: women, geomatics, challenges, capacity building

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
1278 Morphological Characterization and Gas Permeation of Commercially Available Alumina Membrane

Authors: Ifeyinwa Orakwe, Ngozi Nwogu, Edward Gobina


This work presents experimental results relating to the structural characterization of a commercially available alumina membrane. A γ-alumina mesoporous tubular membrane has been used. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy and gas permeability test has been carried out on the alumina membrane to characterize its structural features. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the pore size distribution of the membrane. Pore size, specific surface area and pore size distribution were also determined with the use of the Nitrogen adsorption-desorption instrument. Gas permeation tests were carried out on the membrane using a variety of single and mixed gases. The permeabilities at different pressure between 0.05-1 bar and temperature range of 25-200oC were used for the single and mixed gases: nitrogen (N2), helium (He), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), 14%CO₂/N₂, 60%CO₂/N₂, 30%CO₂/CH4 and 21%O₂/N₂. Plots of flow rate verses pressure were obtained. Results got showed the effect of temperature on the permeation rate of the various gases. At 0.5 bar for example, the flow rate for N2 was relatively constant before decreasing with an increase in temperature, while for O2, it continuously decreased with an increase in temperature. In the case of 30%CO₂/CH4 and 14%CO₂/N₂, the flow rate showed an increase then a decrease with increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the membrane performance of the various gases is presented and the influence of the trans membrane pressure drop will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: alumina membrane, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, gas permeation, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1277 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani


A proton exchange membrane has been developed for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt. % compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was cross-linked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1276 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan


The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1275 Effect of Grayanotoxins on Skeletal Muscle Cell C2C12

Authors: Bayan Almofty, Yuto Yamaki, Tadamasa Terai, Sadahito Uto


Myopathy (muscles disease) treatment are expected in the field of regenerative medicine and applied research of cultured muscle to bio actuator is performed in Biomedical Engineering as applied research of cultured muscle. This study is about cultured myoblast C2C12 from mouse skeletal muscle and a mechanism of cultured muscle contraction by electric stimulation is investigated. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) belong to neurotoxins known to enhance the permeability of cell membrane for Na ions. Grayanotoxins are extracted from a famous Pieris japonica and Ericaceae as a phytotoxin. We investigated the functional role of GTXs on muscle cells (C2C12) contraction and membrane potential. A change in membrane potential is measured using a micro glass tube electrode contraction of myotubes is induced by applying an external electrical stimulation. The contraction and membrane potential change induced by injection of current using the micro glass electrode are also measured. From the result, contraction and membrane potential of muscle cells was affected by GTXs treatment, suggesting that the diverse chemical structures of GTXs are responsible for contraction and membrane potential of muscle cells.

Keywords: skeletal muscle, C2C12, myoblast, myotubes, contraction, Grayanotoxins, membrane potential, neurotoxins, phytotoxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
1274 Smart Multifunctionalized and Responsive Polymersomes as Targeted and Selective Recognition Systems

Authors: Silvia Moreno, Banu Iyisan, Hannes Gumz, Brigitte Voit, Dietmar Appelhans


Polymersomes are materials which are considered as artificial counterparts of natural vesicles. The nanotechnology of such smart nanovesicles is very useful to enhance the efficiency of many therapeutic and diagnostic drugs. Those compounds show a higher stability, flexibility, and mechanical strength to the membrane compared to natural liposomes. In addition, they can be designed in detail, the permeability of the membrane can be controlled by different stimuli, and the surface can be functionalized with different biological molecules to facilitate monitoring and target. For this purpose, this study demonstrates the formation of multifunctional and pH sensitive polymersomes and their functionalization with different reactive groups or biomolecules inside and outside of polymersomes´ membrane providing by crossing the membrane and docking/undocking processes for biomedical applications. Overall, they are highly versatile and thus present new opportunities for the design of targeted and selective recognition systems, for example, in mimicking cell functions and in synthetic biology.

Keywords: multifunctionalized, pH stimulus, controllable release, cellular uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 251