Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Savitha Janakiraman

5 Evaluation of Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Purified Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963)

Authors: Bhargavi Santebennur Dwarakanath, Praveen Vadakke Kamath, Savitha Janakiraman

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women and is the second most common malignancy worldwide. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug which also exerts antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsoprtion chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties in human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). The growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cell lines were investigated by determining its influence on cytotoxicity, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant property (Hydroxy radical scavenging effect and the levels of total reduced glutathione). Flow cytometry analysis by propidium iodide staining confirmed the induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Results of the study give leads for anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential efficacy in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, Aspergillus terreus, cervical cancer, lovastatin

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4 Bioconversion of Antifungal Antibiotic Derived from Aspergillus Nidulans

Authors: Savitha Janakiraman, Shivakumar M. C

Abstract:

Anidulafungin, an advanced class of antifungal agent used for the treatment of chronic fungal infections, is derived from Echinocandin B nucleus, an intermediate metabolite of Echinocandin B produced by Aspergillus nidulans. The enzyme acylase derived from the fermentation broth of Actinoplanes utahensis (NRRL 12052) plays a key role in the bioconversion of echinocandin B to echinocandin B nucleus. The membrane-bound nature of acylase and low levels of expression contributes to the rate-limiting process of enzymatic deacylation, hence low yields of ECB nucleus and anidulafungin. In the present study, this is addressed through novel genetic engineering approaches of overexpression and heterologous expression studies, immobilization of whole cells of Actinoplanes utahensis (NRRL 12052) and Co-cultivation studies. Overexpression of the acylase gene in Actinoplanes utahensis (NRRL 12052) was done by increasing the gene copy number to increase the echinocandin B nucleus production. Echinocandin B acylase gene, under the control of a PermE* promoter, was cloned in pSET152 vector and introduced into Actinoplanes utahensis (NRRL12052) by a ɸC31-directed site-specific recombination method. The resultant recombinant strain (C2-18) showed a 3-fold increase in acylase expression, which was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Pichia pastoris is one of the most effective and versatile host systems for the production of heterologous proteins. The ECB acylase gene was cloned into pPIC9K vector with AOX1 promoter and was transformed into Pichia pastoris (GS115). The acylase expression was confirmed by protein expression and bioconversion studies. The heterologous expression of acylase in Pichia pastoris, is a milestone in the development of antifungals. Actively growing cells of Actinoplanes utahensis (NRRL 12052) were immobilized and tested for bioconversion ability which showed >90% conversion in each cycle. The stability of immobilized cell beads retained the deacylation ability up to 60 days and reusability was confirmed up to 4 cycles. The significant findings from the study have revealed that immobilization of whole cells of Actinoplanes utahensis (NRRL 12052) could be an alternative option for bioconversion of echinocandin B to echinocandin B nucleus, which has not been reported to date. The concept of co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans and Actinoplanes utahensis strains for the production of the echinocandin B nucleus was also carried out in order to produce echinocandin B nucleus. The process completely reduced the ECB purification step and, therefore, could be recommended as an ingenious method to improve the yield of the ECB nucleus.

Keywords: acylase, anidulafungin, antifungals, Aspergillus nidulans

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3 Application of Artificial Neural Network for Single Horizontal Bare Tube and Bare Tube Bundles (Staggered) of Large Particles: Heat Transfer Prediction

Authors: G. Ravindranath, S. Savitha

Abstract:

This paper presents heat transfer analysis of single horizontal bare tube and heat transfer analysis of staggered arrangement of bare tube bundles bare tube bundles in gas-solid (air-solid) fluidized bed and predictions are done by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on experimental data. Fluidized bed provide nearly isothermal environment with high heat transfer rate to submerged objects i.e. due to through mixing and large contact area between the gas and the particle, a fully fluidized bed has little temperature variation and gas leaves at a temperature which is close to that of the bed. Measurement of average heat transfer coefficient was made by local thermal simulation technique in a cold bubbling air-fluidized bed of size 0.305 m. x 0.305 m. Studies were conducted for single horizontal Bare Tube of length 305mm and 28.6mm outer diameter and for bare tube bundles of staggered arrangement using beds of large (average particle diameter greater than 1 mm) particle (raagi and mustard). Within the range of experimental conditions influence of bed particle diameter ( Dp), Fluidizing Velocity (U) were studied, which are significant parameters affecting heat transfer. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been receiving an increasing attention for simulating engineering systems due to some interesting characteristics such as learning capability, fault tolerance, and non-linearity. Here, feed-forward architecture and trained by back-propagation technique is adopted to predict heat transfer analysis found from experimental results. The ANN is designed to suit the present system which has 3 inputs and 2 out puts. The network predictions are found to be in very good agreement with the experimental observed values of bare heat transfer coefficient (hb) and nusselt number of bare tube (Nub).

Keywords: fluidized bed, large particles, particle diameter, ANN

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2 Maresin Like 1 Treatment: Curbing the Pathogenesis of Behavioral Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

Authors: Yan Lu, Song Hong, Janakiraman Udaiyappan, Aarti Nagayach, Quoc-Viet A. Duong, Masao Morita, Shun Saito, Yuichi Kobayashi, Yuhai, Zhao, Hongying Peng, Nicholas B. Pham, Walter J Lukiw, Christopher A. Vuong, Nicolas G. Bazan

Abstract:

Aims: Neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction occurs in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and as the disease progresses many patients develop cognitive impairment. 5XFAD mouse model of AD is widely used to study AD pathogenesis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maresin like 1 (MaR-L1) treatment in AD pathology using 5XFAD mice. Methods: We tested 12-month-old male 5XFAD mice and wild type control mice treated with MaR-L1 in a battery of behavioral tasks. We performed open field test, beam walking test, clasping test, inverted grid test, acetone test, marble burring test, elevated plus maze test, cross maze test and novel object recognition test. We also studied neuronal loss, amyloid β burden, and inflammation in the brains of 5XFAD mice using immunohistology and Western blotting. Results: MaR-L1 treatment to the 5XFAD mice showed improved cognitive function of 5XFAD mice. MaR-L1 showed decreased anxiety behavior in open field test and marble burring test, increased muscular strength in the beam walking test, clasping test and inverted grid test. Cognitive function was improved in MaR-L1 treated 5XFAD mice in the novel object recognition test. MaR-L1 prevented neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that behavioral abnormalities were normalized by the administration of MaR-L1 and the neuroprotective role of MaR-L1 in the AD. It also indicates that MaR-L1 treatment is able to prevent and or ameliorate neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Further experiments to validate the results are warranted using other AD models in the future.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, motor and cognitive behavior, 5XFAD mice, Maresin Like 1, microglial cell, astrocyte, neurodegeneration, inflammation, resolution of inflammation

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1 Understanding Governance of Biodiversity-Supporting and Edible Landscapes Using Network Analysis in a Fast Urbanising City of South India

Authors: M. Soubadra Devy, Savitha Swamy, Chethana V. Casiker

Abstract:

Sustainable smart cities are emerging as an important concept in response to the exponential rise in the world’s urbanizing population. While earlier, only technical, economic and governance based solutions were considered, more and more layers are being added in recent times. With the prefix of 'sustainability', solutions which help in judicious use of resources without negatively impacting the environment have become critical. We present a case study of Bangalore city which has transformed from being a garden city and pensioners' paradise to being an IT city with a huge, young population from different regions and diverse cultural backgrounds. This has had a big impact on the green spaces in the city and the biodiversity that they support, as well as on farming/gardening practices. Edible landscapes comprising farms lands, home gardens and neighbourhood parks (NPs henceforth) were examined. The land prices of areas having NPs were higher than those that did not indicate an appreciation of their aesthetic value. NPs were part of old and new residential areas largely managed by the municipality. They comprised manicured gardens which were similar in vegetation structure and composition. Results showed that NPs that occurred in higher density supported reasonable levels of biodiversity. In situations where NPs occurred in lower density, the presence of a larger green space such as a heritage park or botanical garden enhanced the biodiversity of these parks. In contrast, farm lands and home gardens which were common within the city are being lost at an unprecedented scale to developmental projects. However, there is also the emergence of a 'neo-culture' of home-gardening that promotes 'locovory' or consumption of locally grown food as a means to a sustainable living and reduced carbon footprint. This movement overcomes the space constraint by using vertical and terrace gardening techniques. Food that is grown within cities comprises of vegetables and fruits which are largely pollinator dependent. This goes hand in hand with our landscape-level study that has shown that cities support pollinator diversity. Maintaining and improving these man-made ecosystems requires analysing the functioning and characteristics of the existing structures of governance. Social network analysis tool was applied to NPs to examine relationships, between actors and ties. The management structures around NPs, gaps, and means to strengthen the networks from the current state to a near-ideal state were identified for enhanced services. Learnings from NPs were used to build a hypothetical governance structure and functioning of integrated governance of NPs and edible landscapes to enhance ecosystem services such as biodiversity support, food production, and aesthetic value. They also contribute to the sustainability axis of smart cities.

Keywords: biodiversity support, ecosystem services, edible green spaces, neighbourhood parks, sustainable smart city

Procedia PDF Downloads 72