Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Bhargavi Santebennur Dwarakanath

9 Evaluation of Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Purified Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963)

Authors: Bhargavi Santebennur Dwarakanath, Praveen Vadakke Kamath, Savitha Janakiraman

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women and is the second most common malignancy worldwide. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug which also exerts antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsoprtion chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties in human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). The growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cell lines were investigated by determining its influence on cytotoxicity, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant property (Hydroxy radical scavenging effect and the levels of total reduced glutathione). Flow cytometry analysis by propidium iodide staining confirmed the induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Results of the study give leads for anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential efficacy in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, Aspergillus terreus, cervical cancer, lovastatin

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8 Democracy in Gaming: An Artificial Neural Network Based Approach towards Rule Evolution

Authors: Nelvin Joseph, K. Krishna Milan Rao, Praveen Dwarakanath

Abstract:

The explosive growth of Smart phones around the world has led to the shift of the primary engagement tool for entertainment from traditional consoles and music players to an all integrated device. Augmented Reality is the next big shift in bringing in a new dimension to the play. The paper explores the construct and working of the community engine in Delta T – an Augmented Reality game that allows users to evolve rules in the game basis collective bargaining mirroring democracy even in a gaming world.

Keywords: augmented reality, artificial neural networks, mobile application, human computer interaction, community engine

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7 Collaborative Team Work in Higher Education: A Case Study

Authors: Swapna Bhargavi Gantasala

Abstract:

If teamwork is the key to organizational learning, productivity, and growth, then, why do some teams succeed in achieving these, while others falter at different stages? Building teams in higher education institutions has been a challenge and an open-ended constructivist approach was considered on an experimental basis for this study to address this challenge. For this research, teams of students from the MBA program were chosen to study the effect of teamwork in learning, the motivation levels among student team members, and the effect of collaboration in achieving team goals. The teams were built on shared vision and goals, cohesion was ensured, positive induction in the form of faculty mentoring was provided for each participating team and the results have been presented with conclusions and suggestions.

Keywords: teamwork, leadership, motivation and reinforcement, collaboration

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6 The Next Frontier for Mobile Based Augmented Reality: An Evaluation of AR Uptake in India

Authors: K. Krishna Milan Rao, Nelvin Joseph, Praveen Dwarakanath

Abstract:

Augmented and Virtual Realties is quickly becoming a hotbed of activity with millions of dollars being spent on R & D and companies such as Google and Microsoft rushing to stake their claim. Augmented reality (AR) is however marching ahead due to the spread of the ideal AR device – the smartphone. Despite its potential, there remains a deep digital divide between the Developed and Developing Countries. The Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) and Hofstede cultural dimensions also predict the behaviour intention to uptake AR in India will be large. This paper takes a quantified approach by collecting 340 survey responses to AR scenarios and analyzing them through statistics. The Survey responses show that the Intention to Use, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Enjoyment dimensions are high among the urban population in India. This along with the exponential smartphone indicates that India is on the cusp of a boom in the AR sector.

Keywords: mobile augmented reality, technology acceptance model, Hofstede, cultural dimensions, India

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5 Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Axial Conduction in Thermally Developing Region of the Channel Partially Filled with a Porous Material Subjected to Constant Wall Heat Flux

Authors: D Bhargavi, J. Sharath Kumar Reddy

Abstract:

The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the effect of viscous dissipation and axial conduction on forced convection heat transfer in the entrance region of a parallel plate channel with the porous insert attached to both walls of the channel. The flow field is unidirectional. Flow in the porous region corresponds to Darcy-Brinkman model and the clear fluid region to that of plane Poiseuille flow. The effects of the parameters Darcy number, Da, Peclet number, Pe, Brinkman number, Br and a porous fraction γp on the local heat transfer coefficient are analyzed graphically. Effects of viscous dissipation employing the Darcy model and the clear fluid compatible model have been studied.

Keywords: porous material, channel partially filled with a porous material, axial conduction, viscous dissipation

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4 Evaluation of Mito-Uncoupler Induced Hyper Metabolic and Aggressive Phenotype in Glioma Cells

Authors: Yogesh Rai, Saurabh Singh, Sanjay Pandey, Dhananjay K. Sah, B. G. Roy, B. S. Dwarakanath, Anant N. Bhatt

Abstract:

One of the most common signatures of highly malignant gliomas is their capacity to metabolize more glucose to lactic acid than normal brain tissues, even under normoxic conditions (Warburg effect), indicating that aerobic glycolysis is constitutively upregulated through stable genetic or epigenetic changes. However, oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is also required to maintain the mitochondrial membrane potential for tumor cell survival. In the process of tumorigenesis, tumor cells during fastest growth rate exhibit both high glycolytic and high OxPhos. Therefore, metabolically reprogrammed cancer cells with combination of both aerobic glycolysis and altered OxPhos develop a robust metabolic phenotype, which confers a selective growth advantage. In our study, we grew the high glycolytic BMG-1 (glioma) cells with continuous exposure of mitochondrial uncoupler 2, 4, dinitro phenol (DNP) for 10 passages to obtain a phenotype of high glycolysis with enhanced altered OxPhos. We found that OxPhos modified BMG (OPMBMG) cells has similar growth rate and cell cycle distribution but high mitochondrial mass and functional enzymatic activity than parental cells. In in-vitro studies, OPMBMG cells showed enhanced invasion, proliferation and migration properties. Moreover, it also showed enhanced angiogenesis in matrigel plug assay. Xenografted tumors from OPMBMG cells showed reduced latent period, faster growth rate and nearly five folds reduction in the tumor take in nude mice compared to BMG-1 cells, suggesting that robust metabolic phenotype facilitates tumor formation and growth. OPMBMG cells which were found radio-resistant, showed enhanced radio-sensitization by 2-DG as compared to the parental BMG-1 cells. This study suggests that metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells enhances the potential of migration, invasion and proliferation. It also strengthens the cancer cells to escape the death processes, conferring resistance to therapeutic modalities. Our data also suggest that combining metabolic inhibitors like 2-DG with conventional therapeutic modalities can sensitize such metabolically aggressive cancer cells more than the therapies alone.

Keywords: 2-DG, BMG, DNP, OPM-BMG

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3 The Convention of Culture: A Comprehensive Study on Dispute Resolution Pertaining to Heritage and Related Issues

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a lot of discussion about ethnic imbalance and diversity in the international context. Arbitration is now subject to the hegemony of a small number of people who are constantly reappointed. When a court system becomes exclusionary, the quality of adjudication suffers significantly. In such a framework, there is a misalignment between adjudicators' preconceived views and the interests of the parties, resulting in a biased view of the proceedings. The world is currently witnessing a slew of intellectual property battles around cultural appropriation. The term "cultural appropriation" refers to the industrial west's theft of indigenous culture, usually for fashion, aesthetic, or dramatic purposes. Selena Gomez exemplifies cultural appropriation by commercially using the “bindi,” which is sacred to Hinduism, as a fashion symbol. In another case, Victoria's Secret insulted indigenous peoples' genocide by stealing native Indian headdresses. In the case of yoga, a similar process can be witnessed, with Vedic philosophy being reduced to a type of physical practice. Such a viewpoint is problematic since indigenous groups have worked hard for generations to ensure the survival of their culture, and its appropriation by the western world for purely aesthetic and theatrical purposes is upsetting to those who practise such cultures. Because such conflicts involve numerous jurisdictions, they must be resolved through international arbitration. However, these conflicts are already being litigated, and the aggrieved parties, namely developing nations, do not believe it prudent to use the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) already established arbitration procedure. This practise, it is suggested in this study, is the outcome of Europe's exclusionary arbitral system, which fails to recognise the non-legal and non-commercial nature of indigenous culture issues. This research paper proposes a more comprehensive, inclusive approach that recognises the non-legal and non-commercial aspects of IP disputes involving cultural appropriation, which can only be achieved through an ethnically balanced arbitration structure. This paper also aspires to expound upon the benefits of arbitration and other means of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the context of disputes pertaining to cultural issues; positing that inclusivity is a solution to the existing discord between international practices and localised cultural points of dispute. This paper also hopes to explicate measures that will facilitate ensuring inclusion and ideal practices in the domain of arbitration law, particularly pertaining to cultural heritage and indigenous expression.

Keywords: arbitration law, cultural appropriation, dispute resolution, heritage, intellectual property

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2 Novel Aspects of Merger Control Pertaining to Nascent Acquisition: An Analytical Legal Research

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

Abstract:

It is often noted that the value of a novel idea lies in its successful implementation. However, successful implementation requires the nurturing and encouragement of innovation. Nascent competitors are a true representation of innovation in any given industry. A nascent competitor is an entity whose prospective innovation poses a future threat to an incumbent dominant competitor. While a nascent competitor benefits in several ways, it is also exposed significantly and is at greater risk of facing the brunt of exclusionary practises and abusive conduct by dominant incumbent competitors in the industry. This research paper aims to explore the risks and threats faced by nascent competitors and analyse the benefits they accrue as well as the advantages they proffer to the economy; through an analytical, critical study. In such competitive market environments, a rise of the acquisitions of nascent competitors by the incumbent dominants is observed. Therefore, this paper will examine the dynamics of nascent acquisition. Further, this paper hopes to specifically delve into the role of antitrust bodies in regulating nascent acquisition. This paper also aspires to deal with the question how to distinguish harmful from harmless acquisitions in order to facilitate ideal enforcement practice. This paper proposes mechanisms of scrutiny in order to ensure healthy market practises and efficient merger control in the context of nascent acquisitions. Taking into account the scope and nature of the topic, as well as the resources available and accessible, a combination of the methods of doctrinal research and analytical research were employed, utilising secondary sources in order to assess and analyse the subject of research. While legally evaluating the Killer Acquisition theory and the Nascent Potential Acquisition theory, this paper seeks to critically survey the precedents and instances of nascent acquisitions. In addition to affording a compendious account of the legislative framework and regulatory mechanisms in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the European Union; it hopes to suggest an internationally practicable legal foundation for domestic legislation and enforcement to adopt. This paper hopes to appreciate the complexities and uncertainties with respect to nascent acquisitions and attempts to suggest viable and plausible policy measures in antitrust law. It additionally attempts to examine the effects of such nascent acquisitions upon the consumer and the market economy. This paper weighs the argument of shifting the evidentiary burden on to the merging parties in order to improve merger control and regulation and expounds on its discovery of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. It is posited that an effective combination of factual, legal, and economic analysis of both the acquired and acquiring companies possesses the potential to improve ex post and ex ante merger review outcomes involving nascent companies; thus, preventing anti-competitive practises. This paper concludes with an analysis of the possibility and feasibility of industry-specific identification of anti-competitive nascent acquisitions and implementation of measures accordingly.

Keywords: acquisition, antitrust law, exclusionary practises merger control, nascent competitor

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1 Amifostine Analogue, Drde-30, Attenuates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

Authors: Aastha Arora, Vikas Bhuria, Saurabh Singh, Uma Pathak, Shweta Mathur, Puja P. Hazari, Rajat Sandhir, Ravi Soni, Anant N. Bhatt, Bilikere S. Dwarakanath

Abstract:

Radiotherapy is an effective curative and palliative option for patients with thoracic malignancies. However, lung injury, comprising of pneumonitis and fibrosis, remains a significant clin¬ical complication of thoracic radiation, thus making it a dose-limiting factor. Also, injury to the lung is often reported as part of multi-organ failure in victims of accidental radiation exposures. Radiation induced inflammatory response in the lung, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and vascular changes, is an important contributing factor for the injury. Therefore, countermeasure agents to attenuate radiation induced inflammatory response are considered as an important approach to prevent chronic lung damage. Although Amifostine, the widely used, FDA approved radio-protector, has been found to reduce the radiation induced pneumonitis during radiation therapy of non-small cell lung carcinoma, its application during mass and field exposure is limited due to associated toxicity and ineffectiveness with the oral administration. The amifostine analogue (DRDE-30) overcomes this limitation as it is orally effective in reducing the mortality of whole body irradiated mice. The current study was undertaken to investigate the potential of DRDE-30 to ameliorate radiation induced lung damage. DRDE-30 was administered intra-peritoneally, 30 minutes prior to 13.5 Gy thoracic (60Co-gamma) radiation in C57BL/6 mice. Broncheo- alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were harvested at 12 and 24 weeks post irradiation for studying inflammatory and fibrotic markers. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, leukocyte count and protein content in BALF were used as parameters to evaluate lung vascular permeability. Inflammatory cell signaling (p38 phosphorylation) and anti-oxidant status (MnSOD and Catalase level) was assessed by Western blot, while X-ray CT scan, H & E staining and trichrome staining were done to study the lung architecture and collagen deposition. Irradiation of the lung increased the total protein content, LDH leakage and total leukocyte count in the BALF, reflecting endothelial barrier dysfunction. These disruptive effects were significantly abolished by DRDE-30, which appear to be linked to the DRDE-30 mediated abrogation of activation of the redox-sensitive pro- inflammatory signaling cascade, the MAPK pathway. Concurrent administration of DRDE-30 with radiation inhibited radiation-induced oxidative stress by strengthening the anti-oxidant defense system and abrogated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, which was associated with reduced vascular leak and macrophage recruitment to the lungs. Histopathological examination (by H & E staining) of the lung showed radiation-induced inflammation of the lungs, characterized by cellular infiltration, interstitial oedema, alveolar wall thickening, perivascular fibrosis and obstruction of alveolar spaces, which were all reduced by pre-administration of DRDE-30. Structural analysis with X-ray CT indicated lung architecture (linked to the degree of opacity) comparable to un-irradiated mice that correlated well with the lung morphology and reduced collagen deposition. Reduction in the radiation-induced inflammation and fibrosis brought about by DRDE-30 resulted in a profound increase in animal survival (72 % in the combination vs 24% with radiation) observed at the end of 24 weeks following irradiation. These findings establish the potential of the Amifostine analogue, DRDE-30, in reducing radiation induced pulmonary injury by attenuating the inflammatory and fibrotic responses.

Keywords: amifostine, fibrosis, inflammation, lung injury radiation

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