Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 288

Search results for: Hiseh Chih Tsai

288 Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimer-Cisplatin Nanocomplex Mixed with Multifunctional Ovalbumin Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Immuno-Chemotherapeutics with M1 Polarization of Macrophages

Authors: Tefera Worku Mekonnen, Hiseh Chih Tsai


Enhancement of drug efficacy is essential in cancer treatment. The immune stimulator ovalbumin (Ova)-coated citric acid (AC-)-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (AC-IO-Ova NPs) and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) based tumor targeted 4.5 (4.5G) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-cisplatin nanocomplex (4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC) were used for enhanced anticancer efficiency. The formations of 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC, AC-IO, and AC-IO-Ova NPs have been examined by FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conjugation of cisplatin (Cis-pt) with 4.5GDP was confirmed using carbon NMR. The tumor-specific 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC provided ~45% and 28% cumulative cisplatin release in 72 h at pH 6.5 and 7.4, respectively. A significant immune response with high TNF-α and IL-6 cytokine secretion was confirmed when the co-incubation of AC-IO-Ova with RAW 264.7 or HaCaT cells. AC-IO-Ova NP was biocompatible in different cell lines, even at a high concentration (200 µg mL−1). In contrast, AC-IO-Ova NPs mixed with 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC (Cis-pt at 15 µg mL−1) significantly increased the cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, which is dose-dependent on the concentration of AC-IO-Ova NPs. The increased anticancer effects may be attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the efficiency of anticancer cells may be further assisted by induction of an innate immune response via M1 macrophage polarization due to the presence of AC-IO-Ova NPs. We provide a better synergestic chemoimmunotherapeutic strategy to enhance the efficiency of anticancer of cisplatin via chemotherapeutic agent 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC and induction of proinflammatory cytokines to stimulate innate immunity through AC-IO-Ova NPs against tumors.

Keywords: cisplatin-release, iron oxide, ovalbumin, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer

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287 Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music: The Art of Combining Taiwanese Traditional Music and Western Composition in Kuo Chih-Yuan's Piano Repertoire

Authors: Sheng-Wei Hsu


Taiwanese composer Kuo Chih-Yuan (1921-2013) studied composition at Tokyo University of the Arts and was influenced by the musical nationalism prevailing in Japan at the time. Determined to create world-class contemporary works to represent Taiwan, he created music with elements of traditional Taiwanese music in ways that had not been done before. The aims of this study were to examine the traditional elements used in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music (1972), and how an understanding of these elements might guide pianists to interpret a more proper performance of his work was also presented in this study.

Keywords: Taiwanese traditional music, piano performance research, Kuo Chih-Yuan, fugue, variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
286 The Mechanism of Parabacteroides goldsteinii on Immune Modulation and Anti-Obsogenicity

Authors: Yu-Ling Tsai, Chih-Jung Chang, Chia-Chen Lu, Eric Wu, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Tzu-Lung Lin, Hsin-Chih Lai


It is urgent that novel anti-obesity measures that are safe, effective and widely available are developed for counteracting the rapidly growing obesity epidemics. In the present study, we show that a probiotic bacterium Parabacteroides goldsteinii screened through culture under the high molecular weight polysaccharides prepared from two iconic medicinal fungi, the Ganoderma lucidum and the Hirsutella sinensis, reduced body weight by ca. 20% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The bacterium also decreased intestinal permeability, metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. Notably, oral administration of live, but not high temperature-killed, P. goldsteinii to HFD fed mice considerably reduces weight gain and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. A three months feeding of the mice with P. goldsteinii did not show any aberrant side effects, indicating the safety of this bacterium. Transcriptome analysis indicated that P. goldsteinii enhances immunity in resting dendritic cells, but reduces inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dendritic cells. On top, Naïve T-cells were skewed towards regulatory T-cells after encountering with dendritic cells (DCs) pretreated with P. goldsteinii. These results indicated P. goldsteinii showed anti-inflammatory effects and can work as a potential probiotic ameliorating obesogenicity and related metabolic syndromes.

Keywords: Parabacteroides goldsteinii, gut microbiome, obesity, immune modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
285 Relation between Initial Stability of the Dental Implant and Bone-Implant Contact Level

Authors: Jui-Ting Hsu, Heng-Li Huang, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Kuo-Chih Su, Lih-Jyh Fuh


The objectives of this study were to measure the initial stability of the dental implant (ISQ and PTV) in the artificial foam bone block with three different quality levels. In addition, the 3D bone to implant contact percentage (BIC%) was measured based on the micro-computed tomography images. Furthermore, the relation between the initial stability of dental implant (ISQ and PTV) and BIC% were calculated. The experimental results indicated that enhanced the material property of the artificial foam bone increased the initial stability of the dental implant. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the BIC% and the two approaches (ISQ and PTV) were 0.652 and 0.745.

Keywords: dental implant, implant stability quotient, peak insertion torque, bone-implant contact, micro-computed tomography

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284 The Effect of Feature Selection on Pattern Classification

Authors: Chih-Fong Tsai, Ya-Han Hu


The aim of feature selection (or dimensionality reduction) is to filter out unrepresentative features (or variables) making the classifier perform better than the one without feature selection. Since there are many well-known feature selection algorithms, and different classifiers based on different selection results may perform differently, very few studies consider examining the effect of performing different feature selection algorithms on the classification performances by different classifiers over different types of datasets. In this paper, two widely used algorithms, which are the genetic algorithm (GA) and information gain (IG), are used to perform feature selection. On the other hand, three well-known classifiers are constructed, which are the CART decision tree (DT), multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network, and support vector machine (SVM). Based on 14 different types of datasets, the experimental results show that in most cases IG is a better feature selection algorithm than GA. In addition, the combinations of IG with DT and IG with SVM perform best and second best for small and large scale datasets.

Keywords: data mining, feature selection, pattern classification, dimensionality reduction

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283 A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal

Authors: Ti-An Tsai, Chun-Chih Wang, Hung-Wen Wang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen


In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.

Keywords: magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor, sensitivity, high-resolution

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282 The Effect of the Enterprises Being Classified as Socially Responsible on Their Stock Returns

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, Chia-Ching Tsai


The aim of this study is to examine the stock price effect of the enterprises being classified as socially responsible. We explore the stock price response to the announcement that an enterprise is selected for the Taiwan Corporate Sustainability Awards. Empirical results indicate that the announcements of the Taiwan Corporate Sustainability Awards provide useful informational content to stock market. We find the evidence of insignificantly positive short-term and significantly positive long-term price reaction to the enterprises being classified as socially responsible. This study concludes that investors in the Taiwan stock market tend to view an enterprise being selected for the Taiwan Corporate Sustainability Awards as one with superior quality and long-term price potential.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, stock price effect, Taiwan stock market, investments

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281 Finite Element Analysis of the Lumbar Spine after Unilateral and Bilateral Laminotomies and Laminectomy

Authors: Chih-Hsien Chen, Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Wei Chang, Yen-Nien Chen, Chih-Han Chang, Chun-Ting Li


Laminotomy is a spinal decompression surgery compatible with a minimally invasive approach. However, the unilateral laminotomy for bilateral side decompression leads to more perioperative complications than the bilateral laminotomy. Although the unilateral laminotomy removes the least bone tissue among the spinal decompression surgeries, the difference of spinal stability between unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy is rarely investigated. This study aims to compare the biomechanical effects of unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy on the lumbar spine by finite element (FE) simulation. A three-dimensional FE model of the lumbar spine (L1–L5) was constructed with the vertebral body, discs, and ligaments, as well as the sacrum was constructed. Three different surgical methods, namely unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy, at L3–L4 and L4–L5 were considered. Partial pedicle and entire ligamentum flavum were removed to simulate bilateral decompression in laminotomy. The entire lamina and spinal processes from the lower L3 to upper L5 were detached in the laminectomy model. Then, four kinds of loadings, namely flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation, were applied on the lumbar with various decompression conditions. The results indicated that the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy both increased the range of motion (ROM) compared with intact lumbar, while the laminectomy increased more ROM than both laminotomy did. The difference of ROM between the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy was very minor. Furthermore, bilateral laminotomy demonstrated similar poster element stress with unilateral laminotomy. Unilateral and bilateral laminotomy are equally suggested to bilateral decompression of lumbar spine with minimally invasive technique because limited effect was aroused due to more bone remove in the bilateral laminotomy on the lumbar stability. Furthermore, laminectomy is the last option for lumbar decompression.

Keywords: minimally invasive technique, lumbar decompression, laminotomy, laminectomy, finite element method

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280 Co-Registered Identification and Treatment of Skin Tumor with Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Therapy

Authors: Bo-Huei Huang, Chih-Hsun Yang, Meng-Tsan Tsai


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables to provide advantages of noninvasive imaging, high resolution, and high imaging speed. In this study, we integrated OCT and a CW laser for tumor diagnosis and treatment. The axial and transverse resolutions of the developed OCT system are 3 μm and 1 μm, respectively. The frame rate of OCT system is 30 frames/s. In this study, the tumor cells were implanted into the mice skin and scanned by OCT to observe the morphological and angiographic changes. With OCT imaging, 3D microstructures and skin angiography of mice skin can be simultaneously acquired, which can be utilized for identification of the tumor distribution. Then, the CW laser beam can be accurately controlled to expose on the center of the tumor, according to the OCT results. Moreover, OCT was used to monitor the induced photothermolysis and to evaluate the treatment outcome. The results showed that OCT-guided laser therapy could efficiently improve the treatment outcome and the extra damage induced by CW can be greatly reduced. Such OCT-guided laser therapy system could be a potential tool for dermatological applications.

Keywords: optical coherence tomography, laser therapy, skin tumor, position guide

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
279 A Cellular-Based Structural Health Monitoring Device (HMD) Based on Cost-Effective 1-Axis Accelerometers

Authors: Chih-Hsing Lin, Wen-Ching Chen, Chih-Ting Kuo, Gang-Neng Sung, Chih-Chyau Yang, Chien-Ming Wu, Chun-Ming Huang


This paper proposes a cellular-based structure health monitoring device (HMD) for temporary bridge monitoring without the requirement of power line and internet service. The proposed HMD includes sensor node, power module, cellular gateway, and rechargeable batteries. The purpose of HMD focuses on short-term collection of civil infrastructure information. It achieves the features of low cost by using three 1-axis accelerometers with data synchronization problem being solved. Furthermore, instead of using data acquisition system (DAQ) sensed data is transmitted to Host through cellular gateway. Compared with 3-axis accelerometer, our proposed 1-axis accelerometers based device achieves 50.5% cost saving with high sensitivity 2000mv/g. In addition to fit different monitoring environments, the proposed system can be easily replaced and/or extended with different PCB boards, such as communication interfaces and sensors, to adapt to various applications. Therefore, with using the proposed device, the real-time diagnosis system for civil infrastructure damage monitoring can be conducted effectively.

Keywords: cellular-based structural health monitoring, cost-effective 1-axis accelerometers, short-term monitoring, structural engineering

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278 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo


This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When fluid mixing is dominated by convection, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller center-line radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major-segment repeating units with a larger center-line radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: curved channel, microfluidics, mixing, non-newtonian fluids, vortex

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277 Optimal Linear Quadratic Digital Tracker for the Discrete-Time Proper System with an Unknown Disturbance

Authors: Jason Sheng-Hong Tsai, Faezeh Ebrahimzadeh, Min-Ching Chung, Shu-Mei Guo, Leang-San Shieh, Tzong-Jiy Tsai, Li Wang


In this paper, we first construct a new state and disturbance estimator using discrete-time proportional plus integral observer to estimate the system state and the unknown external disturbance for the discrete-time system with an input-to-output direct-feedthrough term. Then, the generalized optimal linear quadratic digital tracker design is applied to construct a proportional plus integral observer-based tracker for the system with an unknown external disturbance to have a desired tracking performance. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new application of our proposed approach.

Keywords: non-minimum phase system, optimal linear quadratic tracker, proportional plus integral observer, state and disturbance estimator

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276 The Applications of Four Fingers Theory: The Proof of 66 Acupoints under the Human Elbow and Knee

Authors: Chih-I. Tsai, Yu-Chien. Lin


Through experiences of clinical practices, it is discovered that locations on the body at a level of four fingerbreadth above and below the joints are the points at which muscles connect to tendons, and since the muscles and tendons possess opposite characteristics, muscles are full of blood but lack qi, while tendons are full of qi but lack blood, these points on our body become easily blocked. It is proposed that through doing acupuncture or creating localized pressure to the areas four fingerbreadths above and below our joints, with an elastic bandage, we could help the energy, also known as qi, to flow smoothly in our body and further improve our health. Based on the Four Fingers Theory, we understand that human height is 22 four fingerbreadths. In addition, qi and blood travel through 24 meridians, 50 times each day, and they flow through 6 cun with every human breath. We can also understand the average number of human heartbeats is 75 times per minute. And the function of qi-blood circulation system in Traditional Chinese Medicine is the same as the blood circulation in Western Medical Science. Informed by Four Fingers Theory, this study further examined its applications in acupuncture practices. The research question is how Four Fingers Theory proves what has been mentioned in Nei Jing that there are 66 acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee. In responding to the research question, there are 66 acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee. Four Fingers Theory facilitated the creation of the acupuncture naming and teaching system. It is expected to serve as an approachable and effective way to deliver knowledge of acupuncture to the public worldwide.

Keywords: four fingers theory, meridians circulation, 66 acupoints under human elbow and knee, acupuncture

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
275 Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Induced Urinary Tract Infections

Authors: Cheng-Chih Tsai, Yu-Hsuan Liu, Cheng-Ying Ho, Chun-Chin Huang


The aim of this study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) for prevention and amelioration of UTIs. We screened LAB strains with antimicrobial effects on UPEC using a well-diffusion assay, bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium cell line SV-HUC-1 (BCRC 60358), and a coculture inhibition assay. The results showed that the 7 LAB strains (Lactobacillus paracasei, L. salivarius, two Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, two L. plantarum strains, and L. crispatus) and the fermented probiotic products produced by these multi-LAB strains exhibited potent zones of inhibition against UPEC. Moreover, the LAB strains and probiotic products adhered strongly to the uroepithelium SV-HUC-1 cell line. The growth of UPEC strains was also markedly inhibited after co-culture with the LAB strains and probiotic products in human urine. In addition, the enhanced levels of IL-6, IL-8 and lactic acid dehydrogenase were significantly decreased by treatments with the LAB strains and probiotic products in UPEC-induced SV-HUC-1 cells. Furthermore, oral administration of probiotic products reduced the number of viable UPEC in the urine of UPEC-challenged BALB/c mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that probiotic supplementation may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of bacterial-induced urinary tract infections.

Keywords: lactic acid bacterium, SV-HUC-1 uroepithelium, urinary tract infection, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, BALB/c mice

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274 Dependence of Ionomer Loading on the Hydrogen Generation Rate of a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Chih Chi Hsu, Chiao-Chih Hu


Membrane electrode assemblies MEAs for proton exchange membrane PEM water electrolyzers were prepared by employing 175um perfluorosulfonic acid PFSA membranes as the PEM, onto which iridium oxide catalyst was coated on one side as the anode and platinum catalyst was coated on the other side as the cathode. The cathode catalyst ink was prepared so that the weight ratio of the catalyst powder to ionomer was 75:25, 70:30, 65:35, 60:40, and 55:45, respectively. Whereas, the ratio of catalyst powder to ionomer of the anode catalyst ink keeps constant at 50:50. All the MEAs have a catalyst coated area of 5cm*5cm. The test cell employs a platinum plated titanium grid as anode gas diffusion media; whereas, carbon paper was employed as the cathode gas diffusion media. The measurements of the MEA gases production rate were carried out by holding the cell voltage ranging from 1.6 to 2.8 volts at room temperature. It was found that the MEA with cathode catalyst to ionomer ratio of 65:35 gives the largest hydrogen production rate which is 2.8mL/cm2*min.

Keywords: electrolyzer, membrane electrode assembly, proton exchange membrane, ionomer, hydrogen

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273 A Building Structure Health Monitoring DeviceBased on Cost Effective 1-Axis Accelerometers

Authors: Chih Hsing Lin, Wen-Ching Chen, Ssu-Ying Chen, Chih-Chyau Yang, Chien-Ming Wu, Chun-Ming Huang


Critical structures such as buildings, bridges and dams require periodic inspections to ensure safe operation. The reliable inspection of structures can be achieved by combing temperature sensor and accelerometers. In this work, we propose a building structure health monitoring device (BSHMD) with using three 1-axis accelerometers, gateway, analog to digital converter (ADC), and data logger to monitoring the building structure. The proposed BSHMD achieves the features of low cost by using three 1-axis accelerometers with the data synchronization problem being solved, and easily installation and removal. Furthermore, we develop a packet acquisition program to receive the sensed data and then classify it based on time and date. Compared with 3-axis accelerometer, our proposed 1-axis accelerometers based device achieves 64.3% cost saving. Compared with previous structural monitoring device, the BSHMD achieves 89% area saving. Therefore, with using the proposed device, the realtime diagnosis system for building damage monitoring can be conducted effectively.

Keywords: building structure health monitoring, cost effective, 1-axis accelerometers, real-time diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
272 Effect of Far Infrared and Endothelial Cell Growth Supplement on Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells

Authors: Ming-Tzu Tsai, Jui-Ting Hsu, Chia-Chieh Lin, Feng-Tsai Chiang, Cheng-Chin Huang


Far infrared (FIR), an invisible and short electromagnetic waves ranges from 6-14 μm also defines as the “growth ray.” Although the mechanism of FIR is still unknown, most data have suggested that FIR could accelerate the skin microcirculation by elevating the blood flow and nitric-oxide (NO) synthesis. In this present work, the effect of FIR irradiation and endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS) on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated. To understand whether the cell viability and NO production of HUVECs affected by NO, cells with/without ECGS were treated in the presence or absence of L-NAME, an eNOS inhibitor. For FIR exposure, FIR-emitted ceramic powders consisted of a variety of well-mixed metal oxides were developed. The results showed that L-NAME did had a strong effect on the inhibition of NO production, especially in the ECGS-treated group. However, the cell viability of each group was rarely affected in the presence of L-NAME. Cells with the incubation of ECGS showed much higher cell viability compared to the control. Moreover, NO production of HUVECs exposed to FIR irradiation was significantly inhibited in the presence of L-NAME. It suggested that NO could play a role modulating the downstream signals of HUVECs during FIR exposure.

Keywords: far-infrared irradiation (FIR), nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS)

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271 Oligoalkylamine Modified Poly(Amidoamine) Generation 4.5 Dendrimer for the Delivery of Small Interfering RNA

Authors: Endris Yibru Hanurry, Wei-Hsin Hsu, Hsieh-Chih Tsai


In recent years, the discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) has got great attention for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of siRNAs has been faced with many drawbacks because of short half-life in blood circulation, poor membrane penetration, weak endosomal escape and inadequate release into the cytosol. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed a non-viral vector by conjugating polyamidoamine generation 4.5 dendrimer (PDG4.5) with diethylenetriamine (DETA)- and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) followed by binding with siRNA to form polyplexes through electrostatic interaction. The result of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single–quantum correlation spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful conjugation of DETA and TEPA with PDG4.5. Then, the size, surface charge, morphology, binding ability, stability, release assay, toxicity and cellular internalization were analyzed to explore the physicochemical and biological properties of PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA polyplexes at specific N/P ratios. The polyplexes (N/P = 8) exhibited spherical nanosized (125 and 85 nm) particles with optimum surface charge (13 and 26 mV), showed strong siRNA binding ability, protected the siRNA against enzyme digestion and accepted biocompatibility to the HeLa cells. Qualitatively, the fluorescence microscopy image revealed the delocalization (Manders’ coefficient 0.63 and 0.53 for PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA, respectively) of polyplexes and the translocation of the siRNA throughout the cytosol to show a decent cellular internalization and intracellular biodistribution of polyplexes in HeLa cells. Quantitatively, the flow cytometry result indicated that a significant (P < 0.05) amount of siRNA was internalized by cells treated with PDG4.5-DETA (68.5%) and PDG4.5-TEPA (73%) polyplexes. Generally, PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA were ideal nanocarriers of siRNA in vitro and might be used as promising candidates for in vivo study and future pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: non-viral carrier, oligoalkylamine, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer, polyplexes, siRNA

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270 Impact and Risk Assessment of Climate Change on Water Quality: A Study in the Errer River Basin, Taiwan

Authors: Hsin-Chih Lai, Yung-Lung Lee, Yun-Yao Chi, Ching-Yi Horng, Pei-Chih Wu, Hsien-Chang Wang


Taiwan, a climatically challenged island, has always been keen on the issue of water resource management due to its limitations in water storage. Since water resource management has been the focal point of many adaptations to climate change, there has been a lack of attention on another issue, water quality. This study chooses the Errer River Basin as the experimental focus for water quality in Taiwan. With the Errer River Basin being one of the most polluted rivers in Taiwan, this study observes the effects of climate change on this river over a period of time. Taiwan is also targeted by multiple typhoons every year, the heavy rainfall and strong winds create problems of pollution being carried to different river segments, including into the ocean. This study aims to create an impact and risk assessment on Errer River Basin, to show the connection from climate change to potential extreme events, which in turn could influence water quality and ultimately human health. Using dynamic downscaling, this study narrows the information from a global scale to a resolution of 1 km x 1 km. Then, through interpolation, the resolution is further narrowed into a resolution of 200m x 200m, to analyze the past, present, and future of extreme events. According to different climate change scenarios, this study designs an assessment index on the vulnerability of the Errer River Basin. Through this index, Errer River inhabitants can access advice on adaptations to climate change and act accordingly.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, water quality, risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
269 Barnard Feature Point Detector for Low-Contractperiapical Radiography Image

Authors: Chih-Yi Ho, Tzu-Fang Chang, Chih-Chia Huang, Chia-Yen Lee


In dental clinics, the dentists use the periapical radiography image to assess the effectiveness of endodontic treatment of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Periapical radiography images are taken at different times to assess alveolar bone variation before and after the root canal treatment, and furthermore to judge whether the treatment was successful. Current clinical assessment of apical tissue recovery relies only on dentist personal experience. It is difficult to have the same standard and objective interpretations due to the dentist or radiologist personal background and knowledge. If periapical radiography images at the different time could be registered well, the endodontic treatment could be evaluated. In the image registration area, it is necessary to assign representative control points to the transformation model for good performances of registration results. However, detection of representative control points (feature points) on periapical radiography images is generally very difficult. Regardless of which traditional detection methods are practiced, sufficient feature points may not be detected due to the low-contrast characteristics of the x-ray image. Barnard detector is an algorithm for feature point detection based on grayscale value gradients, which can obtain sufficient feature points in the case of gray-scale contrast is not obvious. However, the Barnard detector would detect too many feature points, and they would be too clustered. This study uses the local extrema of clustering feature points and the suppression radius to overcome the problem, and compared different feature point detection methods. In the preliminary result, the feature points could be detected as representative control points by the proposed method.

Keywords: feature detection, Barnard detector, registration, periapical radiography image, endodontic treatment

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268 Maximum Induced Subgraph of an Augmented Cube

Authors: Meng-Jou Chien, Jheng-Cheng Chen, Chang-Hsiung Tsai


Let maxζG(m) denote the maximum number of edges in a subgraph of graph G induced by m nodes. The n-dimensional augmented cube, denoted as AQn, a variation of the hypercube, possesses some properties superior to those of the hypercube. We study the cases when G is the augmented cube AQn.

Keywords: interconnection network, augmented cube, induced subgraph, bisection width

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
267 Performance Evaluation of a Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly Prepared from a Reinforced Proton Exchange Membrane

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Yun Jyun Ou, Chih Chi Hsu, Chiao-Chih Hu


A fuel cell is a device that produces electric power by reacting fuel and oxidant electrochemically. There is no pollution produced from a fuel cell if hydrogen is employed as the fuel. Therefore, a fuel cell is considered as a zero emission device and is a source of green power. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is the key component of a fuel cell. It is, therefore, beneficial to develop MEAs with high performance. In this study, an MEA for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was prepared from a 15-micron thick reinforced PEM. The active area of such MEA is 25 cm2. Carbon supported platinum (Pt/C) was employed as the catalyst for both anode and cathode. The platinum loading is 0.6 mg/cm2 based on the sum of anode and cathode. Commercially available carbon papers coated with a micro porous layer (MPL) serve as gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The original thickness of the GDL is 250 μm. It was compressed down to 163 μm when assembled into the single cell test fixture. Polarization curves were taken by using eight different test conditions. At our standard test condition (cell: 70 °C; anode: pure hydrogen, 100%RH, 1.2 stoic, ambient pressure; cathode: air, 100%RH, 3.0 stoic, ambient pressure), the cell current density is 1250 mA/cm2 at 0.6 V, and 2400 mA/cm2 at 0.4 V. At self-humidified condition and cell temperature of 55 °C, the cell current density is 1050 mA/cm2 at 0.6 V, and 2250 mA/cm2 at 0.4 V. Hydrogen crossover rate of the MEA is 0.0108 mL/min*cm2 according to linear sweep voltammetry experiments. According to the MEA’s Pt loading and the cyclic voltammetry experiments, the Pt electrochemical surface area is 60 m2/g. The ohmic part of the impedance spectroscopy results shows that the membrane resistance is about 60 mΩ*cm2 when the MEA is operated at 0.6 V.

Keywords: fuel cell, membrane electrode assembly, proton exchange membrane, reinforced

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
266 Biomechanical Evaluation for Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression: Unilateral Versus Bilateral Approaches

Authors: Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Hsien Chen, Chih-Han Chang


Unilateral laminotomy and bilateral laminotomies were successful decompressions methods for managing spinal stenosis that numerous studies have reported. Thus, unilateral laminotomy was rated technically much more demanding than bilateral laminotomies, whereas the bilateral laminotomies were associated with a positive benefit to reduce more complications. There were including incidental durotomy, increased radicular deficit, and epidural hematoma. However, no relative biomechanical analysis for evaluating spinal instability treated with unilateral and bilateral laminotomies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of different decompressions methods by experimental and finite element analysis. Three porcine lumbar spines were biomechanically evaluated for their range of motion, and the results were compared following unilateral or bilateral laminotomies. The experimental protocol included flexion and extension in the following procedures: intact, unilateral, and bilateral laminotomies (L2–L5). The specimens in this study were tested in flexion (8 Nm) and extension (6 Nm) of pure moment. Spinal segment kinematic data was captured by using the motion tracking system. A 3D finite element lumbar spine model (L1-S1) containing vertebral body, discs, and ligaments were constructed. This model was used to simulate the situation of treating unilateral and bilateral laminotomies at L3-L4 and L4-L5. The bottom surface of S1 vertebral body was fully geometrically constrained in this study. A 10 Nm pure moment also applied on the top surface of L1 vertebral body to drive lumbar doing different motion, such as flexion and extension. The experimental results showed that in the flexion, the ROMs (±standard deviation) of L3–L4 were 1.35±0.23, 1.34±0.67, and 1.66±0.07 degrees of the intact, unilateral, and bilateral laminotomies, respectively. The ROMs of L4–L5 were 4.35±0.29, 4.06±0.87, and 4.2±0.32 degrees, respectively. No statistical significance was observed in these three groups (P>0.05). In the extension, the ROMs of L3–L4 were 0.89±0.16, 1.69±0.08, and 1.73±0.13 degrees, respectively. In the L4-L5, the ROMs were 1.4±0.12, 2.44±0.26, and 2.5±0.29 degrees, respectively. Significant differences were observed among all trials, except between the unilateral and bilateral laminotomy groups. At the simulation results portion, the similar results were discovered with the experiment. No significant differences were found at L4-L5 both flexion and extension in each group. Only 0.02 and 0.04 degrees variation were observed during flexion and extension between the unilateral and bilateral laminotomy groups. In conclusions, the present results by finite element analysis and experimental reveal that no significant differences were observed during flexion and extension between unilateral and bilateral laminotomies in short-term follow-up. From a biomechanical point of view, bilateral laminotomies seem to exhibit a similar stability as unilateral laminotomy. In clinical practice, the bilateral laminotomies are likely to reduce technical difficulties and prevent perioperative complications; this study proved this benefit through biomechanical analysis. The results may provide some recommendations for surgeons to make the final decision.

Keywords: unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomies, spinal stenosis, finite element analysis

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265 Impact of Boundary Conditions on the Behavior of Thin-Walled Laminated Column with L-Profile under Uniform Shortening

Authors: Jaroslaw Gawryluk, Andrzej Teter


Simply supported angle columns subjected to uniform shortening are tested. The experimental studies are conducted on a testing machine using additional Aramis and the acoustic emission system. The laminate samples are subjected to axial uniform shortening. The tested columns are loaded with the force values from zero to the maximal load destroying the L-shaped column, which allowed one to observe the column post-buckling behavior until its collapse. Laboratory tests are performed at a constant velocity of the cross-bar equal to 1 mm/min. In order to eliminate stress concentrations between sample and support, flexible pads are used. Analyzed samples are made with carbon-epoxy laminate using the autoclave method. The configurations of laminate layers are: [60,0₂,-60₂,60₃,-60₂,0₃,-60₂,0,60₂]T, where direction 0 is along the length of the profile. Material parameters of laminate are: Young’s modulus along the fiber direction - 170GPa, Young’s modulus along the fiber transverse direction - 7.6GPa, shear modulus in-plane - 3.52GPa, Poisson’s ratio in-plane - 0.36. The dimensions of all columns are: length-300 mm, thickness-0.81mm, width of the flanges-40mm. Next, two numerical models of the column with and without flexible pads are developed using the finite element method in Abaqus software. The L-profile laminate column is modeled using the S8R shell elements. The layup-ply technique is used to define the sequence of the laminate layers. However, the model of grips is made of the R3D4 discrete rigid elements. The flexible pad is consists of the C3D20R type solid elements. In order to estimate the moment of the first laminate layer damage, the following initiation criteria were applied: maximum stress criterion, Tsai-Hill, Tsai-Wu, Azzi-Tsai-Hill, and Hashin criteria. The best compliance of results was observed for the Hashin criterion. It was found that the use of the pad in the numerical model significantly influences the damage mechanism. The model without pads characterized a much more stiffness, as evidenced by a greater bifurcation load and damage initiation load in all analyzed criteria, lower shortening, and less deflection of the column in its center than the model with flexible pads. Acknowledgment: The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: angle column, compression, experiment, FEM

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264 IPO Price Performance and Signaling

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, I-Fan Ho


This study examines the credibility of the signaling as explanation for IPO initial underpricing. Findings reveal the initial underpricing and the long-term underperformance of IPOs in Taiwan. However, we only find weak support for signaling as explanation of IPO underpricing.

Keywords: signaling, IPO initial underpricing, IPO long-term underperformance, Taiwan’s stock market

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263 Diselenide-Linked Redox Stimuli-Responsive Methoxy Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-b-Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Micelles for the Delivery of Doxorubicin in Cancer Cells

Authors: Yihenew Simegniew Birhan, Hsieh Chih Tsai


The recent advancements in synthetic chemistry and nanotechnology fostered the development of different nanocarriers for enhanced intracellular delivery of pharmaceutical agents to tumor cells. Polymeric micelles (PMs), characterized by small size, appreciable drug loading capacity (DLC), better accumulation in tumor tissue via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and the ability to avoid detection and subsequent clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) system, are convenient to improve the poor solubility, slow absorption and non-selective biodistribution of payloads embedded in their hydrophobic cores and hence, enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, redox-responsive polymeric micelles have gained significant attention for the delivery and controlled release of anticancer drugs in tumor cells. In this study, we synthesized redox-responsive diselenide bond containing amphiphilic polymer, Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ from mPEG-PLGA, and 3,3'-diselanediyldipropanoic acid (DSeDPA) using DCC/DMAP as coupling agents. The successful synthesis of the copolymers was verified by different spectroscopic techniques. Above the critical micelle concentration, the amphiphilic copolymer, Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂, self-assembled into stable micelles. The DLS data indicated that the hydrodynamic diameter of the micelles (123.9 ± 0.85 nm) was suitable for extravasation into the tumor cells through the EPR effect. The drug loading content (DLC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX-loaded micelles were found to be 6.61 wt% and 54.9%, respectively. The DOX-loaded micelles showed initial burst release accompanied by sustained release trend where 73.94% and 69.54% of encapsulated DOX was released upon treatment with 6mM GSH and 0.1% H₂O₂, respectively. The biocompatible nature of Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ copolymer was confirmed by the cell viability study. In addition, the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited significant inhibition against HeLa cells (44.46%), at a maximum dose of 7.5 µg/mL. The fluorescent microscope images of HeLa cells treated with 3 µg/mL (equivalent DOX concentration) revealed efficient internalization and accumulation of DOX-loaded Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ micelles in the cytosol of cancer cells. In conclusion, the intelligent, biocompatible, and the redox stimuli-responsive behavior of Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ copolymer marked the potential applications of diselenide-linked mPEG-PLGA micelles for the delivery and on-demand release of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells.

Keywords: anticancer drug delivery, diselenide bond, polymeric micelles, redox-responsive

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262 3D Scaffolds Fabricated by Microfluidic Device for Rat Cardiomyocytes Observation

Authors: Chih-Wei Chao, Jiashing Yu


Microfluidic devices have recently emerged as promising tools for the fabrication of scaffolds for cell culture. To mimic the natural circumstances of organism for cells to grow, here we present three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds fabricated by microfluidics for cells cultivation. This work aims at investigating the behavior in terms of the viability and the proliferation capability of rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes in the gelatin 3D scaffolds by fluorescent images.

Keywords: microfluidic device, H9c2, tissue engineering, 3D scaffolds

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261 Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticide and Fetal Growth

Authors: Yi-Shuan ShaoShao, Yen-An Tsai, Chia-Huang Chang, Kai-Wei Liao, Ming-Song Tsai, Mei-Lien Chen


Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) is an environmental hormone with proven endocrine-disrupting effects that may affect the growth and development in human. A large amount of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) is used throughout Taiwan, and human may be exposed through dietary intake or residential use. During pregnancy, OPs can be transferred to the blood stream reaching the fetus through the placenta. The aim of this study was to explore the association between maternal OPs exposure levels and fetal developments and birth outcomes. A birth cohort was follow-up. Maternal urine sample were collected at the first, second, and third gestational trimester. Fetal growth characteristics were measured by ultrasonic scan and birth outcomes were assessed by pediatrician. Urinary metabolite of organophosphate pesticides were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analytes included dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphates (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP). We found that all of urine samples in each trimester were detected at least one metabolite for dialkyl phosphate (DAP). The detection rate range of OP urinary metabolites were from the lowest 22% DEDTP to the highest 100% DMP and DMTP. And to compared geometric means (GM) of urinary metabolites with three trimesters, that third trimester had the highest concentration for DMPs, DEPs, and DAPs in pregnant women were 368.01, 169.85 and 543.75 nmol/g creatinine, respectively. We observed that DAPs concentration in first and second trimester were significantly negative association with head circumference. DMPs in first trimester was significantly negative association with thoracic circumference (p=0.05) by spearman correlation. Our results support associations with prenatal OPs exposure with fetal head circumference and thoracic circumference. It provided that maternal OPs exposure might affect birth outcomes. Thus, prenatal exposure to OPs and health risk worthy of attention and concern.

Keywords: DAPs, birth outcomes, organophosphate pesticides, prenatal

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260 Assessment and Adaptation Strategy of Climate Change to Water Quality in the Erren River and Its Impact to Health

Authors: Pei-Chih Wu, Hsin-Chih Lai, Yung-Lung Lee, Yun-Yao Chi, Ching-Yi Horng, Hsien-Chang Wang


The impact of climate change to health has always been well documented. Amongst them, water-borne infectious diseases, chronic adverse effects or cancer risks due to chemical contamination in flooding or drought events are especially important in river basin. This study therefore utilizes GIS and different models to integrate demographic, land use, disaster prevention, social-economic factors, and human health assessment in the Erren River basin. Therefore, through the collecting of climatic, demographic, health surveillance, water quality and other water monitoring data, potential risks associated with the Erren River Basin are established and to understand human exposure and vulnerability in response to climate extremes. This study assesses the temporal and spatial patterns of melioidosis (2000-2015) and various cancer incidents in Tainan and Kaohsiung cities. The next step is to analyze the spatial association between diseases incidences, climatic factors, land uses, and other demographic factors by using ArcMap and GeoDa. The study results show that amongst all melioidosis cases in Taiwan, 24% cases (115) residence occurred in the Erren River basin. The relationship between the cases and in Tainan and Kaohsiung cities are associated with population density, aging indicator, and residence in Erren River basin. Risks from flooding due to heavy rainfall and fish farms in spatial lag regression are also related. Through liver cancer, the preliminary analysis in temporal and spatial pattern shows an increases pattern in annual incidence without clusters in Erren River basin. Further analysis of potential cancers connected to heavy metal contamination from water pollution in Erren River is established. The final step is to develop an assessment tool for human exposure from water contamination and vulnerability in response to climate extremes for the second year.

Keywords: climate change, health impact, health adaptation, Erren River Basin

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259 Black Soybeans Show Acute and Chronic Liver Protective Functions against CCl4 Induced Liver Damage

Authors: Cheng-Kuang Hsu, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Chi-Chih Wang


Black soybeans contain high amount of antioxidants including polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavones. The protective function of black soybean against CCl4 (a strong oxidant) induced acute and chronic liver damage was investigated in vivo using SD rats or ICR mouse. The evaluation of CCl4 induced oxidative stress in the liver tissues included the measurements of the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase GPx), as well as the level of histological lesion in the liver tissues. For chronic experiment, a decoction at the concentration of 100 or 1000 mg/kg of body weight, produced by baking black soybean at 130°C for 5 min and followed by immerging in 100°C hot water for 20 min, showed the inhibitory effect against CCl4 induced liver damage in SD rats. Hot-water extract (80 °C for 30 min) from un-preheated black soybean at the concentration of 200 mg/kg of body weight could not reduce ALT and AST levels in CCl4 treated SD rats, but the hot-water extract from preheated black soybean did enhance antioxidant enzymes activities, decline ALT and AST levels. Specially, the hot-water extract from the seed cost of black soybean had the highest liver protective function since it can reduce vacuolization and necrosis in the liver tissues. For acute experiment, the hot-water extracts from black soybean and the seed coat, as well as pure cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) could reduce ALT and AST levels of CCl4 induced ICR mouse. The decoction and hot-water extract from the seed coat of black soybean had higher total polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavones contents than those extracts from whole black soybean. Such results agreed with high liver protective function in the decoction and hot-water from the seed coat of black soybean. Black soybean showed protective function only after preheating process (baking at 130°C for 5 to 10 min) because preheating treatment damaged the cell wall and made the extraction of the antioxidants more effectively.

Keywords: black soybean, liver protective function, antioxidant, antioxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 410