Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: ovalbumin

8 Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimer-Cisplatin Nanocomplex Mixed with Multifunctional Ovalbumin Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Immuno-Chemotherapeutics with M1 Polarization of Macrophages

Authors: Tefera Worku Mekonnen, Hiseh Chih Tsai


Enhancement of drug efficacy is essential in cancer treatment. The immune stimulator ovalbumin (Ova)-coated citric acid (AC-)-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (AC-IO-Ova NPs) and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) based tumor targeted 4.5 (4.5G) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-cisplatin nanocomplex (4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC) were used for enhanced anticancer efficiency. The formations of 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC, AC-IO, and AC-IO-Ova NPs have been examined by FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conjugation of cisplatin (Cis-pt) with 4.5GDP was confirmed using carbon NMR. The tumor-specific 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC provided ~45% and 28% cumulative cisplatin release in 72 h at pH 6.5 and 7.4, respectively. A significant immune response with high TNF-α and IL-6 cytokine secretion was confirmed when the co-incubation of AC-IO-Ova with RAW 264.7 or HaCaT cells. AC-IO-Ova NP was biocompatible in different cell lines, even at a high concentration (200 µg mL−1). In contrast, AC-IO-Ova NPs mixed with 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC (Cis-pt at 15 µg mL−1) significantly increased the cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, which is dose-dependent on the concentration of AC-IO-Ova NPs. The increased anticancer effects may be attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the efficiency of anticancer cells may be further assisted by induction of an innate immune response via M1 macrophage polarization due to the presence of AC-IO-Ova NPs. We provide a better synergestic chemoimmunotherapeutic strategy to enhance the efficiency of anticancer of cisplatin via chemotherapeutic agent 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC and induction of proinflammatory cytokines to stimulate innate immunity through AC-IO-Ova NPs against tumors.

Keywords: cisplatin-release, iron oxide, ovalbumin, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer

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7 Biochemical and Cellular Correlates of Essential Oil of Pistacia Integerrima against in vitro and Murine Models of Bronchial Asthma

Authors: R. L. Shirole, N. L. Shirole, R. B. Patil, M. N. Saraf


The present investigation aimed to elucidate the probable mechanism of antiasthmatic action of essential oil of Pistacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis galls (EOPI). EOPI was investigated for its potential antiasthmatic action using in vitro antiallergic assays mast cell degranulation and soyabean lipoxidase enzyme activit, and spasmolytic action using isolated guinea pig ileum preparation. In vivo studies included lipopolysaccharide-induced bronchial inflammation in rats and airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs using spirometry. Data was analysed by GraphPad Prism 5.01 and results were expressed as means ± SEM. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. EOPI inhibits 5-lipoxidase enzyme activity, DPPH scavenging activity and erythropoietin- induced angiogenesis. It showed dose dependent anti-allergic activity by inhibiting compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation. The finding that essential oil induced inhibition of transient contraction of acetylcholine in calcium free medium, and relaxation of S-(-)-Bay 8644-precontracted isolated guinea pig ileum jointly suggest that suggesting that the L-subtype Cav channel is involved in spasmolytic action of EOPI. Treatment with EOPI dose dependently (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited lipopolysaccharide- induced increased in total cell count, neutrophil count, nitrate-nitrite, total protein, albumin levels in bronchoalveolar fluid and myeloperoxidase levels in lung homogenates. Mild diffused lesions involving focal interalveolar septal, intraluminal infiltration of neutrophils were observed in EOPI (7.5 &15 mg/kg) pretreated while no abnormality was detected in EOPI (30 mg/kg) and roflumilast (1mg/kg) pretreated rats. Roflumilast was used as standard. EOPI reduced the respiratory flow due to gasping in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of EOPI in bronchial asthma possibly related to its ability to inhibit L-subtype Cav channel, mast cell stabilization, antioxidant, angiostatic and through inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme.

Keywords: asthma, lipopolysaccharide, spirometry, Pistacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis, essential oil

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6 Direct Assessment of Cellular Immune Responses to Ovalbumin with a Secreted Luciferase Transgenic Reporter Mouse Strain IFNγ-Lucia

Authors: Martyna Chotomska, Aleksandra Studzinska, Marta Lisowska, Justyna Szubert, Aleksandra Tabis, Jacek Bania, Arkadiusz Miazek


Objectives: Assessing antigen-specific T cell responses is of utmost importance for the pre-clinical testing of prototype vaccines against intracellular pathogens and tumor antigens. Mainly two types of in vitro assays are used for this purpose 1) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) and 2) intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Both are time-consuming, relatively expensive, and require manual dexterity. Here, we assess if a straightforward detection of luciferase activity in blood samples of transgenic reporter mice expressing a secreted Lucia luciferase under the transcriptional control of IFN-γ promoter parallels the sensitivity of IFNγ ELISpot assay. Methods: IFN-γ-LUCIA mouse strain carrying multiple copies of Lucia luciferase transgene under the transcriptional control of IFNγ minimal promoter were generated by pronuclear injection of linear DNA. The specificity of transgene expression and mobilization was assessed in vitro using transgenic splenocytes exposed to various mitogens. The IFN-γ-LUCIA mice were immunized with 50mg of ovalbumin (OVA) emulsified in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant three times every two weeks by subcutaneous injections. Blood samples were collected before and five days after each immunization. Luciferase activity was assessed in blood serum. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and assessed for frequencies of OVA-specific IFNγ-secreting T cells. Results: We show that in vitro cultured splenocytes of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice respond by 2 and 3 fold increase in secreted luciferase activity to T cell mitogens concanavalin A and phorbol myristate acetate, respectively but fail to respond to B cell-stimulating E.coli lipopolysaccharide. Immunization of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice with OVA leads to over 4 fold increase in luciferase activity in blood serum five days post-immunization with a barely detectable increase in OVA-specific, IFNγ-secreting T cells by ELISpot. Second and third immunizations, further increase the luciferase activity and coincidently also increase the frequencies of OVA-specific T cells by ELISpot. Conclusions: We conclude that minimally invasive monitoring of luciferase secretions in blood serum of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice constitutes a sensitive method for evaluating primary and memory Th1 responses to protein antigens. As such, this method may complement existing methods for rapid immunogenicity assessment of prototype vaccines.

Keywords: ELISpot, immunogenicity, interferon-gamma, reporter mice, vaccines

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5 A Derivative of L-allo Threonine Alleviates Asthmatic Symptoms in vitro and in vivo

Authors: Kun Chun, Jin-Chun Heo, Sang-Han Lee


Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells and tissue remodeling. In this study, we examined the anti-asthmatic activity of a derivative of L-allo threonine by in vitro and in vivo anti-asthmatic assays. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced C57BL/6 mice were used to analyze lung inflammation and cytokine expressions for exhibiting anti-atopic activity of the derivative. LX519290, a derivative of L-allo threonine, induced an increased IFN-γ and a decreased IL-10 mRNA level. This compound exhibited potent anti-asthmatic activity by decreasing immune cell infiltration in the lung, and IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine levels in the serum of OVA-induced mice. These results indicated that chronic airway injury was decreased by LX519290. We also assessed that LX519290 inhibits infiltration of immune cell, mucus release and cytokine expression in an in vivo model. Our results collectively suggest that the L-allo threonine is effective in alleviating asthmatic symptoms by treating inflammatory factors in the lung.

Keywords: asthma, L -allo threonine, LX519290, mice

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4 Development of Cationic Gelatin Nanoparticles as an Antigen-Carrier for Mucosal Immunization

Authors: Ping-Lun Jiang, Hung-Jun Lin, Shen-Fu Lin, Mei-Yin Chien, Ting-Wei Li, Chun-Han Lin, Der-Zen Liu


Mucosal vaccine induces both mucosal (secretory IgA) and systemic immune responses and it is considered an ideal vaccination strategy for prevention of infectious diseases. One important point to be considered in mucosal vaccination is effective antigen delivery system which can manage effective delivery of antigen to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of mucosal. In the present study, cationic gelatin nanoparticles were prepared as ideal carriers for more efficient antigen delivery. The average diameter of cationic gelatin nanoparticle was approximate 190 nm, and the zeta potential was about +45 mV, then ovalbumin (OVA) was physically absorbed onto cationic gelatin nanoparticle. The OVA absorption rate was near 95% the zeta potential was about +20 mV. We show that cationic gelatin nanoparticle effectively facilitated antigen uptake by mice bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (mBMDCs) and RAW264.7 cells and induced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. C57BL/6 mice twice immunized intranasally with OVA-absorbed cationic gelatin nanoparticle induced high levels of OVA-specific IgG in the serum and IgA in their in the nasal and lung wash fluid. These results indicate that nasal administration of cationic gelatin nanoparticles induced both mucosal and systemic immune responses and cationic gelatin nanoparticles might be a potential antigen delivery carrier for further clinical applications.

Keywords: antigen delivery, antigen-presenting cells, gelatin nanoparticle, mucosal vaccine

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3 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha


Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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2 Calcium Release- Activated Calcium Channels as a Target in Treatment of Allergic Asthma

Authors: Martina Šutovská, Marta Jošková, Ivana Kazimierová, Lenka Pappová, Maroš Adamkov, Soňa Fraňová


Bronchial asthma is characterized by increased bronchoconstrictor responses to provoking agonists, airway inflammation and remodeling. All these processes involve Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ channels (CRAC) that are widely expressed in immune, respiratory epithelium and airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Our previous study pointed on possible therapeutic potency of CRAC blockers using experimental guinea pigs asthma model. Presented work analyzed complex anti-asthmatic effect of long-term administered CRAC blocker, including impact on allergic inflammation, airways hyperreactivity, and remodeling and mucociliary clearance. Ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation of the airways according to Franova et al. was followed by 14 days lasted administration of CRAC blocker (3-fluoropyridine-4-carboxylic acid, FPCA) in the dose 1.5 mg/kg bw. For comparative purposes salbutamol, budesonide and saline were applied to control groups. The anti-inflammatory effect of FPCA was estimated by serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) changes in IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α analyzed by Bio-Plex® assay as well as immunohistochemical staining focused on assessment of tryptase and c-Fos positivity in pulmonary samples. The in vivo airway hyperreactivity was evaluated by Pennock et al. and by organ tissue bath methods in vitro. The immunohistochemical changes in ASM actin and collagen III layer as well as mucin secretion evaluated anti-remodeling effect of FPCA. The measurement of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in vitro using LabVIEW™ Software determined impact on mucociliary clearance. Long-term administration of FPCA to sensitized animals resulted in: i. Significant decrease in cytokine levels, tryptase and c-Fos positivity similar to budesonide effect; ii.Meaningful decrease in basal and bronchoconstrictors-induced in vivo and in vitro airway hyperreactivity comparable to salbutamol; iii. Significant inhibition of airway remodeling parameters; iv. Insignificant changes in CBF. All these findings confirmed complex anti-asthmatic effect of CRAC channels blocker and evidenced these structures as the rational target in the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma.

Keywords: allergic asthma, CRAC channels, cytokines, respiratory epithelium

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1 Detection of Egg Proteins in Food Matrices (2011-2021)

Authors: Daniela Manila Bianchi, Samantha Lupi, Elisa Barcucci, Sandra Fragassi, Clara Tramuta, Lucia Decastelli


Introduction: The undeclared allergens detection in food products plays a fundamental role in the safety of the allergic consumer. The protection of allergic consumers is guaranteed, in Europe, by Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament, which governs the consumer's right to information and identifies 14 food allergens to be mandatory indicated on food label: among these, egg is included. Egg can be present as an ingredient or as contamination in raw and cooked products. The main allergen egg proteins are ovomucoid, ovalbumin, lysozyme, and ovotransferrin. This study presents the results of a survey conducted in Northern Italy aimed to detect the presence of undeclared egg proteins in food matrices in the latest ten years (2011-2021). Method: In the period January 2011 - October 2021, a total of 1205 different types of food matrices (ready-to-eat, meats, and meat products, bakery and pastry products, baby foods, food supplements, pasta, fish and fish products, preparations for soups and broths) were delivered to Food Control Laboratory of IstitutoZooprofilatticoSperimentale of Piemonte Liguria and Valle d’Aosta to be analyzed as official samples in the frame of Regional Monitoring Plan of Food Safety or in the contest of food poisoning. The laboratory is ISO 17025 accredited, and since 2019, it represents the National Reference Centre for detection in foods of substances causing food allergies or intolerances (CreNaRiA). All samples were stored in the laboratory according to food business operator instructions and the analyzed within the expiry date for the detection of undeclared egg proteins. Analyses were performed with RIDASCREEN®FAST Ei/Egg (R-Biopharm ® Italia srl) kit: the method was internally validated and accredited with a Limit of Detection (LOD) equal to 2 ppm (mg/Kg). It is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of whole egg powder in foods. Results: The results obtained through this study showed that egg proteins were found in 2% (n. 28) of food matrices, including meats and meat products (n. 16), fish and fish products (n. 4), bakery and pastry products (n. 4), pasta (n. 2), preparations for soups and broths (n.1) and ready-to-eat (n. 1).In particular, in 2011 egg proteins were detected in 5% of samples, in 2012 in 4%, in 2013, 2016 and 2018 in 2%, in 2014, 2015 and 2019 in 3%. No egg protein traces were detected in 2017, 2020, and 2021. Discussion: Food allergies occurs, in the Western World, 2% of adults and up to 8% of children. Allergy to eggs is one of most common food allergy in pediatrics context. The percentage of positivity obtained from this study is, however, low. The trend over the ten years has been slightly variable, with comparable data.

Keywords: allergens, food, egg proteins, immunoassay

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