Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7672

Search results for: anatomical properties

7672 Investigation of Anatomical Components of Mosques with the Approach of Attention to Islamic Wisdom

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Hamid Reza Zeraat Pisheh, Mahshid Ghanea, Zahra Khalifeh, Mohammad Bagher Rahami


This study has been examined the anatomical components of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom and investigated the distinction between the anatomical design of mosques (traditional and modern) by considering the category of perception in Islamic architecture. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, indicators such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been used. The aim of this study has been to investigate materials, the functional properties, technology, sizes and fitness of (traditional and modern) mosques. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared in which the anatomical and spiritual elements of the mosque shape have been questioned. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy, the minaret, dome, bedchamber, entrance, pool, perception

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7671 Variation in Wood Anatomical Properties of Acacia seyal var. seyal Tree Species Growing in Different Zones in Sudan

Authors: Hanadi Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Ashraf Mohamed Ahmed Abdalla


Sudan is endowed by a great diversity of tree species; nevertheless, the utilization of wood resources has traditionally concentrated on a few number of species. With the great variation in the climatic zones of Sudan, great variations are expected in the anatomical properties between and within species. This variation needs to be fully explored in order to suggest the best uses for the species. Modern research on wood has substantiated that the climatic condition where the species grow has significant effect on wood properties. Understanding the extent of variability of wood is important because the uses for each kind of wood are related to its characteristics; furthermore, the suitability or quality of wood for a particular purpose is determined by the variability of one or more of these characteristics. The present study demonstrates the effect of rainfall zones in some anatomical properties of Acacia seyal var. seyal growing in Sudan. For this purpose, twenty healthy trees were collected randomly from two zones (ten trees per zone). One zone with relatively low rainfall (273mm annually) which represented by North Kordofan state and White Nile state and the second with relatively high rainfall (701 mm annually) represented by Blue Nile state and South Kordofan state. From each sampled tree, a stem disc (3 cm thick) was cut at 10% from stem height. One radius was obtained in central stem dices. Two representative samples were taken from each disc, one at 10% distance from pith to bark, the second at 90% in order to represent the juvenile and mature wood. The investigated anatomical properties were fibers length, fibers and vessels diameter, lumen diameter, and wall thickness as well as cell proportions. The result of the current study reveals significant differences between zones in mature wood vessels diameter and wall thickness, as well as juvenile wood vessels, wall thickness. The higher values were detected in the drier zone. Significant differences were also observed in juvenile wood fiber length, diameter as well as wall thickness. Contrary to vessels diameter and wall thickness, the fiber length, diameter as well as wall thickness were decreased in the drier zone. No significant differences have been detected in cell proportions of juvenile and mature wood. The significant differences in some fiber and vessels dimension lead to expect significant differences in wood density. From these results, Acacia seyal var. seyal seems to be well adapted with the change in rainfall and may survive in any rainfall zone.

Keywords: Acacia seyal var. seyal, anatomical properties, rainfall zones, variation

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7670 Surgical Applied Anatomy: Alive and Kicking

Authors: Jake Hindmarch, Edward Farley, Norman Eizenberg, Mark Midwinter


There is a need to bring the anatomical knowledge of medical students up to the standards required by surgical specialties. Contention exists amongst anatomists, clinicians, and surgeons about the standard of anatomical knowledge medical students need. The aim of this study was to explore the standards which the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons are applying knowledge of anatomy. Furthermore, to align medical school teaching to what the surgical profession requires from graduates.: The 2018 volume of the ANZ Journal of Surgery was narrowed down to 254 articles by applying the search term “Anatomy”. The main topic was then extracted from each paper. The content of the paper was assessed for ‘novel description’ or ‘application’ of anatomical knowledge’ and classified accordingly. The majority of papers with an anatomical focus was from the general surgery specialty, which focused on surgical techniques, outcomes and management. Vascular surgery had the highest percentage of papers with a novel description and application of anatomy. Cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery had no papers with a novel description of anatomy. Finally, a novel application of anatomy was the main focus of each speciality. Firstly, a high proportion of novel applications and descriptions of anatomy are in general surgery. Secondly, vascular surgery had the largest proportion of novel application and description of anatomy, namely due to the rise of therapeutic imaging and endovascular techniques. Finally, all disciplines demonstrated a trend towards having a higher proportion of novel application of anatomical knowledge

Keywords: anatomical knowledge, anatomy, surgery, novel anatomy

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7669 Anatomical-Bodied and Psyche Represented in Contemporary Art: A Conceptual Study for A Curatorial Practice

Authors: Dumith Kulasekara


This paper examines the representation of the body that particularly stresses the anatomical organs and the psychic conditions in contemporary art. The paper looks closely at the works that address personal and social meanings implying psychic conditions by bringing the internal hidden anatomical organs of the body to the surface of the visual language. The paper argues that contemporary artists conceptualize the idea of the body as a site of generating psychic conditions by excavating the body as material, subject, and object in art practice. The paper conceptualizes this excavating process of the body acts similarly to the idea of dissecting the corporeal body to understand its internal organism that again shapes the materiality of the surface of the body. In doing so, the paper brings together this argument, knowledge produced in the historical and contemporary anatomical education in art and science, and psychoanalytical approaches to the theme to develop new interpretations of representing psyche in the anatomical-bodied. The present paper defines this new form of body conceptually and materially addresses the issues related to psychic conditions: sexual desires, gender, traumas, and memories. The paper suggests that representation of the anatomical-bodied brings a new direction of the multidisciplinary approach introduced by artists to visualize the body and psyche in the contemporary context. The paper also presents an in-depth- discussion on technological, scientific, and philosophical knowledge employed in representing the idea of the body in addressing different psychic conditions to challenge the experiencing the body in contemporary art. Therefore, the paper focuses on examining the theme in the different forms of visual language and contexts in contemporary art. Finally, this research aims to offer a theoretical and conceptual background to curate an exhibition on the title of the anatomical-bodied and psyche in contemporary art with the body of work discussed in this paper.

Keywords: anatomy, body, contemporary art, psyche, psychoanalysis, representation, trauma

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7668 An Extremely Rare Anatomical Vascular Variant of Lower Limb Arterial System - Duplication of Superficial Femoral Artery

Authors: Manik Sharma


Understanding the anatomy and normal anatomical variations of the lower limb arterial system is undeniably important not only to understand the pathology involving the vessels of the lower limb but also as a part of endovascular intervention and surgical planning in cases that demand them as a part of treatment. There have been very few cases of duplication of SFA cited in the literature, close to six worldwide and this being the seventh case in the world and first to be reported in the Indian population. We incidentally came across this normal variant during US lower limb (US-LL) duplex scan in a patient with claudicating pain in bilateral lower limbs hence suspected of having peripheral vascular disease. It was confirmed on CT-Peripheral Angiography (CT-PA), which was done successively.

Keywords: peripheral vascular disease, claudicating pain, normal anatomical variants, endovascular intervention, duplication, CT-peripheral angiography, duplex scan, Iohexol

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7667 A Reminder of a Rare Anatomical Variant of the Spinal Accessory Nerve Encountered During Routine Neck Dissection: A Case Report and Updated Review of the Literature

Authors: Sophie Mills, Constantinos Aristotelous, Leila L. Touil, Richard C. W. James


Objectives: Historical studies of the anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) have reported conflicting results regarding its relationship with the internal jugular vein (IJV). A literature review was undertaken to establish the prevalence of anatomical variations of the SAN encountered during routine neck dissection surgery in order to increase awareness and reduce morbidity associated with iatrogenic SAN injury. Materials and Methods: The largest systematic review to date was performed using PRISMA-ScR guidelines, which yielded nine articles following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. A case report is also included, which demonstrates the rare anatomical relationship of the SAN traversing a fenestrated IJV, seen for the first time in the senior author’s career. Results: The mean number of dissections per study was 119, of which 55.6% (n=5) studies were performed on cadaver subjects, and 44.4% (n=4) were surgical dissections. Incidences of the SAN lateral to the IJV and medial to the IJV ranged from 38.9%-95.7% and 2.8%-57.4%, respectively. Over half of the studies reported incidences of the SAN traversing the IJV in 0.9%-2.8% of dissections. One study reported an isolated variant of the SAN dividing around the IJV with a prevalence of 0.5%. Conclusion: At the level of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the surgeon can anticipate the identification of the SAN lateral to the IJV in approximately three-quarters of cases, whilst around one-quarter are estimated to be medial. A mean of 1.6% of SANs traverses a fenestration of the vein. It is essential for surgeons to be aware of these anatomical variations and their prevalence to prevent injury to vital structures during surgery.

Keywords: anatomical variant, internal jugular vein, neck dissection, spinal accessory nerve

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7666 The Relationship between Anatomical Components of Mosques and Place Attachment with Respect to Islamic Wisdom and Art

Authors: Alitajer Saeed, Negintaji Farshad


This study has been examined the relationship between anatomical components of mosques and place attachment of people to anatomies of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, components such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been investigated. For this purpose, SPSS software has been used. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined. Statistical analysis obtained from the questionnaire indicates that there is a significant relationship between the anatomical components of architecture and place attachment of the participants. By understanding and identifying the anatomy of mosques and appropriate planning to use the anatomy in Islamic architecture and considering it as an eminent indicators of designing, it can present great Iranian architecture.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy place attachment, Islamic art

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7665 Anatomical and Histological Characters of Cymbopogon nardus Roots and Its Mutagenic Properties

Authors: Pravaree Phuneerub, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi


Cymbopogon nardus Rendel (Family Gramineae) is commonly known as citronella grass. The dried root of C. nardus is used for antipyretic, anti-inflammation, anti-analgesic and anticancer in traditional Thai medicine. Transverse sectional and pulverized C. nardus root were illustrated. The volatile oil was extracted from oil gland by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC/MS. Cymbopogon nardus root was exhaustively extracted by continuously maceration in ethanol and water respectively. The mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of the ethanol extract and fractionated water extract of C. nardus root were evaluated by Ames assay using the S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 as the models. The result indicated that the anatomical character of root transverse section displayed epidermis, parenchyma, oil gland, phloem, xylem vessel, endodermis and pith. Histological characters of root powder showed parenchyma containing oleoresin, parenchyma in longitudinal view, reticulate vessel, annular vessel, starch granules and fragment of fiber. The root volatile oil was rich in sesquiterpenes dominated by elemol (22.87%) and alpha-eudesmol (16.09%). For mutagenic activity, the both extracts of C. nardus were no mutagenic toward S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Furthermore, the ethanol extract and fractionated water extract of C. nardus root demonstrated strong antimutagenic effect against of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene to S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. This present investigation suggested that the dried root extract of C. nardus can be further developed as promising antimutagenic agent.

Keywords: Cymbopogon nardus, volatile oil analysis, mutagenic, antimutagenic effect, Ames Salmonella assay

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7664 Variations in the 7th Lumbar (L7) Vertebra Length Associated with Sacrocaudal Fusion in Greyhounds

Authors: Sa`ad M. Ismail, Hung-Hsun Yen, Christina M. Murray, Helen M. S. Davies


The lumbosacral junction (where the 7th lumbar vertebra (L7) articulates with the sacrum) is a clinically important area in the dog. The 7th lumbar vertebra (L7) is normally shorter than other lumbar vertebrae, and it has been reported that variations in the L7 length may be associated with other abnormal anatomical findings. These variations included the reduction or absence of the portion of the median sacral crest. In this study, 53 greyhound cadavers were placed in right lateral recumbency, and two lateral radiographs were taken of the lumbosacral region for each greyhound. The length of the 6th lumbar (L6) vertebra and L7 were measured using radiographic measurement software and was defined to be the mean of three lines drawn from the caudal to the cranial edge of the L6 and L7 vertebrae (a dorsal, middle, and ventral line) between specific landmarks. Sacrocaudal fusion was found in 41.5% of the greyhounds. The mean values of the length of L6, L7, and the ratio of the L6/L7 length of the greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion were all greater than those with standard sacrums (three sacral vertebrae). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean values of the length of L7 between the greyhounds without sacrocaudal fusion (mean = 29.64, SD ± 2.07) and those with sacrocaudal fusion (mean = 30.86, SD ± 1.80), but, there was no significant difference in the mean value of the length of the L6 measurement. Among different types of sacrocaudal fusion, the longest L7 was found in greyhounds with sacrum type D, intermediate length in those with sacrum type B, and the shortest was found in those with sacrums type C, and the mean values of the ratio of the L6/L7 were 1.11 (SD ± 0.043), 1.15, (SD ± 0.025), and 1.15 (SD ± 0.011) for the types B, C, and D respectively. No significant differences in the mean values of the length of L6 or L7 were found among the different types of sacrocaudal fusion. The occurrence of sacrocaudal fusion might affect direct anatomically connected structures such as the L7. The variation in the length of L7 between greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion and those without may reflect the possible sequences of the process of fusion. Variations in the length of the L7 vertebra in greyhounds may be associated with the occurrence of sacrocaudal fusion. The variation in the vertebral length may affect the alignment and biomechanical properties of the sacrum and may alter the loading. We concluded that any variations in the sacrum anatomical features might change the function of the sacrum or the surrounding anatomical structures.

Keywords: biomechanics, Greyhound, sacrocaudal fusion, locomotion, 6th Lumbar (L6) Vertebra, 7th Lumbar (L7) Vertebra, ratio of the L6/L7 length

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7663 Anatomical and Pathological Evaluation of Anomaly Cases Presented to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, between 2017 and 2019

Authors: Gülseren Kırbaş Doğan, Emin Karakurt, Mushap Kuru, Hilmi Nuhoğlu


Developmental anomalies can be caused by defects in bone tissue, cartilage tissue, or primitive mesenchymal tissue. Genetic-, environmental-, teratogenic-, faulty breeding selection–, or feeding-related anomalies can be observed either locally or systemically. This study aimed to evaluate in detail the various anomalies in six calves according to pathological and anatomical investigations. Six calves were delivered to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine between 2017 and 2019. These calves comprised one with anencephaly, one with the diencephalic syndrome, one with Schistosoma reflexum, two with anasarca, and one with nasal and calvarium openings. After necropsy, samples were taken from the organs, foreseen, and routine pathological examinations were performed. Following these procedures, the calves were brought to the anatomy laboratory and anatomically examined. As a result, various anomalies in 6 calves were evaluated according to pathological and anatomical investigations. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: anatomy, anomaly, calf, pathology

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7662 Radial Variation of Anatomical Characteristics in Three Native Fast-Growing Species Growing in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Wiwin Tyas Istikowati, Futoshi Ishiguri, Haruna Aisho, Budi Sutiya, Imam Wahyudi, Kazuya Iizuka, Shinso Yokota


The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomical characteristics of three native fast-growing species, terap (Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume), medang (Neolitsea latifolia (Blume) S. Moore), and balik angin (Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzel) Reissek ex Benth) growing in the secondary forest in South Kalimantan, Indonesia for evaluating the possibility of tree breeding for wood quality. Cell lengths were investigated for 5 trees in each species at several different height positions (1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, and 11.0 m above the ground). The mean values of fiber and vessel element lengths in terap, medang, and balik angin were 1.52 and 0.44, 1.16 and 0.53, and 1.02 and 0.49 mm, respectively. Fiber length in terap and balik angin gradually increased from pith to bark, whereas it increased up to 2 cm and then became nearly constant to the bark in medang. Vessel element length was almost constant from pith to bark in terap and balik angin, while slightly increased from pith to bark in medang. Fiber length in terap has a fluctuation pattern from ground level to top of the tree. It decreased up to 3 m above the ground, increased up to 5 m, and then decreased to the top of the tree. On the other hand, vessel element length slightly increased up to 5 m above the ground, and then decreased to the top of the tree. Both fiber and vessel element lengths in medang were almost constant from ground level to top of the tree, whereas decreased from ground level to top of the tree in balik angin. Significant difference at 1% level among trees was found in both fiber and vessel element length in both radial and longitudinal directions for terap and medang. Based on obtained results, it is concluded that the wood quality in fiber and vessel element lengths of terap and medang can be improved by tree breeding programs.

Keywords: anatomical properties, fiber length, vessel elements length, fast-growing species

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7661 The Feasibility of Online, Interactive Workshops to Facilitate Anatomy Education during the UK COVID-19 Lockdowns

Authors: Prabhvir Singh Marway, Kai Lok Chan, Maria-Ruxandra Jinga, Rachel Bok Ying Lee, Matthew Bok Kit Lee, Krishan Nandapalan, Sze Yi Beh, Harry Carr, Christopher Kui


We piloted a structured series of online workshops on the 3D segmentation of anatomical structures from CT scans. 33 participants were recruited from four UK universities for two-day workshops between 2020 and 2021. Open-source software (3D-Slicer) was used. We hypothesized that active participation via real-time screen-sharing and voice-communication via Discord would enable improved engagement and learning, despite national lockdowns. Written feedback indicated positive learning experiences, with subjective measures of anatomical understanding and software confidence improving.

Keywords: medical education, workshop, segmentation, anatomy

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7660 The Descending Genicular Artery Perforator Free Flap as a Reliable Flap: Literature Review

Authors: Doran C. Kalmin


The descending genicular artery (DGA) perforator free flap provides an alternative to free flap reconstruction based on a review of the literature detailing both anatomical and clinical studies. The descending genicular artery (DGA) supplies skin, muscle, tendon, and bone located around the medial aspect of the knee that has been used in several pioneering reports in reconstructing defects located in various areas throughout the body. After the success of the medial femoral condyle flap in early studies, a small number of studies have been published detailing the use of the DGA in free flap reconstruction. Despite early success in the use of the DGA flap, acceptance within the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgical community has been limited due primarily to anatomical variations of the pedicle. This literature review is aimed at detailing the progression of the DGA perforator free flap and its variations as an alternative and reliable free flap for reconstruction of composite defects with an exploration into both anatomical and clinical studies. A literature review was undertaken, and the progression of the DGA flap is explored from the early review by Acland et al. pioneering the saphenous free flap to exploring modern changes and studies of the anatomy of the DGA. An extensive review of the literature was undertaken that details the anatomy and its variations, approaches to harvesting the flap, the advantages, and disadvantages of the DGA perforator free flap as well as flap outcomes. There are 15 published clinical series of DGA perforator free flaps that incorporate cutaneous, osteoperiosteal, cartilage, osteocutaneous, osteoperiosteal and muscle, osteoperiosteal and subcutaneous and tendocutatenous. The commonest indication for using a DGA free flap was for non-union of bone, particularly that of the scaphoid whereby the medial femoral condyle could be used. In the case series, a success rate of over 90% was established, showing that these early studies have had good success with a wide range of tissue transfers. The greatest limitation is the anatomical variation of the DGA and therefore, the challenges associated with raising the flap. Despite the variation in anatomy and around 10-15% absence of the DGA, the saphenous artery can be used as well as the superior medial genicular artery if the vascular bone is required as part of the flap. Despite only a handful of anatomical and clinical studies describing the DGA perforator free flap, it ultimately provides a reliable flap that can include a variety of composite structure used for reconstruction in almost any area throughout the body. Although it has limitations, it provides a reliable option for free flap reconstruction that can routinely be performed as a single-stage procedure.

Keywords: anatomical study, clinical study, descending genicular artery, literature review, perforator free flap reconstruction

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7659 An Algebraic Geometric Imaging Approach for Automatic Dairy Cow Body Condition Scoring System

Authors: Thi Thi Zin, Pyke Tin, Ikuo Kobayashi, Yoichiro Horii


Today dairy farm experts and farmers have well recognized the importance of dairy cow Body Condition Score (BCS) since these scores can be used to optimize milk production, managing feeding system and as an indicator for abnormality in health even can be utilized to manage for having healthy calving times and process. In tradition, BCS measures are done by animal experts or trained technicians based on visual observations focusing on pin bones, pin, thurl and hook area, tail heads shapes, hook angles and short and long ribs. Since the traditional technique is very manual and subjective, the results can lead to different scores as well as not cost effective. Thus this paper proposes an algebraic geometric imaging approach for an automatic dairy cow BCS system. The proposed system consists of three functional modules. In the first module, significant landmarks or anatomical points from the cow image region are automatically extracted by using image processing techniques. To be specific, there are 23 anatomical points in the regions of ribs, hook bones, pin bone, thurl and tail head. These points are extracted by using block region based vertical and horizontal histogram methods. According to animal experts, the body condition scores depend mainly on the shape structure these regions. Therefore the second module will investigate some algebraic and geometric properties of the extracted anatomical points. Specifically, the second order polynomial regression is employed to a subset of anatomical points to produce the regression coefficients which are to be utilized as a part of feature vector in scoring process. In addition, the angles at thurl, pin, tail head and hook bone area are computed to extend the feature vector. Finally, in the third module, the extracted feature vectors are trained by using Markov Classification process to assign BCS for individual cows. Then the assigned BCS are revised by using multiple regression method to produce the final BCS score for dairy cows. In order to confirm the validity of proposed method, a monitoring video camera is set up at the milk rotary parlor to take top view images of cows. The proposed method extracts the key anatomical points and the corresponding feature vectors for each individual cows. Then the multiple regression calculator and Markov Chain Classification process are utilized to produce the estimated body condition score for each cow. The experimental results tested on 100 dairy cows from self-collected dataset and public bench mark dataset show very promising with accuracy of 98%.

Keywords: algebraic geometric imaging approach, body condition score, Markov classification, polynomial regression

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7658 Analysis of the Internal Mechanical Conditions in the Lower Limb Due to External Loads

Authors: Kent Salomonsson, Xuefang Zhao, Sara Kallin


Human soft tissue is loaded and deformed by any activity, an effect known as a stress-strain relationship, and is often described by a load and tissue elongation curve. Several advances have been made in the fields of biology and mechanics of soft human tissue. However, there is limited information available on in vivo tissue mechanical characteristics and behavior. Confident mechanical properties of human soft tissue cannot be extrapolated from e.g. animal testing. Thus, there is need for non invasive methods to analyze mechanical characteristics of soft human tissue. In the present study, the internal mechanical conditions of the lower limb, which is subject to an external load, is studied by use of the finite element method. A detailed finite element model of the lower limb is made possible by use of MRI scans. Skin, fat, bones, fascia and muscles are represented separately and the material properties for them are obtained from literature. Previous studies have been shown to address macroscopic deformation features, e.g. indentation depth, to a large extent. However, the detail in which the internal anatomical features have been modeled does not reveal the critical internal strains that may induce hypoxia and/or eventual tissue damage. The results of the present study reveals that lumped material models, i.e. averaging of the material properties for the different constituents, does not capture regions of critical strains in contrast to more detailed models.

Keywords: FEM, tissue, indentation, properties

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7657 Anatomical Survey for Text Pattern Detection

Authors: S. Tehsin, S. Kausar


The ultimate aim of machine intelligence is to explore and materialize the human capabilities, one of which is the ability to detect various text objects within one or more images displayed on any canvas including prints, videos or electronic displays. Multimedia data has increased rapidly in past years. Textual information present in multimedia contains important information about the image/video content. However, it needs to technologically testify the commonly used human intelligence of detecting and differentiating the text within an image, for computers. Hence in this paper feature set based on anatomical study of human text detection system is proposed. Subsequent examination bears testimony to the fact that the features extracted proved instrumental to text detection.

Keywords: biologically inspired vision, content based retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

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7656 Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of MnNi

Authors: N. Benkhettoua, Y. Barkata


We present first-principles studies of structural and thermodynamic properties of MnNi According to the calculated total energies, by using an all-electron full-potential linear muffin–tin orbital method (FP-LMTO) within LDA and the quasi-harmonic Debye model implemented in the Gibbs program is used for the temperature effect on structural and calorific properties.

Keywords: magnetic materials, structural properties, thermodynamic properties, metallurgical and materials engineering

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7655 Brain-Motor Disablement: Using Virtual Reality-Based Therapeutic Simulations

Authors: Vince Macri, Jakub Petioky, Paul Zilber


Virtual-reality-based technology, i.e. video-game-like simulations (collectively, VRSims) are used in therapy for a variety of medical conditions. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a discussion on criteria for selecting VRSims to augment treatment of survivors of acquired brain injury. Specifically, for treatments to improve or restore brain motor function in upper extremities affected by paresis or paralysis. Six uses of virtual reality are reviewed video games for entertainment, training simulations, unassisted or device-assisted movements of affected or unaffected extremities displayed in virtual environments and virtual anatomical interactivity.

Keywords: acquired brain injury, brain-motor function, virtual anatomical interactivity, therapeutic simulations

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7654 Growth and Anatomical Responses of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes) under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

Authors: Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Joseph Omojola, Ezekiel S. Joshua, Seyi C. Adediwura, Elijah T. Adesuji, Michael O. Odey, Oyinade A. Dedeke, Ayo H. Labulo


Microgravity is known to be a major abiotic stress in space which affects plants depending on the duration of exposure. In this work, tomatoes seeds were exposed to long hours of simulated microgravity condition using a one-axis clinostat. The seeds were sown on a 1.5% combination of plant nutrient and agar-agar solidified medium in three Petri dishes. One of the Petri dishes was mounted on the clinostat and allowed to rotate at the speed of 20 rpm for 72 hours, while the others were subjected to the normal gravity vector. The anatomical sections of both clinorotated and normal gravity plants were made after 72 hours and observed using a Phase-contrast digital microscope. The percentage germination, as well as the growth rate of the normal gravity seeds, was higher than the clinorotated ones. The germinated clinorotated roots followed different directions unlike the normal gravity ones which grew towards the direction of gravity vector. The clinostat was able to switch off gravistimulation. Distinct cellular arrangement was observed for tomatoes under normal gravity condition, unlike those of clinorotated ones. The root epidermis and cortex of normal gravity are thicker than the clinorotated ones. This implied that under long-term microgravity influence, plants do alter their anatomical features as a way of adapting to the stress condition.

Keywords: anatomy, clinostat, germination, lycopersicon esculentum, microgravity

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7653 Morpho-Anatomical Responses of Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown with Different Colored Plastic Mulch

Authors: Edmar N. Franquera, Renato C. Mabesa, Rene Rafael C. Espino, Edralina P. Serrano, Eduardo P. Paningbatan Jr.


The potential of growing lettuce with different colored plastic mulch silver (control), red, orange, yellow and green was evaluated using two lettuce varieties, Looseleaf and Romaine. The experiment was laid out on split plot design following the Randomized Complete Block Design. The Looseleaf variety had better performance in terms of plant fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, root length, plant height and yield. However, better response was observed in Romaine in terms of leaf diameter, leaf length, root dry weight and root fresh weight. The color of the mulch reflected different qualities of light and hence the quality of absorbed light by the lettuce plants. A higher Far red and red ratio (FR:R) was obtained from green plastic mulch which was followed by the red plastic mulch. The different colored plastic mulch affected the growth and developmental responses of leaf lettuce morphological and leaf anatomical characteristics. Data in all growth morphological and yield parameters showed that those grown with red plastic mulch had better response and had longer stomates than those lettuce grown with the other colored plastic mulch. The soil temperature 10 cm below the plastic mulch was significantly influenced by the color of the mulch. The red plastic mulch had the highest soil temperature recorded while the lowest soil temperature recorded was within the yellow plastic mulch.

Keywords: anatomical, lettuce, morpholological, plastic mulch

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7652 The Distributed Pattern of the Neurovascular Structures under Clavicle to Minimize Structural Injury in Clinical Field: Anatomical Study

Authors: Anna Jeon, Seung-Ho Han, Je-Hun Lee


The aim of this study was to determine the location and distribution pattern of neurovascular structures superior and inferior to the clavicle by detailed dissection. Fifteen adult non-embalmed cadavers with a mean age of 71.5 years were studied. For measurements, the most prominent point of the sternal end of the clavicle (SEC) on anterior view and the most prominent point of the acromial end of the clavicle (AEC) were identified before dissection. A line connecting the SEC and AEC was used as a reference line. The surrounding neurovascular structures were investigated. The supraclavicular nerve was densely distributed at 71.73% on the reference line. Branches of the thoracoacromial artery were located at 76.92%. Branches of subclavian vein were evenly distributed at all sections. The subclavian vein and artery and brachial plexus were located from 31.3% to 57.5%. That area needs caution because major neurovascular structures run underneath the clavicle.

Keywords: clavicle, ORIF, neurovascular structure, anatomical study

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7651 A Case Report of Aberrant Vascular Anatomy of the Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap

Authors: Karissa Graham, Andrew Campbell-Lloyd


The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (DIEP) is used to reconstruct large volumes of tissue. The DIEP flap is based on the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and vein. Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of these vessels allows for efficient dissection of the flap, minimal damage to surrounding tissue, and a well vascularized flap. A 54 year old lady was assessed for bilateral delayed autologous reconstruction with DIEP free flaps. The right DIEA was consistent with the described anatomy. The left DIEA had a vessel branching shortly after leaving the external iliac artery and before entering the muscle. This independent branch entered the muscle and had a long intramuscular course to the largest perforator. The main DIEA vessel demonstrated a type II branching pattern but had perforators that were too small to have a viable DIEP flap. There were no communicating arterial branches between the independent vessel and DIEA, however, there was one venous communication between them. A muscle sparing transverse rectus abdominis muscle flap was raised using the main periumbilical perforator from the independent vessel. Our case report demonstrated an unreported anatomical variant of the DIEA. A few anatomical variants have been described in the literature, including a unilateral absent DIEA and peritoneal-cutaneous perforators that had no connection to the DIEA. Doing a pre-operative CTA helps to identify these rare anatomical variations, which leads to safer, more efficient, and effective operating.

Keywords: aberrant anatomy, CT angiography, DIEP anatomy, free flap

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7650 Evaluation of Percutaneous Tube Thoracostomy Performed by Trainee in Both Trauma and Non-Trauma Patients

Authors: Kulsum Maula, Kamrul Alam, Ibrahim Khalil, Nazmul Hasan, Mohammad Omar Faruq


Background: Percutaneous Tube Thoracostomy (PTT) is an invasive procedure that can save a life now and then in different traumatic and non-traumatic conditions. But still, it is an enigma; how our trainee surgeons are at home in this procedure. Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of the percutaneous tube thoracostomy performed by trainees in both trauma and non-trauma patients. Study design: Prospective, Observational Study. The duration of the study was September 2018 to February 2019. Methods: All patients who need PTT in traumatic and non-traumatic conditions were selected by purposive sampling. Thereafter, they were scrutinized according to eligibility criteria and 96 patients were finalized. A pre-tested, observation-based, peer-reviewed data collection sheet was prepared before the study. Data regarding clinical and surgical outcome profiles were recorded. Data were compiled, edited, and analyzed. Results: Among 96 patients, the highest 32.29% belonged to age group 31-40 years and the lowest 9.37% belonged to the age group ≤20. The mean age of the respondents was 29.19±9.81. We found out of 96 patients, 70(72.91%) were indicated PTT for traumatic conditions and the rest 26(27.08%) were indicated PTT for non-traumatic chest conditions, where 36(37.5%) had simple penumothorax, 21(21.87%) haemothorax, 14(14.58%) massive pleural effusion, 13(13.54%) tension pneumothorax, 10(10.41%) haemopneumothorax, and 2(2.08%) had pyothorax respectively. In 53.12% of patients had right-sided intercostal chest tube (ICT) insertion, whereas 46.87% had left-sided ICT insertion. In our study, 89.55 % of the tube was placed at the normal anatomical position. Besides, 10.41% of tube thoracostomy were performed deviated from anatomical site. Among 96 patients 62.5% patients had length of incision 2-3cm, 35.41% had >3cm and 2.08% had <2cm respectively. Out of 96 patients, 75(78.13%) showed uneventful outcomes, whereas 21(21.87%) had complications, including 11.15%(11) each had wound infection, 4.46%(4) subcutaneous emphysema, 4.28%(3) drain auto expulsion, 2.85%(2) hemorrhage, 1.45%(1) had a non-functioning drain and empyema with ascending infection respectively (p=<0.05). Conclusion: PTT is a life-saving procedure that is most frequently implemented in chest trauma patients in our country. In the majority of cases, the outcome of PTT was uneventful (78.13). Besides this, more than one-third of patients had a length of incision more than 3 cm that needed extra stitches and 10.41% of cases of PTT were placed other than the normal anatomical site. Trainees of Dhaka Medical College Hospitals are doing well in their performance of PTT insertion, but still, some anatomical orientations are necessary to avoid operative and post-operative complications.

Keywords: PTT, trainee, trauma, non-chest trauma patients

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7649 A Prospective Study of a Clinically Significant Anatomical Change in Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Transit Electronic Portal Imaging Device Images

Authors: Wilai Masanga, Chirapha Tannanonta, Sangutid Thongsawad, Sasikarn Chamchod, Todsaporn Fuangrod


The major factors of radiotherapy for head and neck (HN) cancers include patient’s anatomical changes and tumour shrinkage. These changes can significantly affect the planned dose distribution that causes the treatment plan deterioration. A measured transit EPID images compared to a predicted EPID images using gamma analysis has been clinically implemented to verify the dose accuracy as part of adaptive radiotherapy protocol. However, a global gamma analysis dose not sensitive to some critical organ changes as the entire treatment field is compared. The objective of this feasibility study is to evaluate the dosimetric response to patient anatomical changes during the treatment course in HN IMRT (Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy) using a novel comparison method; organ-of-interest gamma analysis. This method provides more sensitive to specific organ change detection. Random replanned 5 HN IMRT patients with causes of tumour shrinkage and patient weight loss that critically affect to the parotid size changes were selected and evaluated its transit dosimetry. A comprehensive physics-based model was used to generate a series of predicted transit EPID images for each gantry angle from original computed tomography (CT) and replan CT datasets. The patient structures; including left and right parotid, spinal cord, and planning target volume (PTV56) were projected to EPID level. The agreement between the transit images generated from original CT and replanned CT was quantified using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm criteria. Moreover, only gamma pass-rate is calculated within each projected structure. The gamma pass-rate in right parotid and PTV56 between predicted transit of original CT and replan CT were 42.8%( ± 17.2%) and 54.7%( ± 21.5%). The gamma pass-rate for other projected organs were greater than 80%. Additionally, the results of organ-of-interest gamma analysis were compared with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (3D-CBCT) and the rational of replan by radiation oncologists. It showed that using only registration of 3D-CBCT to original CT does not provide the dosimetric impact of anatomical changes. Using transit EPID images with organ-of-interest gamma analysis can provide additional information for treatment plan suitability assessment.

Keywords: re-plan, anatomical change, transit electronic portal imaging device, EPID, head, and neck

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7648 Magnetic and Optical Properties of Quaternary GaFeMnN

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, A. Abbad, W.Benstaali


The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: optical properties, DFT, Spintronic, wave

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7647 Properties of Hot-Pressed Alumina-Graphene Composites

Authors: P. Rutkowski, G. Górny, L. Stobierski, D. Zientara, W. Piekarczyk, K. Tran


The polycrystalline dense alumina shows thermal conductivity about 30 W/mK and very high electrical resistivity. These last two properties can be modified by introducing commercial relatively cheap graphene nanoparticles which, as two-dimensional flakes show very high thermal and electrical properties. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to manufacture the anisotropic alumina-graphene material with directed multilayer graphene particles. Such materials can show the anisotropic properties mentioned before.

Keywords: alumina, composite, hot-pressed, graphene, properties

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7646 Descriptive Study of Tropical Tree Species in Commercial Interest Biosphere Reserve Luki in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

Authors: Armand Okende, Joëlle De Weerdt, Esther Fichtler, Maaike De Ridder, Hans Beeckman


The rainforest plays a crucial role in regulating the climate balance. The biodiversity of tropical rainforests is undeniable, but many aspects remain poorly known, which directly influences its management. Despite the efforts of sustainable forest management, human pressure in terms of exploitation and smuggling of timber forms a problem compared to exploited species whose status is considered "vulnerable" on the IUCN red list compiled by. Commercial species in Class III of the Democratic Republic of Congo are the least known in the market operating, and their biology is unknown or non-existent. Identification of wood in terms of descriptions and anatomical measurements of the wood is in great demand for various stakeholders such as scientists, customs, IUCN, etc. The objective of this study is the qualitative and quantitative description of the anatomical characteristics of commercial species in Class III of DR Congo. The site of the Luki Biosphere Reserve was chosen because of its high tree species richness. This study focuses on the wood anatomy of 14 commercial species of Class III of DR Congo. Thirty-four wooden discs were collected for these species. The following parameters were measured in the field: Diameter at breast height (DBH), total height and geographic coordinates. Microtomy, identification of vessel parameters (diameter, density and grouping) and photograph of the microscopic sections and determining age were performed in this study. The results obtained are detailed anatomical descriptions of species in Class III of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Keywords: sustainable management of forest, rainforest, commercial species of class iii, vessel diameter, vessel density, grouping vessel

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7645 Views of South African Academic Instructors to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Anatomy Education

Authors: Lelika Lazarus, Reshma Sookrajh, Kapil S. Satyapal


Reflecting on teaching is commonly cited as a fundamental practice for personal and professional development. Educational research into the scholarship of teaching and learning anatomy includes engaging in discipline specific literature on teaching, reflecting on individual teaching methods and communicating these findings to peers. The aim of this paper is to formally assess the opinions of senior anatomy instructors regarding the state of anatomical knowledge at their respective institutions. The context of the paper derives from ongoing debates about the perceived decline in standards of anatomical knowledge of medical students and postgraduate learners. An open ended questionnaire was devised consisting of eight direct questions seeking opinions on anatomy teaching, knowledge, and potential educational developments and general thoughts on the teaching of anatomy to medical students. These were distributed to senior anatomy Faculty (identified by the author by their affiliation with the Anatomical Society of Southern Africa) based at the eight national medical schools within the country. A number of key themes emerged. Most senior faculty felt that the standard of medical education at their respective institutions was ‘good.’. However, emphasis was also placed on the ‘quality of teaching’ incorporating clinical scenarios. There were also indications that staff are split into those that are keen to do research and those that are happy to provide teaching to medical students as their primary function. Several challenges were also highlighted such as time constraints within the medical curriculum, the lack of cadavers to reinforce knowledge and gain depth perception and lack of appropriately qualified staff. Recommendations included fostering partnerships with both clinicians and medical scientists into the anatomy curriculum thus improving teaching and research.

Keywords: anatomy, education, reflection, teaching

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7644 Theoretical Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of AlBi

Authors: S. Louhibi-Fasla, H. Achour, B. Amrani


The purpose of this work is to provide some additional information to the existing data on the physical properties of AlBi with state-of-the-art first-principles method of the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW). Additionally to the structural properties, the electronic properties have also been investigated. The dependence of the volume, the bulk modulus, the variation of the thermal expansion α, as well as the Debye temperature are successfully obtained in the whole range from 0 to 30 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 1200 K. The latter are the basis of solid-state science and industrial applications and their study is of importance to extend our knowledge on their specific behaviour when undergoing severe constraints of high pressure and high temperature environments.

Keywords: AlBi, FP-LAPW, structural properties, electronic properties

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7643 Anatomical Investigation of Superficial Fascia Relationships with the Skin and Underlying Tissue in the Greyhound Rump, Thigh, and Crus

Authors: Oday A. Al-Juhaishi, Sa`ad M. Ismail, Hung-Hsun Yen, Christina M. Murray, Helen M. S. Davies


The functional anatomy of the fascia in the greyhound is still poorly understood, and incompletely described. The basic knowledge of fascia stems mainly from anatomical, histological and ultrastructural analyses. In this study, twelve specimens of hindlimbs from six fresh greyhound cadavers (3 male, 3 female) were used to examine the topographical relationships of the superficial fascia with the skin and underlying tissue. The first incision was made along the dorsal midline from the level of the thoracolumbar junction caudally to the level of the mid sacrum. The second incision was begun at the level of the first incision and extended along the midline of the lateral aspect of the hindlimb distally, to just proximal to the tarsus, and, the skin margins carefully separated to observe connective tissue links between the skin and superficial fascia, attachment points of the fascia and the relationships of the fascia with blood vessels that supply the skin. A digital camera was used to record the anatomical features as they were revealed. The dissections identified fibrous septa connecting the skin with the superficial fascia and deep fascia in specific areas. The presence of the adipose tissue was found to be very rare within the superficial fascia in these specimens. On the extensor aspects of some joints, a fusion between the superficial fascia and deep fascia was observed. This fusion created a subcutaneous bursa in the following areas: a prepatellar bursa of the stifle, a tarsal bursa caudal to the calcaneus bone, and an ischiatic bursa caudal to the ischiatic tuberosity. The evaluation of blood vessels showed that the perforating vessels passed through fibrous septa in a perpendicular direction to supply the skin, with the largest branch noted in the gluteal area. The attachment points between the superficial fascia and skin were mainly found in the region of the flexor aspect of the joints, such as caudal to the stifle joint. The numerous fibrous septa between the superficial fascia and skin that have been identified in some areas, may create support for the blood vessels that penetrate fascia and into the skin, while allowing for movement between the tissue planes. The subcutaneous bursae between the skin and the superficial fascia where it is fused with the deep fascia may be useful to decrease friction between moving areas. The adhesion points may be related to the integrity and loading of the skin. The attachment points fix the skin and appear to divide the hindlimb into anatomical compartments.

Keywords: attachment points, fibrous septa, greyhound, subcutaneous bursa, superficial fascia

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