Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3995

Search results for: fused deposition modeling

3995 A Rapid and Cost-Effective Approach to Manufacturing Modeling Platform for Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: Chil-Chyuan Kuo, Chen-Hsuan Tsai

Abstract:

This study presents a cost-effective approach for rapid fabricating modeling platforms utilized in fused deposition modeling system. A small-batch production of modeling platforms about 20 pieces can be obtained economically through silicone rubber mold using vacuum casting without applying the plastic injection molding. The air venting systems is crucial for fabricating modeling platform using vacuum casting. Modeling platforms fabricated can be used for building rapid prototyping model after sandblasting. This study offers industrial value because it has both time-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

Keywords: vacuum casting, fused deposition modeling, modeling platform, sandblasting, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
3994 Impact of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Fused Deposition Modeling Printed Crisscross Poylactic Acid

Authors: Shilpesh R. Rajpurohit, Harshit K. Dave

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing gains the popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well functional as end use product directly from CAD data without any specific requirement of tooling. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the widely used additive manufacturing techniques that are used to create functional end use part of polymer that is comparable with the injection-molded parts. FDM printed part has an application in various fields such as automobile, aerospace, medical, electronic, etc. However, application of FDM part is greatly affected by poor mechanical properties. Proper selection of the process parameter could enhance the mechanical performance of the printed part. In the present study, experimental investigation has been carried out to study the behavior of the mechanical performance of the printed part with respect to process variables. Three process variables viz. raster angle, raster width and layer height have been varied to understand its effect on tensile strength. Further, effect of process variables on fractured surface has been also investigated.

Keywords: 3D Printing, fused deposition modeling, layer height, raster angle, raster width, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
3993 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan

Abstract:

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
3992 Review on PETG Material Parts Made Using Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: Dhval Chauhan, Mahesh Chudasama

Abstract:

This study has been undertaken to give a review of Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol (PETG) material used in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). This paper offers a review of the existing literature on polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) material, the objective of the paper is to providing guidance on different process parameters that can be used to improve the strength of the part by performing various testing like tensile, compressive, flexural, etc. This work is target to find new paths that can be used for further development of the use of fiber reinforcement in PETG material.

Keywords: PETG, FDM, tensile strength, flexural strength, fiber reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3991 Evaluation of Environmental, Technical, and Economic Indicators of a Fused Deposition Modeling Process

Authors: M. Yosofi, S. Ezeddini, A. Ollivier, V. Lavaste, C. Mayousse

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing processes have changed significantly in a wide range of industries and their application progressed from rapid prototyping to production of end-use products. However, their environmental impact is still a rather open question. In order to support the growth of this technology in the industrial sector, environmental aspects should be considered and predictive models may help monitor and reduce the environmental footprint of the processes. This work presents predictive models based on a previously developed methodology for the environmental impact evaluation combined with a technical and economical assessment. Here we applied the methodology to the Fused Deposition Modeling process. First, we present the predictive models relative to different types of machines. Then, we present a decision-making tool designed to identify the optimum manufacturing strategy regarding technical, economic, and environmental criteria.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, decision-makings, environmental impact, predictive models

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3990 Development and Characterization of Ceramic-Filled Composite Filaments and Functional Structures for Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: B. Khatri, K. Lappe, M. Habedank, T. Müller, C. Megnin, T. Hanemann

Abstract:

We present a process flow for the development of ceramic-filled polymer composite filaments compatible with the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing process. Thermoplastic-ceramic composites were developed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and 10- and 20 vol.% barium titanate (BaTiO3) powder (corresponding to 39.47- and 58.23 wt.% respectively) and characterized for their flow properties. To make them compatible with the existing FDM process, the composites were extruded into filaments. These composite filaments were subsequently structured into tensile stress specimens using a commercially available FDM 3D printer and characterized for their mechanical properties. Rheometric characterization of the material composites revealed non-Newtonian behavior with the viscosity logarithmically decreasing over increasing shear rates, as well as higher viscosities for samples with higher BaTiO3 filler content for a given shear rate (with the ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3 composite being over 50% more viscous compared to pure ABS at a shear rate of 1x〖10〗^3 s^(-1)). Mechanical characterization of the tensile stress specimens exhibited increasingly brittle behavior as well as a linearly decreasing ultimate tensile strength of the material composites with increasing volumetric ratio of BaTiO3 (from σ_max=32.4MPa for pure ABS to σ_max=21.3MPa for ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3). Further studies being undertaken include the development of composites with higher filler concentrations, sintering of the printed composites to yield pure dielectric structures and the determination of the dielectric characteristics of the composites.

Keywords: ceramic composites, fused deposition modeling, material characterization, rapid prototyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3989 PLA Plastic as Biodegradable Material for 3D Printers

Authors: Juraj Beniak, Ľubomír Šooš, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš

Abstract:

Within Rapid Prototyping technologies are used many types of materials. Many of them are recyclable but there are still as plastic like, so practically they do not degrade in the landfill. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the special plastic materials which are biodegradable and also available for 3D printing within Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology. The question is, if the mechanical properties of produced models are comparable to similar technical plastic materials which are usual for prototype production. Presented paper shows the experiments results for tensile strength measurements for specimens prepared with different 3D printer settings and model orientation. Paper contains also the comparison of tensile strength values with values measured on specimens produced by conventional technologies as injection moulding.

Keywords: 3D printing, biodegradable plastic, fused deposition modeling, PLA plastic, rapid prototyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
3988 A Review of Fused Deposition Modeling Process: Parameter Optimization, Materials and Design

Authors: Elisaveta Doncheva, Jelena Djokikj, Ognen Tuteski, Bojana Hadjieva

Abstract:

In the past decade, additive manufacturing technology or 3D printing has been promoted as an efficient method for fabricating hybrid composite materials and structures with superior mechanical properties and complex shape and geometry. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) process is commonly used additive manufacturing technique for production of polymer products. Therefore, many studies and experiments are focused on investigating the possibilities for improving the obtained results on product properties as a key factor for expanding the spectrum of their application. This article provides an extensive review on recent research advances in FDM and reports on studies that cover the effects of process parameters, material, and design of the product properties. The paper conclusions provide a clear up-to date information for optimum efficiency and enhancement of the mechanical properties of 3D printed samples and recommends further research work and investigations.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, critical parameters, filament, print orientation, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
3987 Tensile Properties of 3D Printed PLA under Unidirectional and Bidirectional Raster Angle: A Comparative Study

Authors: Shilpesh R. Rajpurohit, Harshit K. Dave

Abstract:

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) gains popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well as functional end use product directly from CAD file. Parts fabricated using FDM process have mechanical properties comparable with those of injection-molded parts. However, performance of the FDM part is severally affected by the poor mechanical properties of the part due to nature of layered structure of printed part. Mechanical properties of the part can be improved by proper selection of process variables. In the present study, a comparative study between unidirectional and bidirectional raster angle has been carried out at a combination of different layer height and raster width. Unidirectional raster angle varied at five different levels, and bidirectional raster angle has been varied at three different levels. Fabrication of tensile specimen and tensile testing of specimen has been conducted according to ASTM D638 standard. From the results, it can be observed that higher tensile strength has been obtained at 0° raster angle followed by 45°/45° raster angle, while lower tensile strength has been obtained at 90° raster angle. Analysis of fractured surface revealed that failure takes place along with raster deposition direction for unidirectional and zigzag failure can be observed for bidirectional raster angle.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, unidirectional, bidirectional, raster angle, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
3986 Optimization of Surface Roughness in Additive Manufacturing Processes via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Anjian Chen, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

This paper studies a case where the targeted surface roughness of fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing process is improved. The process is designing to reduce or eliminate the defects and improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an FDM additive manufacturing process. The baseline Cp is 0.274 and Cpk is 0.654. This research utilizes the Taguchi methodology, to eliminate defects and improve the process. The Taguchi method is used to optimize the additive manufacturing process and printing parameters that affect the targeted surface roughness of FDM additive manufacturing. The Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to organize the parameters' (four controllable parameters and one non-controllable parameter) effectiveness on the FDM additive manufacturing process. The four controllable parameters are nozzle temperature [°C], layer thickness [mm], nozzle speed [mm/s], and extruder speed [%]. The non-controllable parameter is the environmental temperature [°C]. After the optimization of the parameters, a confirmation print was printed to prove that the results can reduce the amount of defects and improve the process capability index Cp from 0.274 to 1.605 and the Cpk from 0.654 to 1.233 for the FDM additive manufacturing process. The final results confirmed that the Taguchi methodology is sufficient to improve the surface roughness of FDM additive manufacturing process.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, surface roughness, six-sigma, Taguchi method, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3985 Simulation on Influence of Environmental Conditions on Part Distortion in Fused Deposition Modelling

Authors: Anto Antony Samy, Atefeh Golbang, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger

Abstract:

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the additive manufacturing techniques that has become highly attractive in the industrial and academic sectors. However, parts fabricated through FDM are highly susceptible to geometrical defects such as warpage, shrinkage, and delamination that can severely affect their function. Among the thermoplastic polymer feedstock for FDM, semi-crystalline polymers are highly prone to part distortion due to polymer crystallization. In this study, the influence of FDM processing conditions such as chamber temperature and print bed temperature on the induced thermal residual stress and resulting warpage are investigated using the 3D transient thermal model for a semi-crystalline polymer. The thermo-mechanical properties and the viscoelasticity of the polymer, as well as the crystallization physics, which considers the crystallinity of the polymer, are coupled with the evolving temperature gradient of the print model. From the results, it was observed that increasing the chamber temperature from 25°C to 75°C lead to a decrease of 1.5% residual stress, while decreasing bed temperature from 100°C to 60°C, resulted in a 33% increase in residual stress and a significant rise of 138% in warpage. The simulated warpage data is validated by comparing it with the measured warpage values of the samples using 3D scanning.

Keywords: finite element analysis, fused deposition modelling, residual stress, warpage

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
3984 Comparative Analysis of Fused Deposition Modeling and Binding-Jet 3D Printing Technologies

Authors: Mohd Javaid, Shahbaz Khan, Abid Haleem

Abstract:

Purpose: Large numbers of 3D printing technologies are now available for sophisticated applications in different fields. Additive manufacturing has established its dominance in design, development, and customisation of the product. In the era of developing technologies, there is a need to identify the appropriate technology for different application. In order to fulfil this need, two widely used printing technologies such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), and Binding-Jet 3D Printing are compared for effective utilisation in the current scenario for different applications. Methodology: Systematic literature review conducted for both technologies with applications and associated factors enabling for the same. Appropriate MCDM tool is used to compare critical factors for both the technologies. Findings: Both technologies have their potential and capabilities to provide better direction to the industry. Additionally, this paper is helpful to develop a decision support system for the proper selection of technologies according to their continuum of applications and associated research and development capability. The vital issue is raw materials, and research-based material development is key to the sustainability of the developed technologies. FDM is a low-cost technology which provides high strength product as compared to binding jet technology. Researcher and companies can take benefits of this study to achieve the required applications in lesser resources. Limitations: Study has undertaken the comparison with the opinion of experts, which may not always be free from bias, and some own limitations of each technology. Originality: Comparison between these technologies will help to identify best-suited technology as per the customer requirements. It also provides development in this different field as per their extensive capability where these technologies can be successfully adopted. Conclusion: FDM and binding jet technology play an active role in industrial development. These help to assist the customisation and production of personalised parts cost-effectively. So, there is a need to understand how these technologies can provide these developments rapidly. These technologies help in easy changes or in making revised versions of the product, which is not easily possible in the conventional manufacturing system. High machine cost, the requirement of skilled human resources, low surface finish, and mechanical strength of product and material changing option is the main limitation of this technology. However, these limitations vary from technology to technology. In the future, these technologies are to be commercially viable for efficient usage in direct manufacturing of varied parts.

Keywords: 3D printing, comparison, fused deposition modeling, FDM, binding jet technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
3983 Comparison of Tensile Strength and Folding Endurance of (FDM Process) 3D Printed ABS and PLA Materials

Authors: R. Devicharan

Abstract:

In a short span 3D Printing is expected to play a vital role in our life. The possibility of creativity and speed in manufacturing through various 3D printing processes is infinite. This study is performed on the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) method of 3D printing, which is one of the pre-dominant methods of 3D printing technologies. This study focuses on physical properties of the objects produced by 3D printing which determine the applications of the 3D printed objects. This paper specifically aims at the study of the tensile strength and the folding endurance of the 3D printed objects through the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) method using the ABS (Acronitirile Butadiene Styrene) and PLA (Poly Lactic Acid) plastic materials. The study is performed on a controlled environment and the specific machine settings. Appropriate tables, graphs are plotted and research analysis techniques will be utilized to analyse, verify and validate the experiment results.

Keywords: FDM process, 3D printing, ABS for 3D printing, PLA for 3D printing, rapid prototyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 532
3982 Fused Deposition Modelling as the Manufacturing Method of Fully Bio-Based Water Purification Filters

Authors: Natalia Fijol, Aji P. Mathew

Abstract:

We present the processing and characterisation of three-dimensional (3D) monolith filters based on polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with various nature-derived nanospecies such as hydroxyapatite, modified cellulose fibers and chitin fibers. The nanospecies of choice were dispersed in PLA through Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) method. The biocomposites were developed via solvent-assisted blending and the obtained pellets were further single-screw extruded into 3D-printing filaments and processed into various geometries using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. The printed prototypes included cubic, cylindrical and hour-glass shapes with diverse patterns of printing infill as well as varying pore structure including uniform and multiple level gradual pore structure. The pores and channel structure as well as overall shape of the prototypes were designed in attempt to optimize the flux and maximize the adsorption-active time. FDM is a cost and energy-efficient method, which does not require expensive tools and elaborated post-processing maintenance. Therefore, FDM offers the possibility to produce customized, highly functional water purification filters with tuned porous structures suitable for removal of wide range of common water pollutants. Moreover, as 3D printing becomes more and more available worldwide, it allows producing portable filters at the place and time where they are most needed. The study demonstrates preparation route for the PLA-based, fully biobased composite and their processing via FDM technique into water purification filters, addressing water treatment challenges on an industrial scale.

Keywords: fused deposition modelling, water treatment, biomaterials, 3D printing, nanocellulose, nanochitin, polylactic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
3981 Fused Deposition Modeling Printing of Bioinspired Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride Materials for Scaffold Development in Biomedical Application

Authors: Farusil Najeeb Mullaveettil, Rolanas Dauksevicius

Abstract:

Cellular structures produced by additive manufacturing have earned wide research attention due to their unique specific strength and energy absorption potentiality. The literature review concludes that pattern type and density are vital parameters that affect the mechanical properties of parts formed by additive manufacturing techniques and have an influence on printing time and material consumption. Fused deposition modeling technique (FDM) is used here to produce Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) parts. In this work, patterns are based on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) produced by PVDF-based filaments using the FDM technique. PVDF homopolymer filament Fluorinar-H™ and PVDF copolymer filament Fluorinar-C™ are printed with three types of TPMS patterns. The patterns printed are Gyroid, Schwartz diamond, and Schwartz primitive. Tensile, flexural, and compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions are performed in compliance with ISO standards. The investigation elucidates the deformation mechanisms and a study that establishes a relationship between the printed and nominal specimens' dimensional accuracy. In comparison to the examined TPMS pattern, Schwartz diamond showed a higher relative elastic modulus and strength than the other patterns in tensile loading, and the Gyroid pattern showed the highest mechanical characteristics in flexural loading. The concluded results could be utilized to produce informed cellular designs for biomedical and mechanical applications.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, FDM, PVDF, gyroid, schwartz primitive, schwartz diamond, TPMS, tensile, flexural

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
3980 Electroforming of 3D Digital Light Processing Printed Sculptures Used as a Low Cost Option for Microcasting

Authors: Cecile Meier, Drago Diaz Aleman, Itahisa Perez Conesa, Jose Luis Saorin Perez, Jorge De La Torre Cantero

Abstract:

In this work, two ways of creating small-sized metal sculptures are proposed: the first by means of microcasting and the second by electroforming from models printed in 3D using an FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling‎) printer or using a DLP (Digital Light Processing) printer. It is viable to replace the wax in the processes of the artistic foundry with 3D printed objects. In this technique, the digital models are manufactured with resin using a low-cost 3D FDM printer in polylactic acid (PLA). This material is used, because its properties make it a viable substitute to wax, within the processes of artistic casting with the technique of lost wax through Ceramic Shell casting. This technique consists of covering a sculpture of wax or in this case PLA with several layers of thermoresistant material. This material is heated to melt the PLA, obtaining an empty mold that is later filled with the molten metal. It is verified that the PLA models reduce the cost and time compared with the hand modeling of the wax. In addition, one can manufacture parts with 3D printing that are not possible to create with manual techniques. However, the sculptures created with this technique have a size limit. The problem is that when printed pieces with PLA are very small, they lose detail, and the laminar texture hides the shape of the piece. DLP type printer allows obtaining more detailed and smaller pieces than the FDM. Such small models are quite difficult and complex to melt using the lost wax technique of Ceramic Shell casting. But, as an alternative, there are microcasting and electroforming, which are specialized in creating small metal pieces such as jewelry ones. The microcasting is a variant of the lost wax that consists of introducing the model in a cylinder in which the refractory material is also poured. The molds are heated in an oven to melt the model and cook them. Finally, the metal is poured into the still hot cylinders that rotate in a machine at high speed to properly distribute all the metal. Because microcasting requires expensive material and machinery to melt a piece of metal, electroforming is an alternative for this process. The electroforming uses models in different materials; for this study, micro-sculptures printed in 3D are used. These are subjected to an electroforming bath that covers the pieces with a very thin layer of metal. This work will investigate the recommended size to use 3D printers, both with PLA and resin and first tests are being done to validate use the electroforming process of microsculptures, which are printed in resin using a DLP printer.

Keywords: sculptures, DLP 3D printer, microcasting, electroforming, fused deposition modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
3979 On Elastic Anisotropy of Fused Filament Fabricated Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Structures

Authors: Joseph Marae Djouda, Ashraf Kasmi, François Hild

Abstract:

Fused filament fabrication is one of the most widespread additive manufacturing techniques because of its low-cost implementation. Its initial development was based on part fabrication with thermoplastic materials. The influence of the manufacturing parameters such as the filament orientation through the nozzle, the deposited layer thickness, or the speed deposition on the mechanical properties of the parts has been widely experimentally investigated. It has been recorded the remarkable variations of the anisotropy in the function of the filament path during the fabrication process. However, there is a lack in the development of constitutive models describing the mechanical properties. In this study, integrated digital image correlation (I-DIC) is used for the identification of mechanical constitutive parameters of two configurations of ABS samples: +/-45° and so-called “oriented deposition.” In this last, the filament was deposited in order to follow the principal strain of the sample. The identification scheme based on the gap reduction between simulation and the experiment directly from images recorded from a single sample (single edge notched tension specimen) is developed. The macroscopic and mesoscopic analysis are conducted from images recorded in both sample surfaces during the tensile test. The elastic and elastoplastic models in isotropic and orthotropic frameworks have been established. It appears that independently of the sample configurations (filament orientation during the fabrication), the elastoplastic isotropic model gives the correct description of the behavior of samples. It is worth noting that in this model, the number of constitutive parameters is limited to the one considered in the elastoplastic orthotropic model. This leads to the fact that the anisotropy of the architectured 3D printed ABS parts can be neglected in the establishment of the macroscopic behavior description.

Keywords: elastic anisotropy, fused filament fabrication, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, I-DIC identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
3978 Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare-Earth Materials from the Domestic Ore and Preparation of Rare-Earth Hydrogen Storage Alloys

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Yoo, Hanjung Kwon, Sung-Wook Cho

Abstract:

Fused salt electrolysis was studied to make the high purity rare-earth metals using domestic rare-earth ore. The target metals of the fused salt electrolysis were Mm (Misch metal), La, Ce, Nd, etc. Fused salt electrolysis was performed with the supporting salt such as chloride and fluoride at the various temperatures and ampere. The metals made by fused salt electrolysis were analyzed to identify the phase and composition using the methods of XRD and ICP. As a result, the acquired rare-earth metals were the high purity ones which had more than 99% purity. Also, VIM (vacuum induction melting) was studied to make the kg level rare-earth alloy for the use of secondary battery and hydrogen storage. In order to indentify the physicochemical properties such as phase, impurity gas, alloy composition and hydrogen storage, the alloys were investigated. The battery characteristics were also analyzed through the various tests in the real production line of a battery company.

Keywords: domestic rare-earth ore, fused salt electrolysis, rare-earth materials, hydrogen storage alloy, secondary battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
3977 Investigate the Effects of Geometrical Structure and Layer Orientation on Strength of 3D-FDM Rapid Prototyped Samples

Authors: Ahmed A.D. Sarhan, Chong Feng Duan, Mum Wai Yip, M. Sayuti

Abstract:

Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies enable physical parts to be produced from various materials without depending on the conventional tooling. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the famous RP processes used at present. Tensile strength and compressive strength resistance will be identified for different sample structures and different layer orientations of ABS rapid prototype solid models. The samples will be fabricated by a FDM rapid prototyping machine in different layer orientations with variations in internal geometrical structure. The 0° orientation where layers were deposited along the length of the samples displayed superior strength and impact resistance over all the other orientations. The anisotropic properties were probably caused by weak interlayer bonding and interlayer porosity.

Keywords: building orientation, compression strength, rapid prototyping, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 596
3976 The Applications of Wire Print in Composite Material Research and Fabrication Process

Authors: Hsu Yi-Chia, Hoy June-Hao

Abstract:

FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) is a rapid proofing method without mold, however, high material and time costs have always been a major disadvantage. Wire-printing is the next generation technology that can more flexible, and also easier to apply on a 3D printer and robotic arms printing. It can create its own construction methods. The research is mainly divided into three parts. The first is about the method of parameterizing the generated paths and the conversion of g-code to the wire-printing. The second is about material attempts and the application of effects. Third, is about the improvement of the operation of mechanical equipment and the design of robotic tool-head. The purpose of this study is to develop a new wire-print method that can efficiently generate line segments and paths in three- dimensions space. The parametric modeling software transforms the digital model into a 3D printer or robotic arms g-code, this article uses thermoplastics/ clay/composites materials for testing. The combination of materials and wire-print process makes architects and designers have the ability to research and develop works and construction in the future.

Keywords: parametric software, wire print, robotic arms fabrication, composite filament additive manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
3975 Intelligent Algorithm-Based Tool-Path Planning and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Efrain Rodriguez, Sergio Pertuz, Cristhian Riano

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Tool-path generation is an essential step in the FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication)-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) process planning. In the manufacture of a mechanical part by using additive processes, high resource consumption and prolonged production times are inherent drawbacks of these processes mainly due to non-optimized tool-path generation. In this work, we propose a heuristic-search intelligent algorithm-based approach for optimized tool-path generation for FFF-based AM. The main benefit of this approach is a significant reduction of travels without material deposition when the AM machine performs moves without any extrusion. The optimization method used reduces the number of travels without extrusion in comparison with commercial software as Slic3r or Cura Engine, which means a reduction of production time.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, tool-path optimization, fused filament fabrication, process planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
3974 Effect of Surface Quality of 3D Printed Impeller on the Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Nader Zirak, Mohammadali Shirinbayan, Abbas Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing is referred to as a method for fabrication of parts with a mechanism of layer by layer. Suitable economic efficiency and the ability to fabrication complex parts have made this method the focus of studies and industry. In recent years many studies focused on the fabrication of impellers, which is referred to as a key component of turbomachinery, through this technique. This study considers the important effect of the final surface quality of the impeller on the performance of the system, investigates the fabricated printed rotors through the fused deposition modeling with different process parameters. In this regard, the surface of each impeller was analyzed through the 3D scanner. The results show the vital role of surface quality on the final performance of the centrifugal compressor.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, impeller, centrifugal compressor, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
3973 Numerical Simulation on Bacteria-Carrying Particles Transport and Deposition in an Open Surgical Wound

Authors: Xiuguo Zhao, He Li, Alireza Yazdani, Xiaoning Zheng, Xinxi Xu

Abstract:

Wound infected poses a serious threat to the surgery on the patient during the process of surgery. Understanding the bacteria-carrying particles (BCPs) transportation and deposition in the open surgical wound model play essential role in protecting wound against being infected. Therefore BCPs transportation and deposition in the surgical wound model were investigated using force-coupling method (FCM) based computational fluid dynamics. The BCPs deposition in the wound was strongly associated with BCPs diameter and concentration. The results showed that the rise on the BCPs deposition was increasing not only with the increase of BCPs diameters but also with the increase of the BCPs concentration. BCPs deposition morphology was impacted by the combination of size distribution, airflow patterns and model geometry. The deposition morphology exhibited the characteristic with BCPs deposition on the sidewall in wound model and no BCPs deposition on the bottom of the wound model mainly because the airflow movement in one direction from up to down and then side created by laminar system constructing airflow patterns and then made BCPs hard deposit in the bottom of the wound model due to wound geometry limit. It was also observed that inertial impact becomes a main mechanism of the BCPs deposition. This work may contribute to next study in BCPs deposition limit, as well as wound infected estimation in surgical-site infections.

Keywords: BCPs deposition, computational fluid dynamics, force-coupling method (FCM), numerical simulation, open surgical wound model

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3972 3D Modeling of Flow and Sediment Transport in Tanks with the Influence of Cavity

Authors: A. Terfous, Y. Liu, A. Ghenaim, P. A. Garambois

Abstract:

With increasing urbanization worldwide, it is crucial to sustainably manage sediment flows in urban networks and especially in stormwater detention basins. One key aspect is to propose optimized designs for detention tanks in order to best reduce flood peak flows and in the meantime settle particles. It is, therefore, necessary to understand complex flows patterns and sediment deposition conditions in stormwater detention basins. The aim of this paper is to study flow structure and particle deposition pattern for a given tank geometry in view to control and maximize sediment deposition. Both numerical simulation and experimental works were done to investigate the flow and sediment distribution in a storm tank with a cavity. As it can be indicated, the settle distribution of the particle in a rectangular tank is mainly determined by the flow patterns and the bed shear stress. The flow patterns in a rectangular tank differ with different geometry, entrance flow rate and the water depth. With the changing of flow patterns, the bed shear stress will change respectively, which also play an influence on the particle settling. The accumulation of the particle in the bed changes the conditions at the bottom, which is ignored in the investigations, however it worth much more attention, the influence of the accumulation of the particle on the sedimentation should be important. The approach presented here is based on the resolution of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations to account for turbulent effects and also a passive particle transport model. An analysis of particle deposition conditions is presented in this paper in terms of flow velocities and turbulence patterns. Then sediment deposition zones are presented thanks to the modeling with particle tracking method. It is shown that two recirculation zones seem to significantly influence sediment deposition. Due to the possible overestimation of particle trap efficiency with standard wall functions and stick conditions, further investigations seem required for basal boundary conditions based on turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress. These observations are confirmed by experimental investigations processed in the laboratory.

Keywords: storm sewers, sediment deposition, numerical simulation, experimental investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3971 Generation of Charged Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase and their Contribution to Deposition of GaN Films and Nanostructures during Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Jin-Woo Park, Sung-Soo Lee, Nong-Moon Hwang

Abstract:

The generation of charged nanoparticles in the gas phase during the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has been frequently reported with their subsequent deposition into films and nanostructures in many systems such as carbon, silicon and zinc oxide. The microstructure evolution of films and nanostructures is closely related with the size distribution of charged nanoparticles. To confirm the generation of charged nanoparticles during GaN, the generation of GaN charged nanoparticles was examined in an atmospheric pressure CVD process using a Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) combined with a Faraday Cup Electrometer (FCE). It was confirmed that GaN charged nanoparticles were generated under the condition where GaN nanostructures were synthesized on the bare and Au-coated Si substrates. In addition, the deposition behaviour depends strongly on the charge transfer rate of metal substrates. On the metal substrates of a lower CTR such as Mo, the deposition rate of GaN was much lower than on those of a higher CTR such as Fe. GaN nanowires tend to grow on the substrates of a lower CTR whereas GaN thin films tend to be deposited on the substrates of a higher CTR.

Keywords: chemical vapour deposition, charged cluster model, generation of charged nanoparticles, deposition behaviour, nanostructures, gan, charged transfer rate

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3970 Modeling the Effect of Scale Deposition on Heat Transfer in Desalination Multi-Effect Distillation Evaporators

Authors: K. Bourouni, M. Chacha, T. Jaber, A. Tchantchane

Abstract:

In Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) desalination evaporators, the scale deposit outside the tubes presents a barrier to heat transfers reducing the global heat transfer coefficient and causing a decrease in water production; hence a loss of efficiency and an increase in operating and maintenance costs. Scale removal (by acid cleaning) is the main maintenance operation and constitutes the major reason for periodic plant shutdowns. A better understanding of scale deposition mechanisms will lead to an accurate determination of the variation of scale thickness around the tubes and an improved accuracy of the overall heat transfer coefficient calculation. In this paper, a coupled heat transfer-calcium carbonate scale deposition model on a horizontal tube bundle is presented. The developed tool is used to determine precisely the heat transfer area leading to a significant cost reduction for a given water production capacity. Simulations are carried to investigate the influence of different parameters such as water salinity, temperature, etc. on the heat transfer.

Keywords: multi-effect-evaporator, scale deposition, water desalination, heat transfer coefficient

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3969 Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in Horizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow

Authors: Joshua Kim Schimpf, Kyun Doo Kim, Jaseok Heo

Abstract:

In this study, the droplet behavior of under horizontal stratified flow regime for air and water flow in horizontal pipe experiments from a 0.24 m, 0.095 m, and 0.0486 m size diameter pipe are examined. The effects of gravity, pipe diameter, and turbulent diffusion on droplet deposition are considered. Models for droplet entrainment and deposition are proposed that considers developing length. Validation for experimental data dedicated from the REGARD, CEA and Williams, University of Illinois, experiment were performed using SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants).

Keywords: droplet, entrainment, deposition, horizontal

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3968 Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

Authors: Branko Skoric, Aleksandar Miletic, Pal Terek, Lazar Kovacevic, Milan Kukuruzovic

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).

Keywords: coating, super hard, ion implantation, nanohardness

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3967 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney, Haider Raad

Abstract:

Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: thermal deposition, wearable antennas, bluetooth technology, flexible electronics

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3966 Ni-Based Hardfacing Alloy Reinforced with Fused Eutectic Tungsten Carbide Deposited on Infiltrated WC-W-Ni Substrate by Oxyacetylene Welding

Authors: D. Miroud, H. Mokaddem, M. Tata, N. Foucha

Abstract:

The body of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) drill bit can be manufactured from two different materials, steel and tungsten carbide matrix. Commonly the steel body is produced by machining, thermal spraying a bonding layer and hardfacing of Ni-based matrix reinforced with fused eutectic tungsten carbide (WC/W2C). The matrix body bit is manufactured by infiltrating tungsten carbide particles, with a Copper binary or ternary alloy. By erosion-corrosion mechanisms, the PDC drill bits matrix undergoes severe damage, occurring particularly around the PDC inserts and near injection nozzles. In this study, we investigated the possibility to repair the damaged matrix regions by hardfacing technic. Ni-based hardfacing alloy reinforced with fused eutectic tungsten carbide is deposited on infiltrated WC-W-Ni substrate by oxyacetylene welding (OAW). The microstructure at the hardfacing / matrix interface is characterized by SEM- EDS, XRD and micro hardness Hv0.1. The hardfacing conditions greatly affect the dilution phenomenon and the distribution of carbides at the interface, without formation of transition zone. During OAW welding deposition, interdiffusion of atoms occurs: Cu and Sn diffuse from infiltrated matrix substrate into hardfacing and simultaneously Cr and Si alloy elements from hardfacing diffuse towards the substrate. The dilution zone consists of a nickel-rich phase with a heterogeneous distribution of eutectic spherical (Ni-based hardfacing alloy) and irregular (matrix) WC/W2C carbides and a secondary phase rich in Cr-W-Si. Hardfacing conditions cause the dissolution of banding around both spherical and irregular carbides. The micro-hardness of interface is significantly improved by the presence of secondary phase in the inter-dendritic structure.

Keywords: dilution, dissolution, hardfacing, infiltrated matrix, PDC drill bits

Procedia PDF Downloads 270