Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 172

Search results for: Kai Lok Chan

172 Idealization of Licca-Chan and Barbie: Comparison of Two Dolls across the Pacific

Authors: Miho Tsukamoto

Abstract:

Since the initial creation of the Barbie doll in 1959, it became a symbol of US society. Likewise, the Licca-chan, a Japanese doll created in 1967, also became a Japanese symbolic doll of Japanese society. Prior to the introduction of Licca-chan, Barbie was already marketed in Japan but their sales were dismal. Licca-chan (an actual name: Kayama Licca) is a plastic doll with a variety of sizes ranging from 21.0 cm to 29.0 cm which many Japanese girls dream of having. For over 35 years, the manufacturer, Takara Co., Ltd. has sold over 48 million dolls and has produced doll houses, accessories, clothes, and Licca-chan video games for the Nintendo DS. Many First-generation Licca-chan consumers still are enamored with Licca-chan, and go to Licca-chan House, in an amusement park with their daughters. These people are called Licca-chan maniacs, as they enjoy touring the Licca-chan’s factory in Tohoku or purchase various Licca-chan accessories. After the successful launch of Licca-chan into the Japanese market, a mixed-like doll from the US and Japan, a doll, JeNny, was later sold in the same Japanese market by Takara Co., Ltd. in 1982. Comparison of these cultural iconic dolls, Barbie and Licca-chan, are analyzed in this paper. In fact, these dolls have concepts of girls’ dreams. By using concepts of mythology of Jean Baudrillard, these dolls can be represented idealized images of figures in the products for consumers, but at the same time, consumers can see products with different perspectives, which can cause controversy.

Keywords: Barbie, dolls, JeNny, idealization, Licca-chan

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
171 The Digital Video and Online Media Development for Integrated Marketing Communication and Tourism Promote in Taling Chan District, Bangkok

Authors: Somsak Klaysung

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This study purpose to develop video to promote cultural tourism in Taling Chan District. For qualitative research, the sample size was 40 people from 5 group of the tourism entrepreneur in Taling Chan district, conducted the key informants’ content analysis by using focus group and structures in-depth interview from all stakeholders. Quota sampling was used for this kind of research. The findings indicated that get media video marketing and tourism contribute a set length 11.35 9 minutes there is plenty of social capital in Taling Chan District including detail like local wisdom, knowledge, and way of thinking related to nature, history, historic document, occupation, administration and attribute of local people. Additional research found the new path of travel through the water route according to Khlong Bang Ramat called Route 9 temples that travelers can travel by boat are available in the market in four areas Taling Chan also as well.

Keywords: digital video, integrated marketing communication, online media development, Taling Chan district

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
170 Healing to Be a Man or Living in the Truth: Comparison on the Concept of Healing between Foucault and Chan

Authors: Jing Li Hong

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This study compared Michel Foucault’s thoughts and the Chan School’s thoughts on the idea of healing. Healing is not an unfamiliar idea in Buddhist thoughts. The paired concepts of illness and medicine are often used as a metaphor to describe the relationship between people and truth. Foucault investigated the topic of care of self in his later studies and dedicated a large portion of his final semester course at the Collège de France in 1984 to discuss the meaning of Socrates’s offering of a sacrifice to the god of medicine in Phaedo. Foucault indicated a key preposition in ancient philosophy, namely healing. His idea of healing also addressed the relationship between subject and truth. From this relationship, Foucault unraveled his novel study on truth, namely the technologies of the self, with an emphasis on the care of self. Whereas numerous philosophers ask obvious questions such as ‘what is truth’ and ‘how to learn about truth,’ Foucault proposed distinct questions such as ‘what is our relationship to truth’ and ‘how does our relationship with truth turn us into who we are now?’ Thus, healing in both Buddhist and Foucault’s thoughts is related to the relationship between being and truth. This study first reviews Buddhist and Foucault’s ideas of healing to explicate what is illness and what is medicine. Because Buddhist thoughts cover an extensive scope, this study focuses on the thoughts of the Chan School. The second part is a discussion on medicine (treatment), specifically what is used as the medicine for the illness in both thoughts, and how can this medicine treat the illness. This part includes a description and comparison of the use of concepts of negation in these two thought groups. Finally, the subjects that practice the technologies of the self in both groups are compared from the idea of care of self; in other words, the differences between the subjects formed by the different relationships between being and truth are analyzed.

Keywords: Chan, heterogeneous, living style, language of paradox, Michel Foucault, negation, parrhesia, the care of self

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
169 Product Development of Standard Multi-Layer Sweet (Khanom- Chan) Recipe to Healthy for Thai Dessert

Authors: Tidarat Sanphom

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Aim of this research is to development of Standard Layer pudding (Khanom-Chan) recipe to healthy Thai dessert. The objective are to study about standard recipe in multi-layer sweet. It was found that the appropriate recipe in multi-layer sweet, was consisted of rice starch 56 grams, tapioca starch 172 grams, arrowroot flour 98 grams, mung been-flour 16 grams, coconut milk 774 grams, fine sugar 374 grams, pandan leaf juice 47 grams and oil 5 grams.Then the researcher studied about the ratio of rice-berries flour to rice starch in multi-layer sweet at level of 30:70, 50:50, and only rice-berry flour 100 percentage. Result sensory evaluation, it was found the ratio of rice-berry flour to rice starch 30:70 had well score. The result of multi-layer sweet with rice-berry flour reduced sugar 20, 40 and 60 percentage found that 20 percentage had well score. Calculated total calories and calories from fat in Sweet layer cake with rice-berry flour reduced sugar 20 percentage had 250.04 kcal and 65.16 kcal.

Keywords: multi-layer sweet (Khanom-Chan), rice-berry flour, leaf juice, desert

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
168 Thermal Diffusion of Photovoltaic Organic Semiconductors Determined by Scanning Photothermal Deflection Technique

Authors: K.L. Chiu, Johnny K. W. Ho, M. H. Chan, S. H. Cheung, K. H. Chan, S.K. So

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Thermal diffusivity is an important quantity in heat conduction. It measures the rate of heat transfer from the hot side to the cold side of a material. In solid-state materials, thermal diffusivity reveals information related to morphologies and solid quality, as thermal diffusivity can be affected by microstructures. However, thermal diffusivity studies on organic semiconductors are very limited. In this study, scanning photothermal deflection (SPD) technique is used to study the thermal diffusivities of different classes of semiconducting polymers. The reliability of the technique was confirmed by crossing-checking our SPD derived experimental values of different reference materials with their known diffusivities from the literature. To show that thermal diffusivity determination is a potential tool for revealing microscopic properties of organic photovoltaic semiconductors, SPD measurements were applied to various organic semiconducting films with different crystallinities. It is observed that organic photovoltaic semiconductors possess low thermal diffusivity, with values in the range of 0.3mm²/s to 1mm²/s. It is also discovered that polymeric photovoltaic semiconductors with greater molecular planarity, stronger stacking and higher crystallinity would possess greater thermal diffusivities. Correlations between thermal, charge transport properties will be discussed.

Keywords: polymer crystallinity, photovoltaic organic semiconductors, photothermal deflection technique, thermal diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
167 Effect of Drying Condition on the Wheat Germ Stability Using Fluidized-Bed Dryer

Authors: J. M. Hung, J. S. Chan, M. I. Kuo, D. S. Chan, C. P. Lu

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Wheat germ is a by-product obtained from wheat milling and it contains highly concentrated nutrients. Due to highly lipase and lipoxygenase activities, wheat germ products can easily turn into rancid flavor and cause a short life. The objective of this study is to control moisture content and retard lipid hydrolysis by fluidized-bed drying. The raw wheat germ of 2 kg was dried with a vertical batch fluidized bed with the following varying conditions, inlet air temperature of 50, 80 and 120°C, inlet air velocity of 3.62 m/s. The experiment was designed to obtain a final product at around 40°C with water activity of 0.3 ± 0.1. Changes in the moisture content, water activity, enzyme activity of dried wheat germ during storage were measured. Results showed the fluidized-bed drying was found to reduce moisture content, water activity and lipase activity of raw wheat germ. After drying wheat germ, moisture content and water activity were between 5.8% to 7.2% and 0.28 to 0.40 respectively during 12 weeks of storage. The variation range of water activity indicated to retard lipid oxidation. All drying treatments displayed inactivation of lipase, except for drying condition of 50°C which showed relative high enzyme activity. During storage, lipase activity increased slowly during the first 6 weeks of storage and reached a plateau for another 6 weeks. As a result, using a fluidized-bed dryer was found to be effective drying technique in improving storage stability of wheat germ.

Keywords: wheat germ, fluidized-bed dryer, storage, lipase, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
166 Augmented Reality for Children Vocabulary Learning: Case Study in a Macau Kindergarten

Authors: R. W. Chan, Kan Kan Chan

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Augmented Reality (AR), with the affordance of bridging between real world and virtual world, brings users immersive experience. It has been applied in education gradually and even come into practice in student daily learning. However, a systematic review shows that there are limited researches in the area of vocabulary acquisition in early childhood education. Since kindergarten is a key stage where children acquire language and AR as an emerging and potential technology to support the vocabulary acquisition, this study aims to explore its value in in real classroom with teacher’s view. Participants were a class of 5 to 6 years old kids studying in a Macau school that follows Cambridge curriculum and emphasizes multicultural ethos. There were 11 boys, 13 girls, and in a total of 24 kids. They learnt animal vocabulary using mobile device and AR flashcards, IPad to scan AR flashcards and interact with pop-up virtual objects. In order to estimate the effectiveness of using Augmented Reality, children attended vocabulary pre-posttest. In addition, teacher interview was administrated after this learning activity to seek practitioner’s opinion towards this technology. For data analysis, paired samples t-test was utilized to measure the instructional effect based on the pre-posttest data. Result shows that Augmented Reality could significantly enhance children vocabulary learning with large effect size. Teachers indicated that children enjoyed the AR learning activity but clear instruction is needed. Suggestions for the future implementation of vocabulary acquisition using AR are suggested.

Keywords: augmented reality, kindergarten children, vocabulary learning, Macau

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
165 Development of Self-Reliant Satellite-Level Propulsion System by Using Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

Authors: H. J. Liu, Y. A. Chan, C. K. Pai, K. C. Tseng, Y. H. Chen, Y. L. Chan, T. C. Kuo

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To satisfy the mission requirement of the FORMOSAT-7 project, NSPO has initialized a self-reliant development on satellite propulsion technology. A trade-off study on different types of on-board propulsion system has been done. A green propellant, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 hereafter), is chosen in this research because it is ITAR-free, nontoxic and easy to produce. As the components designed for either cold gas or hydrazine propulsion system are not suitable for H2O2 propulsion system, the primary objective of the research is to develop the components compatible with H2O2. By cooperating with domestic research institutes and manufacturing vendors, several prototype components, including a diaphragm-type tank, pressure transducer, ball latching valve, and one-Newton thruster with catalyst bed, were manufactured, and the functional tests were performed successfully according to the mission requirements. The requisite environmental tests, including hot firing test, thermal vaccum test, vibration test and compatibility test, are prepared and will be to completed in the near future. To demonstrate the subsystem function, an Air-Bearing Thrust Stand (ABTS) and a real-time Data Acquisition & Control System (DACS) were implemented to assess the performance of the proposed H2O2 propulsion system. By measuring the distance that the thrust stand has traveled in a given time, the thrust force can be derived from the kinematics equation. To validate the feasibility of the approach, it is scheduled to assess the performance of a cold gas (N2) propulsion system prior to the H2O2 propulsion system.

Keywords: FORMOSAT-7, green propellant, Hydrogen peroxide, thruster

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164 Assessing the Use of Fractional Radiofrequency for the Improvement of Skin Texture in Asian Patients

Authors: Mandy W. M. Chan, Samantha Y. N. Shek, Chi K. Yeung, Taro Kono, Henry H. L. Chan

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Fractional radiofrequency devices have shown to improve skin texture such as smoothness, rhytides, brightness as well as atrophic acne scars by increasing dermal thickness, dermal collagen content and dermal fibrillin content. The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of this device on Asian patients with skin textural changes. In this study, 20 Chinese patients (ranging from 21-60 years old) with irregularities of skin texture, rhytides and acne scars were recruited. Patients received six treatments at 2-4 week intervals. Treatment was initiated with maximum energy tolerated and was adjustable during treatment if patients felt excessive discomfort. A total of two passes were delivered at each session. Physician assessment and standardized photographs were taken at baseline, all treatment visits and at one, two, and six month after final treatment. As a result, 17 patients were recruited and completed the study according to the study protocol. One patient withdrew after the first treatment due to reaction to local anesthesia and two patients were lost to follow-up. At six months follow-up, 71% of the patients were satisfied and 24% were very satisfied, while treatment physician reported various degrees of improvement based on the global assessment scale in 60% of the subjects. Anticipated side effects including erythema, edema, pinpoint bleeding, scabs formation and flare of acne were recorded, but there were no serious adverse effects noted. Conclude up, the use of fractional radiofrequency improves skin texture and appears to be safe in Asian patients. No long-term serious adverse effect was noted.

Keywords: Asian, fractional radiogrequency, skin, texture

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163 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau

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Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
162 Development of Immersive Virtual Reality System for Planning of Cargo Loading Operations

Authors: Eugene Y. C. Wong, Daniel Y. W. Mo, Cosmo T. Y. Ng, Jessica K. Y. Chan, Leith K. Y. Chan, Henry Y. K. Lau

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The real-time planning visualisation, precise allocation and loading optimisation in air cargo load planning operations are increasingly important as more considerations are needed on dangerous cargo loading, locations of lithium batteries, weight declaration and limited aircraft capacity. The planning of the unit load devices (ULD) can often be carried out only in a limited number of hours before flight departure. A dynamic air cargo load planning system is proposed with the optimisation of cargo load plan and visualisation of planning results in virtual reality systems. The system aims to optimise the cargo load planning and visualise the simulated loading planning decision on air cargo terminal operations. Adopting simulation tools, Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and virtual reality technologies, the results of planning with reference to weight and balance, Unit Load Device (ULD) dimensions, gateway, cargo nature and aircraft capacity are optimised and presented. The virtual reality system facilities planning, operations, education and training. Staff in terminals are usually trained in a traditional push-approach demonstration with enormous manual paperwork. With the support of newly customized immersive visualization environment, users can master the complex air cargo load planning techniques in a problem based training with the instant result being immersively visualised. The virtual reality system is developed with three-dimensional (3D) projectors, screens, workstations, truss system, 3D glasses, and demonstration platform and software. The content will be focused on the cargo planning and loading operations in an air cargo terminal. The system can assist decision-making process during cargo load planning in the complex operations of air cargo terminal operations. The processes of cargo loading, cargo build-up, security screening, and system monitoring can be further visualised. Scenarios are designed to support and demonstrate the daily operations of the air cargo terminal, including dangerous goods, pets and animals, and some special cargos.

Keywords: air cargo load planning, optimisation, virtual reality, weight and balance, unit load device

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
161 A Study on Finite Element Modelling of Earth Retaining Wall Anchored by Deadman Anchor

Authors: K. S. Chai, S. H. Chan

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In this paper, the earth retaining wall anchored by discrete deadman anchor to support excavations in sand is modelled and analysed by finite element analysis. A study is conducted to examine how deadman anchorage system helps in reducing the deflection of earth retaining wall. A simplified numerical model is suggested in order to reduce the simulation duration. A comparison between 3-D and 2-D finite element analyses is illustrated.

Keywords: finite element, earth retaining wall, deadman anchor, sand

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160 A Study of Various Ontology Learning Systems from Text and a Look into Future

Authors: Fatima Al-Aswadi, Chan Yong

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With the large volume of unstructured data that increases day by day on the web, the motivation of representing the knowledge in this data in the machine processable form is increased. Ontology is one of the major cornerstones of representing the information in a more meaningful way on the semantic Web. The goal of Ontology learning from text is to elicit and represent domain knowledge in the machine readable form. This paper aims to give a follow-up review on the ontology learning systems from text and some of their defects. Furthermore, it discusses how far the ontology learning process will enhance in the future.

Keywords: concept discovery, deep learning, ontology learning, semantic relation, semantic web

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159 Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Daptomycin

Authors: Ji-Chan Jang

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Tuberculosis is still major health problem because there is an increase of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of the disease. Therefore, the most urgent clinical need is to discover potent agents and develop novel drug combination capable of reducing the duration of MDR and XDR tuberculosis therapy. Three reference strains H37Rv, CDC1551, W-Beijing GC1237 and six clinical isolates of MDRTB were tested to daptomycin in the range of 0.013 to 256 mg/L. Daptomycin is resistant to all tested M. tuberculosis strains not only laboratory strains but also clinical MDR strains that were isolated at different source. Daptomycin will not be an antibiotic of choice for treating infection of Gram positive atypical slowly growing M. tuberculosis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, daptomycin, resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
158 Design of a Remote Radiation Sensing Module Based on Portable Gamma Spectrometer

Authors: Young Gil Kim, Hye Min Park, Chan Jong Park, Koan Sik Joo

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A personal gamma spectrometer has to be sensitive, pocket-sized, and carriable on the users. To serve these requirements, we developed the SiPM-based portable radiation detectors. The prototype uses a Ce:GAGG scintillator coupled to a silicon photomultiplier and a radio frequency(RF) module to measure gamma-ray, and can be accessed wirelessly or remotely by mobile equipment. The prototype device consumes roughly 4.4W, weighs about 180g (including battery), and measures 5.0 7.0. It is able to achieve 5.8% FWHM energy resolution at 662keV.

Keywords: Ce:GAGG, gamma-ray, radio frequency, silicon photomultiplier

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
157 A Study on the Magnetic and Submarine Geology Structure of TA22 Seamount in Lau Basin, Tonga

Authors: Soon Young Choi, Chan Hwan Kim, Chan Hong Park, Hyung Rae Kim, Myoung Hoon Lee, Hyeon-Yeong Park

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We performed the marine magnetic, bathymetry and seismic survey at the TA22 seamount (in the Lau basin, SW Pacific) for finding the submarine hydrothermal deposits in October 2009. We acquired magnetic and bathymetry data sets by suing Overhouser Proton Magnetometer SeaSPY (Marine Magnetics Co.), Multi-beam Echo Sounder EM120 (Kongsberg Co.). We conducted the data processing to obtain detailed seabed topography, magnetic anomaly, reduction to the pole (RTP) and magnetization. Based on the magnetic properties result, we analyzed submarine geology structure of TA22 seamount with post-processed seismic profile. The detailed bathymetry of the TA22 seamount showed the left and right crest parts that have caldera features in each crest central part. The magnetic anomaly distribution of the TA22 seamount regionally displayed high magnetic anomalies in northern part and the low magnetic anomalies in southern part around the caldera features. The RTP magnetic anomaly distribution of the TA22 seamount presented commonly high magnetic anomalies in the each caldera central part. Also, it represented strong anomalies at the inside of caldera rather than outside flank of the caldera. The magnetization distribution of the TA22 seamount showed the low magnetization zone in the center of each caldera, high magnetization zone in the southern and northern east part. From analyzed the seismic profile map, The TA22 seamount area is showed for the inferred small mounds inside each caldera central part and it assumes to make possibility of sills by the magma in cases of the right caldera. Taking into account all results of this study (bathymetry, magnetic anomaly, RTP, magnetization, seismic profile) with rock samples at the left caldera area in 2009 survey, we suppose the possibility of hydrothermal deposits at mounds in each caldera central part and at outside flank of the caldera representing the low magnetization zone. We expect to have the better results by combined modeling from this study data with the other geological data (ex. detailed gravity, 3D seismic, petrologic study results and etc).

Keywords: detailed bathymetry, magnetic anomaly, seamounts, seismic profile, SW Pacific

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156 The Feasibility of Online, Interactive Workshops to Facilitate Anatomy Education during the UK COVID-19 Lockdowns

Authors: Prabhvir Singh Marway, Kai Lok Chan, Maria-Ruxandra Jinga, Rachel Bok Ying Lee, Matthew Bok Kit Lee, Krishan Nandapalan, Sze Yi Beh, Harry Carr, Christopher Kui

Abstract:

We piloted a structured series of online workshops on the 3D segmentation of anatomical structures from CT scans. 33 participants were recruited from four UK universities for two-day workshops between 2020 and 2021. Open-source software (3D-Slicer) was used. We hypothesized that active participation via real-time screen-sharing and voice-communication via Discord would enable improved engagement and learning, despite national lockdowns. Written feedback indicated positive learning experiences, with subjective measures of anatomical understanding and software confidence improving.

Keywords: medical education, workshop, segmentation, anatomy

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155 Phase Equilibria in Zn-Al-Sn Alloy for Lead-free Solder Application

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

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The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: lead-free solder, zn-al-sn alloy, phase equilibrium, rolling, microstructure, hardness

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154 Evaluation of Medicinal Plants, Catunaregam spinosa, Houttuynia cordata, and Rhapis excelsa from Malaysia for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties

Authors: Yik Sin Chan, Bee Ling Chuah, Wei Quan Chan, Ri Jin Cheng, Yan Hang Oon, Kong Soo Khoo, Nam Weng Sit

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Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments including infectious diseases. They serve as a good source of lead compounds for the development of new and safer anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of the leaves of three medicinal plants, namely Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae; Mountain pomegranate), Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae; "fishy-smell herb") and Rhapis excelsa (Arecaceae; “broadleaf lady palm”). The leaves extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed using a colorimetric broth microdilution method against a panel of human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus; Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (yeasts: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans; Moulds: Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) respectively; while antiviral activity was evaluated against the Chikungunya virus on monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells by neutral red uptake assay. All the plant extracts showed bacteriostatic activity, however, only 72% of the extracts (13/18) were found to have bactericidal activity. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were given by the hexane extract of C. spinosa against S. aureus with the values of 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL respectively. All the extracts also possessed fungistatic activity. Only the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of H. cordata exerted inhibitory activity against A. fumigatus, giving the lowest fungal susceptibility index of 16.7%. In contrast, only 61% of the extracts (11/18) showed fungicidal activity. The ethanol extract of R. excelsa exhibited the strongest fungicidal activity against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and T. mentagrophytes with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.04–0.08 mg/mL, in addition to its methanol extract against T. mentagrophytes (MFC=0.02 mg/mL). For anti-Chikungunya virus activity, only chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of R. excelsa showed significant antiviral activity with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 29.9 and 78.1 g/mL respectively. Extracts of R. excelsa warrant further investigations into their active principles responsible for antifungal and antiviral properties.

Keywords: bactericidal, Chikungunya virus, extraction, fungicidal

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153 Application of Fuzzy Logic to Design and Coordinate Parallel Behaviors for a Humanoid Mobile Robot

Authors: Nguyen Chan Hung, Mai Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Xuan Ha, Tran Xuan Duc, Dang Bao Lam, Nguyen Hoang Viet

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This paper presents a design and implementation of a navigation controller for a humanoid mobile robot platform to operate in indoor office environments. In order to fulfil the requirement of recognizing and approaching human to provide service while avoiding random obstacles, a behavior-based fuzzy logic controller was designed to simultaneously coordinate multiple behaviors. Experiments in real office environment showed that the fuzzy controller deals well with complex scenarios without colliding with random objects and human.

Keywords: behavior control, fuzzy logic, humanoid robot, mobile robot

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152 Heat Transfer from Block Heat Sources Mounted on the Wall of a 3-D Cabinet to Ambient Natural Convective Air Stream

Authors: J. C. Cheng, Y. L. Tsay, Z. D. Chan, C. H. Yang

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In this study the physical system under consideration is a three-dimensional (3-D) cabinet with arrays of block heat sources mounted on one of the walls of the cabinet. The block heat sources dissipate heat to the cabinet surrounding through the conjugate conduction and natural convection. The results illustrate that the difference in hot spot temperatures of the system (θH) for the situations with and without consideration of thermal interaction is higher for smaller Rayleigh number (Ra), and can be up to 94.73% as Ra=10^5. In addition, the heat transfer characteristics depends strongly on the dimensionless heat conductivity of cabinet wall (Kwf), heat conductivity of block (Kpf) and length of cabinet (Ax). The maximum reduction in θH is 70.01% when Kwf varies from 10 to 1000, and it is 30.07% for Ax from 0.5 to 1. While the hot spot temperature of system is not sensitive to the cabinet angle (Φ).

Keywords: block heat sources, 3-D cabinet, thermal interaction, heat transfer

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151 Research of Applicable Ground Reinforcement Method in Double-Deck Tunnel Junction

Authors: SKhan Park, Seok Jin Lee, Jong Sun Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Bong Chan Kim

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Because of the large economic losses caused by traffic congestion in metropolitan areas, various studies on the underground network design and construction techniques has been performed various studies in the developed countries. In Korea, it has performed a study to develop a versatile double-deck of deep tunnel model. This paper is an introduction to develop a ground reinforcement method to enable the safe tunnel construction in the weakened pillar section like as junction of tunnel. Applicable ground reinforcement method in the weakened section is proposed and it is expected to verify the method by the field application tests.

Keywords: double-deck tunnel, ground reinforcement, tunnel construction, weakened pillar section

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150 Optimization of NaOH Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Solubilisation of Organic Food Waste by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Hafizan Junoh, Kumaran Palanisamy, Yip Chan Heng, Pua Fei Ling

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This study investigates the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of organic food waste on the performance of COD solubilisation. Both temperature and alkaline agent were reported to have an effect on solubilizing any possible biomass including organic food waste. The three independent variables considered in this pretreatment were temperature (50-90oC), pretreatment time (30-120 minutes) and alkaline concentration, sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.7-15 g/L). The optimal condition obtained were 90oC, 15 g/L NaOH for 2 hours. Solubilisation has potential in enhancing methane production by providing a high amount of soluble components at an early stage during anaerobic digestion.

Keywords: food waste, pretreatments, respond surface methodology, ANOVA, anaerobic digestion

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149 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron-Containing AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

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Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as 420 °C where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment was conducted at 420 °C for 24 hrs followed by hot rolling at 420 °C and the total reduction was about 60%. Recrystallization heat treatment was followed at 420 °C for 6 hrs to obtain equiaxed microstructure. After recrystallization treatment, aging heat treatment was conducted at temperature of 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 200 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak hardness was observed after 20 hrs. Tensile tests were also conducted on the specimens aged for various time intervals and the results were compared with hardness.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloy, boron, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
148 Thermal Performance of Radial Heat Sinks for LED Applications

Authors: Jongchul Park, Chan Byon

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In this study, the thermal performance of radial heat sinks for LED applications is investigated numerically and experimentally. The effect of geometrical parameters such as inner radius, fin height, fin length, and fin spacing, as well as the Elenbaas number, is considered. In addition, the effects of augmentation of concentric ring, perforation, and duct are extensively explored in order to enhance the thermal performance of conventional radial heat sink. The results indicate that the Elenbaas number and the fin radius have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the heat sink. The concentric ring affects the performance much, but the degree of affection is highly dependent on the orientation. The perforation always brings about higher thermal performance. The duct can effectively prevent the bypass of the natural convection flow, which in turn reduces the thermal resistance of the radial heat sink significantly.

Keywords: heat transfer, radial heat sink, LED, Elenbaas

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147 L2 Acquisition of Tense and Aspect by Cantonese and Mandarin ESL Learners of Different Proficiency Levels

Authors: Mable Chan

Abstract:

The present study about the acquisition of tense and aspect by Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners aims to investigate the relationship between knowledge, the role that classroom input plays in the development of that knowledge, and learners' use of the L2 knowledge they acquire (i.e. their performance). Chinese has been argued as a tenseless language and Chinese ESL learners have to acquire the property from scratch. The study of acquisition of tense and aspect is a very fruitful research area in second language acquisition for a number of reasons. First, tense and aspect are notorious for being difficult for Chinese ESL learners. Second, to our knowledge, no studies have been done to compare Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners and age effects in one single study. Data are now being collected and the findings from this comparison study of tense-aspect acquisition will shed light on both theoretical and pedagogical issues in second language acquisition, and contribute to a better understanding of both theoretical aspect concerning L2 acquisition of tense and aspect, and pedagogy of tense for L2 Chinese ESL learners.

Keywords: aspect, second language acquisition, tense, universal grammar

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146 Designing an Intelligent Voltage Instability System in Power Distribution Systems in the Philippines Using IEEE 14 Bus Test System

Authors: Pocholo Rodriguez, Anne Bernadine Ocampo, Ian Benedict Chan, Janric Micah Gray

Abstract:

The state of an electric power system may be classified as either stable or unstable. The borderline of stability is at any condition for which a slight change in an unfavourable direction of any pertinent quantity will cause instability. Voltage instability in power distribution systems could lead to voltage collapse and thus power blackouts. The researchers will present an intelligent system using back propagation algorithm that can detect voltage instability and output voltage of a power distribution and classify it as stable or unstable. The researchers’ work is the use of parameters involved in voltage instability as input parameters to the neural network for training and testing purposes that can provide faster detection and monitoring of the power distribution system.

Keywords: back-propagation algorithm, load instability, neural network, power distribution system

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145 An Approach to Addressing Homelessness in Hong Kong: Life Story Approach

Authors: Tak Mau Simon Chan, Ying Chuen Lance Chan

Abstract:

Homelessness has been a popular and controversial debate in Hong Kong, a city which is densely populated and well-known for very expensive housing. The constitution of the homeless as threats to the community and environmental hygiene is ambiguous and debatable in the Hong Kong context. The lack of an intervention model is the critical research gap thus far, aside from the tangible services delivered. The life story approach (LSA), with its unique humanistic orientation, has been well applied in recent decades to depict the needs of various target groups, but not the homeless. It is argued that the life story approach (LSA), which has been employed by health professionals in the landscape of dementia, and health and social care settings, can be used as a reference in the local Chinese context through indigenization. This study, therefore, captures the viewpoints of service providers and users by constructing an indigenous intervention model that refers to the LSA in serving the chronically homeless. By informing 13 social workers and 27 homeless individuals in 8 focus groups whilst 12 homeless individuals have participated in individual in-depth interviews, a framework of LSA in homeless people is proposed. Through thematic analysis, three main themes of their life stories was generated, namely, the family, negative experiences and identity transformation. The three domains solidified framework that not only can be applied to the homeless, but also other disadvantaged groups in the Chinese context. Based on the three domains of family, negative experiences and identity transformation, the model is applied in the daily practices of social workers who help the homeless. The domain of family encompasses familial relationships from the past to the present to the speculated future with ten sub-themes. The domain of negative experiences includes seven sub-themes, with reference to the deviant behavior committed. The last domain, identity transformation, incorporates the awareness and redefining of one’s identity and there are a total of seven sub-themes. The first two domains are important components of personal histories while the third is more of an unknown, exploratory and yet to-be-redefined territory which has a more positive and constructive orientation towards developing one’s identity and life meaning. The longitudinal temporal dimension of moving from the past – present - future enriches the meaning making process, facilitates the integration of life experiences and maintains a more hopeful dialogue. The model is tested and its effectiveness is measured by using qualitative and quantitative methods to affirm the extent that it is relevant to the local context. First, it contributes to providing a clear guideline for social workers who can use the approach as a reference source. Secondly, the framework acts as a new intervention means to address problem saturated stories and the intangible needs of the homeless. Thirdly, the model extends the application to beyond health related issues. Last but not least, the model is highly relevant to the local indigenous context.

Keywords: homeless, indigenous intervention, life story approach, social work practice

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144 Trends in Conservation and Inheritance of Musical Culture of Ethnic Groups: A Case Study of the Akha Music in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand

Authors: Nutthan Inkhong, Sutthiphong Ruangchante

Abstract:

Chiang Rai province is located at the northern border of Thailand. Most of the geography there is the northern continental highlands, and the population has many types of inhabitants, including Thai people, immigrants and ethnic groups such as Akha, Lahu, Lisu, Yao, etc. Most of these ethnic groups migrated from neighbouring countries such as Myanmar, Laos, China, etc. and settled in the mountains. Each ethnic group has their unique traditions, culture, and ways of life, including the musical culture that the ancestors of each ethnic group brought with them. In the present, the Akha have the largest population in the region and still live together in numerous villages in many districts. Thus, Akha musical culture still appears in the community traditions and cultural events of Chiang Rai province regularly. This article presents the situations of Akha musical culture in the present and the predictions for the future. The study method involves the analysis of music information and the related social contexts, which were collected from the fieldwork of ethnomusicological methodology by in-depth interviews, observations, audio and visual recordings, and related documents. The results found that the important persons who are related with Akha musical culture include (1) a musical instrument maker (lives in Mae Chan district) who produces various Akha musical instruments, including gourd mouth organs, Akha drums, two-way flutes, three-hole flutes, Jew’s harps (the sound of teenage love), buffalo horns (the sound symbol of hunting) and bird call instruments (the imitation of bird sounds), (2) a folk philosopher (lives in Mae Pha Luang district) who can teach music to the new generation of Akha people as well as lecture and demonstrate music to academics and tourists, and (3) a community leader (lives in Mae Chan district) who conserves Akha performances, singing and music through various activities of the students in an informal school. Because of the changes to the social contexts and ways of life of the Akha people, such as the educational system, religion, social media, etc., including the popularity of both Thai and international popular music among the new generation of Akha people, changes to and the fading away of Akha musical culture in the future may likely occur. Therefore, the conservation and inheritance of Akha music is an issue that should be resolved quickly. This primary study leads to the next step of the ethnomusicological work and plays a part in preventing or reducing the problems impacting Akha musical culture survival by the recording of Akha music in all of its dimensions, such as producing musical instruments, playing musical instruments, analysis of tuning systems, recording Akha music as musical notation using symbols, researching related social contexts, etc. and the transcription of this information to create lessons that can be returned to the Akha community.

Keywords: Akha music, Chiang Rai, ethnic music in Thailand, ethnomusicology

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143 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristic Acid through Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

Authors: Hyun Ji Hyun, Hyo Sun Suh, Min Kook Kim, Yong Chan Kwon, Byung-Mu Lee

Abstract:

Scope: This study is focused on the effect of myristic acid on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Methods and results: For the experiment, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line was used. Results showed that treatment with myristic acid can attenuate LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, myristic acid significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory mediators and down-regulating UVB-induced intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, myristic acid reduced the expression of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α and ERK, JNK, and p38 pathways by inhibiting phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that the myristic acid could reduce LPS-induced inflammation. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the Encouragement Program for The Industries of Economic Cooperation Region

Keywords: anti-inflammation, myristic acid, ROS, ultraviolet light

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