Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 668

Search results for: head

668 An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Head Movement on Engagement within a Telepresence Environment

Authors: B. S. Bamoallem, A. J. Wodehouse, G. M. Mair

Abstract:

Communication takes place not only through speech, but also by means of gestures such as facial expressions, gaze, head movements, hand movements and body posture, and though there has been rapid development, communication platforms still lack this type of behavior. We believe communication platforms need to fully achieve this verbal and non-verbal behavior in order to make interactions more engaging and more efficient. In this study we decided to focus our research on the head rather than any other body part as it is a rich source of information for speech-related movement Thus we aim to investigate the value of incorporating head movements into the use of telepresence robots as communication platforms; this will be done by investigating a system that reproduces head movement manually as closely as possible.

Keywords: engagement, nonverbal behaviours, head movements, face-to-face interaction, telepresence robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
667 High Temperature Creep Analysis for Lower Head of Reactor Pressure Vessel

Authors: Dongchuan Su, Hai Xie, Naibin Jiang

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Under severe accident cases, the nuclear reactor core may meltdown inside the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Retaining the melt pool inside the RPV is an important strategy of severe accident management. During this process, the inner wall of the lower head will be heated to high temperature of a thousand centigrade, and the outer wall is immersed in a large amount of cooling water. The material of the lower head will have serious creep damage under the high temperature and the temperature difference, and this produces a great threat to the integrity of the RPV. In this paper, the ANSYS program is employed to build the finite element method (FEM) model of the lower head, the creep phenomena is simulated under the severe accident case, the time dependent strain and stress distribution is obtained, the creep damage of the lower head is investigated, the integrity of the RPV is evaluated and the theoretical basis is provided for the optimized design and safety assessment of the RPV.

Keywords: severe accident, lower head of RPV, creep, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
666 Optimum Flight Altitude

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Anmol Taploo

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As per current scenario, commercial aircrafts have been very well functioning with higher efficiency, but there is something that affects it. Every aircraft runs with the combustion produced by mixture of fuel and air. For example: A flight to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata it takes 2h: 30 min and from Kolkata to Mumbai it takes 2h: 45 min. It happens due to head and tail wind. Due to head wind air craft travels faster than its usual velocity and it takes 2h: 30 min to reach to Kolkata, while it takes 2h;45min vis versa. This lag in time is caused due to head wind that increases the drag and reduces the relative velocity of the plane. So in order to reduce this wastage of fuel there is an optimal flight altitude at which the head and tail wind action is reduced compared to the present scenario.

Keywords: drag, head wind, tail wind, aircraft

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
665 Mike Hat: Coloured-Tape-in-Hat as a Head Circumference Measuring Instrument for Early Detection of Hydrocephalus in an Infant

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini

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Every year, children develop hydrocephalus during the first year of life. If it is not treated, hydrocephalus can lead to brain damage, a loss in mental and physical abilities, and even death. To be treated, first, we have to do a proper diagnosis using some examinations especially to detect hydrocephalus earlier. One of the examination that could be done is using a head circumference measurement. Increased head circumference is a first and main sign of hydrocephalus, especially in infant (0-1 year age). Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head largest area. In this measurement, we want to get the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head using a measurement tape. If the head circumference of an infant is larger than normal, this infant might potentially suffer hydrocephalus. If early diagnosis and timely treatment of hydrocephalus could be done most children can recover successfully. There are some problems with early detection of hydrocephalus using regular tape for head circumference measurement. One of the problem is the infant’s comfort. We need to make the infant feel comfort along the head circumference measurement to get a proper result of the examination. For that, we can use a helpful stuff, like a hat. This paper is aimed to describe the possibility of using a head circumference measuring instrument for early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant with a mike hat, coloured-tape-in-hat. In the first life, infants’ head size is about 35 centimeters. First three months after that infants will gain 2 centimeters each month. The second three months, infant’s head circumference will increase 1 cm each month. And for the six months later, the rate is 0.5 cm per month, and end up with an average of 47 centimeters. This formula is compared to the WHO’s head circumference growth chart. The shape of this tape-in-hat is alike an upper arm measurement. This tape-in-hat diameter is about 47 centimeters. It contains twelve different colours range by age. If it is out of the normal colour, the infant potentially suffers hydrocephalus. This examination should be done monthly. If in two times of measurement there still in the same range abnormal of head circumference, or a rapid growth of the head circumference size, the infant should be referred to a pediatrician. There are the pink hat for girls and blue hat for boys. Based on this paper, we know that this measurement can be used to help early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant.

Keywords: head circumference, hydrocephalus, infant, mike hat

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
664 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Head Cover Using Ansys

Authors: Surjit Angra, Manisha Kumari, Vinod Kumar

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The objective of the Hydro Turbine Head Cover is to support the guide bearing, guide vane regulating mechanism and even in some design for generator thrust bearing support. Mechanical design of head cover deals with high static as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure. In the present work structural analysis of hydro turbine Head-cover using ANSYS software is carried out. Finite element method is used to calculate stresses on head cover. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition “LCI Quick Shut Down”. The results for equivalent Von-Mises stress, total deformation and directional deformation have been plotted and compared with the existing results whether the design is safe or not.

Keywords: ANSYS, head cover, hydro-turbine, structural analysis, total deformation, Von-Mises stress

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663 Modelling the Effect of Head and Bucket Splitter Angle on the Power Output of a Pelton Turbine

Authors: J. A. Ujam, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, G. O. R. Ikwu

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This work investigates the effect of head and bucket splitter angle on the power output of a pelton turbine (water turbine), so as to boost the efficiency of Hydro-electric power generation systems. A simulation program was developed using MatLab to depict the force generated by the bucket as the water jet strikes the existing splitter angle (100 to 150) and predicted (10 to 250) splitter angles. Result shows that in addition to the existing splitter angle, six more angles have been investigated for the two operating conditions to give maximum power. The angles are 250, 60 and 190 for high head and low flow with increased pressure while low head and high flow with decreased pressure are 230, 210 and 30 in order of the maximum generating power. The Turbine power output for simulation was more than that of the experiment. This was as a result of their head conditions and the bucket splitter angle.

Keywords: bucket splitter angle, force, head, modelling, pelton turbine, power output, shaft output

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
662 The Predictors of Head and Neck Cancer-Head and Neck Cancer-Related Lymphedema in Patients with Resected Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

Authors: Shu-Ching Chen, Li-Yun Lee

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The purpose of the study was to identify the factors associated with head and neck cancer-related lymphoedema (HNCRL)-related symptoms, body image, and HNCRL-related functional outcomes among patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer. A cross-sectional correlational design was conducted to examine the predictors of HNCRL-related functional outcomes in patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer. Eligible patients were recruited from a single medical center in northern Taiwan. Consecutive patients were approached and recruited from the Radiation Head and Neck Outpatient Department of this medical center. Eligible subjects were assessed for the Symptom Distress Scale–Modified for Head and Neck Cancer (SDS-mhnc), Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer (BCSQ-H&N), Body Image Scale–Modified (BIS-m), The MD Anderson Head and Neck Lymphedema Rating Scale (MDAHNLRS), The Foldi’s Stages of Lymphedema (Foldi’s Scale), Patterson’s Scale, UCLA Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA SRS), and Karnofsky’s Performance Status Index (KPS). The results showed that the worst problems with body HNCRL functional outcomes. Patients’ HNCRL symptom distress and performance status are robust predictors across over for overall HNCRL functional outcomes, problems with body HNCRL functional outcomes, and activity and social functioning HNCRL functional outcomes. Based on the results of this period research program, we will develop a Cancer Rehabilitation and Lymphedema Care Program (CRLCP) to use in the care of patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer.

Keywords: head and neck cancer, resected, lymphedema, symptom, body image, functional outcome

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661 Development of Femoral Head Osteonecrosis Due to Corticosteroids Consumption; Probable Role of OCP: A Case Report

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Shervin Rashidinia, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh, Narges Rahimi Gabaran, Seyed Shahin Eftekhari, Sara Shahmoradi

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Avascular necrosis of femoral head is a pathologic condition that the main cause is decreased blood supply of femoral head. Among predisposing risk factors, chronic use of corticosteroids, alcoholism, smocking and hip traumas have more important role. Also we can mention OCP consumption as a risk factor among less common predisposing factors that lead to AVNF, in this study we introduce another cause of AVNF with a period of treatment with moderate dose of corticosteroids accompanied by OCP as a probable facilitating factor that leads to AVNF.

Keywords: AVN, corticosteroids consumption, femoral head osteonecrosis, OCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
660 Variation in Complement Order in English: Implications for Interlanguage Syntax

Authors: Juliet Udoudom

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Complement ordering principles of natural language phrases (XPs) stipulate that Head terms be consistently placed phrase initially or phrase-finally, yielding two basic theoretical orders – Head – Complement order or Complement – Head order. This paper examines the principles which determine complement ordering in English V- and N-bar structures. The aim is to determine the extent to which complement linearisations in the two phrase types are consistent with the two theoretical orders outlined above given the flexible and varied nature of natural language structures. The objective is to see whether there are variation(s) in the complement linearisations of the XPs studied and the implications which such variations hold for the inter-language syntax of English and Ibibio. A corpus-based approach was employed in obtaining the English data. V- and -N – bar structures containing complement structures were isolated for analysis. Data were examined from the perspective of the X-bar and Government – theories of Chomsky’s (1981) Government-Binding format. Findings from the analysis show that in V – bar structures in English, heads are consistently placed phrase – initially yielding a Head – Complement order; however, complement linearisation in the N – bar structures studied exhibited parametric variations. Thus, in some N – bar structures in English the nominal head is ordered to the left whereas in others, the head term occurs to the right. It may therefore be concluded that the principles which determine complement ordering are both Language – Particular and Phrase – specific following insights provided within Phrasal Syntax.

Keywords: complement order, complement–head order, head–complement order, language–particular principles

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659 Semi-Automated Tracking of Vibrissal Movements in Free-Moving Rodents Captured by High-Speed Videos

Authors: Hyun June Kim, Tailong Shi, Seden Akdagli, Sam Most, Yuling Yan

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Quantitative analysis of mouse whisker movement can be used to study functional recovery and regeneration of facial nerve after an injury. However, it is challenging to accurately track mouse whisker movements, and most whisker tracking methods require manual intervention, e.g. fixing the head of the mouse during a study. Here we describe a semi-automated image processing method that is applied to high-speed video recordings of free-moving mice to track whisker movements. We first track the head movement of a mouse by delineating the lower head contour frame-by-frame to locate and determine the orientation of its head. Then, a region of interest is identified for each frame, with subsequent application of the Hough transform to track individual whisker movements on each side of the head. Our approach is used to examine the functional recovery of damaged facial nerves in mice over a course of 21 days.

Keywords: mystacial macrovibrissae, whisker tracking, head tracking, facial nerve recovery

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658 A Retrospective Analysis of the Impact of the Choosing Wisely Canada Campaign on Emergency Department Imaging Utilization for Head Injuries

Authors: Sameer Masood, Lucas Chartier

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Head injuries are a commonly encountered presentation in emergency departments (ED) and the Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) campaign was released in June 2015 in an attempt to decrease imaging utilization for patients with minor head injuries. The impact of the CWC campaign on imaging utilization for head injuries has not been explored in the ED setting. In our study, we describe the characteristics of patients with head injuries presenting to a tertiary care academic ED and the impact of the CWC campaign on CT head utilization. This retrospective cohort study used linked databases from the province of Ontario, Canada to assess emergency department visits with a primary diagnosis of head injury made between June 1, 2014 and Aug 31, 2016 at the University Health Network in Toronto, Canada. We examined the number of visits during the study period, the proportion of patients that had a CT head performed before and after the release of the CWC campaign, as well as mode of arrival, and disposition. There were 4,322 qualifying visits at our site during the study period. The median presenting age was 44.12 years (IQR 27.83,67.45), the median GCS was 15 (IQR 15,15) and the majority of patients presenting had intermediate acuity (CTAS 3). Overall, 43.17% of patients arrived via ambulance, 49.24 % of patients received a CT head and 10.46% of patients were admitted. Compared to patients presenting before the CWC campaign release, there was no significant difference in the rate of CT heads after the CWC (50.41% vs 47.68%, P = 0.07). There were also no significant differences between the two groups in mode of arrival (ambulance vs ambulatory) (42.94% vs 43.48%, P = 0.72) or admission rates (9.85% vs 11.26%, P = 0.15). However, more patients belonged to the high acuity groups (CTAS 1 or 2) in the post CWC campaign release group (12.98% vs 8.11% P <0.001). Visits for head injuries make up a significant proportion of total ED visits and approximately half of these patients receive CT imaging in the ED. The CWC campaign did not seem to impact imaging utilization for head injuries in the 14 months following its launch. Further efforts, including local quality improvement initiatives, are likely needed to increase adherence to its recommendation and reduce imaging utilization for head injuries.

Keywords: choosing wisely, emergency department, head injury, quality improvement

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657 Uncommon Case of Falx Subdural Hematoma

Authors: Thu Nguyen, Jane Daugherty-Luck

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Falx subdural hematoma is a life-threatening condition associated with high mortality. We present a patient case who had fallen with no head injury or loss of conspicuousness. She had tenderness along cervical and thoracic lumbar spine. CT head revealed falx subdural hematoma. The patient was managed medically. The pathophysiology of falx subdural hematoma is linked to laceration of bridging veins provoked by frontal or occipital impact. Posttraumatic subdural hematoma is commonly caused by inertia instead of facture or cerebral contusion resulting from direct impact. The theory is consistent with the lack of fracture in most cases in the literature. Our patient had neither contusion nor fracture.

Keywords: falx subdural hematoma, traumatic head injury, CT head scan, bridging veins, inertia

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656 Evaluation of the MCFLIRT Correction Algorithm in Head Motion from Resting State fMRI Data

Authors: V. Sacca, A. Sarica, F. Novellino, S. Barone, T. Tallarico, E. Filippelli, A. Granata, P. Valentino, A. Quattrone

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In the last few years, resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) was widely used to investigate the architecture of brain networks by investigating the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent response. This technique represented an interesting, robust and reliable approach to compare pathologic and healthy subjects in order to investigate neurodegenerative diseases evolution. On the other hand, the elaboration of rs-fMRI data resulted to be very prone to noise due to confounding factors especially the head motion. Head motion has long been known to be a source of artefacts in task-based functional MRI studies, but it has become a particularly challenging problem in recent studies using rs-fMRI. The aim of this work was to evaluate in MS patients a well-known motion correction algorithm from the FMRIB's Software Library - MCFLIRT - that could be applied to minimize the head motion distortions, allowing to correctly interpret rs-fMRI results.

Keywords: head motion correction, MCFLIRT algorithm, multiple sclerosis, resting state fMRI

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
655 Changing Pattern and Trend of Head of Household in India: Evidence from Various Rounds of National Family Health Survey

Authors: Moslem Hossain, Mukesh Kumar, K. C. Das

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Background: Household headship is the crucial decision-maker as well as the economic provider of the household. In Indian society, household heads occupied by men from the pre-colonial period. This study attempt to examine the changes in household headship in India. Methods: The study used univariate and multivariate analysis to examine the trends and patterns of different characteristics of the household head using the various rounds of national family health survey data. Results: The female household head is gradually increasing; on the other hand, the male-dominant is decreasing over the four national family and health surveys. The mean age of the household head is higher in rural areas than urban India. Only ten percentage of Households are higher educated, and 83 percent of the male household head has a low standard of living. The mean family size of the household has a decreasing trend in both the urban and rural areas during the study period. Conclusions: The result indicates that women's autonomy is increasing and leading to inclusive growth, which introduced in the eleven five year plan, especially focuses on the woman and young people in the country.

Keywords: household head, national family health survey, mean age, mean family size

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654 A Machine Learning Framework Based on Biometric Measurements for Automatic Fetal Head Anomalies Diagnosis in Ultrasound Images

Authors: Hanene Sahli, Aymen Mouelhi, Marwa Hajji, Amine Ben Slama, Mounir Sayadi, Farhat Fnaiech, Radhwane Rachdi

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Fetal abnormality is still a public health problem of interest to both mother and baby. Head defect is one of the most high-risk fetal deformities. Fetal head categorization is a sensitive task that needs a massive attention from neurological experts. In this sense, biometrical measurements can be extracted by gynecologist doctors and compared with ground truth charts to identify normal or abnormal growth. The fetal head biometric measurements such as Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Occipito-Frontal Diameter (OFD) and Head Circumference (HC) needs to be monitored, and expert should carry out its manual delineations. This work proposes a new approach to automatically compute BPD, OFD and HC based on morphological characteristics extracted from head shape. Hence, the studied data selected at the same Gestational Age (GA) from the fetal Ultrasound images (US) are classified into two categories: Normal and abnormal. The abnormal subjects include hydrocephalus, microcephaly and dolichocephaly anomalies. By the use of a support vector machines (SVM) method, this study achieved high classification for automated detection of anomalies. The proposed method is promising although it doesn't need expert interventions.

Keywords: biometric measurements, fetal head malformations, machine learning methods, US images

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653 Insufficiency Fracture of Femoral Head in Patients Treated With Intramedullary Nailing for Proximal Femur Fracture

Authors: Jai Hyung Park, Eugene Kim, Jin Hun Park, Min Joon Oh

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Introduction: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIF) is a rare complication; however, it has been recognized to cause femoral head collapse. Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is caused by normal or physiological stress without any trauma. It has been reported in osteoporotic patients after the fixation of the proximal femur with an Intramedullary nail. Case presentation: We reported 5 cases with SIF of the femoral head after proximal femur fracture fixation with Intra-medullary nail. All patients had osteoporosis as an underlying disease. Good reduction was achieved in all 5 patients. SIF was found from about 3 months to 4 years after the initial operation, and all the fractures were solidly united at the final diagnosis. We investigated retrospectively the feature of those cases and several factors that affected the occurrence of SIF. Discussion: There are a few discussions regarding the SIF of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, how to diagnose the SIF in osteoporotic patients, and the peri-operative factors to prevent SIF. Conclusion: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head is a considerable complication after the internal fixation of the proximal femur. There are several factors that can be modified. If they could be controlled in the peri-operative period, SIF could be prevented or handled in advance. Other options related to arthroplasty can be considered in old osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: insufficiency fracture of femoral head, intra-medullary nail, osteoporosis, proximal femur fracture

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652 Optic Nerve Sheath Measurement in Children with Head Trauma

Authors: Sabiha Sahin, Kursad Bora Carman, Coskun Yarar

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Introduction: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a noninvasive and easy to use imaging technique to predict intracranial pressure in children and adults. The aim was to measure the diameter of the optic nerve sheath in pediatric head trauma. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 children with healthy and 40 patients with head trauma. Transorbital sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter was performed. Conclusion: The mean diameters of the optic nerve sheath of right and left eyes were 0.408 ± 0.064 mm and 0.417 ± 0.065 mm, respectively, in the trauma group. These results were higher in patients than in control group. There was a negative correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and Glasgow Coma Scales in patients with head trauma (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and positive CT findings, systolic blood pressure in patients with head trauma. The clinical status of the patients at admission, blood pH and lactate level were related to the optic nerve sheath diameter. Conclusion: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is not an invasive technique and can be easily used to predict increased intracranial pressure and to prevent secondary brain injury.

Keywords: head trauma, intracranial pressure, optic nerve, sonography

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651 An Analytical Study of the Quality of Educational Administration and Management At Secondary School Level in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Shamim Akhtar

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The purpose of the present research was to analyse the performance level of district administrators and school heads teachers at secondary school level. The sample of the study was head teachers and teachers of secondary schools. In survey three scales were used, two scales were for the head teachers, one five point scale was for analysing the working efficiency of educational administrators and other seven points scale was for head teachers for analysing their own performance and one another seven point rating scale similar to head teacher was for the teachers for analysing the working performance of their head teachers. The results of the head teachers’ responses revealed that the performance of their District Educational Administrators was average and for the performance efficiency of the head teachers, researcher constructed the rating scales on seven parameters of management likely academic management, personnel management, financial management, infra-structure management, linkage and interface, student’s services, and managerial excellence. Results of percentages, means, and graphical presentation on different parameters of management showed that there was an obvious difference in head teachers and teachers’ responses and head teachers probably were overestimating their efficiency; but teachers evaluated that they were performing averagely on majority statements. Results of t-test showed that there was no significance difference in the responses of rural and urban teachers but significant difference in male and female teachers’ responses showed that female head teachers were performing their responsibilities better than male head teachers in public sector schools. When efficiency of the head teachers on different parameters of management were analysed it was concluded that their efficiency on academic and personnel management was average and on financial management and on managerial excellence was highly above of average level but on others parameters like infra-structure management, linkage and interface and on students services was above of average level on most statements but highly above of average on some statements. Hence there is need to improve the working efficiency in academic management and personnel management.

Keywords: educational administration, educational management, parameters of management, education

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650 Proposed Algorithms to Assess Concussion Potential in Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Rami Hashish, Manon Limousis-Gayda, Caitlin McCleery

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Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injuries, also referred to as concussions, represent an increasing burden to society. Due to limited objective diagnostic measures, concussions are diagnosed by assessing subjective symptoms, often leading to disputes to their presence. Common biomechanical measures associated with concussion are high linear and/or angular acceleration to the head. With regards to linear acceleration, approximately 80g’s has previously been shown to equate with a 50% probability of concussion. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a leading cause of concussion, due to high head accelerations experienced. The change in velocity (delta-V) of a vehicle in an MVC is an established metric for impact severity. As acceleration is the rate of delta-V with respect to time, the purpose of this paper is to determine the relation between delta-V (and occupant parameters) with linear head acceleration. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted for manuscripts collected using the following keywords: head acceleration, concussion, brain injury, head kinematics, delta-V, change in velocity, motor vehicle collision, and rear-end. Ultimately, 280 studies were surveyed, 14 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria as studies investigating the human response to impacts, reporting head acceleration, and delta-V of the occupant’s vehicle. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS and R. The best fit line analysis allowed for an initial understanding of the relation between head acceleration and delta-V. To further investigate the effect of occupant parameters on head acceleration, a quadratic model and a full linear mixed model was developed. Results: From the 14 selected studies, 139 crashes were analyzed with head accelerations and delta-V values ranging from 0.6 to 17.2g and 1.3 to 11.1 km/h, respectively. Initial analysis indicated that the best line of fit (Model 1) was defined as Head Acceleration = 0.465

Keywords: acceleration, brain injury, change in velocity, Delta-V, TBI

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649 Voice and Head Controlled Intelligent Wheelchair

Authors: Dechrit Maneetham

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The aim of this paper was to design a void and head controlled electric power wheelchair (EPW). A novel activate the control system for quadriplegics with voice, head and neck mobility. Head movement has been used as a control interface for people with motor impairments in a range of applications. Acquiring measurements from the module is simplified through a synchronous a motor. Axis measures the two directions namely x and y. At the same time, patients can control the motorized wheelchair using voice signals (forward, backward, turn left, turn right, and stop) given by it self. The model of a dc motor is considered as a speed control by selection of a PID parameters using genetic algorithm. An experimental set-up constructed, which consists of micro controller as controller, a DC motor driven EPW and feedback elements. This paper is tuning methods of parameter for a pulse width modulation (PWM) control system. A speed controller has been designed successfully for closed loop of the dc motor so that the motor runs very closed to the reference speed and angle. Intelligent wheelchair can be used to ensure the person’s voice and head are attending the direction of travel asserted by a conventional, direction and speed control.

Keywords: wheelchair, quadriplegia, rehabilitation , medical devices, speed control

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648 The Effect of Head Posture on the Kinematics of the Spine During Lifting and Lowering Tasks

Authors: Mehdi Nematimoez

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Head posture is paramount to retaining gaze and balance in many activities; its control is thus important in many activities. However, little information is available about the effects of head movement restriction on other spine segment kinematics and movement patterns during lifting and lowering tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of head movement restriction on relative angles and their derivatives using the stepwise segmentation approach during lifting and lowering tasks. Ten healthy men lifted and lowered a box using two styles (stoop and squat), with two loads (i.e., 10 and 20% of body weight); they performed these tasks with two instructed head postures (1. Flexing the neck to keep contact between chin and chest over the task cycle; 2. No instruction, free head posture). The spine was divided into five segments, tracked by six cluster markers (C7, T3, T6, T9, T12, and L5). Relative angles between spine segments and their derivatives (first and second) were analyzed by a stepwise segmentation approach to consider the effect of each segment on the whole spine. Accordingly, head posture significantly affected the derivatives of the relative angles and manifested latency in spine segments movement, i.e., cephalad-to-caudad or caudad-to-cephalad patterns. The relative angles for C7-T3 and T3-T6 increased over the cycle of all lifting and lowering tasks; nevertheless, in lower segments increased significantly when the spine moved into upright standing. However, these effects were clearer during lifting than lowering. Conclusively, the neck flexion can unevenly increase the flexion angles of spine segments from cervical to lumbar over lifting and lowering tasks; furthermore, stepwise segmentation reveals potential for assessing the segmental contribution in spine ROM and movement patterns.

Keywords: head movement restriction, spine kinematics, lifting, lowering, stepwise segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
647 Enhanced Cluster Based Connectivity Maintenance in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Manverpreet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh

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The demand of Vehicular ad hoc networks is increasing day by day, due to offering the various applications and marvelous benefits to VANET users. Clustering in VANETs is most important to overcome the connectivity problems of VANETs. In this paper, we proposed a new clustering technique Enhanced cluster based connectivity maintenance in vehicular ad hoc network. Our objective is to form long living clusters. The proposed approach is grouping the vehicles, on the basis of the longest list of neighbors to form clusters. The cluster formation and cluster head selection process done by the RSU that may results it reduces the chances of overhead on to the network. The cluster head selection procedure is the vehicle which has closest speed to average speed will elect as a cluster Head by the RSU and if two vehicles have same speed which is closest to average speed then they will be calculate by one of the new parameter i.e. distance to their respective destination. The vehicle which has largest distance to their destination will be choosing as a cluster Head by the RSU. Our simulation outcomes show that our technique performs better than the existing technique.

Keywords: VANETs, clustering, connectivity, cluster head, intelligent transportation system (ITS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
646 Analysis of Brain Specific Creatine Kinase of Postmortem Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum in Blunt Head Trauma Cases

Authors: Rika Susanti, Eryati Darwin, Dedi Afandi, Yanwirasti, Syahruddin Said, Noverika Windasari, Zelly Dia Rofinda

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Introduction: Blunt head trauma is one of the leading causes of death associated with murders and other deaths involved in criminal acts. Creatine kinase (CKBB) levels have been used as a biomarker for blunt head trauma. Therefore, it is now used as an alternative to an autopsy. The aim of this study is to investigate CKBB levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and post-mortem serum in order to deduce the cause and time of death. Method: This investigation was conducted through post-test–only group design involving deaths caused by blunt head trauma, which was compared to deaths caused by ketamine poisoning. Results: There were eight treatment groups, each consisting of six adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague-Dawley strain. Examinations were done at 0 hours, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours post-mortem, which followed by brain tissue observation. Data were then analyzed statistically with a repeated-measures general linear model. Conclusion: There were increases in the level of CKBB in CSF and postmortem serum in both blunt head trauma and ketamine poisoning treatment groups. However, there were no significant differences between these two groups.

Keywords: blunt head trauma, CKBB, the cause of death, estimated time of death

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645 Investigation of Clustering Algorithms Used in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Naim Karasekreter, Ugur Fidan, Fatih Basciftci

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Wireless sensor networks are networks in which more than one sensor node is organized among themselves. The working principle is based on the transfer of the sensed data over the other nodes in the network to the central station. Wireless sensor networks concentrate on routing algorithms, energy efficiency and clustering algorithms. In the clustering method, the nodes in the network are divided into clusters using different parameters and the most suitable cluster head is selected from among them. The data to be sent to the center is sent per cluster, and the cluster head is transmitted to the center. With this method, the network traffic is reduced and the energy efficiency of the nodes is increased. In this study, clustering algorithms were examined in terms of clustering performances and cluster head selection characteristics to try to identify weak and strong sides. This work is supported by the Project 17.Kariyer.123 of Afyon Kocatepe University BAP Commission.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks (WSN), clustering algorithm, cluster head, clustering

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644 A Contrastive Analysis on Hausa and Yoruba Adjectival Phrases

Authors: Abubakar Maikudi

Abstract:

Contrastive analysis is the method of analyzing the structure of any two languages with a view to determining the possible differential aspects of their systems irrespective of their genetic affinity or level of development. Contrastive analysis of two languages becomes useful when it is adequately describing the sound structure and grammatical structure of two languages, with comparative statements giving emphasis to the compatible items in the two systems. This research work uses comparative analysis theory to analyze adjective and adjectival phrases in Hausa and Yorùbá languages. The Hausa language belongs to the Chadic family of the Afro-Asiatic phylum, while the Yorùbá language belongs to the Benue-Congo family of the Niger-Congo phylum. The findings of the research clearly demonstrated that there are significant similarities in the adjectival phrase constructions of the two languages, i.e., nominal (Head) and post-nominal (Post-Head) use of the adjective, predicative function of an adjective, use of the reduplicative adjective, use of the comparative and superlative adjective, etc. However, there are dissimilarities in the adjectival phrase of the two languages in gender/number agreement and pre-nominal (Post-Head) use of adjectives.

Keywords: genetic affinity, contrastive analysis, phylum, pre-head, post-head

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643 Addressing Head Transplantation and Its Legal, Social and Neuroethical Implications

Authors: Joseph P. Mandala

Abstract:

This paper examines the legal and medical ethics concerns, which proponents of human head transplantation continue to defy since the procedure was first attempted on dogs in 1908. Despite recent bioethical objections, proponents have proceeded with radical experimentation, claiming transplantation would treat incurable diseases and improve patients’ quality of life. In 2018, Italian neurosurgeon, Sergio Canavero, and Dr. Xiaoping Ren claimed to have performed a head transplant on a corpse in China. Content analysis of literature shows that the procedure failed to satisfy scientific, legal, and bioethical elements because, unlike humans, corpses cannot coordinate function. Putting a severed head onto a body that has been dead for several days is not equivalent to a transplant which would require successfully reconnecting and restoring function to a spinal cord. While reconnection without restoration of bodily function is not transplantation, the publicized procedure on animals and corpses could leapfrog to humans, sparking excitement in society likely to affect organ donors and recipients from territorial jurisdictions with varying legal and ethical regimes. As neurodiscoveries generate further excitement, the need to preemptively address the legal and medical ethics impact of head transplantation in our society cannot be overstated. A preemptive development of methods to address the impact of head transplantation will help harmonizing national and international laws on organ donations, advance directives, and laws affecting end of life.

Keywords:

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
642 A Smart Electric Power Wheelchair Controlled by Head Motion

Authors: Dechrit Maneetham

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to design a smart electric power wheelchair (SEPW) with a novel control system for quadriplegics with head and neck mobility. Head movement has been used as a control interface for people with motor impairments in a range of applications. Acquiring measurements from the module is simplified through a synchronous a motor. Axis measures the two directions namely X ,Y and Z. The model of a DC motor is considered as a speed control by selection of a PID parameters using genetic algorithm. An experimental set-up constructed, which consists of micro controller Arduino ATmega32u4 as controllers, a DC motor driven SEPW and feedback elements. And this paper is tuning methods of parameter for a pulse width modulation (PWM) control system. A speed controller has been designed successfully for closed loop of the DC motor so that the motor runs very closed to the reference speed and angle. SEPW controller can be used to ensure the person’s head is attending the direction of travel asserted by a conventional, direction and speed control.

Keywords: wheelchair, quadriplegia, rehabilitation, medical devices, speed control

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
641 Effect of Sowing Dates on Incidence of Sorghum Head Bug Eurystylus Sp (Hemiptera; Miridae) at Rainfed Sector, Blue Nile State, Sudan

Authors: Eisa Y. Adam, Anas A. Fadlelmula, Ali E. Ali

Abstract:

Sorghum head bug is a key insect pest of sorghum, and it is important to pay attention to the peak time of the pest abundance. The objective of this study was to study the effect of planting date on head bugs population. Field experiment was conducted during 2007/08 – 2008/09 and 2013/14 - 2014/15 cropping seasons at the Damazine Research Station Farm, Blue Nile State to determine sorghum head bugs incidence and abundance through the sowing date. Different sowing dates (early, mid and late sowing) and a susceptible sorghum variety known as Wad Ahmed variety were used the experiment. The experimental design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD). Data were collected on the number of head bug adults and nymphs/panicle, damage percent, coloration and a puncture due to bug feeding and oviposition, 1000 seeds weight and yield. The results showed that significantly (P<0.05) higher number of bugs and damage percent were recorded on the late sowing date for the four seasons followed by the mid sowing, while the early sowing gave low number of bugs, damage percent and high1000 weight. There were significant differences between protected and unprotected heads. The late sowing (August) is a critical sorghum planting time because it coincided with highest numbers of the head bugs.

Keywords: abundance, damage, headbugs, panicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
640 A Study on Reliability of Gender and Stature Determination by Odontometric and Craniofacial Anthropometric Parameters

Authors: Churamani Pokhrel, C. B. Jha, S. R. Niraula, P. R. Pokharel

Abstract:

Human identification is one of the most challenging subjects that man has confronted. The determination of adult sex and stature are two of the four key factors (sex, stature, age, and race) in identification of an individual. Craniofacial and odontometric parameters are important tools for forensic anthropologists when it is not possible to apply advanced techniques for identification purposes. The present study provides anthropometric correlation of the parameters with stature and gender and also devises regression formulae for reconstruction of stature. A total of 312 Nepalese students with equal distribution of sex i.e., 156 male and 156 female students of age 18-35 years were taken for the study. Total of 10 parameters were measured (age, sex, stature, head circumference, head length, head breadth, facial height, bi-zygomatic width, mesio-distal canine width and inter-canine distance of both maxilla and mandible). Co-relation and regression analysis was done to find the association between the parameters. All parameters were found to be greater in males than females and each was found to be statistically significant. Out of total 312 samples, the best regressor for the determination of stature was head circumference and mandibular inter-canine width and that for gender was head circumference and right mandibular teeth. The accuracy of prediction was 83%. Regression equations and analysis generated from craniofacial and odontometric parameters can be a supplementary approach for the estimation of stature and gender when extremities are not available.

Keywords: craniofacial, gender, odontometric, stature

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
639 Investigation of Steady State Infiltration Rate for Different Head Condition

Authors: Nour Aljafari, Mariam, S. Maani, Serter Atabay, Tarig Ali, Said Daker, Lara Daher, Hamad Bukhammas, Mohammed Abou Shakra

Abstract:

This paper aims at determining the soil characteristics that influence the irrigation process of green landscapes and deciding on the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the constant head methodology to determine the soil infiltration rates. The steady state infiltration rate was reached after 10 minutes of infiltration at a rate of 200 mm/hr. The effects of different water heads on infiltration rates were also investigated, and the head of 11 cm was found to be the optimum head for the test. The experimental results showed consistent infiltration results for the range between 11 cm and 15 cm. The study also involved finding the initial moisture content, which ranged between 5% and 25%, and finding the organic content, which occupied 1% to 2% of the soil. These results will be later utilized, using the water balance approach, to estimate the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation for changing weather conditions.

Keywords: infiltration rate, moisture content, grass type, organic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 160