Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: lettuce

34 Toxicity Depletion Rates of Water Lettuce (Pistia stratoites) in an Aquaculture Effluent Hydroponic System

Authors: E. A. Kiridi, A. O. Ogunlela


The control of ammonia build-up and its by-product is a limiting factor for a successful commercial aquaculture in a developing country like Nigeria. The technology for an advanced treatment of fish tank effluent is uneconomical to local fish farmers which have led to indiscriminate disposal of aquaculture wastewater, thereby increasing the concentrations of these nitrogenous compound and other contaminants in surface and groundwater above the permissible level. Phytoremediation using water lettuce could offer cheaper and sustainable alternative. On the first day of experimentation, approximately 100 g of water lettuce were replicated in four hydroponic units containing aquaculture effluents. The water quality parameters measured were concentration of ammonium–nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2--N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N), and phosphate–phosphorus (PO43--P). Others were total suspended solids (TSS), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and biomass value. At phytoremediation intervals of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, the biomass recorded were 361.2 g, 498.7 g, 561.2 g, and 623.7 g. Water lettuce was able to reduce the pollutant concentration of all the selected parameter. The percentage reduction of pH ranged from 3.9% to 14.4%, EC from 49.8% to 96.2%, TDS from 50.4% to 96.2%, TSS from 38.3% to 81.7%, NH4+-N from 38.9% to 90.7%, NO2--N from 0% to 74.9%, NO3--N from 63.2% to 95.9% and PO43--P from 0% to 76.3%. At 95% confidence level, the analysis of variance shows that F(critical) is less than F(cal) and p < 0.05; therefore, it can be concluded statistically that the inequality between the pre-treatment and post-treatment values are significant. This suggests the potency of water lettuce for remediation of aquaculture effluent.

Keywords: aquaculture effluent, nitrification, phytoremediation, water lettuce

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33 Morpho-Anatomical Responses of Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown with Different Colored Plastic Mulch

Authors: Edmar N. Franquera, Renato C. Mabesa, Rene Rafael C. Espino, Edralina P. Serrano, Eduardo P. Paningbatan Jr.


The potential of growing lettuce with different colored plastic mulch silver (control), red, orange, yellow and green was evaluated using two lettuce varieties, Looseleaf and Romaine. The experiment was laid out on split plot design following the Randomized Complete Block Design. The Looseleaf variety had better performance in terms of plant fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, root length, plant height and yield. However, better response was observed in Romaine in terms of leaf diameter, leaf length, root dry weight and root fresh weight. The color of the mulch reflected different qualities of light and hence the quality of absorbed light by the lettuce plants. A higher Far red and red ratio (FR:R) was obtained from green plastic mulch which was followed by the red plastic mulch. The different colored plastic mulch affected the growth and developmental responses of leaf lettuce morphological and leaf anatomical characteristics. Data in all growth morphological and yield parameters showed that those grown with red plastic mulch had better response and had longer stomates than those lettuce grown with the other colored plastic mulch. The soil temperature 10 cm below the plastic mulch was significantly influenced by the color of the mulch. The red plastic mulch had the highest soil temperature recorded while the lowest soil temperature recorded was within the yellow plastic mulch.

Keywords: anatomical, lettuce, morpholological, plastic mulch

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32 Comparative Efficacy of Gas Phase Sanitizers for Inactivating Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on Intact Lettuce Heads

Authors: Kayla Murray, Andrew Green, Gopi Paliyath, Keith Warriner


Introduction: It is now acknowledged that control of human pathogens associated with fresh produce requires an integrated approach of several interventions as opposed to relying on post-harvest washes to remove field acquired contamination. To this end, current research is directed towards identifying such interventions that can be applied at different points in leafy green processing. Purpose: In the following the efficacy of different gas phase treatments to decontaminate whole lettuce heads during pre-processing storage were evaluated. Methods: Whole Cos lettuce heads were spot inoculated with L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp. The inoculated lettuce heads were then placed in a treatment chamber and exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide or hydroxyl radicals at different time periods under a range of relative humidity. Survivors of the treatments were enumerated along with sensory analysis performed on the treated lettuce. Results: Ozone gas reduced L. monocytogenes by 2-log10 after ten-minutes of exposure with Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 being decreased by 0.66 and 0.56-log cfu respectively. Chlorine dioxide gas treatment reduced L. monocytogenes and Salmonella on lettuce heads by 4 log cfu but only supported a 0.8 log cfu reduction in E. coli O157:H7 numbers. In comparison, hydroxyl radicals supported a 2.9 – 4.8 log cfu reduction of model human pathogens inoculated onto lettuce heads but required extended exposure times and relative humidity < 0.8. Significance: From the gas phase sanitizers tested, chlorine dioxide and hydroxyl radicals are the most effective. The latter process holds most promise based on the ease of delivery, worker safety and preservation of lettuce sensory characteristics. Although expose times for hydroxyl radicles was relatively long (24h) this should not be considered a limitation given the intervention is applied in store rooms or in transport containers during transit.

Keywords: gas phase sanitizers, iceberg lettuce heads, leafy green processing

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31 Chemometric Estimation of Phytochemicals Affecting the Antioxidant Potential of Lettuce

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Aleksandra Tepic-Horecki, Zdravko Sumic


In this paper, the influence of six different phytochemical content (phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a + b and vitamin C) on antioxidant potential of Murai and Levistro lettuce varieties was evaluated. Variable selection was made by generalized pair correlation method (GPCM) as a novel ranking method. This method is used for the discrimination between two variables that almost equal correlate to a dependent variable. Fisher’s conditional exact and McNemar’s test were carried out. Established multiple linear (MLR) models were statistically evaluated. As the best phytochemicals for the antioxidant potential prediction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a + b and total carotenoids content stand out. This was confirmed through both GPCM and MLR, predictive ability of obtained MLR can be used for antioxidant potential estimation for similar lettuce samples. This article is based upon work from the project of the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina (No. 114-451-347/2015-02).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, generalized pair correlation method, lettuce, regression analysis

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30 Enhancing Postharvest Quality and Shelf-Life of Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by Altering Growing Conditions

Authors: Jung-Soo Lee, Ujjal Kumar Nath, IllSup Nou, Dulal Chandra


Leaf lettuce is one of the most important leafy vegetables that is used as raw for salad and part of everyday dishes in many parts of the world including Asian countries. Since it is used as fresh, its quality maintenance is crucial which depends on several pre- and postharvest factors. In order to investigate the effects of pre-fix factors on the postharvest quality, the interaction of pre-fix factors such as growing conditions and fixed factor like cultivars were evaluated. Four Korean leaf lettuce cultivars ‘Cheongchima’, ‘Cheongchuckmyeon’, ‘Geockchima’ and ‘Geockchuckmyeon’ were grown under natural condition (as control) and altered growing condition (green house) with excess soil water and 50% shading to monitor their postharvest qualities. Several growth parameters like plant height, number of leaves, leaf thickness, fresh biomass yield as well as postharvest qualities like fresh weight loss, respiration rate, changes in color and shelf-life were measured in lettuce during storage up to 36 days at 5°C. Plant height and the number of leaves were affected by both pre-fix growing conditions as well as the cultivars. However, fresh biomass yield was affected by only growing condition, whereas leaf thickness was affected by cultivars. Additionally, the degrees of fresh weight loss and respiration rate of leaf lettuce at postharvest stages were influenced by pre-fix growing conditions and cultivars. However, changes in color of leaves during storage were less remarkable in samples harvested from of ‘Cheongchima’ and ‘Cheongchuckmyeon’ cultivars grown in excess watering with 50% shade than that grown in control condition. Consequently, these two cultivars also showed longer shelf-life when they were grown in excess watering with 50% shade than other cultivars or samples were grown in control condition. Based on the measured parameters, it can be concluded that postharvest quality of leaf lettuce might be accelerated by growing lettuce under excess soil water with 50% shading.

Keywords: cultivar, growing condition, leaf lettuce, postharvest quality, shelf-life

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29 Varying Frequency Application of Vermicast as Supplemented with 19-19-19+Me in the Agronomic Performance of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

Authors: Jesryl B. Paulite, Eixer Niel V. Enesco


Lettuce is not well known in the lowland locality in the tropical countries like Philippines. Farmers thought that this crop is not adaptable to the climate that we have in lowland. But some new varieties can tolerate warmer conditions. The massive use of pesticides in lettuce production might chronically affect human health and environment. The move of the Philippine government is toward organic. One of the organic material is vermicompost. It is an organic fertilizer that serves as soil conditioner and enhances soil fertility and promotes vigorous and healthy crop growth and Supplementation of 19-19-19+M.E. will make it better since it contains N-P-K and selected microelements to meet the nutritive requirements of the crop. The experiment was conducted at Purok 3, Brgy. Tiburcia, Kapalong, Davao del Norte from February 6, 2014 to March 4, 2014. The study was conducted to determine the effect of varying frequency application of vermicast as supplemented with 19-19-19+M.E. in lettuce. Specifically, this aimed to 1.) Identify the agronomic performance of lettuce as affected by varying frequency application of vermicast as supplemented with 19-19-19+M.E.; 2.) Assess the economic profitability of lettuce as applied with vermicast as supplemented with 19-19-19+M.E. The study was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were as follow: T1 – Untreated, T2 - Weekly Application, T3- Bi-weekly Application, and T4- Monthly Application. The data on percent (%) mortality were transformed using square root of transformation before Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results revealed not significant in terms of percent mortality in weekly and monthly application of the treatment having a mean of 1.76 % and 3.09 %. However, Significant differences were observed in agronomic performances such as; plant height with a mean of 10.63 cm in weekly application and 6.40 cm for the untreated, leaf width with a mean of 10.80 cm for the weekly application and 6.03 for the untreated, fresh weight with a mean of 25.67 g for the weekly application and 6.83 g for the untreated, and yield with a mean of 1,208.33 kg/ha for the weekly application and 327.08 kg/ha for the untreated, respectively. Results further exposed that profitability of lettuce in terms of Return of Production Cost (RPC) were; bi-weekly with 91.01 %, monthly with 68.20 %, weekly with 25.34 % and untreated (control) with 16.69 %.

Keywords: agronomic performance, economic profitability, vermicast, percent mortality, 19-19-19+ME

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28 Effects of Extract from Lactuca sativa on Sleep in Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice

Authors: Hae Dun Kim, Joo Hyun Jang, Geu Rim Seo, Kyung Soo Ra, Hyung Joo Suh


Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been known for its medical property to relieve anxiety and nervous. This study was implemented to investigate sleep-promoting effects of the lettuce alcohol extract (LAE). Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induced wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. In the present study, the sedative-hypnotic activity of the LAE was studied using the method of pentobarbital-induced sleep in the mouse model. The LAE was administrated to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. The LAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration and decreased sleep latency. The effects of LAE were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. Another study was performed to examine whether LAE ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. Additionally, caffeine (10 mg/kg, p.o) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, LAE treatment (80 or 160 mg/kg, p.o), especially at 160 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. LAE supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. These results suggest that LAE possess significant sedative-hypnotic activity, which supports the popular use of lettuce for treatment of insomnia and provide the basis for new drug discovery. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that the lettuce extract may be preferable for the treatment of insomnia.

Keywords: caffeine, Lactuca sativa, sleep duration, sleep latency

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27 Phytoremediation Aeration System by Using Water Lettuce (Pistia Stratiotes I) Based on Zero Waste to Reduce the Impact of Industrial Liquid Waste in Jember, Indonesia

Authors: Wahyu Eko Diyanto, Amalia Dyah Arumsari, Ulfatu Layinatinnahdiyah Arrosyadi


Tofu industry is one of the local food industry which is can being competitive industry in the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). However, a lot of tofu entrepreneurs just thinking how to produce good quality product without considering the impact of environmental conditions from the production process. Production of tofu per day requires a number of 15 kg with liquid waste generated is 652.5 liters. That liquid waste is discharged directly into waterways, whereas tofu liquid waste contains organic compounds that quickly unraveled, so it can pollute waterways. In addition, tofu liquid waste is high in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorus. This research is aim to create a method of handling liquid waste effectively and efficiently by using water lettuce. The method is done by observation and experiment by using phytoremediation method in the tofu liquid waste using water lettuce and adding aeration to reduce the concentration of contaminants. The results of the research analyzed the waste quality standard parameters based on SNI (National Standardization Agency of Indonesia). The efficiency concentration and parameters average of tofu liquid waste are obtained pH 3,42% (from 4,0 to be 3,3), COD 76,13% (from 3579 ppm to be 854 ppm), BOD 55 % (from 11600 ppm to be 5242 ppm), TSS 93,6% (from 3174 ppm to be 203 ppm), turbidity is 64,8% (from 977 NTU to be 1013 NTU), and temperature 36oC (from 45oC to be 40oC). The efficiency of these parameters indicates a safe value for the effluent to be channeled in waterways. Water lettuce and tofu liquid waste phytoremediation result will be used as biogas as renewable energy.

Keywords: aeration, phytoremediation, water letuce, tofu liquid waste

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26 The Use of Non-Parametric Bootstrap in Computing of Microbial Risk Assessment from Lettuce Consumption Irrigated with Contaminated Water by Sanitary Sewage in Infulene Valley

Authors: Mario Tauzene Afonso Matangue, Ivan Andres Sanchez Ortiz


The Metropolitan area of Maputo (Mozambique Capital City) is located in semi-arid zone (800 mm annual rainfall) with 1101170 million inhabitants. On the west side, there are the flatlands of Infulene where the Mulauze River flows towards to the Indian Ocean, receiving at this site, the storm water contaminated with sanitary sewage from Maputo, transported through a concrete open channel. In Infulene, local communities grow salads crops such as tomato, onion, garlic, lettuce, and cabbage, which are then commercialized and consumed in several markets in Maputo City. Lettuce is the most daily consumed salad crop in different meals, generally in fast-foods, breakfasts, lunches, and dinners. However, the risk of infection by several pathogens due to the consumption of lettuce, using the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) tools, is still unknown since there are few studies or publications concerning to this matter in Mozambique. This work is aimed at determining the annual risk arising from the consumption of lettuce grown in Infulene valley, in Maputo, using QMRA tools. The exposure model was constructed upon the volume of contaminated water remaining in the lettuce leaves, the empirical relations between the number of pathogens and the indicator of microorganisms (E. coli), the consumption of lettuce (g) and reduction of pathogens (days). The reference pathogens were Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium, norovirus, and Ascaris. The water quality samples (E. coli) were collected in the storm water channel from January 2016 to December 2018, comprising 65 samples, and the urban lettuce consumption data were collected through inquiry in Maputo Metropolis covering 350 persons. A non-parametric bootstrap was performed involving 10,000 iterations over the collected dataset, namely, water quality (E. coli) and lettuce consumption. The dose-response models were: Exponential for Cryptosporidium, Kummer Confluent hypergeomtric function (1F1) for Vibrio and Ascaris Gaussian hypergeometric function (2F1-(a,b;c;z) for norovirus. The annual infection risk estimates were performed using R 3.6.0 (CoreTeam) software by Monte Carlo (Latin hypercubes), a sampling technique involving 10,000 iterations. The annual infection risks values expressed by Median and the 95th percentile, per person per year (pppy) arising from the consumption of lettuce are as follows: Vibrio cholerae (1.00, 1.00), Cryptosporidium (3.91x10⁻³, 9.72x 10⁻³), nororvirus (5.22x10⁻¹, 9.99x10⁻¹) and Ascaris (2.59x10⁻¹, 9.65x10⁻¹). Thus, the consumption of the lettuce would result in greater risks than the tolerable levels ( < 10⁻³ pppy or 10⁻⁶ DALY) for all pathogens, and the Vibrio cholerae is the most virulent pathogens, according to the hit-single models followed by the Ascaris lumbricoides and norovirus. The sensitivity analysis carried out in this work pointed out that in the whole QMRA, the most important input variable was the reduction of pathogens (Spearman rank value was 0.69) between harvest and consumption followed by water quality (Spearman rank value was 0.69). The decision-makers (Mozambique Government) must strengthen the prevention measures related to pathogens reduction in lettuce (i.e., washing) and engage in wastewater treatment engineering.

Keywords: annual infections risk, lettuce, non-parametric bootstrapping, quantitative microbial risk assessment tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
25 Comparison of Allelopathic Activity of Some Edible Mushroom and Wild Mushroom in Japan

Authors: Asma Osivand, Hossein Mardani, Hiroshi Araya, Yoshiharu Fujii


Wild mushrooms have always been considered as valuable source of bioactive compounds, while edible mushrooms have been known for their importance as food source. However, their interaction with plants through chemicals that could lead to find new biochemical have not been well undertaken. A special bioassay method (Sandwich method) was applied to compare eight common edible mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Grifola frondosa, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus tessellatus and Pholiota namako) with some wild species (Ganoderma appelanatum, Amanita pantherina, Artomyces pyxidatus, Morchella conica, Tricholosporum porphyrophyllum, Trametes hirsuta) for their phytotoxicity against lettuce. Among all tested edible mushrooms, application of 5 mg of P. ostreatus showed stronger allelopathic activity by inhibiting the growth of radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce by 84% and 63% respectively. Moreover, same amount of T. porphyrophyllum exerted 77% and 67% growth inhibition on radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce. In general, biochemicals contributed in tested mushrooms could be the main cause for their inhibitory activity and could lead to find new allelochemicals.

Keywords: allelopathy, interaction, mushroom, phytotoxicity, Pleurotus sp., sandwich method

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24 Intelligent System and Renewable Energy: A Farming Platform in Precision Agriculture

Authors: Ryan B. Escorial, Elmer A. Maravillas, Chris Jordan G. Aliac


This study presents a small-scale water pumping system utilizing a fuzzy logic inference system attached to a renewable energy source. The fuzzy logic controller was designed and simulated in MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox to examine the properties and characteristics of the input and output variables. The result of the simulation was implemented in a microcontroller, together with sensors, modules, and photovoltaic cells. The study used a grand rapid variety of lettuce, organic substrates, and foliar for observation of the capability of the device to irrigate crops. Two plant boxes intended for manual and automated irrigation were prepared with each box having 48 heads of lettuce. The observation of the system took 22-31 days, which is one harvest period of the crop. Results showed a 22.55% increase in agricultural productivity compared to manual irrigation. Aside from reducing human effort, and time, the smart irrigation system could help lessen some of the shortcomings of manual irrigations. It could facilitate the economical utilization of water, reducing consumption by 25%. The use of renewable energy could also help farmers reduce the cost of production by minimizing the use of diesel and gasoline.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, intelligent system, precision agriculture, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
23 Ligandless Extraction and Determination of Trace Amounts of Lead in Pomegranate, Zucchini and Lettuce Samples after Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction with Ultrasonic Bath and Optimization of Extraction Condition with RSM Design

Authors: Fariba Tadayon, Elmira Hassanlou, Hasan Bagheri, Mostafa Jafarian


Heavy metals are released into water, plants, soil, and food by natural and human activities. Lead has toxic roles in the human body and may cause serious problems even in low concentrations, since it may have several adverse effects on human. Therefore, determination of lead in different samples is an important procedure in the studies of environmental pollution. In this work, an ultrasonic assisted-ionic liquid based-liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-IL-DLLME) procedure for the determination of lead in zucchini, pomegranate, and lettuce has been established and developed by using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). For UA-IL-DLLME procedure, 10 mL of the sample solution containing Pb2+ was adjusted to pH=5 in a glass test tube with a conical bottom; then, 120 μL of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoro phosphate (CMIM)(PF6) was rapidly injected into the sample solution with a microsyringe. After that, the resulting cloudy mixture was treated by ultrasonic for 5 min, then the separation of two phases was obtained by centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 rpm and IL-phase diluted with 1 cc ethanol, and the analytes were determined by FAAS. The effect of different experimental parameters in the extraction step including: ionic liquid volume, sonication time and pH was studied and optimized simultaneously by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) employing a central composite design (CCD). The optimal conditions were determined to be an ionic liquid volume of 120 μL, sonication time of 5 min, and pH=5. The linear ranges of the calibration curve for the determination by FAAS of lead were 0.1-4 ppm with R2=0.992. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for lead was 0.062 μg.mL-1, the enrichment factor (EF) was 93, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for lead was calculated as 2.29%. The levels of lead for pomegranate, zucchini, and lettuce were calculated as 2.88 μg.g-1, 1.54 μg.g-1, 2.18 μg.g-1, respectively. Therefore, this method has been successfully applied for the analysis of the content of lead in different food samples by FAAS.

Keywords: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, Central composite design, Food samples, Flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

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22 Evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase Activities in the Land Snail Helix aspersa Exposed to Thiamethoxam

Authors: Ait Hamlet Smina, Bensoltane Samira, Djekoun Mohamed, Berrebbah Houria


In Algeria, the use of insecticides and other phytosanitary products are considerably spreading with the development of agriculture. But, the analyses of the residues of pesticides are not systematically made. In this context, we estimated through an experimental study, the effect of a neonicotinoid insecticide, the thiamethoxam which is used as a commercial preparation on the land snail Helix aspersa. This snail is one of the most abundant gastropod in North-East Algeria. Little information is available in the literature concerning the study of the biochemical markers of mollusks which are exposed to insecticides and especially, thiamethoxam.In this work, adult snails Helix aspersa were used to estimate the effect of a neonicotinoid insecticide (thiamethoxam) on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in this gastropod after a treatment of 6 weeks. During this period, snails were exposed by ingestion and contact to fresh lettuce leaves which were soaked with an insecticide solution. The thiamethoxam test solutions were 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L, which are lower or equal to the concentrations that are applied in field. The results showed that the enzymatic activities of AChE and GST and CAT increased significantly with a dose-dependent manner. These results confirmed the toxic effect of thiamethoxam on snails exposed to the lettuce contaminated with this neonicotinoid insecticide, likely to be used as biomarker of exposure, at first to thiamethoxam then to other insecticides belonging to the same chemical family, currently present in the environment.

Keywords: helix aspersa, insecticide, thiamethoxam, AChE, GST, CAT

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21 A Perspective on Allelopathic Potential of Corylus avellana L.

Authors: Tugba G. Isin Ozkan, Yoshiharu Fujii


One of the most important constrains that decrease the crop yields are weeds. Increased amount and number of chemical herbicides are being utilized every day to control weeds. Chemical herbicides which cause environmental effects, and limitations on implementation of them have led to the nonchemical alternatives in the management of weeds. It is needed increasingly the application of allelopathy as a nonherbicidal innovation to control weed populations in integrated weed management. It is not only because of public concern about herbicide use, but also increased agricultural costs and herbicide resistance weeds. Allelopathy is defined as a common biological phenomenon, direct or indirect interaction which one plant or organism produces biochemicals influence the physiological processes of another neighboring plant or organism. Biochemicals involved in allelopathy are called allelochemicals that influence beneficially or detrimentally the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other plant or organisms. All plant parts could have allelochemicals which are secondary plant metabolites. Allelochemicals are released to environment, influence the germination and seedling growth of neighbors' weeds; that is the way how allelopathy is applied for weed control. Crop cultivars have significantly different ability for inhibiting the growth of certain weeds. So, a high commercial value crop Corylus avellana L. and its byproducts were chosen to introduce for their allelopathic potential in this research. Edible nut of Corylus avellana L., commonly known as hazelnut is commercially valuable crop with byproducts; skin, hard shell, green leafy cover, and tree leaf. Research on allelopathic potential of a plant by using the sandwich bioassay method and investigation growth inhibitory activity is the first step to develop new and environmentally friendly alternatives for weed control. Thus, the objective of this research is to determine allelopathic potential of C. avellana L. and its byproducts by using sandwich method and to determine effective concentrations (EC) of their extracts for inducing half-maximum elongation inhibition on radicle of test plant, EC50. The sandwich method is reliable and fast bioassay, very useful for allelopathic screening under laboratory conditions. In experiments, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds will be test plant, because of its high sensitivity to inhibition by allelochemicals and reliability for germination. In sandwich method, the radicle lengths of dry material treated lettuce seeds and control lettuce seeds will be measured and inhibition of radicle elongation will be determined. Lettuce seeds will also be treated by the methanol extracts of dry hazelnut parts to calculate EC₅₀ values, which are required to induce half-maximal inhibition of growth, as mg dry weight equivalent mL-1. Inhibitory activity of extracts against lettuce seedling elongation will be evaluated, like in sandwich method, by comparing the radicle lengths of treated seeds with that of control seeds and EC₅₀ values will be determined. Research samples are dry parts of Turkish hazelnut, C. avellana L. The results would suggest the opportunity for allelopathic potential of C. avellana L. with its byproducts in plant-plant interaction, might be utilized for further researches, could be beneficial in finding bioactive chemicals from natural products and developing of natural herbicides.

Keywords: allelopathy, Corylus avellana L., EC50, Lactuca sativa L., sandwich method, Turkish hazelnut

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20 Impact of Nano-Anatase TiO₂ on the Germination Indices and Seedling Growth of Some Plant Species

Authors: Rayhaneh Amooaghaie, Maryam Norouzi


In this study, the effects of nTiO₂ on seed germination and growth of six plant species (wheat, soybean, tomato, canola, cucumber, and lettuce) were evaluated in petri dish (direct exposure) and in soil in a greenhouse experiment (soil exposure). Data demonstrate that under both culture conditions, low or mild concentrations of nTiO₂ either stimulated or had no effect on seed germination, root growth and vegetative biomass while high concentrations had an inhibitory effect. However, results showed that the impacts of nTiO₂ on plant growth in soil were partially consistent with those observed in pure culture. Based on both experiment sets, among above six species, lettuce and canola were the most susceptible and the most tolerant species to nTiO₂ toxicity. However, results revealed the impacts of nTiO₂ on plant growth in soil were less than petri dish exposure probability due to dilution in soil and complexation/aggregation of nTiO₂ that would lead to lower exposure of plants. The high concentrations of nTiO₂ caused significant reductions in fresh and dry weight of aerial parts and root and chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of all species which also coincided with further accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). These findings suggest that decreasing growth might be the result of an nTiO₂-induced oxidative stress and disturbance of photosynthesis systems.

Keywords: chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, nano TiO₂, seed germination

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19 Modelling Phytoremediation Rates of Aquatic Macrophytes in Aquaculture Effluent

Authors: E. A. Kiridi, A. O. Ogunlela


Pollutants from aquacultural practices constitute environmental problems and phytoremediation could offer cheaper environmentally sustainable alternative since equipment using advanced treatment for fish tank effluent is expensive to import, install, operate and maintain, especially in developing countries. The main objective of this research was, therefore, to develop a mathematical model for phytoremediation by aquatic plants in aquaculture wastewater. Other objectives were to evaluate the retention times on phytoremediation rates using the model and to measure the nutrient level of the aquaculture effluent and phytoremediation rates of three aquatic macrophytes, namely; water hyacinth (Eichornia crassippes), water lettuce (Pistial stratoites) and morning glory (Ipomea asarifolia). A completely randomized experimental design was used in the study. Approximately 100 g of each macrophyte were introduced into the hydroponic units and phytoremediation indices monitored at 8 different intervals from the first to the 28th day. The water quality parameters measured were pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Others were concentration of ammonium–nitrogen (NH₄⁺ -N), nitrite- nitrogen (NO₂⁻ -N), nitrate- nitrogen (NO₃⁻ -N), phosphate –phosphorus (PO₄³⁻ -P), and biomass value. The biomass produced by water hyacinth was 438.2 g, 600.7 g, 688.2 g and 725.7 g at four 7–day intervals. The corresponding values for water lettuce were 361.2 g, 498.7 g, 561.2 g and 623.7 g and for morning glory were 417.0 g, 567.0 g, 642.0 g and 679.5g. Coefficient of determination was greater than 80% for EC, TDS, NO₂⁻ -N, NO₃⁻ -N and 70% for NH₄⁺ -N using any of the macrophytes and the predicted values were within the 95% confidence interval of measured values. Therefore, the model is valuable in the design and operation of phytoremediation systems for aquaculture effluent.

Keywords: aquaculture effluent, macrophytes, mathematical model, phytoremediation

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18 Detection of Arcobacter and Helicobacter pylori Contamination in Organic Vegetables by Cultural and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Methods

Authors: Miguel García-Ferrús, Ana González, María A. Ferrús


The most demanded organic foods worldwide are those that are consumed fresh, such as fruits and vegetables. However, there is a knowledge gap about some aspects of organic food microbiological quality and safety. Organic fruits and vegetables are more exposed to pathogenic microorganisms due to surface contact with natural fertilizers such as animal manure, wastes and vermicompost used during farming. It has been suggested that some emergent pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori or Arcobacter spp., could reach humans through the consumption of raw or minimally processed vegetables. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the contamination of organic fresh green leafy vegetables by Arcobacter spp. and Helicobacter pylori. For this purpose, a total of 24 vegetable samples, 13 lettuce and 11 spinach were acquired from 10 different ecological supermarkets and greengroceries and analyzed by culture and PCR. Arcobacter spp. was detected in 5 samples (20%) by PCR, 4 spinach and one lettuce. One spinach sample was found to be also positive by culture. For H. pylori, the H. pylori VacA gene-specific band was detected in 12 vegetable samples (50%), 10 lettuces and 2 spinach. Isolation in the selective medium did not yield any positive result, possibly because of low contamination levels together with the presence of the organism in its viable but non-culturable form. Results showed significant levels of H. pylori and Arcobacter contamination in organic vegetables that are generally consumed raw, which seems to confirm that these foods can act as transmission vehicles to humans.

Keywords: Arcobacter sp., Helicobacter pylori, Organic Vegetables, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

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17 Comparative Effects of Convective Drying on the Qualities of Some Leafy Vegetables

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Samson A. Adeleye, Omojola Awogbemi


This paper reports an investigation of the comparative effects of drying on the quality of some leafy vegetables at three different temperatures namely: 50ᵒC, 60ᵒC and 70ᵒC. The vegetables investigated are spinach (Amaranthus cruentus); water leaf (Talinum triangulare); lettuce (Lactuca satuva); and fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis). These vegetables are available in abundance during raining season and are commonly consumed by average Nigerians. A convective dryer was used for the drying process at the stipulated temperatures which were maintained with the aid of a thermostat. The vegetable samples after washing was cut into smaller sizes of 0.4 cm-0.5 cm and loaded into the drying cage of the convective dryer. The daily duration of the drying is six hours from 9:00 am to 3:00 pm. The dried samples were thereafter subjected to microbial and proximate analyses. The result of the tests shows that the microbial load decreases as the drying temperature increases. As temperature increases, the moisture content and carbohydrate of all the samples decreases while the crude fiber, ash and protein increases. Percentage fat content decreases as drying temperature increases with the exception of fluted pumpkin. The shelf life of the vegetable samples increase with drying temperature, Spinach has the lowest shelf life followed by Fluted Pumpkin, followed by lettuce while Water Leaf has the highest shelf life at the three drying temperatures of 50ᵒC, 60ᵒC and 70ᵒC respectively.

Keywords: convective drying, leafy vegetables, quality, shelf life

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16 An Electrochemical Enzymatic Biosensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocomposites for Organophosphate Detection

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Himkusha Thakur, Nirmal Prabhakar


The most controversial issue in crop production is the use of Organophosphate insecticides. This is evident in many reports that Organophosphate (OP) insecticides, among the broad range of pesticides are mainly involved in acute and chronic poisoning cases. OPs detection is of crucial importance for health protection, food and environmental safety. In our study, a nanocomposite of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been deposited electrochemically onto the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide sheets (FTO) for the analysis of malathion OP. The -COOH functionalization of MWCNTs has been done for the covalent binding with amino groups of AChE enzyme. The use of PEDOT-MWCNT films exhibited an excellent conductivity, enables fast transfer kinetics and provided a favourable biocompatible microenvironment for AChE, for the significant malathion OP detection. The prepared biosensors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical studies. Various optimization studies were done for different parameters including pH (7.5), AChE concentration (50 mU), substrate concentration (0.3 mM) and inhibition time (10 min). Substrate kinetics has been performed and studied for the determination of Michaelis Menten constant. The detection limit for malathion OP was calculated to be 1 fM within the linear range 1 fM to 1 µM. The activity of inhibited AChE enzyme was restored to 98% of its original value by 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) (5 mM) treatment for 11 min. The oxime 2-PAM is able to remove malathion from the active site of AChE by means of trans-esterification reaction. The storage stability and reusability of the prepared biosensor is observed to be 30 days and seven times, respectively. The application of the developed biosensor has also been evaluated for spiked lettuce sample. Recoveries of malathion from the spiked lettuce sample ranged between 96-98%. The low detection limit obtained by the developed biosensor made them reliable, sensitive and a low cost process.

Keywords: PEDOT-MWCNT, malathion, organophosphates, acetylcholinesterase, biosensor, oxime (2-PAM)

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15 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Doped Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxythiophene) Composites Based Electrochemical Nano-Biosensor for Organophosphate Detection

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Himkusha Thakur, Nirmal Prabhakar


One of the most publicized and controversial issue in crop production is the use of agrichemicals- also known as pesticides. This is evident in many reports that Organophosphate (OP) insecticides, among the broad range of pesticides are mainly involved in acute and chronic poisoning cases. Therefore, detection of OPs is very necessary for health protection, food and environmental safety. In our study, a nanocomposite of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been deposited electrochemically onto the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide sheets (FTO) for the analysis of malathion OP. The -COOH functionalization of MWCNTs has been done for the covalent binding with amino groups of AChE enzyme. The use of PEDOT-MWCNT films exhibited an excellent conductivity, enables fast transfer kinetics and provided a favourable biocompatible microenvironment for AChE, for the significant malathion OP detection. The prepared PEDOT-MWCNT/FTO and AChE/PEDOT-MWCNT/FTO nano-biosensors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical studies. Electrochemical studies were done using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) or Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Various optimization studies were done for different parameters including pH (7.5), AChE concentration (50 mU), substrate concentration (0.3 mM) and inhibition time (10 min). The detection limit for malathion OP was calculated to be 1 fM within the linear range 1 fM to 1 µM. The activity of inhibited AChE enzyme was restored to 98% of its original value by 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) (5 mM) treatment for 11 min. The oxime 2-PAM is able to remove malathion from the active site of AChE by means of trans-esterification reaction. The storage stability and reusability of the prepared nano-biosensor is observed to be 30 days and seven times, respectively. The application of the developed nano-biosensor has also been evaluated for spiked lettuce sample. Recoveries of malathion from the spiked lettuce sample ranged between 96-98%. The low detection limit obtained by the developed nano-biosensor made them reliable, sensitive and a low cost process.

Keywords: PEDOT-MWCNT, malathion, organophosphates, acetylcholinesterase, nano-biosensor, oxime (2-PAM)

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14 Assessment of Cadmium Levels in Soil and Vegetables Grown Along Kubanni Stream Channels, Zaria, Kaduna State

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji


Quantitative determination of cadmium levels in soil and vegetables grown along Kubanni stream channels were seasonally analyzed for a period of two years using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.00 – 3.50 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 1.31 – 7.15 mg/Kg in 2014 for the soil samples while the vegetables (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) had concentrations in the range of 0.20 – 6.10 mg/Kg in 2013 and 0.60 – 5.60 mg/Kg in 2014 respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in cadmium levels across the locations and seasons for soil and vegetable analyzed. Pearson correlation results for cadmium concentrations between the year 2013 and 2014 revealed negligible (r = 0.002) relationship for soils while low (r = 0.395) relationship was obtained for vegetable and these were attributed to heavy application of fertilizers and nature of wastewater use for irrigation. Cadmium levels for both soil and vegetable exceeded the maximum allowable limit set by Standard Organization such as FAO and WHO.

Keywords: cadmium, level, soil, vegetables

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13 Image-Based (RBG) Technique for Estimating Phosphorus Levels of Different Crops

Authors: M. M. Ali, Ahmed Al- Ani, Derek Eamus, Daniel K. Y. Tan


In this glasshouse study, we developed the new image-based non-destructive technique for detecting leaf P status of different crops such as cotton, tomato and lettuce. Plants were allowed to grow on nutrient media containing different P concentrations, i.e. 0%, 50% and 100% of recommended P concentration (P0 = no P, L; P1 = 2.5 mL 10 L-1 of P and P2 = 5 mL 10 L-1 of P as NaH2PO4). After 10 weeks of growth, plants were harvested and data on leaf P contents were collected using the standard destructive laboratory method and at the same time leaf images were collected by a handheld crop image sensor. We calculated leaf area, leaf perimeter and RGB (red, green and blue) values of these images. This data was further used in the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to estimate leaf P contents, which successfully classified these plants on the basis of leaf P contents. The data indicated that P deficiency in crop plants can be predicted using the image and morphological data. Our proposed non-destructive imaging method is precise in estimating P requirements of different crop species.

Keywords: image-based techniques, leaf area, leaf P contents, linear discriminant analysis

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12 Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizer Application on Yield of Herbaceous Crops in Succession

Authors: Tarantino E., Disciglio G., Gagliardi A., Gatta G., Tarantino A.


Fertilizer is a critical input for improving production and increasing crop yields. Consecutive experimental trials during six years (from 2010-2015) were carried out in Apulia region (south-eastern Italy) on seven crops grown in cylinder pots. The aim was to determinate the effects of chemical and organic fertilizer on marketable yield and other parameters of processing tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L., cv Docet), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv Canasta), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., cv Casper), pepper (Capsicum annum L., cv Akron), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L., cv Tarquinia), eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv Primato F1) and chard (Beta vulgaris L., Argentata). At harvest the quail-quantitative yield characteristics of each crop were determined. All of the experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the yields for all of these crops were greater under the chemical system than the organic system whereas quite variable results were generally observed for the other characteristics of the yield.

Keywords: fertilizers, herbaceous crops, yield characteristics, succession

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11 An Evaluation of Edible Plants for Remediation of Contaminated Soil- Can Edible Plants Be Used to Remove Heavy Metals on Soil?

Authors: Celia Marilia Martins, Sonia I. V. Guilundo, Iris M. Victorino, Antonio O. Quilambo


In Mozambique rapid industrialization (mining, aluminium and cement activities) and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of heavy metals on soil, thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting plants, animals and human healthy. Several methods have been used to remediate contaminated soils, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The present investigation summarised the potential of edible vegetable to grow under the high level of heavy metals such as lead and zinc. The plants used in these studies include Tomatoes, lettuce and Soya beans. The studies have shown that edible plants can be grown under the high level of heavy metals on the soil. Further investigations are identifying mechanisms used by plants to ensure a safe and sustainable use for remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.

Keywords: contaminated soil, edible plants, heavy metals, phytoremediation

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10 Assessment of Cobalt Concentrations in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples Grown along Kubanni Stream Channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji


The level of cobalt was determined in wastewater and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from December, 2012 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed cobalt concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 3.77 – 15.20 mg/L for the year 2013 and 4.74 – 15.20 mg/L in 2014 while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 1.25 – 8.75 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 2.76 – 12.45 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in cobalt levels across the locations for wastewater and vegetables whereas seasons (harmattan, dry and rainy) showed no significant difference in wastewater and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation revealed substantial (r = 0.726) relationship between cobalt levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014 likewise, substantial (r = 0.750) relationship was also obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Cobalt concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as W.H.O. and F.A.O. for wastewater; however, vegetables indicated no contamination with cobalt metal.

Keywords: cobalt, concentration, wastewater, vegetable

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9 Effect of PGPB Inoculation, Addition of Biochar and Mineral N Fertilization on Mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Irina Mikajlo, Jaroslav Záhora, Helena Dvořáčková, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jakub Elbl


Strong anthropogenic impact has uncontrolled consequences on the nature of the soil. Hence, up-to-date sustainable methods of soil state improvement are essential. Investigators provide the evidence that biochar can positively effects physical, chemical and biological soil properties and the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi which are in the focus of this study. The main aim of the present investigation is to demonstrate the effect of two types of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculums along with the beech wood biochar and mineral N additives on mycorrhizal colonization. Experiment has been set up in laboratory conditions with containers filled with arable soil from the protection zone of the main water source ‘Brezova nad Svitavou’. Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been selected as a model plant. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that mycorrhizal colonization increased as the result of combined influence of biochar and PGPB inoculums amendment. In addition, correlation analyses showed that the numbers of main groups of cultivated bacteria were dependent on the degree of mycorrhizal colonization.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza, biochar, PGPB inoculum, soil microorganisms

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8 The Trial Using Bio-Product for Reducing Arsenic Heavy Metal in Soil in Grow Organic Vegetables

Authors: Nittaya Nokham, Nattaphon Kamon, Pipatpong Pimkhot, Pedcharada Yusuk


Testing efficacy of a bio-product (bp) to reduce amount of arsenic was carried out in soil which were used for cultivation of organic vegetables, at Watchan Royal Project Development Center, Kulayaniwattana district, Chiang Mai. The test consists of 6 treatments e.g. Tr.1) Control: To underlie the planting pits (pp)with compost; Tr.2) Using bp: To underlie thepp with compost mixed with (+) bp at 100 g/pit; Tr.3) Using bp: To underlie the pp with compost + bp at 100 g/pit and to spray the vegetables with bp at 2 l/20 l of water, once a week; Tr.4) Using bp: To spread the compost bp on the planting area at 3 kg/1 m2 ; Tr.5) Using bp: To spread the compost + bp on the planting area at 3 kg/1 m2and to spray vegetables with bp at 2 l/20 l of water; Tr.6) Using bp: To spray vegetables with bp at 2 l/20 l of water. Result showed that after first trial of pointed cabbage cultivation, only Tr.6 had a small reduction of arsenic; while the others had higher amount of the metal. After second trial of growing red oak leaf, Tr.6 had more reduction of arsenic while Tr.5 and Tr.3 had less reduction compared to Tr.6 but more reduction than the others. In the third trial of growing mustard, very small reduction could be found on Tr.6 and Tr.5 but more reduction in Tr.3. For the fourth (last) trial with cos romaine lettuce: Tr.6, Tr.5 showed most reduction of arsenic to about half of the original amount. So, it can be concluded that this bio-product can help reducing arsenic when using this product by spraying the bp to vegetables at concentration of 2 l/20 l of water once week (Tr.6), or using the bio-product mixed with compost to spread on the planting area at 3 kg/1 m2 together with spraying the product (Tr.5). The results obtained from continuous planting 4 kinds of vegetables at the same area. The amount of arsenic found in roots and stem is very small in the 4 vegetables.

Keywords: organic vegetables, bio-product, arsenic, soil

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7 Green Fruit and Vegetables Have Favorable Effects on 3-Year Changes of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Cohort Study

Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Nazanin Moslehi, Fereidoun Azizi


Background and aim: We aimed to investigate the effects of green fruits and vegetables (green FV) consumption on the 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Dietary intake of green FV, including green cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, celery, green beans, green peas, cucumber, leafy vegetables, zucchini, green chili and bell pepper, and kiwi fruit, has been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline and second examination. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of cardiometabolic risk changes with mean intake of green FV were estimated. Results: The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean intake of green FV was 152±77 g/d. More intake from green FV was accompanied to more intake of vitamin A, α and β-carotene, lutein, β-criptoxanthine, potassium, magnesium and fiber. Consumption of green FV was inversely associated with 3-year change of waist circumference (β= -0.07, P=0.01), total cholesterol (β= -0.11, P=0.01) and triglycerides (β= -0.13, P=0.01). Each 25 g/d increase in consumption of green FV decreased the incidence of hyper-triglyceridemia by 12% (OR:0.88, 95%CI:0.71-0.99) in men. In women, no significant association was observed between consumption of green FV with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion: Higher consumption of green FV could have preventive effects against abdominal fat gain and lipid disorders.

Keywords: cardiometabolic risk factors, abdominal obesity, lipid disorders, fruits, vegetables

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6 Determination of Some Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Vegetable and Soil Samples from Alau Dam and Gongulong Agricultural Sites, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Clement Akan, Lami Jafiya, Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Zakari Mohammed, Fanna Inna Abdulrahman


Five vegetables (spinach, lettuce, cabbage, tomato, and onion) were freshly harvested from the Alau Dam and Gongulong agricultural areas for the determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, metoxichlor, lindane, endosulfan dieldrin, and aldrin.) Soil samples were also collected at different depths for the determination of the above pesticides. Samples collection and preparation were conducted using standard procedures. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil and vegetable samples were determined using GC/MS SHIMADZU (GC-17A) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The highest concentration was that of p,p’-DDD (132.4±13.45µg/g) which was observed in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (2.34µg/g) was observed in the root of spinach. Similar trends were observed at the Gongulong agricultural area, with p,p’-DDD having the highest concentration of 153.23µg/g in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (12.45µg/g) which was observed in the root of spinach. α-BHC, γ-BHC, Methoxychlor, and lindane were detected in all the vegetable samples studied. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil samples were observed to be higher at a depth of 21-30cm, while the lowest concentrations were observed at a depth of 0-10cm. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the vegetables and soil samples from the two agricultural sites were observed to be at alarming levels, much higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) .The levels of the pesticides observed in the vegetables and soil samples investigated, are of such a magnitude that calls for special attention and laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in these study areas is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution, so as to minimize health risks.

Keywords: Alau Dam, gongulong, organochlorine, pesticide residues, soil, vegetables

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5 Sustainable Cities: Viability of a Hybrid Aeroponic/Nutrient Film Technique System for Cultivation of Tomatoes

Authors: D. Dannehl, Z. Taylor, J. Suhl, L. Miranda, R., Ulrichs, C., Salazar, E. Fitz-Rodriguez, I. Lopez-Cruz, A. Rojano-Aguilar, G. Navas-Gomez, U. Schmidt


Growing environmental and sustainability concerns have driven continual modernization of horticultural practices, especially for urban farming. Controlled environment and soilless production methods are increasing in popularity because of their efficient resource use and intensive cropping capabilities. However, some popular substrates used for hydroponic cultivation, particularly rock wool, represent a large environmental burden in regard to their manufacture and disposal. Substrate-less hydroponic systems are effective in producing short cropping cycle plants such as lettuce or herbs, but less information is available for the production of plants with larger root-systems and longer cropping times. Here, we investigated the viability of a hybrid aeroponic/nutrient film technique (AP/NFT) system for the cultivation of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Panovy’). The plants grown in the AP/NFT system had a more compact phenotype, accumulated more Na+ and less P and S than the rock wool grown counterparts. Due to forced irrigation interruptions, we propose that the differences observed were cofounded by the differing severity of water-stress for plants with and without substrate. They may also be caused by a higher root zone temperature predominant in plants exposed to AP/NFT. However, leaf area, stem diameter, and number of trusses did not differ significantly. The same was found for leaf pigments and plant photosynthetic efficiency. Overall, the AP/NFT system appears to be viable for the production of greenhouse tomato, enabling the environment to be relieved by way of lessening rock wool usage.

Keywords: closed aeroponic systems, fruit quality, nutrient dynamics, substrate waste reduction, urban farming systems, water savings

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