Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2011

Search results for: Islamic architecture

2011 Islamic Architecture and the Challenges against It

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to lack of necessary information and also successive wars which have overtaken the Muslims as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Muslims but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art and culture of Muslims and civilization.

Keywords: art, culture, civilization, Islamic architecture, Muslims

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
2010 Investigating the Effect of Aesthetics of Wisdom and Thought on Islamic-Iranian Architecture and Modern Western Architecture: Considering the Position of Islamic Philosophy and Western Philosophy in the Art of Architecture

Authors: Hamid Mohamad Hosein Zadeh Hashemi

Abstract:

In this article, in order to recognize the value of aesthetics of the place of wisdom and mysticism on Islamic art-architecture, and compare it with the influence of philosophy and thought on the "modern art of architecture" of the West, it examines the position of wisdom and philosophy in art Architecture ". In this regard, one can point out the unique status of "art of architecture" in human societies, which in two cultures of the East and West, based on the ideas of Islamic wisdom and Western thought, has taken a dual path, so that even today, even from the original And the basic "art of architecture" of its primary and academic has turned away and has undergone some kind of transformation. To this end, we examine some of the "aesthetics" positions based on the "art of architecture" in the broad sense of the word, in order to reflect on the historical course of this art, and with regard to the position of Islamic thought and Western thought, each of which originated from, but based on The basis of cultures, climate, and sociology, and others, are ultimately the result of an arbitrary result, namely the achievement of the aesthetic position of wisdom and mysticism on the "Islamic-Iranian" architecture of art "and its opposition to the position of philosophy and thought On modern art of modern architecture of the West.

Keywords: aesthetics, art, philosophy, the art of Architecture, wisdom

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
2009 Mystical Principles of Islamic Art

Authors: Seyed Razi Nousavi Gilani

Abstract:

Islamic culture and especially the Shia is full of mystical and philosophical elements. A close look at the history of Islamic civilization, which is supposed to represent the teachings and words of faith leaders with the knowledge and use of the philosophical and mystical concepts, has influenced Islamic art. This article explains the influence of Shiite Islamic teachings and their teachings of mystical elements on Islamic art and examines as case studies in the arts such as architecture, calligraphy and painting. These arts have always been associated with mystical and philosophical teachings in view of traditional artists.

Keywords: mystics, Islamic Art, Islamic culture, mystic

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
2008 A Contemplation of Iranian Islamic Architecture in the Age of Globalization

Authors: Maziar Asefi, Safa Salkhi Khasraghi

Abstract:

Despite the great development of Islamic Architecture in its conquered lands, its active performance in a vast geographical area, faded by the advent of industrial age. Now in the Information Age with great advances in technologies and increased interconnection among many societies, every aspect of life is affected by rapid spreading phenomenon called globalization which resulted in the world with less regional and cultural boundaries. So being proudly globalized in the past and becoming inactive in today's globalized world puts Islamic Architecture in a great challenge. Indeed, its important role has changed from transmitting cultural values to the world to importing dominated values even defectively. This study aimed to determine the factors influenced this controversial situation of Islamic Architecture, especially in current age. The paper focuses on performance of Islamic architecture in relation with Globalization as an ancient process. So qualitative method in terms of logic analysis was chosen to evaluate how Islamic architecture of Iran has contributed in Globalization subject in different time periods. Several works were analyzed as case studies in three categories: religious, monumental, commercial utilities and climate element. Theoretical and practical findings indicate that there is a mutual relationship between Islamic Architecture and Globalization which is transformed from the active mode to passive mode gradually in three periods of Globalization: proto, modern and communication Globalization. The proposed solution in the response to this challenge is finding a solution that makes an equilibrium between science, art, and technology, as well as taking the global performance of architecture.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, globalisation, the relationship among art, science and technology, Iranian architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2007 The Impact of the Windows Opening on the Design of Buildings in Islamic Architecture

Authors: Salma I. Dwidar, Amal A. Abdel-Sattar

Abstract:

The window openings are the key to the relationship between the inside and the outside of any building. It is the eye that sees from, the lunges of the construction, and the ear to hear. The success of the building, as well as the comfort of the uses, depends mainly on this relationship. Usually, windows are affected by human factors like religious, social, political and economic factors as well as environmental factors like climatic, aesthetic and functional factors. In Islamic architecture, the windows were one of the most important elements of physiological and psychological comfort to the users of the buildings. Windows considered one of the main parameters in designing internal and external facade, where the window openings occupied a big part of the formation of the external facade of the buildings. This paper discusses the importance of the window openings and its relationship to residential buildings in the Islamic architecture. It addresses the rules that have been followed in the design of windows in Islamic architecture to achieve privacy and thermal comfort while there are no technological elements within the dwellings. Also, it demonstrates the effects of windows on the building form and identity and how it gives a distinctive fingerprint of the architecture buildings.

Keywords: window openings, thermal comfort, residential buildings, the Islamic architecture, human considerations

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
2006 Analyzing the Ancient Islamic Architectural Theories: Role of Geometric Proportionality as a Principle of Islamic Design

Authors: Vamsi G.

Abstract:

Majority of the modern-day structures have less aesthetical value with minimum requirements set by foreign tribes. Numerous elements of traditional architecture can be incorporated into modern designs using appropriate principles to improve and enhance the functionality, aesthetics, and usability of any space. This paper reviews the diminishing ancient values of the traditional Islamic architecture. By introducing them into the modern-day structures like commercial, residential and recreational spaces in at least the Islamic states, the functionality of those spaces can be improved. For this, aspects like space planning, aesthetics, scale, hierarchy, value, and patterns are to be experimented with modern day structures. Case studies of few ancient Islamic architectural marvels are done to elaborate the whole. A brief analysis of materials and execution strategies are also a part of this paper. The analysis is formulated and is ready to design or redesign spaces using traditional Islamic principles and Elements of design to improve the quality of the architecture of modern day structures by studying the ancient Islamic architectural theories. For this, sources from the history and evolution of this architecture have been studied. Also, elements and principles of design from case studies of various mosques, forts, tombs, and palaces have been tabulated. All this data accumulated, will help revive the elements decorated by ancient principles in functional and aesthetical ways. By this, one of the most astonishing architectural styles can be conserved, reinstalled into modern day buildings and remembered.

Keywords: ancient architecture, architectural history, Islamic architecture, principles and elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
2005 The Relationship between Anatomical Components of Mosques and Place Attachment with Respect to Islamic Wisdom and Art

Authors: Alitajer Saeed, Negintaji Farshad

Abstract:

This study has been examined the relationship between anatomical components of mosques and place attachment of people to anatomies of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, components such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been investigated. For this purpose, SPSS software has been used. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined. Statistical analysis obtained from the questionnaire indicates that there is a significant relationship between the anatomical components of architecture and place attachment of the participants. By understanding and identifying the anatomy of mosques and appropriate planning to use the anatomy in Islamic architecture and considering it as an eminent indicators of designing, it can present great Iranian architecture.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy place attachment, Islamic art

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
2004 Traditional Sustainable Architecture Techniques and Its Applications in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo and Sana'a, Cities in Egypt and Yemen

Authors: Ahmed S. Attia

Abstract:

This paper includes a study of modern sustainable architectural techniques and elements that are originally found in vernacular and traditional architecture, particularly in the Arab region. Courtyards, Wind Catchers, and Mashrabiya, for example, are elements that have been developed in contemporary architecture using modern technology to create sustainable architecture designs. An analytical study of the topic will deal with some examples of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo city in Egypt, analyzing its elements and their relationship to the environment, in addition to the examples in southern Egypt (Nubba) of sustainable architecture systems, and traditional houses in Sana'a city, Yemen, using earth resources of mud bricks and other construction materials. In conclusion, a comparative study between traditional and contemporary techniques will be conducted to confirm that it is possible to achieve sustainable architecture through the use of low-technology in buildings in Arab regions.

Keywords: Islamic context, cultural environment, natural environment, Islamic house, low-technology, mud brick, vernacular and traditional architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2003 Biomorphic Ornaments in Islamic Architecture and Their Development

Authors: Esra Alhamal

Abstract:

Islamic architecture is known for the ornamental patterns that cover the architectural surfaces: floors, walls, and ceilings. This quality in Islamic buildings has long impressed other civilisation, and it is a visual language that exists across the Islamic lands. Ornamentation is divided into three types: geometry, biomorphs, and Arabic calligraphy. The focus of this study is the biomorphic ornaments. This paper will aim to define and characterise biomorphic patterns and trace their development from the 7th to the 18th centuries. Although the time period is seemingly long, the biomorphic patterns and their motifs have been consistent and supported by a geometric system underlying the free flowing, symmetrical motifs. The methodology of this paper consists of analysing and comparing biomorphic patterns from each Islamic period using rules of geometry and symmetry. The study is concluded with a table showcasing the main motifs and how they developed under each Islamic dynasty. This research is a documentation of the biomorphic language and having this record will help contemporary designers employ biomorphic ornaments thoughtfully.

Keywords: architectural surface, biomorphic patterns, Islamic patterns, Islamic ornamentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2002 A Look at the History of Calligraphy in Decoration of Mosques in Iran: 630-1630 AD

Authors: Cengiz Tavşan, Niloufar Akbarzadeh

Abstract:

Architecture in Iran has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, and numerous Iranian pre-Islamic elements have contributed significantly to the formation of Islamic art. At first, decoration was limited to small objects and containers and then progressed in the art of plaster and brickwork. They later applied in architecture as well. The art of gypsum and brickwork, which was prevalent in the form of motifs (animals and plants) in pre-Islam, was used in the aftermath of Islam with the art of calligraphy in decorations. The splendor and beauty of Iranian architecture, especially during the Islamic era, are related to decoration and design. After the invasion of Iran by the Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Iran, the arrival of the Iranian classical architecture significantly changed, and we saw the Arabic calligraphy decoration of the mosques in Iran. The principles of aesthetics in the art of calligraphy in Iran are based precisely on the principles of the beauty of ancient Iranian and Islamic art. On the other hand, after Islam, calligraphy was one of the most important sources of Islamic art in Islam and one of the important features of Islamic culture. First, the calligraphy had no cultural meaning and was only for decoration and beautification, it had the same meaning only in the inscriptions; however, over time, it became meaningful. This article provides a summary of the history of calligraphy in the mosques (from the entrance to Islam until the Safavid period), which cannot ignore the role of the calligraphy in their decorative ideas; and also, the important role that decorative elements play in creating a public space in terms of social and aesthetic performance. This study was conducted using library studies and field studies. The purpose of this study is to show the characteristics of architecture and art of decorations in Iran, especially in the mosque's architecture, which reaches the pinnacle of progress. We will see that religious beliefs and artistic practices are merging and trying to bring a single concept.

Keywords: Islamic art, Islamic architecture, decorations in Iranian mosques, calligraphy

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2001 Islamic Finance: Its Theory, Products and a Brief View of Islamic Finance in Europe

Authors: Ahmet Sekreter

Abstract:

Although there are conceptual similarities in terms of financial products between conventional and Islamic finance, they are entirely different financial systems. Despite Islamic finance’s small size in the conventional finance world, its promising growth makes Islamic finance a hot topic both in academia and business world. Today customers can access sophisticated Islamic financial products not only in Muslim countries but also in Europe. This study analyzes Islamic finance and its products and includes a brief overview of Islamic finance in Europe. Literature review is the basis of this paper. The author analyzed the academic papers, numerical data, and estimations to set a perspective for the future of Islamic finance in Europe. Findings show that UK is the main hub for the Islamic finance, and it will remain so in the near future.

Keywords: islamic finance, islamic banking, islamic finance in Europe, finance

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
2000 Architecture, Politics and Religion Synthesis: Political Legitimacy in Early Islamic Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Ghorbani, Alam Saleh

Abstract:

Ideology, politics and art have always been omnipresent patterns of Islam since its early age. The Islamic empire, expanded from China to Andalusia, has instrumentalized art and architecture to enhance political legitimacy of different dynasties or states throughout its history. Quranic verses utilized to convey ideological messages in the major mosques and mausoleums. Iranians had already been employing art and architecture to propagate their political legitimacy prior to Islam. The land of Iran and its art with strong civilizational pre-Islamic history has been profoundly politicized since the rise of Islam in the region. Early Islamic period in Iran has witnessed introduction of a new architectural language, new formulas for spatial configuration in built spaces, as well as new system of architectural decoration. Studying Iran’s Early Islamic architecture helps in better understanding the process of socio-political identity making of Iranian-Islamic culture, and thus art and architecture. This period also set the stage for formation of glorious architectural movements through Persianate world in later periods. During the Early Islamic period in Iran, the innovative combination of Islamic ideology and Iranian Architecture created formidable ideological tools in politicizing art in the region and beyond. As such, this paper aims to investigate the political history and architectural legacy from late Sassanid to Early Islamic period, delves into the ways in which Early Islamic architecture played role in transforming Persian concepts of kingship, administration, and social organization. In so doing, the study focuses on the Perso-Islamic architectural synthesis under the Samanids and Seljuk dynasty as case studies. The paper also explores how the newly introduced Islamic architecture has been employed to address the question of political legitimacy and to propagate states’ political agenda in early Islamic Iran (650-1250). As for the existing literature, despite its uniqueness and significance, Early Islamic architecture of Iran has received little scholarly attention. However, there exists a sizeable body of scholarship on socio-historic condition of the land of Iran during Early Islamic period which provide a solid base for the project. Methodologically speaking, the authors look into the subject through various lenses. They will conduct historic and archival research in libraries, private collections, and archives in Iran and the related neighbouring countries in Persian, Arabic and English. The methods of visual and formal analysis are applied to examine architectural features of the period. There are also a high number of intriguing, yet poorly examined, published and unpublished documents, old plans, drawings and photos of monuments preserved in Cultural Heritage of Iran Organization which will be consulted.

Keywords: Iran, Islamic architecture, early Islamic Iran, early Islamic architecture, politicized art, political legitimacy, propaganda, aesthetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1999 The Kadiria Zawiya: Architecture and Islamic Sufi Paradigm

Authors: Ghada Chater, Mounir Dhouib

Abstract:

Zawiyas are mausoleums where saints called 'waly' are buried and where ritual practices of Sufi Islamic movement take place. These funerary monuments have constituted since the medieval period a fundamental component of rural and urban Islamic landscape, especially that of Tunisia.The hypothesis is that these monuments reflect in their architecture the Sufi underlying thought. The paper’s target is to verify the validity of this hypothesis and possibly show the incarnation mode of Islamic Sufi paradigm in the zawiya’s architecture. This study considers the main Zawiya of one of the most important religious brotherhoods in Tunisia, which is Kadiria. A morphological analysis has been conducted and crossed later to a spiritual hermeneutic test. The result of this confrontation was significant: the paradigmatic element of the zawiya, materialized by the esoteric / exoteric dome 'kubba', returns in its geometry and structure to one of the Sufism key concepts: the unity of the creative spirit in the diversity and plurality of evanescent bodies. Thus, the creative act finds its reflection not only in the spirit of the perfect human microcosm (the waly microcosm), but also within the building dedicated to him.

Keywords: architecture, Islam, Sufism, waly, zawiya

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1998 Islamic Finance: Challenges of Islamic Banking in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Zaheer Shaikh, Zhaoyong Zhang, Jaime Yong, Ume Laila Shah

Abstract:

Islamic finance is growing with remarkable pace, especially Islamic banking, a major segment of Islamic finance, is expanding rapidly. This paper discusses the position of Islamic finance and Islamic banking, around the world in general and particularly in Pakistan. History of Islamic banking in Pakistan is protested, presently a significant growth is observed. However Islamic banking is confronting with number of challenges, which are refraining from sustainable growth of this industry in Pakistan. Growth level of Islamic banks should be steeper to contribute substantial share in country’s economy. It is important to formulate effective policies, at institutional and operational level to address these challenges through close collaboration of key stakeholders.

Keywords: Islamic finance, challenges, Islamic banking, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
1997 Garden Culture in Islamic Civilization: A Glance at the Birth, Development and Current Situation

Authors: Parisa Göker

Abstract:

With the birth of Islam, the definitions of paradise in Quran have spread across three continents since 7th century, showing itself in the palace gardens as a reflection of Islamic Culture. The design characteristics of Islamic gardens come forth with the influence of religious beliefs, as well as taking its form as per the cultural, climatic and soil characteristics of its geography, and showing its difference. It is possible to see these differences from the garden examples that survived to present time from the civilizations in the lands of Islamic proliferation. The main material of this research is the Islamic gardens in Iran and Spain. Field study was carried out in Alhambra Palace in Spain, Granada and Shah Goli garden in Iran, Tabriz. In this study, the birth of Islamic gardens, spatial perception of paradise, design principles, spatial structure, along with the structural/plantation materials used are examined. Also the characteristics and differentiation of the gardens examined in different cultures and geographies have been revealed. In the conclusion section, Iran and Spain Islamic garden samples were evaluated and their properties were determined.

Keywords: Islamic civilization, Islamic architecture, cultural landscape, Islamic garden

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1996 The Reason Why Al-Kashi’s Understanding of Islamic Arches Was Wrong

Authors: Amin Moradi, Maryam Moeini

Abstract:

It is a widely held view that Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid-e-Kashani, also known as al-Kashi (1380-1429 CE), was the first who played a significant role in the interaction between mathematicians and architects by introducing theoretical knowledge in Islamic architecture. In academic discourses, geometric rules extracted from his splendid volume titled as Key of Arithmetic has uncritically believed by historians of architecture to contemplate the whole process of arch design all throughout the Islamic buildings. His theories tried to solve the fundamental problem of structural design and to understand what makes an Islamic structure safe or unsafe. As a result, al-Kashi arrived at the conclusion that a safe state of equilibrium is achieved through a specific geometry as a rule. This paper reassesses the stability of al-Kashi's systematized principal forms to evaluate the logic of his hypothesis with a special focus on large spans. Besides the empirical experiences of the author in masonry constructions, the finite element approach was proposed considering the current standards in order to get a better understanding of the validity of geometric rules proposed by al-Kashi for the equilibrium conditions of Islamic masonry arches and vaults. The state of damage of his reference arches under loading condition confirms beyond any doubt that his conclusion of the geometrical configuration measured through his treaties present some serious operational limits and do not go further than some individualized mathematical hypothesis. Therefore, the nature of his mathematical studies regarding Islamic arches is in complete contradiction with the practical knowledge of construction methodology.

Keywords: Jamshid al-Kashani, Islamic architecture, Islamic geometry, construction equilibrium, collapse mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
1995 Investigating Effect of Geometrical Proportions in Islamic Architecture and Music

Authors: Amir Hossein Allahdadi

Abstract:

The mystical and intuitive look of Islamic artists inspired by the Koranic and mystical principles and also based on the geometry and mathematics has left unique works whose range extends across the borders of Islam. The relationship between Islamic art and music in the traditional art is of one of the concepts that can be traced back to the other arts by detection of its components. One of the links is the art of painting whose subtleties that can be applicable to both architecture and music. So, architecture and music links can be traced in other arts with a traditional foundation in order to evaluate the equivalents of traditional arts. What is the relationship between physical space of architecture and nonphysical space of music? What is musical architecture? What is the music that tends to architecture? These questions are very small samples of the questions that arise in this category, and these questions and concerns remain as long as the music is played and the architecture is made. Efforts have been made in this area, references compiled and plans drawn. As an example, we can refer to views of ‘Mansour Falamaki’ in the book of architecture and music, as well as the book transition from mud to heart by ‘Hesamodin Seraj’. The method is such that a certain melody is given to an architect and it is tried to design a specified architecture using a certain theme. This study is not to follow the architecture of a particular type of music and the formation of a volume based on a sound. In this opportunity, it is tried to briefly review the relationship between music and architecture in the Iranian original and traditional arts, using the basic definitions of arts. The musician plays, the architect designs, the actor forms his desired space and painter displays his multi-dimensional world in the form of two-dimensions. The expression language is different, but all of them can be gathered in a form, a form which has no clear boundaries. In fact, in any original art, the artist applies his art as a tool to express his insights which are nothing but achieving the world beyond this place and time.

Keywords: architecture, music, geometric proportions, mathematical proportions

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1994 Philosophy, Geometry, and Purpose in Islamic and Gothic Architecture as Two Religious-Based Styles

Authors: P. Nafisi Poor, P. Javid

Abstract:

Religion and divinity have always held important meaning to humans, and therefore it affects different aspects of life including art and architecture. Numerous works of art are related to religion whether supporting or denying it. Religion and religious scholars have influenced and changed art throughout history. This paper focuses on Islam and Christianity because these two religions have been the most discussed and most popular of all time, starting from the birth of Jesus to the arrival of Mohammad. Based on this popularity, these religions have influenced the arts and especially architecture. Islam on one hand changed Iranian and Arabian architecture and they applied it in different places around the world. From the appearance of Islam at 622 AD to this day, Islamic architecture has been evolving; however, one of the most important periods for this style was between 1501 AD and 1736 AD in Iran. Christianity, on the other hand, changed European architecture especially between 1150 AD and 1450 AD or the so-called "Gothic" era, which begins at medieval time and reaches its peak at International Gothic ages. At both of these periods, designing buildings based on spiritual concepts and divine statements reached its peak, and architects were considering God and religion as their center of attention. This article studies the focus on the religions of Islam and Christianity in terms of architecture and presents a general philosophy of both styles to comprehend the idea behind each one, followed by an analysis of their geometry and architectural aspects derived from the best examples, all to understand the purpose of each style and to realize, which one was more successful in reaching their purpose. Subsequently, a comprehensive review of each building is provided including 3D visualizations to help achieve the goal of the article. These studies can support diverse inquiries about both Islamic and Gothic architecture and can be used as a resource to support studies and research towards designing based on religion or for divine purposes.

Keywords: architecture, Gothic, Islamic, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1993 Islamic Transaction: An Alternative for Customer Satisfaction in the Islamic Banking

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Maiik

Abstract:

Islamic marketing ethics combines the principle of value maximization with the principles of equity and justice for the welfare of the society. Adherence to the Islamic ethics in the Islamic banking industry can help elevate the standards of both behavior and living of bankers and customers alike. In a rapidly changing marketing environment, the need to be customer-focused has never been as important as it is today. At present where customers are becoming more demanding and increasingly mobile between competing financial providers, being customer-focused is not enough. Islamic banks and more specifically their customer-contact employees (customer relation advisers or officers) need to be perceived by their customers as being Islamic. This study represents an initial step in analyzing the role of Islamic ethical sales behavior as it may be perceived by the customers of Islamic Banks.

Keywords: Islam, ethics, marketing, Islamic banks

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
1992 Financial Market Turmoil and Performance of Islamic Equity Indices

Authors: Abul Shamsuddin

Abstract:

The Islamic stock market indices are constructed by screening out stocks that are incompatible with Islam’s prohibition of interest and certain lines of business. This study examines the effects of Islamic screening on the risk-return characteristics of Islamic vis-a-vis mainstream equity portfolios. We use data on Dow Jones Islamic market indices and FTSE Global Islamic indices over 1993-2013. We observe that Islamic equity indices outperform their mainstream counterparts in both raw and risk-adjusted returns. In addition, Islamic equity indices are more resilient to turbulence in international markets than that of their mainstream counterparts. The findings are robust across a variety of portfolio performance measures.

Keywords: Dow Jones Islamic market index, FTSE global Islamic index, ethical investment, finance

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1991 Investigation of Anatomical Components of Mosques with the Approach of Attention to Islamic Wisdom

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Hamid Reza Zeraat Pisheh, Mahshid Ghanea, Zahra Khalifeh, Mohammad Bagher Rahami

Abstract:

This study has been examined the anatomical components of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom and investigated the distinction between the anatomical design of mosques (traditional and modern) by considering the category of perception in Islamic architecture. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, indicators such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been used. The aim of this study has been to investigate materials, the functional properties, technology, sizes and fitness of (traditional and modern) mosques. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared in which the anatomical and spiritual elements of the mosque shape have been questioned. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy, the minaret, dome, bedchamber, entrance, pool, perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
1990 Islamic Art and Architecture on Religious Buildings of Dagestan, Russia

Authors: Anahita Shahrokhi, Hamed Kazemzadeh

Abstract:

Various issues are included in cultural relations between societies. Art styles along with architectural similarities are by far one of the most noticeable cultural-historic relations. The Dagestan Republic located in the south of Russia Federation in the North Caucasus has had cultural relations with historical Iran since long ago and is considered as a part of the Islamic world. From Sassanid era and Islamic Empire prior to Tsars’ government, such relations had been maintained largely due to Iran and Islam’s political and social dominance over the region. The presence of the Iranians, mostly for business and commerce, is evident through not only written documents but also other cultural elements including architecture and art. Southern Dagestan and northern provinces of Iran, not distant from each other by sea, have a lot of artistic and cultural aspects in common. The architecture used in some structures such as religious centers, Tekie and Saqa Nafars strongly resembles religious centers in the south of Dagestan. The majority of these similarities lie in the wooden carvings, engravings, and paintings of the interior decorations on the pillars, capitals, walls, and ceilings, as well as the similarity of the plans. Such designs were formed in Safavid dynasty first in Mazandaran and later in Dagestan so that this style is currently named Persiski, meaning Persian, in the Dagestan Republic. These similarities indicate the relationship between the artists and educated people from Iran and Dagestan and the Iranians’ role on the religious and cultural development of Dagestan from the 17th and 18th centuries.

Keywords: wooden works, Mazandaran, Dagestan, Saqa Nafar, ritual and Islamic architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
1989 Islamic Banks and the Most Important Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Mahmood Mohammed Abdulsattar Aljumaili

Abstract:

Praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah. Islamic banks have not only made a lot of great achievements in a short period, but they imposed themselves in the global market, not to mention the transformation of some conventional interest-based banks to Islamic banks to the large demand on them, this transformation has pushed the Dow Jones Global Foundation to develop a new economic indicator released it (the Dow Jones Islamic market) for those who wish to invest in Islamic financial institutions. The success of Islamic financial institutions today face significant and serious challenges, that embody the serious consequences created by the current events on Islamic banking industry. This modest study, deals with these serious challenges facing the Islamic banking industry, and reflected on the success recorded in the previous period. The study deals with four main topics: The emergence of Islamic banks, the goals of Islamic banks, International challenges facing Islamic banks, internal challenges facing Islamic banks, and finally it touches on, (Basel 1-2) Agreement and its implications for Islamic banks.

Keywords: Islamic banks, Basel 1-2 agreement, most important contemporary challenges, islamic banking industry, Dow Jones Islamic market

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
1988 Parameters of Minimalistic Mosque in India within Minimalism

Authors: Hafila Banu

Abstract:

Minimalism is a postmodern style movement which emerged in the 50s of the twentieth century, but it was rapidly growing in the years of 60s and 70s. Minimalism is defined as the concept of minimizing distractions from what is truly valuable or essential. On the same grounds, works of minimalism offer a direct view at and raises questions about the true nature of the subject or object inviting the viewer to consider it for it for the real shape, a thought, a movement reminding us to focus on what is really important. The Architecture of Minimalism is characterized by an economy with materials , focusing on building quality with considerations for ‘essences’ as light, form, detail of material, texture, space and scale, place and human conditions . The research of this paper is mainly into the basis of designing a minimalistic mosque in India while analysing the parameters for the design from the matching characteristics of Islamic architecture in specific to a mosque and the minimalism. Therefore, the paper is about the mosque architecture and minimalism and of their underlying principles, matching characteristics and design goals.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, minimalism, minimalistic mosque, mosque in India

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1987 Study of the Use of Artificial Neural Networks in Islamic Finance

Authors: Kaoutar Abbahaddou, Mohammed Salah Chiadmi

Abstract:

The need to find a relevant way to predict the next-day price of a stock index is a real concern for many financial stakeholders and researchers. We have known across years the proliferation of several methods. Nevertheless, among all these methods, the most controversial one is a machine learning algorithm that claims to be reliable, namely neural networks. Thus, the purpose of this article is to study the prediction power of neural networks in the particular case of Islamic finance as it is an under-looked area. In this article, we will first briefly present a review of the literature regarding neural networks and Islamic finance. Next, we present the architecture and principles of artificial neural networks most commonly used in finance. Then, we will show its empirical application on two Islamic stock indexes. The accuracy rate would be used to measure the performance of the algorithm in predicting the right price the next day. As a result, we can conclude that artificial neural networks are a reliable method to predict the next-day price for Islamic indices as it is claimed for conventional ones.

Keywords: Islamic finance, stock price prediction, artificial neural networks, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
1986 Islamic State: Franchising Jihad through the New Caliphate

Authors: Janiel David Melamed Visbal

Abstract:

The Islamic State has become one of the most remarkable threats for international security through their religious extremism and their establishment of a new caliphate by force. The main objective of this organization is to obtain territorial expansions beyond the Middle East and eventually to consolidate an Islamic global order based on their extremist ideology. This paper will conduct an analysis regarding how, over the past year, many jihadist organizations worldwide have pledged their alliagance to the Islamic State, transforming it into the most important jihadist franchise globally.

Keywords: Islamic state, franchise, jihad, Islamic fundamentalism, caliphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1985 Islamic Banking in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Shaibu Ali, Sherif Heiman Shaban, Musah Ismaila, Imoro Alhassan, Yusif Ali

Abstract:

Purpose: Islamic banking and finance is one of the most rapidly growing segments of the global finance industry. Starting with the Dubai Islamic Bank in 1975, the number of Islamic financial institutions worldwide has shot up astronomically, to over three hundred, with operations in seventy-five countries and assets in excess of US$400 billion. The purpose of this study is to explore the prospects and challenges of Islamic banking introduction in a non-Islamic country like Ghana. Design/Methodology: Data for the study was collected via an expert opinion of three Islamic scholars on Islamic banking from Ghana. Findings: Findings from this study indicates some of the benefits of Islamic banking includes connecting financial markets and economic activity, promoting the principle of financial justice, greater stability, avoiding economic bubbles (and bursts) and reducing the impact of harmful products and practices. The study also identified lack of experts in various fields of Islamic banking, product innovation, moral hazard, and need for experienced staff in Islamic banking as some of the challenges to Islamic banking system’s introduction. Contribution: The study contributes to literature on Islamic banking from a non-Islamic country like Ghana.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari’ah, Riba, conventional banking

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1984 Islamic Financial Engineering: An Overview

Authors: Mahfoud Djebbar

Abstract:

The past two decades or so have witnessed phenomenal growth of the Islamic financial services industry. The whole industry has been thriving at about 15 percent per annum. This development entails the Islamic financial engineering, IFE, to some kind of crossroads, lagging behind its conventional counterpart. Therefore, IFE, and particularly traded products development, and in order to achieve its goals, two approaches are available, i.e., replicating engineering and innovative engineering. We also try to emphasis the innovative strategy since it guards the Islamic identity of different financial products and processes, and thereby, improves the creativity in the Islamic financial industry. The attempt also centers on sukukization (Islamic securitization), innovation, liquidity management, and risk management and hedging in the Islamic financial system. Finally, the challenges facing IFE are also addressed.

Keywords: islamic financial engineering, hedging and risk management, innovation, securitization, money market instruments, islamic capital markets

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1983 Risk Management in Islamic Banks: A Case Study of the Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Saad Ahmed Hussien

Abstract:

This paper discusses the risk management in Islamic banks and aims to determine the difference in the practices and methods of risk management in those banks compared to the conventional banks, and to make a case study of the biggest Islamic bank in Egypt (Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt) to identify the most important financial risks faced and how to manage those risks. It was found that Islamic banks face two types of risks. The first type is similar to the risks in conventional banks; the second type is the additional risks which facing the Islamic banks only as a result of some Islamic modes of financing. With regard to the risk management, Islamic banks such as conventional banks applied the regulatory rules issued by the Central Banks and the Basel Committee; Islamic banks also applied the instructions and procedures issued by the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB). Also, Islamic banks are similar to the conventional banks in the practices and methods which they use to manage the risks. And there are some factors that may affect the risk management in Islamic banks, such as the size of the bank and the efficiency of the administration and the staff of the bank.

Keywords: conventional banks, Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt, Islamic banks, risk management

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1982 Planning for a Sustainable Islamic City in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Yazid M. Yunos, R. Arinah, Nor Kalsum M. Isa, U. Nangkula, Nor A. Ismail, Nor F. Ariffin

Abstract:

Islamic City planning is a concept of optimizing the overall arrangement of land use without compromising community. The concept was influenced by the specific intentions in mind, applying certain ideological principles and objectives rooted in Islamic faith and Muslim culture using distinct design elements. Holy Quran and hadiths provide a foundation for understanding Islamic Principles as clearly shared by the established Islamic Cities such as Medina, Mecca and Jerusalem. This paper aimed to explore the principles and elements of an Islamic City through the review of relevant literature by the means of Content Analysis method. A theoretical framework of Islamic City Principles was then formulated to be the main outcome of the study. The finding is very important to be a useful starting point for future study, especially for formulating a clear guide for the development of upcoming Islamic City in Malaysia.

Keywords: Islamic principles, sustainable city planning, Islamic city, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 442