Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3240

Search results for: fiber length

3240 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Ahmed Bakry, Moustafa Ahmed

Abstract:

We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: bit error rate, dispersion, frequency chirp, fiber communications, semiconductor laser

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3239 A Comparative Study on Indian and Greek Cotton Fiber Properties Correlations

Authors: Md. Nakib Ul Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Sumon Miah, Misbah Ul Hoque, Bulbul Ahmed

Abstract:

The variability of cotton fiber characteristics has always been influenced by origin, weather conditions, method of culturing, and harvesting. Spinners work tirelessly to ensure consistent yarn quality by using the different origins of fibers to maximizes the profit margin. Spinners often fail to select desired raw materials of various origins to achieve an appropriate mixing plan due to the lack of knowledge on the interrelationship among fiber properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the correlations among dominating fiber properties such as micronaire, strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, maturity, reflectance, and yellowness. For this purpose, fiber samples from 500 Indian cotton bales and 350 Greek cotton bales were collected and tested using the high volume instrument (HVI). The fiber properties dataset was then compiled and analyzed using python 3.7 to determine the correlations matrix. Results show that Indian cotton fiber have highest correlation between strength-mat = 0.84, followed by SFI-Unf =-0.83, and Neps-Unf = -0.72. Greek cotton fiber, in contrast, have highest correlation between SFI-Unf =-0.98, followed by SFI-Mat = 0.89, +b-Len = 0.84, and Str-Mat = 0.74. Overall, the Greek cotton fiber showed a higher correlational matrix than compared to that of Indian cotton fiber.

Keywords: cotton fiber, fiber properties correlation, Greek cotton, HVI, Indian cotton, spinning

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3238 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Jozefita Marku, Thomas Bier

Abstract:

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.

Keywords: compressive strength, polypropylene fiber, steel fiber, ultrasonic pulse velocity, volume, type of fiber

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3237 Investigating the Fiber Content, Fiber Length, and Curing Characteristics of 3D Printed Recycled Carbon Fiber

Authors: Peng Hao Wang, Ronald Sterkenburg, Garam Kim, Yuwei He

Abstract:

As composite materials continue to gain popularity in the aerospace industry; large airframe sections made out of composite materials are becoming the standard for aerospace manufacturers. However, the heavy utilization of these composite materials also increases the importance of the recycling of these composite materials. A team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students have partnered to investigate the characteristics of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber. A prototype of a 3D printed recycled carbon fiber part was provided by an industry partner and different sections of the prototype were used to create specimens. A furnace was utilized in order to remove the polymer from the specimens and the specimen’s fiber content and fiber length was calculated from the remaining fibers. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test was also conducted on the 3D printed recycled carbon fiber prototype in order to determine the prototype’s degree of cure at different locations. The data collected from this study provided valuable information in the process improvement and understanding of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber.

Keywords: 3D printed, carbon fiber, fiber content, recycling

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3236 Thermo-Mechanical Properties of PBI Fiber Reinforced HDPE Composites: Effect of Fiber Length and Composition

Authors: Shan Faiz, Arfat Anis, Saeed M. Al-Zarani

Abstract:

High density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly benzimidazole fiber (PBI) composites were prepared by melt blending in a twin screw extruder (TSE). The thermo-mechanical properties of PBI fiber reinforced HDPE composite samples (1%, 4% and 8% fiber content) of fiber lengths 3 mm and 6 mm were investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), universal testing machine (UTM), rheometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of fiber content and fiber lengths on the thermo-mechanical properties of the HDPE-PBI composites was studied. The DSC analysis showed decrease in crystallinity of HDPE-PBI composites with the increase of fiber loading. Maximum decrease observed was 12% at 8% fiber length. The thermal stability was found to increase with the addition of fiber. T50% was notably increased to 40oC for both grades of HDPE using 8% of fiber content. The mechanical properties were not much affected by the increase in fiber content. The optimum value of tensile strength was achieved using 4% fiber content and slight increase of 9% in tensile strength was observed. No noticeable change was observed in flexural strength. In rheology study, the complex viscosities of HDPE-PBI composites were higher than the HDPE matrix and substantially increased with even minimum increase of PBI fiber loading i.e. 1%. We found that the addition of the PBI fiber resulted in a modest improvement in the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the prepared composites.

Keywords: PBI fiber, high density polyethylene, composites, melt blending

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3235 An Approach To Flatten The Gain Of Fiber Raman Amplifiers With Multi-Pumping

Authors: Surinder Singh, Adish Bindal

Abstract:

The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval. The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for higher spans of Raman fiber length.

Keywords: FRA, WDM, pumping, flat gain

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3234 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

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3233 Radial Variation of Anatomical Characteristics in Three Native Fast-Growing Species Growing in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Wiwin Tyas Istikowati, Futoshi Ishiguri, Haruna Aisho, Budi Sutiya, Imam Wahyudi, Kazuya Iizuka, Shinso Yokota

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomical characteristics of three native fast-growing species, terap (Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume), medang (Neolitsea latifolia (Blume) S. Moore), and balik angin (Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzel) Reissek ex Benth) growing in the secondary forest in South Kalimantan, Indonesia for evaluating the possibility of tree breeding for wood quality. Cell lengths were investigated for 5 trees in each species at several different height positions (1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, and 11.0 m above the ground). The mean values of fiber and vessel element lengths in terap, medang, and balik angin were 1.52 and 0.44, 1.16 and 0.53, and 1.02 and 0.49 mm, respectively. Fiber length in terap and balik angin gradually increased from pith to bark, whereas it increased up to 2 cm and then became nearly constant to the bark in medang. Vessel element length was almost constant from pith to bark in terap and balik angin, while slightly increased from pith to bark in medang. Fiber length in terap has a fluctuation pattern from ground level to top of the tree. It decreased up to 3 m above the ground, increased up to 5 m, and then decreased to the top of the tree. On the other hand, vessel element length slightly increased up to 5 m above the ground, and then decreased to the top of the tree. Both fiber and vessel element lengths in medang were almost constant from ground level to top of the tree, whereas decreased from ground level to top of the tree in balik angin. Significant difference at 1% level among trees was found in both fiber and vessel element length in both radial and longitudinal directions for terap and medang. Based on obtained results, it is concluded that the wood quality in fiber and vessel element lengths of terap and medang can be improved by tree breeding programs.

Keywords: anatomical properties, fiber length, vessel elements length, fast-growing species

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
3232 Interferometric Demodulation Scheme Using a Mode-Locker Fiber Laser

Authors: Liang Zhang, Yuanfu Lu, Yuming Dong, Guohua Jiao, Wei Chen, Jiancheng Lv

Abstract:

We demonstrated an interferometric demodulation scheme using a mode-locked fiber laser. The mode-locked fiber laser is launched into a two-beam interferometer. When the ratio between the fiber path imbalance of interferometer and the laser cavity length is close to an integer, an interferometric fringe emerges as a result of vernier effect, and then the phase shift of the interferometer can be demodulated. The mode-locked fiber laser provides a large bandwidth and reduces the cost for wavelength division multiplexion (WDM). The proposed interferometric demodulation scheme can be further applied in multi-point sensing system such as fiber optics hydrophone array, seismic wave detection network with high sensitivity and low cost.

Keywords: fiber sensing, interferometric demodulation, mode-locked fiber laser, vernier effect

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3231 Cotton Fiber Quality Improvement by Introducing Sucrose Synthase (SuS) Gene into Gossypium hirsutum L.

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Mukhtar Ahmed

Abstract:

The demand for long staple fiber having better strength and length is increasing with the introduction of modern spinning and weaving industry in Pakistan. Work on gene discovery from developing cotton fibers has helped to identify dozens of genes that take part in cotton fiber development and several genes have been characterized for their role in fiber development. Sucrose synthase (SuS) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of sucrose in a plant cell, in cotton fiber it catalyzes a reversible reaction, but preferentially converts sucrose and UDP into fructose and UDP-glucose. UDP-glucose (UDPG) is a nucleotide sugar act as a donor for glucose residue in many glycosylation reactions and is essential for the cytosolic formation of sucrose and involved in the synthesis of cell wall cellulose. The study was focused on successful Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of SuS gene in pCAMBIA 1301 into cotton under a CaMV35S promoter. Integration and expression of the gene were confirmed by PCR, GUS assay, and real-time PCR. Young leaves of SuS overexpressing lines showed increased total soluble sugars and plant biomass as compared to non-transgenic control plants. Cellulose contents from fiber were significantly increased. SEM analysis revealed that fibers from transgenic cotton were highly spiral and fiber twist number increased per unit length when compared with control. Morphological data from field plants showed that transgenic plants performed better in field conditions. Incorporation of genes related to cotton fiber length and quality can provide new avenues for fiber improvement. The utilization of this technology would provide an efficient import substitution and sustained production of long-staple fiber in Pakistan to fulfill the industrial requirements.

Keywords: agrobacterium-mediated transformation, cotton fiber, sucrose synthase gene, staple length

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3230 Characterization of the Physical Properties of Sheep Wool Fiber in Amhara National Regional State

Authors: Erkihun Zelalem

Abstract:

Ethiopian’s sheep population, estimated to be 25.5 million heads, is found widely distributed across the diverse agro-ecological zones of the country. In the past, there were many projects that done to improve production of meat, milk and productivity of sheep breed. However, no significance research has been done so far on production of wool fiber in Ethiopia which could be taken as a potential fiber next to cotton. The measurement of the sheep wool fiber physical properties is critically important, technical, commercial and certification point of view. A total of 24 sheep from different breeds (Menz, Tikur, Farta and Washera) were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard measurements for wool fiber length (WFL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of wool fiber diameter (FDCV), breaking strength, elongation, crimp, cleanness and moisture content. Based on the result all parameters shows that there is a great potential of getting of wool fiber from the skin of sheep and according to the standards of its property and grading system based on wool fiber fineness is medium to course. These types of fibers can be making carpets, blankets, rugs, coverings and other products.

Keywords: Fiber, Fineness, Carpet, Fleece, Raw Wool

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3229 Optimization of Human Hair Concentration for a Natural Rubber Based Composite

Authors: Richu J. Babu, Sony Mathew, Sharon Rony Jacob, Soney C. George, Jibin C. Jacob

Abstract:

Human hair is a non-biodegradable waste available in plenty throughout the world but is rarely explored for applications in engineering fields. Tensile strength of human hair ranges from 170 to 220 MPa. This property of human hair can be made use in the field of making bio-composites[1]. The composite is prepared by commixing the human hair and natural rubber in a two roll mill along with additives followed by vulcanization. Here the concentration of the human hair is varied by fine-tuning the fiber length as 20 mm and sundry tests like tensile, abrasion, tear and hardness were conducted. While incrementing the fiber length up to a certain range the mechanical properties shows superior amendments.

Keywords: human hair, natural rubber, composite, vulcanization, fiber loading

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3228 Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity by Non-Destructive Method of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Thomas Beer

Abstract:

Plain, unreinforced concrete is a brittle material, with a low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. In order to improve the inherent tensile strength of concrete there is a need of multi directional and closely spaced reinforcement, which can be provided in the form of randomly distributed fibers. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is a composite material consisting of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, water and fibers. In this composite material, short discrete fibers are randomly distributed throughout the concrete mass. The behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far superior to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of equal cost. The present experimental study considers the effect of steel fibers and polypropylene fiber on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Hook end steel fibers of length 5 cm and 3 cm at volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.% were used. Also polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm at volume fraction 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 % were used. Fifteen mixtures has been prepared to evaluate the effect of fiber on modulus of elasticity of concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and resonant frequency methods which are two non-destructive testing techniques have been used to measure the elastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete. This study found that ultrasonic wave propagation is the most reliable, easy and cost effective testing technique to use in the determination of the elastic properties of the FRC mix used in this study.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete(FRC), polypropylene fiber, resonance, ultrasonic pulse velocity, steel fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
3227 Modalmetric Fiber Sensor and Its Applications

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol

Abstract:

The team from IOE MUT is developing fiber optic sensors for the security systems for 15 years. The conclusions of the work indicate that these sensors are complicated. Moreover, these sensors are expensive to produce and require sophisticated signal processing methods.We present the results of the investigations of three different applications of the modalmetric sensor: • Protection of museum collections and heritage buildings, • Protection of fiber optic transmission lines, • Protection of objects of critical infrastructure. Each of the presented applications involves different requirements for the system. The results indicate that it is possible to developed a fiber optic sensor based on a single fiber. Modification of optoelectronic parts with a change of the length of the sensor and the method of reflections of propagating light at the end of the sensor allows to adjust the system to the specific application.

Keywords: modalmetric fiber optic sensor, security sensor, optoelectronic parts, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 526
3226 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu

Abstract:

According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

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3225 Investigating the Properties of Nylon Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete

Authors: Hasan Taherkhani

Abstract:

The performance of asphalt pavements is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of asphaltic layers. Improving the mechanical properties of asphaltic mixtures by fiber reinforcement is a common method. Randomly distribution of fibers in the bituminous mixtures and placing between the particles develop reinforcing property in all directions in the mixture and improve their engineering properties. In this research, the effects of the nylon fiber length and content on some engineering properties of a typical binder course asphalt concrete have been investigated. The fibers at different contents of 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% (by the weight of total mixture), each at three different lengths of 10, 25 and 40 mm have been used, and the properties of the mixtures, such as, volumetric properties, Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient, indirect tensile strength and moisture damage have been studied. It is found that the highest Marshall quotient is obtained by using 0.4% of 25mm long nylon fibers. The results also show that the indirect tensile strength and tensile strength ratio, which is an indication of moisture damage of asphalt concrete, decreases with increasing the length of fibers and fiber content.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, moisture damage, nylon fiber, tensile strength,

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
3224 An Experimental Investigation on Banana and Pineapple Natural Fibers Reinforced with Polypropylene Composite by Impact Test and SEM Analysis

Authors: D. Karibasavaraja, Ramesh M.R., Sufiyan Ahmed, Noyonika M.R., Sameeksha A. V., Mamatha J., Samiksha S. Urs

Abstract:

This research paper gives an overview of the experimental analysis of natural fibers with polymer composite. The whole world is concerned about conserving the environment. Henceforth, the demand for natural and decomposable materials is increasing. The application of natural fibers is widely used in aerospace for manufacturing aircraft bodies, and ship construction in navy fields. Based on the literature review, researchers and scientists are replacing synthetic fibers with natural fibers. The selection of these fibers mainly depends on lightweight, easily available, and economical and has its own physical and chemical properties and many other properties that make them a fine quality fiber. The pineapple fiber has desirable properties of good mechanical strength, high cellulose content, and fiber length. Hybrid composite was prepared using different proportions of pineapple fiber and banana fiber, and their ratios were varied in 90% polypropylene mixed with 5% banana fiber and 5% pineapple fiber, 85% polypropylene mixed with 7.5% banana fiber and 7.5% pineapple fiber and 80% polypropylene mixed with 10% banana fiber and 10% pineapple fiber. By impact experimental analysis, we concluded that the combination of 90% polypropylene and 5% banana fiber and 5% pineapple fiber exhibits a higher toughness value with mechanical strength. We also conducted scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis which showed better fiber orientation bonding between the banana and pineapple fibers with polypropylene composites. The main aim of the present research is to evaluate the properties of pineapple fiber and banana fiber reinforced with hybrid polypropylene composites.

Keywords: toughness, fracture, impact strength, banana fibers, pineapple fibers, tensile strength, SEM analysis

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3223 Modelling and Simulation of Single Mode Optical Fiber Directional Coupler for Medical Application

Authors: Shilpa Kulkarni, Sujata Patrikar

Abstract:

A single-mode fiber directional coupler is modeled and simulated for its application in medical field. Various fiber devices based on evanescent field absorption, interferometry, couplers, resonators, tip coated fibers, etc, have been developed so far, suitable for medical application. This work focuses on the possibility of sensing by single mode fiber directional coupler. In the preset work, a fiber directional coupler is modeled to detect the changes taking place in the surrounding medium optoelectronically. In this work, waveguiding characteristics of the fiber are studied in depth. The sensor is modeled and simulated by finding photocurrent, sensitivity and detection limit by varying various parameters of the directional coupler. The device is optimized for the best possible output. It is found that the directional coupler shows measurable photocurrents and good sensitivity with coupling length in micrometers. It is thus a miniature device, hence, suitable for medical applications.

Keywords: single mode fiber directional coupler, modeling and simulation of fiber directional coupler sensor, biomolecular sensing, medical sensor device

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3222 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls

Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park

Abstract:

With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.

Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structure

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3221 Analytical Investigation of Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthening with Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Rifat Sezer, Abdulhamid Aryan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to research both the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams without fiber and the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams with fiber. For this purpose, the analytical load - displacement curves of the beams were formed and the areas under these curves were compared. According to the results of this comparison, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber are more ductile. The dimension of the used beam-samples for analytical model in this study is 20x30 cm, their length is 200 cm and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete reference-beams are produced as one item and the reinforced concrete beams with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fiber are produced as one item. The modeling of reinforced concrete beams was utilized with Abaqus software.

Keywords: polypropylene, fiber-reinforced beams, strengthening of the beams, abaqus program

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3220 Improving the Compaction Properties and Shear Resistance of Sand Reinforced with COVID-19 Waste Mask Fibers

Authors: Samah Said, Muhsin Elie Rahhal

Abstract:

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, disposable plastic-based face masks were excessively used worldwide. Therefore, the production and consumption rates of these masks were significantly brought up, which led to severe environmental problems. The main purpose of this research is to test the possibility of reinforcing soil deposits with mask fibers to reuse pandemic-generated waste materials. When testing the compaction properties, the sand was reinforced with a fiber content that increased from 0% to 0.5%, with successive small increments of 0.1%. The optimum content of 0.1% remarkably increased the maximum dry density of the soil and dropped its optimum moisture content. Add to that, it was noticed that 15 mm and rectangular chips were, respectively, the optimum fiber length and shape to maximize the improvement of the sand compaction properties. Regarding the shear strength, fiber contents of 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% were adopted. The direct shear tests have shown that the highest enhancement was observed for the optimum fiber content of 0.25%. Similarly to compaction tests, 15 mm and rectangular chips were respectively the optimum fiber length and shape to extremely enhance the shear resistance of the tested sand.

Keywords: COVID-19, mask fibers, compaction properties, soil reinforcement, shear resistance

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3219 Highly Sensitive Fiber-Optic Curvature Sensor Based on Four Mode Fiber

Authors: Qihang Zeng, Wei Xu, Ying Shen, Changyuan Yu

Abstract:

In this paper, a highly sensitive fiber-optic curvature sensor based on four mode fiber (FMF) is presented and investigated. The proposed sensing structure is constructed by fusing a section of FMF into two standard single mode fibers (SMFs) concatenated with two no core fiber (NCF), i.e., SMF-NCF-FMF-NCF-SMF structure is fabricated. The length of the NCF is very short about 1 millimeter acting as exciting/recoupling the light from/into the core of the SMF, while the FMF is with 3 centimeters long supporting four eigenmodes including LP₀₁, LP₁₁, LP₂₁ and LP₀₂. High core modes in FMF can be effectively stimulated owing to mismatched mode field distribution and the mainly sensing principle is based on modal interferometer spectrum analysis. Different curvatures induce different strains on the FMF such that affecting the modal excitation, resulting spectrum shifts. One can get the curvature value by tracking the wavelength shifting. Experiments have been done to address the sensing performance, which is about 7.8 nm/m⁻¹ within a range of 1.90 m⁻¹~3.18 m⁻¹.

Keywords: curvature, four mode fiber, highly sensitive, modal interferometer

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3218 Optical Fiber Data Throughput in a Quantum Communication System

Authors: Arash Kosari, Ali Araghi

Abstract:

A mathematical model for an optical-fiber communication channel is developed which results in an expression that calculates the throughput and loss of the corresponding link. The data are assumed to be transmitted by using of separate photons with different polarizations. The derived model also shows the dependency of data throughput with length of the channel and depolarization factor. It is observed that absorption of photons affects the throughput in a more intensive way in comparison with that of depolarization. Apart from that, the probability of depolarization and the absorption of radiated photons are obtained.

Keywords: absorption, data throughput, depolarization, optical fiber

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3217 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh

Abstract:

Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

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3216 Effect of Size, Geometry and Tensile Strength of Fibers on the Flexure of Hooked Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Chuchai Sujivorakul

Abstract:

This research focused on the study of various parameters of fiber itself affecting on the flexure of hooked steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFRC). The size of HSFRC beams was 150x150 mm in cross section and 550 mm in length, and the flexural test was carried out in accordance with EN-14651 standard. The test result was the relationship between centre-point load and crack-mount opening displacement (CMOD) at the centre notch. Controlled concrete had a compressive strength of 42 MPa. The investigated variables related to the hooked fiber itself were: (a) 3 levels of aspect ratio of fibers (65, 80 and 100); (b) 2 different fiber lengths (35 mm and 60 mm); (c) 2 different tensile strength of fibers (1100 MPa and 1500 MPa); and (d) 3 different fiber-end geometries (3D 4D and 5D fibers). The 3D hooked fibers have two plastic hinges at both ends, while the 4D and 5D hooked fibers are the newly developed steel fibers by Bekaert, and they have three and four plastic hinges at both ends, respectively. The hooked steel fibers were used in concrete with three different fiber contents, i.e., 20 30 and 40 kg/m³. From the study, it was found that all variables did not seem to affect the flexural strength at limit of proportionality (LOP) of HSFRC. However, they affected the residual flexural tensile strength (fR,j). It was observed that an increase in fiber lengths and the tensile strength the fibers would significantly increase in the fR,j of HSFRC, while the aspect ratio of the fiber would slightly effect the fR,j of HSFRC. Moreover, it was found that using 5D fibers would better enhance the fR,j and flexural behavior of HSFRC than 3D and 4D fibers, because they gave highest mechanical anchorage effect created by their hooked-end geometry.

Keywords: hooked steel fibers, fiber reinforced concrete, EN-14651, flexural test

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3215 Chlorine Pretreatment Effect on Mechanical Properties of Optical Fiber Glass

Authors: Abhinav Srivastava, Hima Harode, Chandan Kumar Saha

Abstract:

The principal ingredient of an optical fiber is quartz glass. The quality of the optical fiber decreases if impure foreign substances are attached to its preform surface. If residual strain inside a preform is significant, it cracks with a small impact during drawing or transporting. Furthermore, damages and unevenness on the surface of an optical fiber base material break the fiber during drawing. The present work signifies that chlorine pre-treatment enhances mechanical properties of the optical fiber glass. FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) results show that chlorine gas chemically modifies the structure of silica clad; chlorine is known to soften glass. Metallic impurities on the preform surface likely formed volatile metal chlorides due to chlorine pretreatment at elevated temperature. The chlorine also acts as a drying agent, and therefore the preform surface is anticipated to be water deficient and supposedly avoids particle adhesion on the glass surface. The Weibull analysis of long length tensile strength demarcates a substantial shift in its knee. The higher dynamic fatigue n-value also indicated surface crack healing.

Keywords: mechanical strength, optical fiber glass, FTIR, Weibull analysis

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3214 Geometric Model to Study the Mechanism of Machining and Predict the Damage Occurring During Milling of Unidirectional CFRP

Authors: Faisal Islam, J. Ramkumar

Abstract:

The applications of composite materials in aerospace, sporting and automotive industries need high quality machined surfaces and dimensional accuracy. Some studies have been done to understand the fiber failure mechanisms encountered during milling machining of CFRP composites but none are capable of explaining the exact nature of the orientation-based fiber failure mechanisms encountered in the milling machining process. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the orientation-based fiber failure mechanisms occurring on the slot edges during CFRP milling machining processes. The occurrence of damage is predicted by a schematic explanation based on the mechanisms of material removal which in turn depends upon fiber cutting angles. A geometric model based on fiber cutting angle and fiber orientation angle is proposed that defines the critical and safe zone during machining and predicts the occurrence of delamination. Milling machining experiments were performed on composite samples of varying fiber orientations to verify the proposed theory. Mean fiber pulled out length was measured from the microscopic images of the damaged area to quantify the amount of damage produced. By observing the damage occurring for different fiber orientation angles and fiber cutting angles for up-milling and down-milling edges and correlating it with the material removal mechanisms as described earlier, it can be concluded that the damage/delamination mainly depends on the portion of the fiber cutting angles that lies within the critical cutting angle zone.

Keywords: unidirectional composites, milling, machining damage, delamination, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
3213 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber according to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber.

Keywords: Bond, Polypropylene, fiber reinforcement, macro fiber, shape change

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
3212 A Numerical Study on Micromechanical Aspects in Short Fiber Composites

Authors: I. Ioannou, I. M. Gitman

Abstract:

This study focused on the contribution of micro-mechanical parameters on the macro-mechanical response of short fiber composites, namely polypropylene matrix reinforced by glass fibers. In the framework of this paper, an attention has been given to the glass fibers length, as micromechanical parameter influences the overall macroscopic material’s behavior. Three dimensional numerical models were developed and analyzed through the concept of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). Results of the RVE-based approach were compared with analytical Halpin-Tsai’s model.

Keywords: effective properties, homogenization, representative volume element, short fiber reinforced composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3211 Crack Opening Investigation in Fiberconcrete

Authors: Arturs Macanovskis, Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs

Abstract:

Work has three stages. In the first stage was examined pull-out process for steel fiber was embedded into a concrete by one end and was pulled out of concrete under the angle to pulling out force direction. Angle was varied. Length of steel fiber was 26 mm, diameter 0.5 mm. On the obtained force- displacement diagrams were observed jumps. For such mechanical behavior explanation, fiber channel in concrete surface microscopical experimental investigation, using microscope KEYENCE VHX2000, was performed. Surface of fiber channel in concrete matrix after pull-out test (fiber angle to pulling out force direction 70°). At the second stage were obtained diagrams for load- crack opening displacement for breaking homogeneously reinforced and layered fiber concrete prisms (with dimensions 10x10x40 cm) subjected to 4-point bending. After testing was analyzed main crack. On the main crack’s both surfaces were recognized all pulled out fibers their locations, angles to crack surface and lengths of pull-out fibers parts. At the third stage elaborated prediction model for the fiber-concrete beam, failure under bending, using the following data: a) diagrams for fibers pulling out at different angles; b) experimental data about steel-straight fibers locations in the main crack.

Keywords: fiberconcrete, pull-out, fiber channel, layered fiberconcrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 362