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Search results for: anaerobic digestion

31 Bioaccessible Phenolics, Phenolic Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Pumpkin Flour

Authors: Emine Aydin, Duygu Gocmen


Pumpkin flour (PF) has a long shelf life and can be used as a nutritive, functional (antioxidant properties, phenolic contents, etc.) and coloring agent in many food items, especially in bakery products, sausages, instant noodles, pasta and flour mixes. Pre-treatment before drying is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of a final powdered product. Pretreatment, such as soaking in a bisulfite solution, provides that total carotenoids in raw materials rich in carotenoids, especially pumpkins, are retained in the dried product. This is due to the beneficial effect of antioxidant additives in the protection of carotenoids in the dehydrated plant foods. The oxygen present in the medium is removed by the radical SO₂, and thus the carotene degradation caused by the molecular oxygen is inhibited by the presence of SO₂. In this study, pumpkin flours (PFs) produced by two different applications (with or without metabisulfite pre-treatment) and then dried in a freeze dryer. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of pumpkin flour were determined. In addition to this, the compound of bioavailable phenolic substances which is obtained by PF has also been investigated using in vitro methods. As a result of researches made in recent years, it has been determined that all nutrients taken with foodstuffs are not bioavailable. Bioavailability changes depending on physical properties, chemical compounds, and capacities of individual digestion of foods. Therefore in this study; bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibility were also determined. The phenolics of the samples with metabisulfite application were higher than those of the samples without metabisulfite pre-treatment. Soaking in metabisulfite solution might have a protective effect for phenolic compounds. Phenolics bioaccessibility of pumpkin flours was investigated in order to assess pumpkin flour as sources of accessible phenolics. The higher bioaccessible phenolics (384.19 mg of GAE 100g⁻¹ DW) and phenolic bioaccessibility values (33.65 mL 100 mL⁻¹) were observed in the pumpkin flour with metabisulfite pre-treatment. Metabisulfite application caused an increase in bioaccessible phenolics of pumpkin flour. According to all assay (ABTS, CUPRAC, DPPH, and FRAP) results, both free and bound phenolics of pumpkin flour with metabisulfite pre-treatment had higher antioxidant activity than those of the sample without metabisulfite pre-treatment. The samples subjected to MS pre-treatment exhibited higher antioxidant activities than those of the samples without MS pre-treatment, this possibly due to higher phenolic contents of the samples with metabisulfite applications. As a result, metabisulfite application caused an increase in phenolic contents, bioaccessible phenolics, phenolic bioaccessibility and antioxidant activities of pumpkin flour. It can be said that pumpkin flour can be used as an alternative functional and nutritional ingredient in bakery products, dairy products (yoghurt, ice-cream), soups, sauces, infant formulae, confectionery, etc.

Keywords: pumpkin flour, bioaccessible phenolics, phenolic bioaccessibility, antioxidant activity

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30 Some Quality Parameters of Selected Maize Hybrids from Serbia for the Production of Starch, Bioethanol and Animal Feed

Authors: Marija Milašinović-Šeremešić, Valentina Semenčenko, Milica Radosavljević, Dušanka Terzić, Ljiljana Mojović, Ljubica Dokić


Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. The main goal of the present study was to investigate a suitability of selected maize hybrids of different genetic background produced in Maize Research Institute ‘Zemun Polje’, Belgrade, Serbia, for starch, bioethanol and animal feed production. All the hybrids are commercial and their detailed characterization is important for the expansion of their different uses. The starches were isolated by using a 100-g laboratory maize wet-milling procedure. Hydrolysis experiments were done in two steps (liquefaction with Termamyl SC, and saccharification with SAN Extra L). Starch hydrolysates obtained by the two-step hydrolysis of the corn flour starch were subjected to fermentation by S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus under semi-anaerobic conditions. The digestibility based on enzymatic solubility was performed by the Aufréré method. All investigated ZP maize hybrids had very different physical characteristics and chemical composition which could allow various possibilities of their use. The amount of hard (vitreous) and soft (floury) endosperm in kernel is considered one of the most important parameters that can influence the starch and bioethanol yields. Hybrids with a lower test weight and density and a greater proportion of soft endosperm fraction had a higher yield, recovery and purity of starch. Among the chemical composition parameters only starch content significantly affected the starch yield. Starch yields of studied maize hybrids ranged from 58.8% in ZP 633 to 69.0% in ZP 808. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w was obtained for hybrid ZP 611k and the highest by hybrid ZP 434 (8.96% w/w). A very significant correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield, as well as volumetric productivity (48h) (r=0.66). Obtained results showed that the NDF, ADF and ADL contents in the whole maize plant of the observed ZP maize hybrids varied from 40.0% to 60.1%, 18.6% to 32.1%, and 1.4% to 3.1%, respectively. The difference in the digestibility of the dry matter of the whole plant among hybrids (ZP 735 and ZP 560) amounted to 18.1%. Moreover, the differences in the contents of the lignocelluloses fraction affected the differences in dry matter digestibility. From the results it can be concluded that genetic background of the selected maize hybrids plays an important part in estimation of the technological value of maize hybrids for various purposes. Obtained results are of an exceptional importance for the breeding programs and selection of potentially most suitable maize hybrids for starch, bioethanol and animal feed production.

Keywords: bioethanol, biomass quality, maize, starch

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29 Phytochemistry and Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Rauvolfia vomitoria (Afzel) Leaves and Picralima nitida (Stapf) Seeds

Authors: Oseyemi Omowunmi Olubomehin, Olufemi Michael Denton


Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is related to the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and how this affects the blood glucose levels. Various synthetic drugs employed in the management of the disease work through different mechanisms. Keeping postprandial blood glucose levels within acceptable range is a major factor in the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Thus, the inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase is an important strategy in lowering postprandial blood glucose levels, but synthetic inhibitors have undesirable side effects like flatulence, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders to mention a few. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and explore the α-amylase inhibitors from plants due to their availability, safety, and low costs. In the present study, extracts from the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria and seeds of Picralima nitida which are used in the Nigeria traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes were tested for their α-amylase inhibitory effect. The powdered plant samples were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The leaves and seeds macerated successively using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol resulted in the crude extracts which at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) alongside the standard drug acarbose, were subjected to α-amylase inhibitory assay using the Benfield and Miller methods, with slight modification. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, SPSS version 2.0. The phytochemical screening results of the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the seeds of Picralima nitida showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides while in addition Rauvolfia vomitoria had phenols and Picralima nitida had terpenoids. The α-amylase assay results revealed that at 1 mg/mL the methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria gave (15.74, 23.13 and 26.36 %) α-amylase inhibitions respectively, the seeds of Picralima nitida gave (15.50, 30.68, 36.72 %) inhibitions which were not significantly different from the control at p < 0.05, while acarbose gave a significant 56 % inhibition at p < 0.05. The presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids in these plants are responsible for the observed anti-diabetic activity. However, the low percentages of α-amylase inhibition by these plant samples shows that α-amylase inhibition is not the major way by which both plants exhibit their anti-diabetic effect.

Keywords: alpha-amylase, Picralima nitida, postprandial hyperglycemia, Rauvolfia vomitoria

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28 Phytoremediation; Pb, Cr and Cd Accumulation in Fruits and Leaves of Vitis Vinifera L. From Air Pollutions and Intraction between Their Uptake Based on the Distance from the Main Road

Authors: Fatemeh Mohsennezhad


Air pollution is one of major problems for environment. Providing healthy food and protecting water sources from pollution has been one of the concerns of human societies and decision-making centers so that protecting food from pollution, detecting sources of pollution and measuring them become important. Nutritive and political significance of grape in this area, extensive use of leaf and fruit of this plant and development of urban areas around grape gardens and construction of Tabriz – Miandoab road, which is the most important link between East and West Azarbaijan, led us to examine the impact of this road construction and urban environment pollutants such as lead chromium and cadmium on the quality of this valuable crop. First, the samples were taken from different adjacent places and medium distances from the road, each place being located exactly by Google earth and GPS. Digestion was done through burning dry material and hydrochloric acid and their ashes were analyzed by atomic absorption to determine (Pb, Cr, Cd) accumulations. In this experiments effects of 2 following factors were examined as a variable: Garden distance from the main road with levels 1: For 50 meters, 2: For 120-200 meters, 3: For above 800 meters, and plant organ with levels 1: For fruit, 2: For leaves. At the end, the results were processed by SPSS software. 3.54 ppm, the most lead quantity, was at sample No. 54 in fruits with 800 meters distance from the road and 1.00 ppm was the least lead quantity at sample No. 50 in fruits with 1000 meters from the road. In leaves, the most lead quantity was 19.16 ppm at sample No. 15 with 50 meters distance from the road and the least quantity was 1.41 ppm at sample No. 31 with 50 meters from the road. Pb uptake is significantly different at 50 meters and 200 meters distance. It means that Pb uptake near the main road is the highest. But this result is not true for others elements. Distance has not a meaningful effect on Cr uptake. The result of analysis of variation in distance and plant organ for Cd showed that between fruit and leaf, Cd uptake is significantly different. But distance and interaction between distance and plant organ is not meaningful. There is neither meaningful interaction between these elements uptakes in fruits nor in leaves. If leaves and fruits, assumed all together, showed a very meaningful integration between heavy metal accumulations. It means that each of these elements causes uptake others without considering special organs. In the tested area, it became clear that, from the accumulation of heavy metals perspective, there is no meaningful difference in existing distance between road and garden. There is a meaningful difference among heavy metals accumulation. In other words, increase ratio of one metal to another was different from the resulted differences shown in corresponding graphs. Interaction among elements and distance between garden and road was not meaningful.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera L., phytoremediation, heavy metals accumulation, lead, chromium, cadmium

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27 High Throughput LC-MS/MS Studies on Sperm Proteome of Malnad Gidda (Bos Indicus) Cattle

Authors: Kerekoppa Puttaiah Bhatta Ramesha, Uday Kannegundla, Praseeda Mol, Lathika Gopalakrishnan, Jagish Kour Reen, Gourav Dey, Manish Kumar, Sakthivel Jeyakumar, Arumugam Kumaresan, Kiran Kumar M., Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad


Spermatozoa are the highly specialized transcriptionally and translationally inactive haploid male gamete. The understanding of proteome of sperm is indispensable to explore the mechanism of sperm motility and fertility. Though there is a large number of human sperm proteomic studies, in-depth proteomic information on Bos indicus spermatozoa is not well established yet. Therefore, we illustrated the profile of sperm proteome in indigenous cattle, Malnad gidda (Bos Indicus), using high-resolution mass spectrometry. In the current study, two semen ejaculates from 3 breeding bulls were collected employing the artificial vaginal method. Using 45% percoll purification, spermatozoa cells were isolated. Protein was extracted using lysis buffer containing 2% Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and protein concentration was estimated. Fifty micrograms of protein from each individual were pooled for further downstream processing. Pooled sample was fractionated using SDS-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, which is followed by in-gel digestion. The peptides were subjected to C18 Stage Tip clean-up and analyzed in Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometer interfaced with Proxeon Easy-nano LC II system (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). We identified a total of 6773 peptides with 28426 peptide spectral matches, which belonged to 1081 proteins. Gene ontology analysis has been carried out to determine the biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components associated with sperm protein. The biological process chiefly represented our data is an oxidation-reduction process (5%), spermatogenesis (2.5%) and spermatid development (1.4%). The highlighted molecular functions are ATP, and GTP binding (14%) and the prominent cellular components most observed in our data were nuclear membrane (1.5%), acrosomal vesicle (1.4%), and motile cilium (1.3%). Seventeen percent of sperm proteins identified in this study were involved in metabolic pathways. To the best of our knowledge, this data represents the first total sperm proteome from indigenous cattle, Malnad Gidda. We believe that our preliminary findings could provide a strong base for the future understanding of bovine sperm proteomics.

Keywords: Bos indicus, Malnad Gidda, mass spectrometry, spermatozoa

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26 Microbiological Analysis on Anatomical Specimens of Cats for Use in Veterinary Surgery

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Marita V. Cardozo, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Mariana T. Kihara, Fernando A. Ávila, Fabrício S. Oliveira


There are several fixative and preservative solutions for use on cadavers, many of them using formaldehyde as the fixative or anatomical part preservative. In some countries, such as Brazil, this toxic agent has been increasingly restricted. The objective of this study was to microbiologically identify and quantify the key agents in tanks containing 96GL ethanol or sodium chloride solutions, used respectively as fixatives and preservatives of cat cadavers. Eight adult cat corpses, three females and five males, with an average weight of 4.3 kg, were used. After injection via the external common carotid artery (120 ml/kg, 95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin), the cadavers were fixed in a plastic tank with 96GL ethanol for 60 days. After fixing, they were stored in a 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for 120 days in a similar tank. Samples were collected at the start of the experiment - before the animals were placed in the ethanol tanks, and monthly thereafter. The bacterial count was performed by Pour Plate Method in BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion) and the plates were incubated aerobically and anaerobically for 24h at 37ºC. MacConkey agar, SPS agar (Sulfite Polymyxin Sulfadizine) and MYP Agar Base were used to isolate the microorganisms. There was no microbial growth in the samples prior to alcohol fixation. After 30 days of fixation in the alcohol solution, total aerobic and anaerobic (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) were found and Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp. were the identified agents. After 60 days in the alcohol fixation solution, total aerobes (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<2.2 x 10 CFU/mL) were found, and the identified agents were the same. After 30 days of storage in the aqueous solution of 30% sodium chloride, total aerobic (<5.2 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<3.7 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the agents identified were Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. After 60 days of sodium chloride storage, total aerobic (<3.0 x 10 CFU / ml) and total anaerobes (<7.0 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the identified agents remained the same: Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. The microbiological count was low and visual inspection did not reveal signs of contamination in the tanks. There was no strong odor or purification, which proved the technique to be microbiologically effective in fixing and preserving the cat cadavers for the four-month period in which they are provided to undergraduate students of University of Veterinary Medicine for surgery practice. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: anatomy, fixation, microbiology, small animal, surgery

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25 The Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Previous Infected E. Coli Population

Authors: Andreea Molnar, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Marissa Dallara, Brittany Nagel, Omar Rashid


Background: Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and resides in the intestinal tracts of individuals. E.Coli has numerous strains grouped into serogroups and serotypes based on differences in antigens in their cell walls (somatic, or “O” antigens) and flagella (“H” antigens). More than 700 serotypes of E. coli have been identified. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, a few strains, such as E. coli O157:H7 which produces Shiga toxin, can cause intestinal infection with symptoms of severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. Infection with E. Coli can lead to the development of systemic inflammation as the toxin exerts its effects. Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to cancer development in several organs, including the prostate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between E. Coli and the incidence of prostate cancer. Methods: Data collected in this cohort study was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate patients infected with E.Coli infection and prostate cancer using the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes). Permission to use the database was granted by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the purpose of academic research. Data analysis was conducted through the use of standard statistical methods. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 81, 037 patients after matching in both infected and control groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by Age Range and CCI score. The incidence of prostate cancer was 2.07% and 1,680 patients in the E. Coli group compared to 5.19% and 4,206 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a p-value p<2.2x10-16 with an Odds Ratio of 0.53 and a 95% CI. Based on the specific treatment for E.Coli, the infected group vs control group were matched again with a result of 31,696 patients in each group. 827 out of 31,696 (2.60%) patients with a prior E.coli infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 1634 out of 31,696 (5.15%) patients with no history of E.coli infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed prostate carcinoma. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-16), Odds Ratio=0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.59). Conclusion: This retrospective study shows a statistically significant correlation between E.Coli infection and a decreased incidence of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed in order to identify the impact of E.Coli infection and prostate cancer development.

Keywords: E. Coli, prostate cancer, protective, microbiology

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24 Antimicrobial Activity of 2-Nitro-1-Propanol and Lauric Acid against Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Robin Anderson, Elizabeth Latham, David Nisbet


Propagation and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant and pathogenic microbes from spoiled silages and composts represents a serious public health threat to humans and animals. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of the short chain nitro-compound, 2-nitro-1-propanol (9 mM) as well as the medium chain fatty acid, lauric acid, and its glycerol monoester, monolaurin, (each at 25 and 17 µmol/mL, respectfully) were investigated against select pathogenic and multi-drug resistant antimicrobial resistant Gram-positive bacteria common to spoiled silages and composts. In an initial study, we found that growth rates of a multi-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (expressing resistance against erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and tetracycline) and Staphylococcus aureus strain 12600 (expressing resistance against erythromycin, linezolid, penicillin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and vancomycin) were more than 78% slower (P < 0.05) by 2-nitro-1-propanol treatment during culture (n = 3/treatment) in anaerobically prepared ½ strength Brain Heart Infusion broth at 37oC when compared to untreated controls (0.332 ± 0.04 and 0.108 ± 0.03 h-1, respectively). The growth rate of 2-nitro-1-propanol-treated Listeria monocytogenes was also decreased by 96% (P < 0.05) when compared to untreated controls cultured similarly (0.171 ± 0.01 h-1). Maximum optical densities measured at 600 nm were lower (P < 0.05) in 2-nitro-1-propanol-treated cultures (0.053 ± 0.01, 0.205 ± 0.02 and 0.041 ± 0.01, respectively) than in untreated controls (0.483 ± 0.02, 0.523 ± 0.01 and 0.427 ± 0.01, respectively) for E. faecalis, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively. When tested against mixed microbial populations during anaerobic 24 h incubation of spoiled silage, significant effects of treatment with 1 mg 2-nitro-1-propanol (approximately 9.5 µmol/g) or 5 mg lauric acid/g (approximately 25 µmol/g) on populations of wildtype Enterococcus and Listeria were not observed. Mixed populations treated with 5 mg monolaurin/g (approximately 17 µmol/g) had lower (P < 0.05) viable cell counts of wildtype enterococci than untreated controls after 6 h incubation (2.87 ± 1.03 versus 5.20 ± 0.25 log10 colony forming units/g, respectively) but otherwise significant effects of monolaurin were not observed. These results reveal differential susceptibility of multi-drug resistant enterococci and staphylococci as well as L. monocytogenes to the inhibitory activity of 2-nitro-1-propanol and the medium chain fatty acid, lauric acid and its glycerol monoester, monolaurin. Ultimately, these results may lead to improved treatment technologies to preserve the microbiological safety of silages and composts.

Keywords: 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, monolaurin, gram positive bacteria

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23 Investigating the Process Kinetics and Nitrogen Gas Production in Anammox Hybrid Reactor with Special Emphasis on the Role of Filter Media

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta


Anammox is a novel and promising technology that has changed the traditional concept of biological nitrogen removal. The process facilitates direct oxidation of ammonical nitrogen under anaerobic conditions with nitrite as an electron acceptor without the addition of external carbon sources. The present study investigated the feasibility of anammox hybrid reactor (AHR) combining the dual advantages of suspended and attached growth media for biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. The experimental unit consisted of 4 nos. of 5L capacity AHR inoculated with mixed seed culture containing anoxic and activated sludge (1:1). The process was established by feeding the reactors with synthetic wastewater containing NH4-H and NO2-N in the ratio 1:1 at HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to higher ammonium concentration till it attained pseudo steady state removal at a total nitrogen concentration of 1200 mg/l. During this period, the performance of the AHR was monitored at twelve different HRTs varying from 0.25-3.0 d with increasing NLR from 0.4 to 4.8 kg N/m3d. AHR demonstrated significantly higher nitrogen removal (95.1%) at optimal HRT of 1 day. Filter media in AHR contributed an additional 27.2% ammonium removal in addition to 72% reduction in the sludge washout rate. This may be attributed to the functional mechanism of filter media which acts as a mechanical sieve and reduces the sludge washout rate many folds. This enhances the biomass retention capacity of the reactor by 25%, which is the key parameter for successful operation of high rate bioreactors. The effluent nitrate concentration, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process was also minimised significantly (42.3-52.3 mg/L). Process kinetics was evaluated using first order and Grau-second order models. The first-order substrate removal rate constant was found as 13.0 d-1. Model validation revealed that Grau second order model was more precise and predicted effluent nitrogen concentration with least error (1.84±10%). A new mathematical model based on mass balance was developed to predict N2 gas in AHR. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen dictated significantly higher correlation (R2=0.986) and predicted N2 gas with least error of precision (0.12±8.49%). SEM study of biomass indicated the presence of the heterogeneous population of cocci and rod shaped bacteria of average diameter varying from 1.2-1.5 mm. Owing to enhanced NRE coupled with meagre production of effluent nitrate and its ability to retain high biomass, AHR proved to be the most competitive reactor configuration for dealing with nitrogen laden wastewater.

Keywords: anammox, filter media, kinetics, nitrogen removal

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22 Combained Cultivation of Endemic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast with Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: A. M. Isakhanyan, F. N. Tkhruni, N. N. Yakimovich, Z. I. Kuvaeva, T. V. Khachatryan


Introduction: At present, the simbiotics based on different genera and species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts are used. One of the basic properties of probiotics is presence of antimicrobial activity and therefore selection of LAB and yeast strains for their co-cultivation with the aim of increasing of the activity is topical. Since probiotic yeast and bacteria have different mechanisms of action, natural synergies between species, higher viability and increasing of antimicrobial activity might be expected from mixing both types of probiotics. Endemic strains of LAB Enterococcus faecium БТK-64, Lactobaccilus plantarum БТK-66, Pediococcus pentosus БТK-28, Lactobacillus rhamnosus БТK-109 and Kluyveromyces lactis БТX-412, Saccharomycopsis sp. БТX- 151 strains of yeast, with probiotic properties and hight antimicrobial activity, were selected. Strains are deposited in "Microbial Depository Center" (MDC) SPC "Armbiotechnology". Methods: LAB and yeast strains were isolated from different dairy products from rural households of Armenia. The genotyping by 16S rRNA sequencing for LAB and 26S RNA sequencing for yeast were used. Combined cultivation of LAB and yeast strains was carried out in the nutrient media on the basis of milk whey, in anaerobic conditions (without shaker, in a thermostat at 37oC, 48 hours). The complex preparations were obtained by purification of cell free culture broth (CFC) broth by the combination of ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration methods. The spot-on-lawn method was applied for determination of antimicrobial activity and expressed in arbitrary units (AU/ml). Results. The obtained data showed that at the combined growth of bacteria and yeasts, the cultivation conditions (medium composition, time of growth, genera of LAB and yeasts) affected the display of antimicrobial activity. Purification of CFC broth allowed obtaining partially purified antimicrobial complex preparation which contains metabiotics from both bacteria and yeast. The complex preparation inhibited the growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, isolated from various internal organs from diseased animals and poultry with greater efficiency than the preparations derived individually alone from yeast and LAB strains. Discussion. Thus, our data shown perspectives of creation of a new class of antimicrobial preparations on the basis of combined cultivation of endemic strains of LAB and yeast. Obtained results suggest the prospect of use of the partially purified complex preparations instead antibiotics in the agriculture and for food safety. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the RA MES State Committee of Science and Belarus National Foundation for Basic Research in the frames of the joint Armenian - Belarusian joint research project 13РБ-064.

Keywords: co-cultivation, antimicrobial activity, biosafety, metabiotics, lactic acid bacteria, yeast

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21 Nanostructured Pt/MnO2 Catalysts and Their Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Air Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Maksudur Rahman Khan, Kar Min Chan, Huei Ruey Ong, Chin Kui Cheng, Wasikur Rahman


Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a promising technology for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. Catalysts are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. The sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate at air cathode necessitates efficient electrocatalyst such as carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) which is very costly. Manganese oxide (MnO2) was a representative metal oxide which has been studied as a promising alternative electrocatalyst for ORR and has been tested in air-cathode MFCs. However, the single MnO2 has poor electric conductivity and low stability. In the present work, the MnO2 catalyst has been modified by doping Pt nanoparticle. The goal of the work was to improve the performance of the MFC with minimum Pt loading. MnO2 and Pt nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol-gel methods, respectively. Wet impregnation method was used to synthesize Pt/MnO2 catalyst. The catalysts were further used as cathode catalysts in air-cathode cubic MFCs, in which anaerobic sludge was inoculated as biocatalysts and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was used as the substrate in the anode chamber. The as-prepared Pt/MnO2 was characterized comprehensively through field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) where its surface morphology, crystallinity, oxidation state and electrochemical activity were examined, respectively. XPS revealed Mn (IV) oxidation state and Pt (0) nanoparticle metal, indicating the presence of MnO2 and Pt. Morphology of Pt/MnO2 observed from FESEM shows that the doping of Pt did not cause change in needle-like shape of MnO2 which provides large contacting surface area. The electrochemical active area of the Pt/MnO2 catalysts has been increased from 276 to 617 m2/g with the increase in Pt loading from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%. The CV results in O2 saturated neutral Na2SO4 solution showed that MnO2 and Pt/MnO2 catalysts could catalyze ORR with different catalytic activities. MFC with Pt/MnO2 (0.4 wt% Pt) as air cathode catalyst generates a maximum power density of 165 mW/m3, which is higher than that of MFC with MnO2 catalyst (95 mW/m3). The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the MFC operated with MnO2 cathode gradually decreased during 14 days of operation, whereas the MFC with Pt/MnO2 cathode remained almost constant throughout the operation suggesting the higher stability of the Pt/MnO2 catalyst. Therefore, Pt/MnO2 with 0.4 wt% Pt successfully demonstrated as an efficient and low cost electrocatalyst for ORR in air cathode MFC with higher electrochemical activity, stability and hence enhanced performance.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, oxygen reduction reaction, Pt/MnO2, palm oil mill effluent, polarization curve

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20 Investigation of the Usability of Biochars Obtained from Olive Pomace and Smashed Olive Seeds as Additives for Bituminous Binders

Authors: Muhammed Ertugrul Celoglu, Beyza Furtana, Mehmet Yilmaz, Baha Vural Kok


Biomass, which is considered to be one of the largest renewable energy sources in the world, has a potential to be utilized as a bitumen additive after it is processed by a wide variety of thermochemical methods. Furthermore, biomasses are renewable in short amounts of time, and they possess a hydrocarbon structure. These characteristics of biomass promote their usability as additives. One of the most common ways to create materials with significant economic values from biomasses is the processes of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is defined as the process of an organic matter’s thermochemical degradation (carbonization) at a high temperature and in an anaerobic environment. The resultant liquid substance at the end of the pyrolysis is defined as bio-oil, whereas the resultant solid substance is defined as biochar. Olive pomace is the resultant mildly oily pulp with seeds after olive is pressed and its oil is extracted. It is a significant source of biomass as the waste of olive oil factories. Because olive pomace is waste material, it could create problems just as other waste unless there are appropriate and acceptable areas of utilization. The waste material, which is generated in large amounts, is generally used as fuel and fertilizer. Generally, additive materials are used in order to improve the properties of bituminous binders, and these are usually expensive materials, which are produced chemically. The aim of this study is to investigate the usability of biochars obtained after subjecting olive pomace and smashed olive seeds, which are considered as waste materials, to pyrolysis as additives in bitumen modification. In this way, various ways of use will be provided for waste material, providing both economic and environmental benefits. In this study, olive pomace and smashed olive seeds were used as sources of biomass. Initially, both materials were ground and processed through a No.50 sieve. Both of the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis (carbonization) at 400 ℃. Following the process of pyrolysis, bio-oil and biochar were obtained. The obtained biochars were added to B160/220 grade pure bitumen at 10% and 15% rates and modified bitumens were obtained by mixing them in high shear mixtures at 180 ℃ for 1 hour at 2000 rpm. Pure bitumen and four different types of bitumen obtained as a result of the modifications were tested with penetration, softening point, rotational viscometer, and dynamic shear rheometer, evaluating the effects of additives and the ratios of additives. According to the test results obtained, both biochar modifications at both ratios provided improvements in the performance of pure bitumen. In the comparison of the test results of the binders modified with the biochars of olive pomace and smashed olive seed, it was revealed that there was no notable difference in their performances.

Keywords: bituminous binders, biochar, biomass, olive pomace, pomace, pyrolysis

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19 Determination of Cyanotoxins from Leeukraal and Klipvoor Dams

Authors: Moletsane Makgotso, Mogakabe Elijah, Marrengane Zinhle


South Africa’s water resources quality is becoming more and more weakened by eutrophication, which deteriorates its usability. Thirty five percent of fresh water resources are eutrophic to hypertrophic, including grossly-enriched reservoirs that go beyond the globally-accepted definition of hypertrophy. Failing infrastructure adds to the problem of contaminated urban runoff which encompasses an important fraction of flows to inland reservoirs, particularly in the non-coastal, economic heartland of the country. Eutrophication threatens the provision of potable and irrigation water in the country because of the dependence on fresh water resources. Eutrophicated water reservoirs increase water treatment costs, leads to unsuitability for recreational purposes and health risks to human and animal livelihood due to algal proliferation. Eutrophication is caused by high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in water bodies. In South Africa, Microsystis and Anabaena are widely distributed cyanobacteria, with Microcystis being the most dominant bloom-forming cyanobacterial species associated with toxin production. Two impoundments were selected, namely the Klipvoor and Leeukraal dams as they are mainly used for fishing, recreational, agricultural and to some extent, potable water purposes. The total oxidized nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration were determined as causative nutrients for eutrophication. Chlorophyll a and total microcystins, as well as the identification of cyanobacteria was conducted as indicators of cyanobacterial infestation. The orthophosphate concentration was determined by subjecting the samples to digestion and filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis of total phosphates and dissolved phosphates using Aquakem kits. The total oxidized nitrates analysis was conducted by initially conducting filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Chlorophyll a was quantified spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of before and after acidification. Microcystins were detected using the Quantiplate Microcystin Kit, as well as microscopic identification of cyanobacterial species. The Klipvoor dam was found to be hypertrophic throughout the study period as the mean Chlorophyll a concentration was 269.4µg/l which exceeds the mean value for the hypertrophic state. The mean Total Phosphorus concentration was >0.130mg/l, and the total microcystin concentration was > 2.5µg/l throughout the study. The most predominant algal species were found to be the Microcystis. The Leeukraal dam was found to be mesotrophic with the potential of it becoming eutrophic as the mean concentration for chlorophyll a was 18.49 µg/l with the mean Total Phosphorus > 0.130mg/l and the Total Microcystin concentration < 0.16µg/l. The cyanobacterial species identified in Leeukraal have been classified as those that do not pose a potential risk to any impoundment. Microcystis was present throughout the sampling period and dominant during the warmer seasons. The high nutrient concentrations led to the dominance of Microcystis that resulted in high levels of microcystins rendering the impoundments, particularly Klipvoor undesirable for utilisation.

Keywords: nitrogen, phosphorus, cyanobacteria, microcystins

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18 Development and Validation of a Turbidimetric Bioassay to Determine the Potency of Ertapenem Sodium

Authors: Tahisa M. Pedroso, Hérida R. N. Salgado


The microbiological turbidimetric assay allows the determination of potency of the drug, by measuring the turbidity (absorbance), caused by inhibition of microorganisms by ertapenem sodium. Ertapenem sodium (ERTM), a synthetic antimicrobial agent of the class of carbapenems, shows action against Gram-negative, Gram-positive, aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Turbidimetric assays are described in the literature for some antibiotics, but this method is not described for ertapenem. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise and accurate microbiological assay by turbidimetry to quantify ertapenem sodium injectable as an alternative to the physicochemical methods described in the literature. Several preliminary tests were performed to choose the following parameters: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, IAL 1851, 8 % of inoculum, BHI culture medium, and aqueous solution of ertapenem sodium. 10.0 mL of sterile BHI culture medium were distributed in 20 tubes. 0.2 mL of solutions (standard and test), were added in tube, respectively S1, S2 and S3, and T1, T2 and T3, 0.8 mL of culture medium inoculated were transferred to each tube, according parallel lines 3 x 3 test. The tubes were incubated in shaker Marconi MA 420 at a temperature of 35.0 °C ± 2.0 °C for 4 hours. After this period, the growth of microorganisms was inhibited by addition of 0.5 mL of 12% formaldehyde solution in each tube. The absorbance was determined in Quimis Q-798DRM spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 530 nm. An analytical curve was constructed to obtain the equation of the line by the least-squares method and the linearity and parallelism was detected by ANOVA. The specificity of the method was proven by comparing the response obtained for the standard and the finished product. The precision was checked by testing the determination of ertapenem sodium in three days. The accuracy was determined by recovery test. The robustness was determined by comparing the results obtained by varying wavelength, brand of culture medium and volume of culture medium in the tubes. Statistical analysis showed that there is no deviation from linearity in the analytical curves of standard and test samples. The correlation coefficients were 0.9996 and 0.9998 for the standard and test samples, respectively. The specificity was confirmed by comparing the absorbance of the reference substance and test samples. The values obtained for intraday, interday and between analyst precision were 1.25%; 0.26%, 0.15% respectively. The amount of ertapenem sodium present in the samples analyzed, 99.87%, is consistent. The accuracy was proven by the recovery test, with value of 98.20%. The parameters varied did not affect the analysis of ertapenem sodium, confirming the robustness of this method. The turbidimetric assay is more versatile, faster and easier to apply than agar diffusion assay. The method is simple, rapid and accurate and can be used in routine analysis of quality control of formulations containing ertapenem sodium.

Keywords: ertapenem sodium, turbidimetric assay, quality control, validation

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17 Potency of Some Dietary Acidifiers on Productive Performance and Controlling Salmonella enteritidis in Broilers

Authors: Mohamed M. Zaki, Maha M. Hady


Salmonella spp. have been categorized as the world’s biggest threats to human health and poultry products are mostly incriminated sources. In Egypt, it was found that S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium are the most prevalent ones in poultry farms. It is recommended to eliminate salmonella from living bird by competing for salmonella contamination in feed in order to establish a healthy gut. The Feed acidifiers are the group of feed additives containing low-molecular-weight organic acids and/ or their salts which act as performance promoters by lowering the pH in the gut, optimizes digestion and inhibit bacterial growth. The inclusion of organic acid in pure form nonetheless effective in feed, yet, it is difficult to handle in feed mills as it is corrosive and produce more losses during pelleting process. The current study aimed at to evaluate the impact of incorporation of sodium diformate (SDF) and a commercial acidifier, CA (a mixture of butyric and propionic acids and their ammonium salts) at 0.4% dietary levels on broilers performance and the control S. enteritidis infection. Two hundreds and seventy unsexed cobb chickens were allotted in one of three treatments (90/ group) which were, the control (no acidifier, C- &C+), the 0.4% SDF (SDF- & SDF +) and the 0.4% CA (CA- & CA +) dietary levels for 35 days. Before the allocation of the groups, ten extra birds and a diet sample were bacteriologically examined to ensure negative contamination with salmonella. The birds were raised on deep-litter separated pens and had free access to feed and water all the time. The experimentally formulated diets were kept at 40C. After 24h access to the different dietary treatments, all the birds in the positive groups (n=15/ replicate) were inoculated intra-crop with 0.2 ml of 24 h broth culture of S. entertidis containing 1X 107 organisms while the negative-treated groups were inoculated with the same amount of the negative broth and second inoculation was done at 22 d of age. Colocal swabs were collected individually from all birds 2 h pre-inoculation to assure the absence of salmonella, then 1, 3, 5, 7, 21 days post-inoculation to recover salmonella. Performance parameter (body weight gain and feed efficiency) were calculated. Mortalities were recorded and reisolation of the salmonella was adopted to ensure it was the inoculated ones. The results revealed that the dietary acidification with sodium diformate significantly improved broilers performance and tends to produce heavier birds as compared to the negative control and CA groups. Moreover, the dietary inclusion of both acidifiers at level of 0.4% was able to eliminate mortalities completely at the relevant inoculation time. Regarding the shedding of S. enteritidius in positive groups, the SDF treatment resulted in significant (p<0.05) cessation of the shedding at 3 days post-inoculation compared to 7 days post-inoculation for the CA-group. In conclusion, sodium diformate at 0.4% dietary level in broiler diets has a valuable effect not only on broilers performance but also by eliminating S. enteritidis the main source of salmonella contamination in poultry farms which is feed.

Keywords: acidifier, broilers, Salmonalla spp, sodium diformate

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16 Experimental and Simulation Results for the Removal of H2S from Biogas by Means of Sodium Hydroxide in Structured Packed Columns

Authors: Hamadi Cherif, Christophe Coquelet, Paolo Stringari, Denis Clodic, Laura Pellegrini, Stefania Moioli, Stefano Langè


Biogas is a promising technology which can be used as a vehicle fuel, for heat and electricity production, or injected in the national gas grid. It is storable, transportable, not intermittent and substitutable for fossil fuels. This gas produced from the wastewater treatment by degradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. To be used as a renewable fuel, biogas, whose energy comes only from methane, must be purified from carbon dioxide and other impurities such as water vapor, siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide. Purification of biogas for this application particularly requires the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which negatively affects the operation and viability of equipment especially pumps, heat exchangers and pipes, causing their corrosion. Several methods are available to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from biogas. Herein, reactive absorption in structured packed column by means of chemical absorption in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions is considered. This study is based on simulations using Aspen Plus™ V8.0, and comparisons are done with data from an industrial pilot plant treating 85 Nm3/h of biogas which contains about 30 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. The rate-based model approach has been used for simulations in order to determine the efficiencies of separation for different operating conditions. To describe vapor-liquid equilibrium, a γ/ϕ approach has been considered: the Electrolyte NRTL model has been adopted to represent non-idealities in the liquid phase, while the Redlich-Kwong equation of state has been used for the vapor phase. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, Henry’s law constants of each compound in water have been verified against experimental data. Default values available in Aspen Plus™ V8.0 for the properties of pure components properties as heat capacity, density, viscosity and surface tension have also been verified. The obtained results for physical and chemical properties are in a good agreement with experimental data. Reactions involved in the process have been studied rigorously. Equilibrium constants for equilibrium reactions and the reaction rate constant for the kinetically controlled reaction between carbon dioxide and the hydroxide ion have been checked. Results of simulations of the pilot plant purification section show the influence of low temperatures, concentration of sodium hydroxide and hydrodynamic parameters on the selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide. These results show an acceptable degree of accuracy when compared with the experimental data obtained from the pilot plant. Results show also the great efficiency of sodium hydroxide for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. The content of this compound in the gas leaving the column is under 1 ppm.

Keywords: biogas, hydrogen sulfide, reactive absorption, sodium hydroxide, structured packed column

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15 Interplay of Material and Cycle Design in a Vacuum-Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for Biogas Upgrading

Authors: Federico Capra, Emanuele Martelli, Matteo Gazzani, Marco Mazzotti, Maurizio Notaro


Natural gas is a major energy source in the current global economy, contributing to roughly 21% of the total primary energy consumption. Production of natural gas starting from renewable energy sources is key to limit the related CO2 emissions, especially for those sectors that heavily rely on natural gas use. In this context, biomethane produced via biogas upgrading represents a good candidate for partial substitution of fossil natural gas. The upgrading process of biogas to biomethane consists in (i) the removal of pollutants and impurities (e.g. H2S, siloxanes, ammonia, water), and (ii) the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. Focusing on the CO2 removal process, several technologies can be considered: chemical or physical absorption with solvents (e.g. water, amines), membranes, adsorption-based systems (PSA). However, none emerged as the leading technology, because of (i) the heterogeneity in plant size, ii) the heterogeneity in biogas composition, which is strongly related to the feedstock type (animal manure, sewage treatment, landfill products), (iii) the case-sensitive optimal tradeoff between purity and recovery of biomethane, and iv) the destination of the produced biomethane (grid injection, CHP applications, transportation sector). With this contribution, we explore the use of a technology for biogas upgrading and we compare the resulting performance with benchmark technologies. The proposed technology makes use of a chemical sorbent, which is engineered by RSE and consists of Di-Ethanol-Amine deposited on a solid support made of γ-Alumina, to chemically adsorb the CO2 contained in the gas. The material is packed into fixed beds that cyclically undergo adsorption and regeneration steps. CO2 is adsorbed at low temperature and ambient pressure (or slightly above) while the regeneration is carried out by pulling vacuum and increasing the temperature of the bed (vacuum-temperature swing adsorption - VTSA). Dynamic adsorption tests were performed by RSE and were used to tune the mathematical model of the process, including material and transport parameters (i.e. Langmuir isotherms data and heat and mass transport). Based on this set of data, an optimal VTSA cycle was designed. The results enabled a better understanding of the interplay between material and cycle tuning. As exemplary application, the upgrading of biogas for grid injection, produced by an anaerobic digester (60-70% CO2, 30-40% CH4), for an equivalent size of 1 MWel was selected. A plant configuration is proposed to maximize heat recovery and minimize the energy consumption of the process. The resulting performances are very promising compared to benchmark solutions, which make the VTSA configuration a valuable alternative for biomethane production starting from biogas.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, biogas upgrading energetic cost, CO2 adsorption, VTSA process modelling

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14 Glucogenic and Lipogenic Diets Affect Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolites Differently in Vitro

Authors: Dengke Hua, Beihai Xiong, Wouter Hendriks, Wilbert Pellikaan


To improve the energy status of dairy cows in the early lactation, lots of jobs have been done on adjusting the starch to fiber ratio in the diet. As a complex ecosystem, the rumen contains a large population of microorganisms which played a crucial role in feed degradation. Further study on the microbiota alterations and metabolic changes under different dietary energy sources are essential and valuable to better understand the function of the ruminal microorganisms and thereby optimize the rumen function and enlarge feed efficiency. The present study will focus on the effects of two glucogenic diets (G: ground corn and corn silage; S: steam-flaked corn and corn silage) and a lipogenic diet (L: sugar beet pulp and alfalfa silage) on rumen fermentation, gas production, the ruminal microbiota and metabolome, and also their correlations in vitro. The gas production was recorded consistently, and the gas volume and producing rate at times 6, 12, 24, 48 h were calculated separately. The fermentation end-products were measured after fermenting for 48 h. The ruminal bacteria and archaea communities were determined by the 16S RNA sequencing technique, and the metabolome profile was tested through LC-MS methods. Compared to the diet G and S, the L diet had a lower dry matter digestibility, propionate production, and ammonia-nitrogen concentration. The two glucogenic diets performed worse in controlling methane and lactic acid production compared to the L diet. The S diet produced the greatest cumulative gas volume at any time points during incubation compared to the G and L diet. The metabolic analysis revealed that the lipid digestion was up-regulated by the diet L than other diets. On the subclass level, most metabolites belonged to the fatty acids and conjugates were higher, but most metabolites belonged to the amino acid, peptides, and analogs were lower in diet L than others. Differences in rumen fermentation characteristics were associated with (or resulting from) changes in the relative abundance of bacterial and archaeal genera. Most highly abundant bacteria were stable or slightly influenced by diets, while several amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were sensitive to the dietary changes. The L diet had a significantly higher number of cellulolytic bacteria, including the genera of Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Eubacterium, Lachnospira, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and unclassified Ruminococcaceae. The relative abundances of amylolytic bacteria genera including Selenomonas_1, Ruminobacter, and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 were higher in diet G, and S. These affected bacteria were also proved to have high associations with certain metabolites. The Selenomonas_1 and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 may contribute to the higher propionate production in the diet G and S through enhancing the succinate pathway. The results indicated that the two glucogenic diets had a greater extent of gas production, a higher dry matter digestibility, and produced more propionate than diet L. The steam-flaked corn did not show a better performance on fermentation end-products than ground corn. This study has offered a deeper understanding of ruminal microbial functions which could assistant the improvement in rumen functions and thereby in the ruminant production.

Keywords: gas production, metabolome, microbiota, rumen fermentation

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13 Edible Active Antimicrobial Coatings onto Plastic-Based Laminates and Its Performance Assessment on the Shelf Life of Vacuum Packaged Beef Steaks

Authors: Andrey A. Tyuftin, David Clarke, Malco C. Cruz-Romero, Declan Bolton, Seamus Fanning, Shashi K. Pankaj, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, Patrick J. Cullen, Joe P. Kerry


Prolonging of shelf-life is essential in order to address issues such as; supplier demands across continents, economical profit, customer satisfaction, and reduction of food wastage. Smart packaging solutions presented in the form of naturally occurred antimicrobially-active packaging may be a solution to these and other issues. Gelatin film forming solution with adding of natural sourced antimicrobials is a promising tool for the active smart packaging. The objective of this study was to coat conventional plastic hydrophobic packaging material with hydrophilic antimicrobial active beef gelatin coating and conduct shelf life trials on beef sub-primal cuts. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of Caprylic acid sodium salt (SO) and commercially available Auranta FV (AFV) (bitter oranges extract with mixture of nutritive organic acids) were found of 1 and 1.5 % respectively against bacterial strains Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic and anaerobic beef microflora. Therefore SO or AFV were incorporated in beef gelatin film forming solution in concentration of two times of MIC which was coated on a conventional plastic LDPE/PA film on the inner cold plasma treated polyethylene surface. Beef samples were vacuum packed in this material and stored under chilling conditions, sampled at weekly intervals during 42 days shelf life study. No significant differences (p < 0.05) in the cook loss was observed among the different treatments compared to control samples until the day 29. Only for AFV coated beef sample it was 3% higher (37.3%) than the control (34.4 %) on the day 36. It was found antimicrobial films did not protect beef against discoloration. SO containing packages significantly (p < 0.05) reduced Total viable bacterial counts (TVC) compared to the control and AFV samples until the day 35. No significant reduction in TVC was observed between SO and AFV films on the day 42 but a significant difference was observed compared to control samples with a 1.40 log of bacteria reduction on the day 42. AFV films significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TVC compared to control samples from the day 14 until the day 42. Control samples reached the set value of 7 log CFU/g on day 27 of testing, AFV films did not reach this set limit until day 35 and SO films until day 42 of testing. The antimicrobial AFV and SO coated films significantly prolonged the shelf-life of beef steaks by 33 or 55% (on 7 and 14 days respectively) compared to control film samples. It is concluded antimicrobial coated films were successfully developed by coating the inner polyethylene layer of conventional LDPE/PA laminated films after plasma surface treatment. The results indicated that the use of antimicrobial active packaging coated with SO or AFV increased significantly (p < 0.05) the shelf life of the beef sub-primal. Overall, AFV or SO containing gelatin coatings have the potential of being used as effective antimicrobials for active packaging applications for muscle-based food products.

Keywords: active packaging, antimicrobials, edible coatings, food packaging, gelatin films, meat science

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12 Aerobic Biodegradation of a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon by Bacillus Cereus 2479

Authors: Srijata Mitra, Mobina Parveen, Pranab Roy, Narayan Chandra Chattopadhyay


Chlorinated hydrocarbon can be a major pollution problem in groundwater as well as soil. Many people interact with these chemicals on daily accidentally or by professionally in the laboratory. One of the most common sources for Chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater are industrial effluents. The wide use and discharge of Trichloroethylene (TCE), a volatile chlorohydrocarbon from chemical industry, led to major water pollution in rural areas. TCE is an mainly used as an industrial metal degreaser in industries. Biotransformation of TCE to the potent carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC) by consortia of anaerobic bacteria might have role for the above purpose. For these reasons, the aim of current study was to isolate and characterized the genes involved in TCE metabolism and also to investigate the in silico study of those genes. To our knowledge, only one aromatic dioxygenase system, the toluene dioxygenase in Pseudomonas putida F1 has been shown to be involved in TCE degradation. This is first instance where Bacillus cereus group being used in biodegradation of trichloroethylene. A novel bacterial strain 2479 was isolated from oil depot site at Rajbandh, Durgapur (West Bengal, India) by enrichment culture technique. It was identified based on polyphasic approach and ribotyping. The bacterium was gram positive, rod shaped, endospore forming and capable of degrading trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source. On the basis of phylogenetic data and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Analysis, strain 2479 should be placed within the genus Bacillus and species cereus. However, the present isolate (strain 2479) is unique and sharply different from the usual Bacillus strains in its biodegrading nature. Fujiwara test was done to estimate that the strain 2479 could degrade TCE efficiently. The gene for TCE biodegradation was PCR amplified from genomic DNA of Bacillus cereus 2479 by using todC1 gene specific primers. The 600bp amplicon was cloned into expression vector pUC I8 in the E. coli host XL1-Blue and expressed under the control of lac promoter and nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene sequence was deposited at NCBI under the Accession no. GU183105. In Silico approach involved predicting the physico-chemical properties of deduced Tce1 protein by using ProtParam tool. The tce1 gene contained 342 bp long ORF encoding 114 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight 12.6 kDa and the theoretical pI value of the polypeptide was 5.17, molecular formula: C559H886N152O165S8, total number of atoms: 1770, aliphatic index: 101.93, instability index: 28.60, Grand Average of Hydropathicity (GRAVY): 0.152. Three differentially expressed proteins (97.1, 40 and 30 kDa) were directly involved in TCE biodegradation, found to react immunologically to the antibodies raised against TCE inducible proteins in Western blot analysis. The present study suggested that cloned gene product (TCE1) was capable of degrading TCE as verified chemically.

Keywords: cloning, Bacillus cereus, in silico analysis, TCE

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11 Physico-Mechanical Behavior of Indian Oil Shales

Authors: K. S. Rao, Ankesh Kumar


The search for alternative energy sources to petroleum has increased these days because of increase in need and depletion of petroleum reserves. Therefore the importance of oil shales as an economically viable substitute has increased many folds in last 20 years. The technologies like hydro-fracturing have opened the field of oil extraction from these unconventional rocks. Oil shale is a compact laminated rock of sedimentary origin containing organic matter known as kerogen which yields oil when distilled. Oil shales are formed from the contemporaneous deposition of fine grained mineral debris and organic degradation products derived from the breakdown of biota. Conditions required for the formation of oil shales include abundant organic productivity, early development of anaerobic conditions, and a lack of destructive organisms. These rocks are not gown through the high temperature and high pressure conditions in Mother Nature. The most common approach for oil extraction is drastically breaking the bond of the organics which involves retorting process. The two approaches for retorting are surface retorting and in-situ processing. The most environmental friendly approach for extraction is In-situ processing. The three steps involved in this process are fracturing, injection to achieve communication, and fluid migration at the underground location. Upon heating (retorting) oil shale at temperatures in the range of 300 to 400°C, the kerogen decomposes into oil, gas and residual carbon in a process referred to as pyrolysis. Therefore it is very important to understand the physico-mechenical behavior of such rocks, to improve the technology for in-situ extraction. It is clear from the past research and the physical observations that these rocks will behave as an anisotropic rock so it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior under high pressure at different orientation angles for the economical use of these resources. By knowing the engineering behavior under above conditions will allow us to simulate the deep ground retorting conditions numerically and experimentally. Many researchers have investigate the effect of organic content on the engineering behavior of oil shale but the coupled effect of organic and inorganic matrix is yet to be analyzed. The favourable characteristics of Assam coal for conversion to liquid fuels have been known for a long time. Studies have indicated that these coals and carbonaceous shale constitute the principal source rocks that have generated the hydrocarbons produced from the region. Rock cores of the representative samples are collected by performing on site drilling, as coring in laboratory is very difficult due to its highly anisotropic nature. Different tests are performed to understand the petrology of these samples, further the chemical analyses are also done to exactly quantify the organic content in these rocks. The mechanical properties of these rocks are investigated by considering different anisotropic angles. Now the results obtained from petrology and chemical analysis are correlated with the mechanical properties. These properties and correlations will further help in increasing the producibility of these rocks. It is well established that the organic content is negatively correlated to tensile strength, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity.

Keywords: oil shale, producibility, hydro-fracturing, kerogen, petrology, mechanical behavior

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10 A Study on the Chemical Composition of Kolkheti's Sphagnum Peat Peloids to Evaluate the Perspective of Use in Medical Practice

Authors: Al. Tsertsvadze. L. Ebralidze, I. Matchutadze. D. Berashvili, A. Bakuridze


Peatlands are landscape elements, they are formed over a very long period by physical, chemical, biologic, and geologic processes. In the moderate zone of Caucasus, the Kolkheti lowlands are distinguished by the diversity of relictual plants, a high degree of endemism, orographic, climate, landscape, and other characteristics of high levels of biodiversity. The unique properties of the Kolkheti region lead to the formation of special, so-called, endemic peat peloids. The composition and properties of peloids strongly depend on peat-forming plants. Peat is considered a unique complex of raw materials, which can be used in different fields of the industry: agriculture, metallurgy, energy, biotechnology, chemical industry, health care. They are formed in permanent wetland areas. As a result of decay, higher plants remain in the anaerobic area, with the participation of microorganisms. Peat mass absorbs soil and groundwater. Peloids are predominantly rich with humic substances, which are characterized by high biological activity. Humic acids stimulate enzymatic activity, regenerative processes, and have anti-inflammatory activity. Objects of the research were Kolkheti peat peloids (Ispani, Anaklia, Churia, Chirukhi, Peranga) possessing different formation phases. Due to specific physical and chemical properties of research objects, the aim of the research was to develop analytical methods in order to study the chemical composition of the objects. The research was held using modern instrumental methods of analysis: Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Centrifuge, dry oven, Ultraturax, pH meter, fluorescence spectrometer, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), Gas chromatography. Based on the research ration between organic and inorganic substances, the spectrum of micro and macro elements, also the content of minerals was determined. The content of organic nitrogen was determined using the Kjeldahl method. The total composition of amino acids was studied by a spectrophotometric method using standard solutions of glutamic and aspartic acids. Fatty acid was determined using GC (Gas chromatography). Based on the obtained results, we can conclude that the method is valid to identify fatty acids in the research objects. The content of organic substances in the research objects was held using GC-MS. Using modern instrumental methods of analysis, the chemical composition of research objects was studied. Each research object is predominantly reached with a broad spectrum of organic (fatty acids, amino acids, carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds, organic acids and their esters, steroids) and inorganic (micro and macro elements, minerals) substances. Modified methods used in the presented research may be utilized for the evaluation of cosmetological balneological and pharmaceutical means prepared on the base of Kolkheti's Sphagnum Peat Peloids.

Keywords: modern analytical methods, natural resources, peat, chemistry

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9 Bacteriophages for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment: Application in Black Water Decontamination with an Emphasis to DRDO Biotoilet

Authors: Sonika Sharma, Mohan G. Vairale, Sibnarayan Datta, Soumya Chatterjee, Dharmendra Dubey, Rajesh Prasad, Raghvendra Budhauliya, Bidisha Das, Vijay Veer


Bacteriophages are viruses that parasitize specific bacteria and multiply in metabolising host bacteria. Bacteriophages hunt for a single or a subset of bacterial species, making them potential antibacterial agents. Utilizing the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has several applications from medical to the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. However, harnessing phage based techniques in wastewater treatments to improve quality of effluent and sludge release into the environment is a potential area for R&D application. Phage mediated bactericidal effect in any wastewater treatment process has many controlling factors that lead to treatment performance. In laboratory conditions, titer of bacteriophages (coliphages) isolated from effluent water of a specially designed anaerobic digester of human night soil (DRDO Biotoilet) was successfully increased with a modified protocol of the classical double layer agar technique. Enrichment of the same was carried out and efficacy of the phage enriched medium was evaluated at different conditions (specific media, temperature, storage conditions). Growth optimization study was carried out on different media like soybean casein digest medium (Tryptone soya medium), Luria-Bertani medium, phage deca broth medium and MNA medium (Modified nutrient medium). Further, temperature-phage yield relationship was also observed at three different temperatures 27˚C, 37˚C and 44˚C at laboratory condition. Results showed the higher activity of coliphage 27˚C and at 37˚C. Further, addition of divalent ions (10mM MgCl2, 5mM CaCl2) and 5% glycerol resulted in a significant increase in phage titer. Besides this, effect of antibiotics addition like ampicillin and kanamycin at different concentration on plaque formation was analysed and reported that ampicillin at a concentration of 1mg/ml ampicillin stimulates phage infection and results in more number of plaques. Experiments to test viability of phage showed that it can remain active for 6 months at 4˚C in fresh tryptone soya broth supplemented with fresh culture of coliforms (early log phase). The application of bacteriophages (especially coliphages) for treatment of effluent of human faecal matter contaminated effluent water is unique. This environment-friendly treatment system not only reduces the pathogenic coliforms, but also decreases the competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Therefore, the phage based cocktail to treat fecal pathogenic bacteria present in black water has many implication in wastewater treatment processes including ‘DRDO Biotoilet’, which is an ecofriendly appropriate and affordable human faecal matter treatment technology for different climates and situations.

Keywords: wastewater, microbes, virus, biotoilet, phage viability

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8 The Applications of Zero Water Discharge (ZWD) Systems for Environmental Management

Authors: Walter W. Loo


China declared the “zero discharge rules which leave no toxics into our living environment and deliver blue sky, green land and clean water to many generations to come”. The achievement of ZWD will provide conservation of water, soil and energy and provide drastic increase in Gross Domestic Products (GDP). Our society’s engine needs a major tune up; it is sputtering. ZWD is achieved in world’s space stations – no toxic air emission and the water is totally recycled and solid wastes all come back to earth. This is all done with solar power. These are all achieved under extreme temperature, pressure and zero gravity in space. ZWD can be achieved on earth under much less fluctuations in temperature, pressure and normal gravity environment. ZWD systems are not expensive and will have multiple beneficial returns on investment which are both financially and environmentally acceptable. The paper will include successful case histories since the mid-1970s. ZWD discharge can be applied to the following types of projects: nuclear and coal fire power plants with a closed loop system that will eliminate thermal water discharge; residential communities with wastewater treatment sump and recycle the water use as a secondary water supply; waste water treatment Plants with complete water recycling including water distillation to produce distilled water by very economical 24-hours solar power plant. Landfill remediation is based on neutralization of landfilled gas odor and preventing anaerobic leachate formation. It is an aerobic condition which will render landfill gas emission explosion proof. Desert development is the development of recovering soil moisture from soil and completing a closed loop water cycle by solar energy within and underneath an enclosed greenhouse. Salt-alkali land development can be achieved by solar distillation of salty shallow water into distilled water. The distilled water can be used for soil washing and irrigation and complete a closed loop water cycle with energy and water conservation. Heavy metals remediation can be achieved by precipitation of dissolved toxic metals below the plant or vegetation root zone by solar electricity without pumping and treating. Soil and groundwater remediation - abandoned refineries, chemical and pesticide factories can be remediated by in-situ electrobiochemical and bioventing treatment method without pumping or excavation. Toxic organic chemicals are oxidized into carbon dioxide and heavy metals precipitated below plant and vegetation root zone. New water sources: low temperature distilled water can be recycled for repeated use within a greenhouse environment by solar distillation; nano bubble water can be made from the distilled water with nano bubbles of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from air (fertilizer water) and also eliminate the use of pesticides because the nano oxygen will break the insect growth chain in the larvae state. Three dimensional high yield greenhouses can be constructed by complete water recycling using the vadose zone soil as a filter with no farming wastewater discharge.

Keywords: greenhouses, no discharge, remediation of soil and water, wastewater

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7 Generating Biogas from Municipal Kitchen Waste: An Experience from Gaibandha, Bangladesh

Authors: Taif Rocky, Uttam Saha, Mahobul Islam


With a rapid urbanisation in Bangladesh, waste management remains one of the core challenges. Turning municipal waste into biogas for mass usage is a solution that Bangladesh needs to adopt urgently. Practical Action with its commitment to challenging poverty with technological justice has piloted such idea in Gaibandha. The initiative received immense success and drew the attention of policy makers and practitioners. We believe, biogas from waste can highly contribute to meet the growing demand for energy in the country at present and in the future. Practical Action has field based experience in promoting small scale and innovative technologies. We have proven track record in integrated solid waste management. We further utilized this experience to promote waste to biogas at end users’ level. In 2011, we have piloted a project on waste to biogas in Gaibandha, a northern secondary town of Bangladesh. With resource and support from UNICEF and with our own innovative funds we have established a complete chain of utilizing waste to the renewable energy source and organic fertilizer. Biogas is produced from municipal solid waste, which is properly collected, transported and segregated by private entrepreneurs. The project has two major focuses, diversification of biogas end use and establishing a public-private partnership business model. The project benefits include Recycling of Wastes, Improved institutional (municipal) capacity, Livelihood from improved services and Direct Income from the project. Project risks include Change of municipal leadership, Traditional mindset, Access to decision making, Land availability. We have observed several outcomes from the initiative. Up scaling such an initiative will certainly contribute for sustainable cleaner and healthier urban environment and urban poverty reduction. - It reduces the unsafe disposal of wastes which improve the cleanliness and environment of the town. -Make drainage system effective reducing the adverse impact of water logging or flooding. -Improve public health from better management of wastes. -Promotes usage of biogas replacing the use of firewood/coal which creates smoke and indoor air pollution in kitchens which have long term impact on health of women and children. -Reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the anaerobic recycling of wastes and contributes to sustainable urban environment. -Promote the concept of agroecology from the uses of bio slurry/compost which contributes to food security. -Creates green jobs from waste value chain which impacts on poverty alleviation of urban extreme poor. -Improve municipal governance from inclusive waste services and functional partnership with private sectors. -Contribute to the implementation of 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) Strategy and Employment Creation of extreme poor to achieve the target set in Vision 2021 by Government of Bangladesh.

Keywords: kitchen waste, secondary town, biogas, segregation

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6 Exploiting the Tumour Microenvironment in Order to Optimise Sonodynamic Therapy for Cancer

Authors: Maryam Mohammad Hadi, Heather Nesbitt, Hamzah Masood, Hashim Ahmed, Mark Emberton, John Callan, Alexander MacRobert, Anthony McHale, Nikolitsa Nomikou


Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) utilises ultrasound in combination with sensitizers, such as porphyrins, for the production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the confined ablation of tumours. Ultrasound can be applied locally, and the acoustic waves, at frequencies between 0.5-2 MHz, are transmitted efficiently through tissue. SDT does not require highly toxic agents, and the cytotoxic effect only occurs upon ultrasound exposure at the site of the lesion. Therefore, this approach is not associated with adverse side effects. Further highlighting the benefits of SDT, no cancer cell population has shown resistance to therapy-triggered ROS production or their cytotoxic effects. This is particularly important, given the as yet unresolved issues of radiation and chemo-resistance, to the authors’ best knowledge. Another potential future benefit of this approach – considering its non-thermal mechanism of action – is its possible role as an adjuvant to immunotherapy. Substantial pre-clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy and targeting capability of this therapeutic approach. However, SDT has yet to be fully characterised and appropriately exploited for the treatment of cancer. In this study, a formulation based on multistimulus-responsive sensitizer-containing nanoparticles that can accumulate in advanced prostate tumours and increase the therapeutic efficacy of SDT has been developed. The formulation is based on a polyglutamate-tyrosine (PGATyr) co-polymer carrying hematoporphyrin. The efficacy of SDT in this study was demonstrated using prostate cancer as the translational exemplar. The formulation was designed to respond to the microenvironment of advanced prostate tumours, such as the overexpression of the proteolytic enzymes, cathepsin-B and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), that can degrade the nanoparticles, reduce their size, improving both diffusions throughout the tumour mass and cellular uptake. The therapeutic modality was initially tested in vitro using LNCaP and PC3 cells as target cell lines. The SDT efficacy was also examined in vivo, using male SCID mice bearing LNCaP subcutaneous tumours. We have demonstrated that the PGATyr co-polymer is digested by cathepsin B and that digestion of the formulation by cathepsin-B, at tumour-mimicking conditions (acidic pH), leads to decreased nanoparticle size and subsequent increased cellular uptake. Sonodynamic treatment, at both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, demonstrated ultrasound-induced cytotoxic effects only for the nanoparticle-treated prostate cancer cells, while the toxicity of the formulation in the absence of ultrasound was minimal. Our in vivo studies in immunodeficient mice, using the hematoporphyrin-containing PGATyr nanoparticles for SDT, showed a 50% decrease in LNCaP tumour volumes within 24h, following IV administration of a single dose. No adverse effects were recorded, and body weight was stable. The results described in this study clearly demonstrate the promise of SDT to revolutionize cancer treatment. It emphasizes the potential of this therapeutic modality as a fist line treatment or in combination treatment for the elimination or downstaging of difficult to treat cancers, such as prostate, pancreatic, and advanced colorectal cancer.

Keywords: sonodynamic therapy, nanoparticles, tumour ablation, ultrasound

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5 Combination of Modelling and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Approach for Demand Driven Biogas Production

Authors: Juan A. Arzate, Funda C. Ertem, M. Nicolas Cruz-Bournazou, Peter Neubauer, Stefan Junne


— One of the biggest challenges the world faces today is global warming that is caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) coming from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy generation. In order to mitigate climate change, the European Union has committed to reducing GHG emissions to 80–95% below the level of the 1990s by the year 2050. Renewable technologies are vital to diminish energy-related GHG emissions. Since water and biomass are limited resources, the largest contributions to renewable energy (RE) systems will have to come from wind and solar power. Nevertheless, high proportions of fluctuating RE will present a number of challenges, especially regarding the need to balance the variable energy demand with the weather dependent fluctuation of energy supply. Therefore, biogas plants in this content would play an important role, since they are easily adaptable. Feedstock availability varies locally or seasonally; however there is a lack of knowledge in how biogas plants should be operated in a stable manner by local feedstock. This problem may be prevented through suitable control strategies. Such strategies require the development of convenient mathematical models, which fairly describe the main processes. Modelling allows us to predict the system behavior of biogas plants when different feedstocks are used with different loading rates. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique for analyzing several sides from evolution of a product till its disposal in an environmental point of view. It is highly recommend to use as a decision making tool. In order to achieve suitable strategies, the combination of a flexible energy generation provided by biogas plants, a secure production process and the maximization of the environmental benefits can be obtained by the combination of process modelling and LCA approaches. For this reason, this study focuses on the biogas plant which flexibly generates required energy from the co-digestion of maize, grass and cattle manure, while emitting the lowest amount of GHG´s. To achieve this goal AMOCO model was combined with LCA. The program was structured in Matlab to simulate any biogas process based on the AMOCO model and combined with the equations necessary to obtain climate change, acidification and eutrophication potentials of the whole production system based on ReCiPe midpoint v.1.06 methodology. Developed simulation was optimized based on real data from operating biogas plants and existing literature research. The results prove that AMOCO model can successfully imitate the system behavior of biogas plants and the necessary time required for the process to adapt in order to generate demanded energy from available feedstock. Combination with LCA approach provided opportunity to keep the resulting emissions from operation at the lowest possible level. This would allow for a prediction of the process, when the feedstock utilization supports the establishment of closed material circles within a smart bio-production grid – under the constraint of minimal drawbacks for the environment and maximal sustainability.

Keywords: AMOCO model, GHG emissions, life cycle assessment, modelling

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4 Microplastic Concentrations and Fluxes in Urban Compartments: A Systemic Approach at the Scale of the Paris Megacity

Authors: Rachid Dris, Robin Treilles, Max Beaurepaire, Minh Trang Nguyen, Sam Azimi, Vincent Rocher, Johnny Gasperi, Bruno Tassin


Microplastic sources and fluxes in urban catchments are only poorly studied. Most often, the approaches taken focus on a single source and only carry out a description of the contamination levels and type (shape, size, polymers). In order to gain an improved knowledge of microplastic inputs at urban scales, estimating and comparing various fluxes is necessary. The Laboratoire Eau, Environnement et Systèmes Urbains (LEESU), the Laboratoire Eau Environnement (LEE) and the SIAAP (Service public de l’assainissement francilien) initiated several projects to investigate different urban sources and flows of microplastics. A systemic approach is undertaken at the scale of Paris Megacity, and several compartments are considered, including atmospheric fallout, wastewater treatments plants, runoff and combined sewer overflows. These investigations are carried out within the Limnoplast and OPUR projects. Atmospheric fallout was sampled during consecutive periods ranging from 2 to 3 weeks with a stainless-steel funnel. Both wet and dry periods were considered. Different treatment steps were sampled in 2 wastewater treatment plants (Seine-Amont for activated sludge and Seine-Centre for biofiltration) of the SIAAP, including sludge samples. Microplastics were also investigated in combined sewer overflows as well as in stormwater at the outlet suburban catchment (Sucy-en-Brie, France) during four rain events. Samples are treated using hydroperoxide digestion (H₂O₂ 30 %) in order to reduce organic material. Microplastics are then extracted from the samples with a density separation step using NaI (d=1.6⁻³). Samples are filtered on metallic filters with a porosity of 14 µm between steps to separate them from the solutions (H₂O₂ and NaI). The last filtration was carried out on alumina filters. Infrared mapping analysis (using a micro-FTIR with an MCT detector) is performed on each alumina filter. The resulting maps are analyzed using a microplastic analysis software simple, developed by Aalborg University, Denmark and Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany. Blanks were systematically carried out to consider sample contamination. This presentation aims at synthesizing the data found in the various projects. In order to carry out a systemic approach and compare the various inputs, all the data were converted into annual microplastic fluxes (number of microplastics per year), and extrapolated to the Parisian agglomeration. PP, PE and alkyd are the most prevalent polymers found in storm water samples. Rain intensity and microplastic concentrations did not show any clear correlation. Considering the runoff volumes and the impervious surface area of the studied catchment, a flux of 4*107–9*107 MPs.yr⁻¹.ha⁻¹ was estimated. Samples of wastewater treatment plants and atmospheric fallout are currently being analyzed in order to finalize this assessment. The representativeness of such samplings and uncertainties related to the extrapolations will be discussed and gaps in knowledge will be identified. The data provided by such an approach will help to prioritize future research as well as policy efforts.

Keywords: microplastics, atmosphere, wastewater, urban runoff, Paris megacity, urban waters

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3 Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Biological Activities of an Ethyl Acetate Extract from the Peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo

Authors: Silvia Di Giacomo, Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori, Francesco Cacciagrano, Chiara Toniolo, Gabriela Mazzanti, Luisa Mannina, Stefania Cesa, Antonella Di Sotto


Hyperglycemia represents the main pathogenic factor in the development of diabetes complications and has been found associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which in turn increase cell dysfunction. Therefore, counteract oxidative species appears to be a suitable strategy for preventing the hyperglycemia-induce cell damage and support the pharmacotherapy of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Antidiabetic potential of many food sources has been linked to the presence of polyphenolic metabolites, particularly flavonoids such as quercetin and its glycosylated form rutin. In line with this evidence, in the present study, we assayed the potential anti-hyperglycemic activity of an ethyl acetate extract from the peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo (PGE), a fruit well known to traditional medicine for the beneficial properties of its edible juice. The effect of the extract on the glucidic metabolism has been evaluated by assessing its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, two digestive enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates: their inhibition can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce glucose absorption, thus representing an important strategy for the management of hyperglycemia. Also, the PGE ability to block the release of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), whose accumulation is known to be responsible for diabetic vascular complications, was studied. The iron-reducing and chelating activities, which are the primary mechanisms by which AGE inhibitors stop their metal-catalyzed formation, were evaluated as possible antioxidant mechanisms. At last, the phenolic content of PGE was characterized by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Our results displayed the ability of PGE to inhibit α-amylase enzyme with a similar potency to the positive control: the IC₅₀ values were 52.2 (CL 27.7 - 101.2) µg/ml and 35.6 (CL 22.8 - 55.5) µg/ml for acarbose and PGE, respectively. PGE also inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme with about a 25 higher potency than the positive controls of acarbose and quercetin. Furthermore, the extract exhibited ferrous and ferric ion chelating ability, with a maximum effect of 82.1% and 80.6% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml respectively, and reducing properties, reaching the maximum effect of 80.5% at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. At last, PGE was found able to inhibit the AGE production (maximum inhibition of 82.2% at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml), although with lower potency with respect to the positive control rutin. The phytochemical analysis of PGE displayed the presence of high levels of total polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids, among which ellagic acid, gallic acid and catechin were identified. Altogether these data highlight the ability of PGE to control the carbohydrate metabolism at different levels, both by inhibiting the metabolic enzymes and by affecting the AGE formation likely by chelating mechanisms. It is also noteworthy that peel from pomegranate, although being a waste of juice production, can be reviewed as a nutraceutical source. In conclusion, present results suggest the possible role of PGE as a remedy for preventing hyperglycemia complications and encourage further in vivo studies.

Keywords: anti-hyperglycemic activity, antioxidant properties, nutraceuticals, polyphenols, pomegranate

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2 Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Planktonic and Biofilms from Staphylococcus aureus Using Tandem Mass Tag-Based Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Arifur Rahman, Ardeshir Amirkhani, Honghua Hu, Mark Molloy, Karen Vickery


Introduction and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci comprises approximately 65% of infections associated with medical devices and are well known for their biofilm formatting ability. Biofilm-related infections are extremely difficult to eradicate owing to their high tolerance to antibiotics and host immune defences. Currently, there is no efficient method for early biofilm detection. A better understanding to enable detection of biofilm specific proteins in vitro and in vivo can be achieved by studying planktonic and different growth phases of biofilms using a proteome analysis approach. Our goal was to construct a reference map of planktonic and biofilm associated proteins of S. aureus. Methods: S. aureus reference strain (ATCC 25923) was used to grow 24 hours planktonic, 3-day wet biofilm (3DWB), and 12-day wet biofilm (12DWB). Bacteria were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) liquid medium. Planktonic growth was used late logarithmic bacteria, and the Centres for Disease Control (CDC) biofilm reactor was used to grow 3 days, and 12-day hydrated biofilms, respectively. Samples were subjected to reduction, alkylation and digestion steps prior to Multiplex labelling using Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) 10-plex reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific). The labelled samples were pooled and fractionated by high pH RP-HPLC which followed by loading of the fractions on a nanoflow UPLC system (Eksigent UPLC system, AB SCIEX). Mass spectrometry (MS) data were collected on an Orbitrap Elite (Thermo Fisher Scientific) Mass Spectrometer. Protein identification and relative quantitation of protein levels were performed using Proteome Discoverer (version 1.3, Thermo Fisher Scientific). After the extraction of protein ratios with Proteome Discoverer, additional processing, and statistical analysis was done using the TMTPrePro R package. Results and Discussion: The present study showed that a considerable proteomic difference exists among planktonic and biofilms from S. aureus. We identified 1636 total extracellular secreted proteins, of which 350 and 137 proteins of 3DWB and 12DWB showed significant abundance variation from planktonic preparation, respectively. Of these, simultaneous up-regulation in between 3DWB and 12DWB proteins such as extracellular matrix-binding protein ebh, enolase, transketolase, triosephosphate isomerase, chaperonin, peptidase, pyruvate kinase, hydrolase, aminotransferase, ribosomal protein, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, DNA gyrase subunit A, glycine glycyltransferase and others we found in this biofilm producer. On the contrary, simultaneous down-regulation in between 3DWB and 12DWB proteins such as alpha and delta-hemolysin, lipoteichoic acid synthase, enterotoxin I, serine protease, lipase, clumping factor B, regulatory protein Spx, phosphoglucomutase, and others also we found in this biofilm producer. In addition, we also identified a big percentage of hypothetical proteins including unique proteins. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of planktonic and biofilm associated proteins identified by S. aureus will provide a basis for future studies on the development of vaccines and diagnostic biomarkers. Conclusions: In this study, we constructed an initial reference map of planktonic and various growth phase of biofilm associated proteins which might be helpful to diagnose biofilm associated infections.

Keywords: bacterial biofilms, CDC bioreactor, S. aureus, mass spectrometry, TMT

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