Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: citrus

88 Somatic Hybridization of between Citrus and Murraya paniculata Cells Applied by Electro-Fusion

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Citrus sinensis were electrically used with mesophyll protoplasts isolated from seedless Citrus relatives. Hybrid of somatic embryos plantlets was obtained after 7 months of culture. Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated into normal seedlings and successfully transferred to soil after strictly acclimatization in the glass pot. The somatic hybrid plants were obtained by screening on the basis of chromosomes count. The number of chromosome of root tip counting revealed plantlets tetraploids (2n = 4x = 36) and the other were diploids (2n = 2x = 18) morphologically resembling the mesophyll parent. This somatic hybrid will be utilized as a possible pollen parent for improving the Citrus sinensis. A complete protoplast-to-plant system of somatic hybrid was developed for Citrus sinensis and Citrus relatives which could facilitate the transfer of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes from this species into cultivated Citrus through protoplast fusion.

Keywords: chromosome, Murraya paniculata, protoplast fusion, somatic hybrid, tetrapoliod

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
87 Preliminary Prospecting on the Distribution of the Disease of Citrus Tristeza Orchards in the Province of Chlef

Authors: Ibrahim Djelloul Berkane

Abstract:

A survey was conducted to assess the presence of the virus in Citrus tristeza one of the main citrus regions of Algeria, namely the Chlef region, using the technique of Direct Tissue Print Immunoprinting Assay (DTBIA) and the Double Sandwich ELISA antibodies. A nursery citrus, lumber yards, and commercial orchards, which are the main varieties cultivated citrus were subjected to samples collected samples for laboratory analysis. 0.91% of the plants tested orchards were infected with CTV, while no positive case was detected at the nursery the yard, however, it is reported that an alarming rate of 10,5% of orchards tested at the common Chettia were infected with tristeza virus. The investigation was launched to identify the vector species tristeza revealed the presence of a vector is important Aphis gossypii.

Keywords: aphis, chlef, citrus, DAS-ELISA, DTBIA, tristeza

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
86 Epidemiological Model for Citrus Black Spot Dynamics along the Pre-Harvest Supply Chain

Authors: Nqobile Muleya, Winston Garira, Godwin Mchau

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Citrus Black Spot (CBS) is a fungal disease that is responsible for huge economical loss and poses a threat to the citrus industry worldwide. We construct a mathematical model framework for citrus black spot between fruits to characterise the dynamics of the disease development, paying attention to the pathogen life cycle. We have made an observation from the model analysis that the initial inoculum from ascomata is very important for disease development and thereafter it is no longer important due to conidia which is responsible for secondary infection. Most importantly, the model indicated that ascospores and conidia are very important parameters in developing citrus black spot within a short distance. The basic reproductive number and its importance in relation to citrus black spot persistence are outlined. A numerical simulation of the model was done to explain the theoretical findings.

Keywords: epidemiological modelling, Guidnardia citricarpa, life cycle stage, fungal, disease development

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
85 An Automated System for the Detection of Citrus Greening Disease Based on Visual Descriptors

Authors: Sidra Naeem, Ayesha Naeem, Sahar Rahim, Nadia Nawaz Qadri

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Citrus greening is a bacterial disease that causes considerable damage to citrus fruits worldwide. Efficient method for this disease detection must be carried out to minimize the production loss. This paper presents a pattern recognition system that comprises three stages for the detection of citrus greening from Orange leaves: segmentation, feature extraction and classification. Image segmentation is accomplished by adaptive thresholding. The feature extraction stage comprises of three visual descriptors i.e. shape, color and texture. From shape feature we have used asymmetry index, from color feature we have used histogram of Cb component from YCbCr domain and from texture feature we have used local binary pattern. Classification was done using support vector machines and k nearest neighbors. The best performances of the system is Accuracy = 88.02% and AUROC = 90.1% was achieved by automatic segmented images. Our experiments validate that: (1). Segmentation is an imperative preprocessing step for computer assisted diagnosis of citrus greening, and (2). The combination of shape, color and texture features form a complementary set towards the identification of citrus greening disease.

Keywords: citrus greening, pattern recognition, feature extraction, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
84 Antihypertensive Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Citrus Paradise Juice in One Clip One Kidney Hypertension Model in Rats

Authors: Lokesh Bhatt, Jayesh Rathod

Abstract:

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular disorder. It is responsible for several other cardiovascular disorders. Although many drugs are available for the treatment of hypertension, still a large population has uncontrolled blood pressure. Thus there is an unmet need for new therapeutic approaches for the same. Fruit juice of Citrus paradise contains several flavonoids with vasodilatory activity. We hypothesized that alcoholic extract of Citrus paradise, which contains flavonoids, might attenuate hypertension. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of alcoholic extract of Citrus paradise fruit juice in rats. Hypertension was induced using one clip one kidney model in rats. The renal artery was occluded for 4 h after removal of one kidney. Once stabilized, the ganglionic blockade was performed followed by removal of the arterial clip from the kidney. Removal of clip resulted in an increase in blood pressure which is due to release of renin from the kidney. Alcoholic extract of Citrus paradise fruit juice was then administered at 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg dose by intravenous injection. Blood pressure was monitored continuously. Alcoholic extract of Citrus paradise fruit juice reduced hypertension in dose-dependent manner. Antihypertensive activity was found to be associated with vasodilation. The results of the present study showed antihypertensive potential of alcoholic extract of Citrus paradise fruit juice.

Keywords: citrus paradise, alcoholic extract, one clip one kidney model, vasodilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
83 Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Effect of Leaf Essential Oil of Citrus sinensis in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omolola Soji-Omoniwa, Babasoji Omoniwa

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The hypolipidemic effect of leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis in alloxan–induced diabetic rats was evaluated. Forty albino rats (150–200 g) were randomly selected into 4 groups of 10 rats each, representing Normal Control, Diabetic Control, Diabetic treated with 14.2 mg/kg body weight Metformin and Diabetic treated with 110 mg/kg body weight leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of single dose alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight). The leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis was administered every other day to the Diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. The effects of leaf essential oil on High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Trigylcerides and Cholesterol were evaluated. A significant reduction (p <0.05) in LDL, Triglycerides and cholesterol levels and a significant increase (p<0 .05) in HDL was observed. Leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis possesses hypolipidemic properties.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis, Diabetes mellitus, hypolipidemic, leaf essential oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
82 Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium Isolated by Solvent Free Microwave Assisted Extraction and Hydrodistillation Extraction

Authors: Masume Rezaie, Mohammad H. Farjam

Abstract:

Chemical composition of Citrus aurantium was studied by solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) methods. Limonene (76.06% SFME and 67.04% HD), Linalool (4.91% SFME and 10.08% HD) and Linalyl Acetate (8.52% SFME and 5.10% HD) were the major compounds that obtained by SFME and hydrodistillation, respectively.

Keywords: microwave-assisted, GC-MS, essential oils, hydrodistillation, citrus aurantium

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
81 Efficacy of Different Pest Control Strategies against Citrus Rind Borer (Prays Eendolemma Diakonoff) Infesting Pummelo (Citrus maxima)

Authors: Larry V. Aceres, Jesryl B. Paulite, Emelie M. Pelicano, J. A. Esteban, Mamangun

Abstract:

Citrus rind borer still the most important pest infesting pummelo in the Philippines particularly in the Davao region. Hence, management of the pest is very important for successful pummelo production. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the different control strategies against citrus rind borer; to determine the best treatment in controlling citrus rind borer; and to calculate the profitability of the various treatments in pummelo production. The experiment was laid-out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments replicated three times. The treatments were: T1- curry tree leaf leachate, T2- neem tree leaf leachate, T3- bagging with an ordinary net, T4- treated check (chlorpyrifos & betacyflutrin) and T5- untreated check. Data were analyzed using the Analysis of Variance and the differences among treatment means were computed using the Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference. The results of the study revealed that the curry tree leaf leachate and bagging treatments provide significant protection to the pummelo fruits which is comparable with the treated check (chlorpyrifos & betacyflutrin). Neem tree leaf leachate is not effective in controlling citrus rind borer which is comparable with the untreated check. In cost and return analysis, the most economical and effective is the bagging treatment using ordinary net.

Keywords: curry tree, neem tree, bagging, citrus rind borer

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
80 The Effect of Aromatherapy Candle as Insecticide from Citrus Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon) to Increase Ae. aegypti Mortality

Authors: Nurul Hidayah, Farida Rahmatika, Fathimah Azzahra, Nesty Herennadia

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Aromatherapy candles are one of the insecticide media that have not been much researched. The active ingredient that is proven to have the effect of insecticide is a citrus extract from lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon). Aromatherapy candles are added by citrus compounds to be insecticidal for Ae. aegypti mosquito that was related to the infectious disease such as dengue fever. This research aims to find out if aromatherapy candles of citrus compounds have an insecticidal effect on Ae. aegypti mosquito. We used true experimental design including posttest only with control group design. The samples are 20 male and female Ae. aegypti mosquitos with aged 1-7 days belong to the inclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into 6 groups, consisting of 1 negative control group and 5 treatment groups with variation concentration are 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5%. Each group will be treated for 2 hours and observed death after 24 hours. Replication in each group is done 4 times. The results were then tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and probit test. Mean of death in negative control group, and treatment group 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5% respectively 0; 1; 0.25; 0; 1 and 1 mosquito. The Kruskal-Wallis test in the study group found no significant difference (p = 0.178). The probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 were 20.069% and 31.557%. The aromatherapy candle of a citrus compound has an insecticidal effect on the Ae aegypti mosquito.

Keywords: Ae. aegypti insecticide, aromatherapy candle, citrus compound, lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon)

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
79 The Effect of Aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium Blossom Essential Oil on Premenstrual Syndrome in University Students: A Clinical Trial Study

Authors: Neda Jamalimoghadam, Naval Heydari, Maliheh Abootalebi, Maryam Kasraeian, M. Emamghoreishi , Akbarzadeh Marzieh

Abstract:

Background: The aim was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using Citrus aurantium blossom essential oil on premenstrual syndrome in university students. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial was controlled on 62 students from March 2016 to February 2017. The intervention with 0.5% of C. Aurantium blossom essential oil and control was inhalation of odorless sweet almond oil in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The screening questionnaire (PSST) for PMSwas filled out before and also one and two months after the intervention. Results: Mean score of overall symptoms of PMS between the Bitter orange and control groups In the first (p < 0.003) and second months (p < 0.001) of the intervention was significant. Besides, decreased the mean score of psychological symptoms in the intervention group (p < 0.001), but on physical symptoms and social function were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium blossom improved the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

Keywords: aromatherapy, Citrus Aurantium, premenstrual syndrome, oil, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
78 Impact of Bio Preparations on Agro-Chemical Indexes and Fruit Mineral Composition of Mandarin (Citrus Reticulata) Orchard

Authors: Nunu Nakashidze, Shota Lominadze, Darejan Jashi

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Citrus culture used to be one of the leading fields of sub-tropical agriculture in Georgia and especially in Adjara region, but the citrus production has been significantly decreased in recent years due to deterioration of quality index of fruit and reduction of sale markets. The fact severely affected both the economy of Republic and population. Intensive technologies of citrus fruit production are widely implemented in the world practices, which include the following: variety of species, consumption of fertilizers and chemicals, proper use of fruit production and etc. However working on technologies which ensure getting of high quality and plentiful product is very much important if taking into consideration modern, global ecological problems. Using of bio-preparations for plant nourishment is considered as one of the activities. The present work discusses liquid organic fertilizer 'Biorag' produced in Georgia and influence of its growth stimulation (Gakhokidze N1, N2, N3) on agrochemical index of soils and mineral composition of fruit of Citrus Unshiu orchards cultivated in the sub-tropical zone of Black Sea in Adjara region. It was ascertained that liquid organic fertilizers used in the orchard of citrus 'Unshiu' and influence of growth stimulators on the quality index of fruit are not clearly shown in comparison with control one. A small priority is noticed in case of growth stimulators. In conditions of red soils, liquid organic fertilizers and growth stimulators added in the nutrition of the citrus more or less influence the dry material of fruit and the composition of ash and nutrition elements. Agro-chemical index of the soil, except exchange acidity, is somehow enlarged which is one of the positive results in this case.

Keywords: growth stimulator, liquid fertilizer, plant, fruit, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
77 The Prevalence of Citrus Specific Nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb 1913 on the Coast of the Black Sea in Georgia

Authors: E.Tskitisvili, L. Jgenti, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, M. Gigolashvili

Abstract:

The fight against dangerous nematode diseases that have world economic importance requires accurate data about the prevalence of these pests. In the point of view of the International Convention on Biological Diversity, the identification of the plant invasion causing dangerous pathogen in the early stages of invasion on new territory is the most important part of the program, which aims to monitor the Bio-Agro Coenosis and Bio-Control. Citrus nematode-specific belongs to the pathogen species, which can cause epiphytotics particularly for large areas and cause irreparable damage to citrus plantations. This paper provides a brief tour of the spread of citrus nematodes on the Black Sea coast (Adjara and Abkhazia). Also the bio-ecological monitoring data to detect the potential sources of invasion for evaluating the current conditions of the citrus nematodes prevalence. Through 2006-2010, the material was gained by structural monitoring system during the citrus vegetation period on tangerines, lemon and oranges from nine points of the study area. Mature forms of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, 1913 were observed in almost all of the samples of the root system, the peak of larvae was observed in late spring and outumn. 92 forms of nematode has been detected in the rhizosphere belonging to 8 Orders: Areolaimida, Dorylaimida, Enoplida, Mononchida, Tylenshida, Monshysterida, Rhabditida, Aphelenchida, 23 families and 40 genera. 75 forms are identified as species. It is estimated the number of nematodes fauna and ecological groups. To detect possible sources of invasion we obtained additional materials in 2013-2014 from citrus plantations planted in 2011, where is planted tangerine trees introduced from Spain and Japan. The fauna of rhizosphere is identified and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, 1913 is not detected.

Keywords: Citrus nematodes, infection, bioecological monitoring, epiphytotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
76 Light Harvesting Titanium Nanocatalyst for Remediation of Methyl Orange

Authors: Brajesh Kumar, Luis Cumbal

Abstract:

An eco-friendly Citrus paradisi peel extract mediated synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles is reported under sonication. U.V.-vis, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and X-ray analyses are performed to characterize the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. It is almost spherical in shape, having a size of 60–140 nm and the XRD peaks at 2θ = 25.363° confirm the characteristic facets for anatase form. The synthesized nano catalyst is highly active in the decomposition of methyl orange (64 mg/L) in sunlight (~73%) for 2.5 hours.

Keywords: eco-friendly, TiO2 nanoparticles, citrus paradisi, TEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
75 Investigating Potential Pest Management Strategies for Citrus Gall Wasp in Australia

Authors: M. Yazdani, J. F. Carragher

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Citrus gall wasp (CGW), Bruchophagus fellis (Hym: Eurytomidae), is an Australian native insect pest. CGW has now become a problem of national concern, threatening the viability of the entire Australian citrus industry. However, CGW appears to exhibit a preference for certain citrus species; growers report that grapefruit and lemons are most severely infested, with oranges and mandarins affected to a lesser extent. Given the specificity of the host plant-insect interactions, it is speculated that plant volatiles may play a significant role in host recognition. To address whether plant volatiles is involved in host plant preference by CGW we tested the behavioral response of CGW to plants in a wind tunnel. The result showed that CGW had significantly higher preference to grapefruit and lemon than other cultivars and the least preference was recorded to mandarin (Chi-square test, P<0.001). Because CGW exhibited a detectable choice further studies were undertaken to identify the components of the volatiles from each species. We trapped the volatile chemicals emitted by a 30 cm tip of each plant onto a solid Porapak matrix. Eluted extracts were then analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and the presumptive identity of the major compounds from each species inferred from the MS library. Although the same major compounds existed in all of the cultivars, the relative ratios of them differed between species. Next, we will validate the identity of the key volatiles using authentic standards and establish their ability to elicit olfactory responses in CGW in wind tunnel and field experiments. Identification of semiochemicals involved in host location by CGW is of interest not only from an ecological perspective but also for the development of novel pest control strategies.

Keywords: Citrus gall wasp, Bruchophagus fellis, volatiles, semiochemicals, IPM

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
74 Mass Rearing and Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Pupal Mortality and Reproduction of Citrus Leaf Miner Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Authors: Shiva Osouli, Maryam Atapour, Mehrdad Ahmadi, Shima Shokri

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Citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) is native to Asia and one of the most serious pests of Iran’s citrus nursery stocks. In the present study, the possibility of insect mass rearing on four various citrus hosts and the effects of gamma irradiation on the pupal mortality and reproduction of this pest were studied. Trifoliate orange and grapefruit showed less infection, while the number of pupae in Valencia oranges and sweet lemons cages was so high. There was not any significant difference between weight of male and female pupae among different citrus hosts, but generally the weight of male pupae was less than females. Use of Valencia orange or sweet lemons seedlings in especial dark emergence and oviposition cages could be recommended for mass rearing of this pest. In this study, the effects of gamma radiation at doses 100 to 450 Gy on biological and reproductive parameters of the pest has been determined. The results show that mean percent of pupal mortality increased with increasing doses and reached to 28.67% at 450 Gy for male pupae and 38.367% for female pupae. Also, the mean values of this parameter were higher for irradiated female, which indicated the higher sensitivity of this sex. The gamma ray irradiation from 200 and 300 Gy caused decrease in male and female adult moth longevity, respectively. The eggs were laid by emerged females, and their hatchability was decreased by increasing gamma doses. The fecundity of females in both combinations of crosses (irradiated male × normal female and irradiated female × normal male) did not differ, but fertility of laid eggs by irradiated female × normal male affected seriously and the mean values of this parameter reached to zero at 300 Gy. The hatchability percentage of produced eggs by normal female × irradiated male at 300 Gy was 23.29% and reached to less than 2 % at 450 Gy as the highest tested dose. The results of this test show that females have more radio-sensitivity in comparison to males.

Keywords: citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella, citrus hosts, mass rearing, Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
73 The Effectiveness and the Factors Affect Farmer’s Adoption of Technological Innovation Citrus Gerga Lebong in Bengkulu Indonesia

Authors: Umi Pudji Astuti, Dedi Sugandi

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The effectiveness of agricultural extension is determined by the component in the agricultural extension system among others are agricultural extension methods. Effective methods should be selected and defined based on the characteristics of the target, the resources, the materials, and the objectives to be achieved. Citrus agribusiness development in Lebong is certainly supported by the role of stakeholders and citrus farmers, as well as the proper dissemination methods. Adoption in the extension process substantially can be interpreted as the changes of behavior process such as knowledge (cognitive), attitudes (affective), and skill (psycho-motoric) in a person after receiving "innovation" from extension submitted by target communities. Knowledge and perception are needed as a first step in adopting a innovation, especially of citrus agribusiness development in Lebong. The process of Specific technology adoption is influenced by internal factors and farmer perceptions of technological innovation. Internal factors such as formal education, experience trying to farm, owned land, production farm goods. The output of this study: 1) to analyze the effectiveness of field trial methods in improving cognitive and affective farmers; 2) Knowing the relationship of adoption level and knowledge of farmers; 3) to analyze the factors that influence farmers' adoption of citrus technology innovation. The method of this study is through the survey to 40 respondents in Rimbo Pengadang Sub District, Lebong District in 2014. Analyzing data is done by descriptive and statistical parametric (multiple linear functions). The results showed that: 1) Field trip method is effective to improve the farmer knowledge (23,17% ) and positively affect the farmer attitude; 2) the knowledge level of PTKJS innovation farmers "positively and very closely related".; 3) the factors that influence the level of farmers' adoption are internal factors (education, knowledge, and the intensity of training), and external factors respondents (distance from the house to the garden and from the house to production facilities shop).

Keywords: affect, adoption technology, citrus gerga, effectiveness dissemination

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72 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Citrus aurantium Aqueous Pollen Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Mohammad Ali Karimi, Hossein Tavallali, Abdolhamid Hatefi-Mehrjardi

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Pollen extract of in vitro plants raised of Citrus aurantium as reducer and stabilizer was assessed for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The synthesis of AgNPs was performed at room temperature assisting in solutions by reduction takes place rapidly for 10 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks in UV–Vis spectra indicated the formation of polydispersive AgNPs. Silver ions concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time were optimized in the synthesis of AgNPs. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape with an average size of 15 nm. XRD study shows that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry. It shows the significant antibacterial efficacy against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) by disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar.

Keywords: green synthesis, Citrus aurantium, silver nanoparticles, antibacterial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
71 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad

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Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, buffalo milk, milk coagulant

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
70 Effectiveness of Biopesticide against Insects Pest and Its Quality of Pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

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Effect of biopesticide from wood vinegar and extracted substances from 3 medicinal plants such as: non taai yak (Stemona tuberosa Lour), boraphet (Tinospora crispa Mier) and derris (Derris elliptica Roxb) were tested on the age five years of pomelo. The selected pomelo was carried out for insects pest control and its quality. The experimental site was located at farmer’s orchard in Phichit Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (December to March). The extracted from plants and wood vinegar were evaluated in 6 treatments: 1) water as control; 2) wood vinegar; 3) S. tuberosa Lour; 4) T. crispa Mier; 5) D. elliptica Roxb; 6) mixed (wood vinegar + S. tuberosa Lour + T. crispa Mier + D. elliptica Roxb). The experiment was RCB with 6 treatments and 3 replications per treatment. The results showed that T. crispa Mier was the highest effectiveness for reduction population of thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) at 14.10 and 15.37 respectively, followed by treatment of mixed, D. elliptica Roxb, S. tuberosa Lour and wood vinegar with significance different. Additionally, T. crispa Mier promoted the high quality of harvested pomelo in term of thickness of skin at 12.45 mm and S. tuberosa Lour gave the high quality of the pomelo in term of firmness (276.5 kg/cm2) and brix (11.0%).

Keywords: wood vinegar, medicinal plants, Pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr.), Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood), citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton)

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
69 Effect of Supplementation with Fresh Citrus Pulp on Growth Performance, Slaughter Traits and Mortality in Guinea Pigs

Authors: Carlos Minguez, Christian F. Sagbay, Erika E. Ordoñez

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Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) play prominent roles as experimental models for medical research and as pets. However, in developing countries like South America, the Philippines, and sub-Saharan Africa, the meat of guinea pigs is an economic source of animal protein for the poor and malnourished humans because guinea pigs are mainly fed with forage and do not compete directly with human beings for food resources, such as corn or wheat. To achieve efficient production of guinea pigs, it is essential to provide insurance against vitamin C deficiency. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of alfalfa with fresh citrus pulp (Citrus sinensis) in a diet of guinea pigs on the growth performance, slaughter traits and mortality during the fattening period (between 20 and 74 days of age). A total of 300 guinea pigs were housed in collective cages of about ten animals (2 x 1 x 0.4 m) and were distributed into two completely randomized groups. Guinea pigs in both groups were fed ad libitum, with a standard commercial pellet diet (10 MJ of digestible energy/kg, 17% crude protein, 11% crude fiber, and 4.5% crude fat). Control group was supplied with fresh alfalfa as forage. In the treatment group, 30% of alfalfa was replaced by fresh citrus pulp. Growth traits, including body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), were measured weekly. On day 74, the animals were slaughtered, and slaughter traits, including live weight at slaughter (LWS), full gastrointestinal tract weight (FGTW), hot carcass weight (with head; HCW), cold carcass weight (with head; CCW), drip loss percentage (DLP) and dressing out carcass yield percentage (DCY), were evaluated. Contrasts between groups were obtained by calculated generalized least squares values. Mortality was evaluated by Fisher's exact test due to low numbers in some cells. In the first week, there were significant differences in the growth traits BW, ADG, FI, and FCR, which were superior in control group. These differences may have been due to the origin of the young guinea pigs, which, before weaning, were all raised without fresh citrus pulp, and they were not familiarized with the new supplement. In the second week, treatment group had significantly increased ADG compared with control group, which may have been the result of a process of compensatory growth. During subsequent weeks, no significant differences were observed between animals raised in the two groups. Neither were any significant differences observed across the total fattening period. No significant differences in slaughter traits or mortality rate were observed between animals from the two groups. In conclusion, although there were no significant differences in growth performance, slaughter traits, or mortality, the use of fresh citrus pulp is recommended. Fresh citrus pulp is a by-product of orange juice industry and it is cheap or free. Forage made with fresh citrus pulp could reduce about of 30 % the quantity of alfalfa in guinea pig for meat and as consequence, reduce the production costs.

Keywords: fresh citrus, growth, Guinea pig, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
68 Combination of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data for Citrus Yield Estimation

Authors: Mohammed Hmimou, Khalid Amediaz, Imane Sebari, Nabil Bounajma

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Annual crop production is one of the most important macroeconomic indicators for the majority of countries around the world. This information is valuable, especially for exporting countries which need a yield estimation before harvest in order to correctly plan the supply chain. When it comes to estimating agricultural yield, especially for arboriculture, conventional methods are mostly applied. In the case of the citrus industry, the sale before harvest is largely practiced, which requires an estimation of the production when the fruit is on the tree. However, conventional method based on the sampling surveys of some trees within the field is always used to perform yield estimation, and the success of this process mainly depends on the expertise of the ‘estimator agent’. The present study aims to propose a methodology based on the combination of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point cloud to estimate citrus production. During data acquisition, a fixed wing and rotatory drones, as well as a terrestrial laser scanner, were tested. After that, a pre-processing step was performed in order to generate point cloud and digital surface model. At the processing stage, a machine vision workflow was implemented to extract points corresponding to fruits from the whole tree point cloud, cluster them into fruits, and model them geometrically in a 3D space. By linking the resulting geometric properties to the fruit weight, the yield can be estimated, and the statistical distribution of fruits size can be generated. This later property, which is information required by importing countries of citrus, cannot be estimated before harvest using the conventional method. Since terrestrial laser scanner is static, data gathering using this technology can be performed over only some trees. So, integration of drone data was thought in order to estimate the yield over a whole orchard. To achieve that, features derived from drone digital surface model were linked to yield estimation by laser scanner of some trees to build a regression model that predicts the yield of a tree given its features. Several missions were carried out to collect drone and laser scanner data within citrus orchards of different varieties by testing several data acquisition parameters (fly height, images overlap, fly mission plan). The accuracy of the obtained results by the proposed methodology in comparison to the yield estimation results by the conventional method varies from 65% to 94% depending mainly on the phenological stage of the studied citrus variety during the data acquisition mission. The proposed approach demonstrates its strong potential for early estimation of citrus production and the possibility of its extension to other fruit trees.

Keywords: citrus, digital surface model, point cloud, terrestrial laser scanner, UAV, yield estimation, 3D modeling

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67 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer

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The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: milk, polyphenol, animal feeding, lactating cows

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66 A Visualization Classification Method for Identifying the Decayed Citrus Fruit Infected by Fungi Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

Authors: Jiangbo Li, Wenqian Huang

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Early detection of fungal infection in citrus fruit is one of the major problems in the postharvest commercialization process. The automatic and nondestructive detection of infected fruits is still a challenge for the citrus industry. At present, the visual inspection of rotten citrus fruits is commonly performed by workers through the ultraviolet induction fluorescence technology or manual sorting in citrus packinghouses to remove fruit subject with fungal infection. However, the former entails a number of problems because exposing people to this kind of lighting is potentially hazardous to human health, and the latter is very inefficient. Orange is used as a research object. This study would focus on this problem and proposed an effective method based on Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm with a spectroscopic resolution of 2.8 nm. In this work, three normalization approaches are applied prior to analysis to reduce the effect of sample curvature on spectral profiles, and it is found that mean normalization was the most effective pretreatment for decreasing spectral variability due to curvature. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to a dataset composing of average spectra from decayed and normal tissue to reduce the dimensionality of data and observe the ability of Vis-NIR hyper-spectra to discriminate data from two classes. In this case, it was observed that normal and decayed spectra were separable along the resultant first principal component (PC1) axis. Subsequently, five wavelengths (band) centered at 577, 702, 751, 808, and 923 nm were selected as the characteristic wavelengths by analyzing the loadings of PC1. A multispectral combination image was generated based on five selected characteristic wavelength images. Based on the obtained multispectral combination image, the intensity slicing pseudocolor image processing method is used to generate a 2-D visual classification image that would enhance the contrast between normal and decayed tissue. Finally, an image segmentation algorithm for detection of decayed fruit was developed based on the pseudocolor image coupled with a simple thresholding method. For the investigated 238 independent set samples including infected fruits infected by Penicillium digitatum and normal fruits, the total success rate is 100% and 97.5%, respectively, and, the proposed algorithm also used to identify the orange infected by penicillium italicum with a 100% identification accuracy, indicating that the proposed multispectral algorithm here is an effective method and it is potential to be applied in citrus industry.

Keywords: citrus fruit, early rotten, fungal infection, hyperspectral imaging

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65 Relationship between Chlorophyl Content and Calculated Index Values of Citrus Trees

Authors: Namik Kemal Sonmez

Abstract:

Based passive remote sensing technologies have been widely used in many plant species. However, use of these techniques in orange trees is limited. In this study, the relationships between chlorophyll content (Chl) and calculated red edge (RE) and vegetation index values of the citrus leave at different growth stages were formed the basis for the analysis. Canopy reflectance by hand-held spectroradiometer and total Chl analysis at the lab were measured simultaneously, from the random samples taken from four different parts of an orange orchard. Plant materials consisted of four different age groups of 15, 20, 25, and 30 years old orange trees. Reflectance measurements were conducted between 450 and 900 nanometer (nm) wavelength at four different bands (3 visible bands and 1 near-infrared band) at the four basic physiological periods (flowering, fruit setting, fruit maturity, and dormancy) of orange trees. According to the statistical analysis conducted, there was a strong relationship between the chlorophyll content and calculated indexes (p ≤ 0.01; R²= 0.925 at red edge and R²= 0.986 at vegetation index) at the fruit setting stage of 20 years old trees. Again at this stage, fruit setting, total Chl content values among all orange trees were significantly correlated at the RE and VI with the R² values of 0.672 and 0.635 at the 0.001 level, respectively. This indicated that the relationships between Chl content and index values were very strong at this stage, in comparison to the other stages.

Keywords: spectroradiometer, citrus, chlorophyll, reflectance, index

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64 Improvement of Ground Water Quality Index Using Citrus limetta

Authors: Rupas Kumar M., Saravana Kumar M., Amarendra Kumar S., Likhita Komal V., Sree Deepthi M.

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The demand for water is increasing at an alarming rate due to rapid urbanization and increase in population. Due to freshwater scarcity, Groundwater became the necessary source of potable water to major parts of the world. This problem of freshwater scarcity and groundwater dependency is very severe particularly in developing countries and overpopulated regions like India. The present study aimed at evaluating the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI), which represents overall quality of water at certain location and time based on water quality parameters. To evaluate the GWQI, sixteen water quality parameters have been considered viz. colour, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, iron, manganese and fluorides. The groundwater samples are collected from Kadapa City in Andhra Pradesh, India and subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. The high value of GWQI has been found to be mainly from higher values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, and fluorides. in the present study, citrus limetta (sweet lemon) peel powder has used as a coagulant and GWQI values are recorded in different concentrations to improve GWQI. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to determine the effect of coagulant dosage, mixing speed and stirring time on GWQI. The research found the maximum percentage improvement in GWQI values are obtained when the coagulant dosage is 100ppm, mixing speed is 100 rpm and stirring time is 10 mins. Alum is also used as a coagulant aid and the optimal ratio of citrus limetta and alum is identified as 3:2 which resulted in best GWQI value. The present study proposes Citrus limetta peel powder as a potential natural coagulant to treat Groundwater and to improve GWQI.

Keywords: alum, Citrus limetta, ground water quality index, physicochemical analysis

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63 Enhanced Growth and Innate Immune Response in Scylla serrata Fed Additives Containing Citrus microcarpa and Euphorbia hirta

Authors: Kaye Angelica Lacurom, Keziah Macahilo

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One of the most important and in demand products in the Philippines is Scylla serrata. Despite the increasing demand in the market today, the cost of feeds corresponds to a fraction of 40%-50% of the entire operational of crab production. Raisers and suppliers are seeking alternative ways to lessen their expense with more effective enhancers than the usual feeds. This study aimed to enhance the growth and immune system of the mud crabs using natural antioxidants from plant powders that are available in the locality. There were four treatments: Diet 1: commercially available feeds for the positive control, Diet 2: 1,200 mg/kg Euphorbia hirta , Diet 3: 1,600 mg/kg of Citrus microcarpa, Diet 4: Mixed 1,400 of Euphorbia hirta and Citrus microcarpa. Air-drying was done first-hand followed by the grinding of plants. After which the plants were stored in a container and was added to the feed formulation given. Mud crabs were fed twice a day for 30 days for better results. For inferential analysis, weight gain and survivability were measured, hemolymph was extracted and the Total Hemocycte Count (THC) was determined analyzed. Results showed that the highest THC mean (9.0 x 105 ± 7.1 x 104) and weight gain mean (2.9 x 10± 1.9 x 10) was achieved by Diet 3 with the same survivability rates among other treatments and positive control. While Diet 2 presented the lowest THC mean (7.2 x 105 ±3.5 x 104) and weight gain mean (1.0 x 10± 7.0 x 10-1).

Keywords: fed additives, Scylla serrata, enhanced growth, innate immune response

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62 Palatability of a Garlic and Citrus Extract Feed Supplement to Enhance Energy Retention and Methane Production in Ruminants in vivo

Authors: Michael Graz, Andrew Shearer, Gareth Evans

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Manipulation of rumen bacteria is receiving increasing attention as a way of controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are generated by the agricultural sector. Feed supplementation in particular is one of the ways in which this drive is being addressed, in particular with reference to livestock-generated GHG emissions. A blend of naturally occurring chemical extracts obtained from garlic and bitter orange extracts has been identified as a natural, sustainable and non-antibiotic based way of reducing methane production by ruminant livestock. In the current study, the acceptability and impact of this blend of natural extracts on feed rations of beef cattle was trialed in vivo on a commercial farm in Europe. Initial findings have demonstrated acceptable palatability, with all animals accepting the feed supplement into their ration both when it was mixed into the total daily ration and when used as a part of their high energy rations. Measurement of the impact of this feed supplement on productivity weight gain and milk quality is ongoing. In conclusion, this field study confirmed the palatability of the combination of garlic and citrus extracts and hence pointed to possibility of the extract blend to improve digestion, enhance body energy retention and limit CH4 formation in relation to feed intake.

Keywords: citrus, garlic, methane reduction, palatability, ruminants

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61 Fruit Identification System in Sweet Orange Citrus (L.) Osbeck Using Thermal Imaging and Fuzzy

Authors: Ingrid Argote, John Archila, Marcelo Becker

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In agriculture, intelligent systems applications have generated great advances in automating some of the processes in the production chain. In order to improve the efficiency of those systems is proposed a vision system to estimate the amount of fruits in sweet orange trees. This work presents a system proposal using capture of thermal images and fuzzy logic. A bibliographical review has been done to analyze the state-of-the-art of the different systems used in fruit recognition, and also the different applications of thermography in agricultural systems. The algorithm developed for this project uses the metrics of the fuzzines parameter to the contrast improvement and segmentation of the image, for the counting algorith m was used the Hough transform. In order to validate the proposed algorithm was created a bank of images of sweet orange Citrus (L.) Osbeck acquired in the Maringá Farm. The tests with the algorithm Indicated that the variation of the tree branch temperature and the fruit is not very high, Which makes the process of image segmentation using this differentiates, This Increases the amount of false positives in the fruit counting algorithm. Recognition of fruits isolated with the proposed algorithm present an overall accuracy of 90.5 % and grouped fruits. The accuracy was 81.3 %. The experiments show the need for a more suitable hardware to have a better recognition of small temperature changes in the image.

Keywords: Agricultural systems, Citrus, Fuzzy logic, Thermal images.

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60 Studies on Irrigation and Nutrient Interactions in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

Authors: S. M. Jogdand, D. D. Jagtap, N. R. Dalal

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Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crop in India. It stands on second position amongst citrus group after mandarin. Irrigation and fertigation are vital importance of sweet orange orchard and considered to be the most critical cultural operations. The soil acts as the reservoir of water and applied nutrients, the interaction between irrigation and fertigation leads to the ultimate quality and production of fruits. The increasing cost of fertilizers and scarcity of irrigation water forced the farmers for optimum use of irrigation and nutrients. The experiment was conducted with object to find out irrigation and nutrient interaction in sweet orange to optimize the use of both the factors. The experiment was conducted in medium to deep soil. The irrigation level I3,drip irrigation at 90% ER (effective rainfall) and fertigation level F3 80% RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) recorded significantly maximum plant height, plant spread, canopy volume, number of fruits, weight of fruit, fruit yield kg/plant and t/ha followed by F2 , fertigation with 70% RDF. The interaction effect of irrigation and fertigation on growth was also significant and the maximum plant height, E-W spread, N-S spread, canopy volume, highest number of fruits, weight of fruit and yield kg/plant and t/ha was recorded in T9 i.e. I3F3 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 80% of RDF followed by I3F2 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 70% of RDF.

Keywords: sweet orange, fertigation, irrigation, interactions

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59 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity, Lipid Profile Effect of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Extracts

Authors: Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohammed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub

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Many herbal medicinal products are considered as potential hypocholesterolemic agents with encouraging safety profiles, however, only a limited amount of clinical research exists to support their efficacy. The present study was designed to compare the antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulata peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome, and Sesamum indicum seeds. Forty-five rats were used throughout the experiment, which were divided into nine groups, five rats in each as follows; normal control group (normal rats fed with standard normal diet), rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet consisting of 1% cholesterol and 10% saturated animal fat, which were further divided into eight groups; hypercholesterolemic control group (rats only fed hypercholesterolemic diet), groups 3,4,5,6,7, and 8 were given Citrus reticulata, Zingiber officinale, and Sesamum indicum ethanolic extracts at doses of (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, respectively) orally; and group 9 rats were given atorvastatin (0.18mg/kg) orally as a reference antihypercholesterolaemic drug. Blood samples were obtained four weeks following treatment from the retro-orbital venous plexus after fasting overnight from all groups and the lipid profile (serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides levels) was measured and the risk ratio (TC/HDL-C) was assessed. The antioxidant activity of the three plant extracts was determined using DPPH free-radical assay. Results of in vivo and in vitro antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant assay, respectively, revealed that the three extracts possess comparable antioxidant and anti-hypercholesterolaemic activities.

Keywords: anti hypercholesterolemic effects, antioxidant activity, HDL, LDL, TC, TGs, citrus reticulata, sesamum indicum, zingiber officinale

Procedia PDF Downloads 341