Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2399

Search results for: functional polymorphism

2399 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism Studies: A Case-Control Study

Authors: Salina Y. Saddick

Abstract:

Mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH) is a very common complication of pregnancy that is characterized by intolerance to glucose. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to MGH has been previously reported. In this study, we evaluated the association between ACE polymorphism and the risk of MGH in a Saudi population. We conducted a case-control study in a population of 100 MGH patients and 100 control subjects. ACE gene polymorphism was analyzed by the novel approach of tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of ACE polymorphism was not associated with either alleles or genotypes in MGH patients. Glucose concentration was found to be significantly associated with the MGH group. Our study suggests that ACE genotypes were not associated with ACE polymorphism in a Saudi population.

Keywords: MGH, ACE, insertion polymorphism, deletion polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
2398 CAG Repeat Polymorphism of Androgen Receptor and Female Sexual Functions in Egyptian Female Population

Authors: Azza Gaber Farag, Yasser Atta Shehata, Sara Elsayed Elghazouly, Mustafa Elsayed Elshaib, Nesreen Gamal Elden Elhelbawy

Abstract:

Background: Androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism in cytosine adenineguanine (CAG) repeat has an effect on the functional capacity of AR in males. However, little researches in this field are available regarding female sexual function. Aim: To investigate the possible link between polymorphism in the CAG repeat of AR gene and female sexual function in a sample of the Egyptian population. Materials and methods: 500 Egyptian married females completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, reproductive, and sexual data. AR CAG repeat length was analyzed for those having female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) using real-time PCR. Results: The most sensitive domain to AR CAG repeat length was the orgasm domain that showed significant positive correlations with short allele (p=0.001), long allele (p=.015), biallellic mean (p=.000), and X weighted biallelic mean (p=.000). The satisfaction domain had significant positive correlations with the biallelic mean (p=.035), and the X weighted biallelic mean (p=. 032). However, the pain domain was of significant negative correlations with AR polymorphism of short allele (p=.002), biallelic mean (p=.013), and X weighted biallelic mean (p = . 011). Conclusions: AR polymorphism could represent a non-negligible aspect in female sexual function. The lower AR CAG repeat polymorphism was of significant impact on FSD, affecting mainly female orgasm followed by pain disorders that finally reflected On her sexual satisfaction.

Keywords: female sexual dysfunction, androgen receptor, CAG repeat polymorphism, androgen

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
2397 ZBTB17 Gene rs10927875 Polymorphism in Slovak Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Authors: I. Boroňová, J. Bernasovská, J. Kmec, E. Petrejčíková

Abstract:

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a severe cardiovascular disorder characterized by progressive systolic dysfunction due to cardiac chamber dilatation and inefficient myocardial contractility often leading to chronic heart failure. Recently, a genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on DCM indicate that the ZBTB17 gene rs10927875 single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with DCM. The aim of the study was to identify the distribution of ZBTB17 gene rs10927875 polymorphism in 50 Slovak patients with DCM and 80 healthy control subjects using the Custom Taqman®SNP Genotyping assays. Risk factors detected at baseline in each group included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and blood pressure. The mean age of patients with DCM was 52.9±6.3 years; the mean age of individuals in control group was 50.3±8.9 years. The distribution of investigated genotypes of rs10927875 polymorphism within ZBTB17 gene in the cohort of Slovak patients with DCM was as follows: CC (38.8%), CT (55.1%), TT (6.1%), in controls: CC (43.8%), CT (51.2%), TT (5.0%). The risk allele T was more common among the patients with dilated cardiomyopathy than in normal controls (33.7% versus 30.6%). The differences in genotype or allele frequencies of ZBTB17 gene rs10927875 polymorphism were not statistically significant (p=0.6908; p=0.6098). The results of this study suggest that ZBTB17 gene rs10927875 polymorphism may be a risk factor for susceptibility to DCM in Slovak patients with DCM. Studies of numerous files and additional functional investigations are needed to fully understand the roles of genetic associations.

Keywords: ZBTB17 gene, rs10927875 polymorphism, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiovascular disorder

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
2396 Detection of Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene in Holstein Cattle

Authors: Emine Şahin, Murat Soner Balcıoğlu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the growth hormone (bGH) gene polymorphism in the Holstein cattle growing around Antalya in Turkey. In order to determine the bGH-AluI polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed. A 891 bp fragment of bGH was amplified and two types of alleles C and D for bGH were observed. In this study, the frequencies of C and D alleles were 0.8438 and 0.1562, respectively. The genotype frequencies for CC, CD and DD were 0.787, 0.191 and 0.022, respectively. According to the results of the chi-square test, a significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not determined for the bGH locus in the population.

Keywords: Growth Hormone Gene, Holstein , Polymorphism, RFLP

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
2395 Analysis of OPG Gene Polymorphism T245G (rs3134069) in Slovak Postmenopausal Women

Authors: I. Boroňová, J. Bernasovská, J. Kľoc, Z. Tomková, E. Petrejčíková, S. Mačeková, J. Poráčová, M. M. Blaščáková

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a common multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component characterized by reduced bone mass and increased risk of fractures. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to identify the genotype and allele distribution of T245G polymorphism in OPG gene in Slovak postmenopausal women. A total of 200 unrelated Slovak postmenopausal women with diagnosed osteoporosis and 200 normal controls were genotyped for T245G (rs3134069) polymorphism of OPG gene. Genotyping was performed using the Custom Taqman®SNP Genotyping assays. Genotypes and alleles frequencies showed no significant differences (p=0.5551; p=0.6022). The results of the present study confirm the importance of T245G polymorphism in OPG gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

Keywords: OPG gene, T245G polymorphism, osteoporosis, T245G polymorphism, real-time PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2394 Association of Xeroderma pigmentosum Group D Gene Polymorphism with Colorectal Cancer Risk in Kashmiri Population

Authors: Syed Sameer Aga, Saniya Nissar

Abstract:

The Xeroderma pigmentosum group D gene (XPD) plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway of the damaged DNA. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of the XPD gene may alter DNA repair capacity of the protein and hence can modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The aim of the study was to determine the genetic association of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. 120 CRC patients and 160 normal controls were assessed for genotype frequencies of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism using PCR-RFLP technique. We observed a significant association (p < 0.05) between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and the risk of developing CRC (p < 0.05). Additionally, Gln/Gln genotype of the XPD gene doubled the risk for the development of CRC [p < 0.05; OR=2.25 95% CI (1.07-4.7)]. Our results suggest that there is a significant association between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and the risk of CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, polymorphism, RFLP, DNA Repair, NER, XPD

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
2393 RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Polymorphism in the Collection of Rye Cultivars

Authors: L. Petrovičová, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová, M. Wójcik-Jagła, M. Rapacz

Abstract:

In the present study, RAPD-PCR was used to assess genetic diversity of the rye including landrances and new rye cultivars coming from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN). Five arbitrary random primers were used to determine RAPD polymorphism in the set of 38 rye genotypes. These primers amplified altogether 43 different DNA fragments with an average number of 8.6 fragments per genotypes. The number of fragments ranged from 7 (RLZ 8, RLZ 9 and RLZ 10) to 12 (RLZ 6). DI and PIC values of all RAPD markers were higher than 0.8 that generally means high level of polymorphism detected between rye genotypes. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The cultivars were grouped into two main clusters. In this experiment, RAPD proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars.

Keywords: genetic diversity, polymorphism, RAPD markers, Secale cereale L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
2392 Identification of Mx Gene Polymorphism in Indragiri Hulu duck by PCR-RFLP

Authors: Restu Misrianti

Abstract:

The amino acid variation of Asn (allele A) at position 631 in Mx gene was specific to positive antiviral to avian viral desease. This research was aimed at identifying polymorphism of Mx gene in duck using molecular technique. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to select the genotype of AA, AG and GG. There were thirteen duck from Indragiri Hulu regency (Riau Province) used in this experiment. DNA amplification results showed that the Mx gene in duck is found in a 73 bp fragment. Mx gene in duck did not show any polymorphism. The frequency of the resistant allele (AA) was 0%, while the frequency of the susceptible allele (GG) was 100%.

Keywords: duck, Mx gene, PCR, RFLP

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
2391 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A New Cognitive Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of the object-oriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: cognitive complexity metric, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2390 The Distribution of rs5219 Polymorphism in the Non-Diabetic Elderly Jordanian Subject

Authors: Foad Alzoughool

Abstract:

Conflicting studies on the association between the rs5219 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes, some studies have confirmed a strong relationship between this variant and type2 diabetes, on the other hand, many studies denied the existence of this association. This study aimed to provide evidence about whether the rs5219 polymorphism has or hasn't a role as a risk factor for diabetes and meta-analysis to investigate the role of the control age group in the association. Genotyping of the rs5219 polymorphism was performed in a cohort of 266 healthy elderly subjects with a mean age (60.2 ± 5.1) with no history of diabetes (HbA1c < 6%) using standard Sanger sequencing methods. Lys/Lys alleles were detected in 20 persons (7.5%), Lys/Glu alleles in 96 persons (36.1%), and Glu/Glu in 150 persons (56.4%). The genotype distribution was consistent with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P =0.7). Meta-analysis notably indicates no association between rs5219 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in all studies used the younger age of the control group compared to the patient's age. In conclusion, our study sheds light on the importance of age factor among the control group recruited in case-control studies.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, rs5219 polymorphism, E23K, KCNJ11 gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2389 Investigation p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and miR-146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Breast Cancer

Authors: Marjan Moradi Fard, Hossein Rassi, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Aim: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting the morbidity and mortality of Iranian women. This disease is a result of collective alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of several cancers; therefore, a research was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 45 archival breast cancer samples from khatam hospital and 40 healthy samples were collected. Verification of each cancer reported in a relative was sought through the pathology reports of the hospital records. Then, DNA extracted from all samples by standard methods and p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes were analyzed using multiplex PCR. The tubules, mitotic activity, necrosis, polymorphism and grade of breast cancer were staged by Nottingham histological grading and immunohistochemical staining of the sections from the paraffin wax embedded tissues for the expression of ER, PR and p53 was carried out using a standard method. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer in the study population. In this study, we established that tumors of p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype exhibited higher mitotic activity, higher polymorphism, lower necrosis, lower tubules, higher ER- and PR-negatives and lower TP53-positives than the other genotypes. Conclusion: The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype may effect breast cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with clinical parameters can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of breast cancers.

Keywords: breast cancer, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, genotypes

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2388 Showing Broccoli and Cabbage Genotypes Biodiversity Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)

Authors: M. M. A. Abdalla, M. H. Aboul-Nasr, Shimaa H. Mosallam

Abstract:

Ten RAPD markers were used to detect the genetic variability and relationships among four broccoli and three cabbage genotypes. The results of RAPD analysis showed that all the five primers surveyed detected polymorphism for all broccoli genotypes. A total of 39 DNA bands were amplified by the 5 primers from all genotype and 21 of these fragments showed polymorphism (53.85%). The rest of these bands (46.15%) were common between the four genotypes. On the other hand, all of the 7 primers surveyed, used with cabbage, detected polymorphism among all cabbage genotype. A total of 69 DNA bands were amplified by the 7 primers from all genotypes and 23 of these fragments showed polymorphism (33.33%). The rest of these bands (66.67%) were common between the three genotypes. The investigation suggested that the RAPD approach showed considerable potential for identifying and discriminating broccoli and cabbage genotypes.

Keywords: Brassica oleracea, genotypes, genetic markers, varietal identification, DNA polymorphism, RAPD markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2387 Screening of the Genes FOLH1 and MTHFR among the Mothers of Congenital Neural Tube Defected Babies in West Bengal, India

Authors: Silpita Paul, Susanta Sadhukhan, Biswanath Maity, Madhusudan Das

Abstract:

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common forms of birth defect and affect ~300,000 new born worldwide each year. The prevalence is higher in Northern India (11 per 1000 birth) compare to southern India (5 per 1000 birth). NTDs are one of the common birth defects related with low blood folate and Hcy concentration. Though the mechanism is still unknown, but it is now established that, NTDs in human are polygenic in nature and follow the heterogeneous trait. In spite of its heterogeneity, polymorphism in few genes affects significantly the trait of NTDs. Polymorphisms in the genes FOLH1 and MTHFR plays important role in NTDs. In this study, the polymorphisms of these genes were screened by bi-directional sequencing from 30 mothers with NTD babies as case. The result revealed that 26.67% patients had bi-allelic FOLH1 polymorphism. The polymorphism has been identified as p.Y60H and frequent to cause NTDs. The study of MTHFR gene showed 2 different SNPs rs1801131 (at exon 4) and rs1801131 (at exon 7). The study showed 6.67% patients of both mono- and bi-allelic MTHFR-rs1801131 polymorphism and 6.67% patients of bi-allelic MTHFR-rs1801131 polymorphism. These polymorphisms has been responsible for p.A222V and p.E429A change respectively and frequently involved in NTD formation. Those polymorphisms affect mainly the absorption of dietary folate from intestine and the formation of 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate (5 MTHF) from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (5,10- MTHF), which is the functional folate form in our system. Though the study is not complete yet, but these polymorphisms play crucial roles in the formation of NTDs in other world population. Based on the result till date, it can be concluded that they also play significant role in our population too as in control samples we have not found any changes.

Keywords: neural tube defects, polymorphism, FOLH1, MTHFR

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2386 Role of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and miR-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Breast Cancer

Authors: Marjan Moradi fard, Hossein Rassi, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Aim: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting the morbidity and mortality of Iranian women. This disease is a result of collective alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of several cancers; therefore, a research was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 45 archival breast cancer samples from Khatam hospital and 40 healthy samples were collected. Verification of each cancer reported in a relative was sought through the pathology reports of the hospital records. Then, DNA extracted from all samples by standard methods and p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes were analyzed using multiplex PCR. The tubules, mitotic activity, necrosis, polymorphism and grade of breast cancer were staged by Nottingham histological grading and immunohistochemical staining of the sections from the paraffin wax embedded tissues for the expression of ER, PR and p53 was carried out using a standard method. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer in the study population. In this study, we established that tumors of p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype exhibited higher mitotic activity, higher polymorphism, lower necrosis, lower tubules, higher ER- and PR-negatives and lower TP53-positives than the other genotypes. Conclusion: The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype may effect breast cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with clinical parameters can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of breast cancers.

Keywords: breast cancer, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, tumors, pathology reports

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
2385 Analysis of ZBTB17 Gene rs10927875 Polymorphism in Relation to Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Slovak Population

Authors: I. Boroňová, J. Bernasovská, J. Kmec, E. Petrejčíková

Abstract:

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a primary myocardial disease, it is characterized by progressive systolic dysfunction due to cardiac chamber dilatation and inefficient myocardial contractility with estimated prevalence of 37 in 100 000 people. It is the most frequent cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation in young adults. About one-third of all patients have a suspected familial disease indicating a genetic basis of DCM. Many candidate gene studies in humans have tested the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various genes coding for proteins with a known cardiovascular function. In our study we present the results of ZBTB17 gene rs10927875 polymorphism genotyping in relation to dilated cardiomyopathy in Slovak population. The study included 78 individuals, 39 patients with DCM and 39 healthy control persons. The mean age of patients with DCM was 50.7±11.5 years; the mean age of individuals in control group was 51.3±9.8 years. Risk factors detected at baseline in each group included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and blood pressure. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes by a standard methodology and screened for rs10927875 polymorphism in intron of ZBTB17 gene using Real-time PCR method (Step One Applied Biosystems). The distribution of investigated genotypes for rs10927875 polymorphism in the group of patients with DCM was as follows: CC (89.74%), CT (10.26%), TT (0%), and the distribution in the control group: CC (92.31%), CT (5.13%), and TT (2.56%). Using the chi-square (χ2) test we compared genotype and allele frequencies between patients and controls. There was no difference in genotype or allele frequencies in ZBTB17 gene rs10927875 polymorphism between patients and control group (χ2=3.028, p=0.220; χ2=0.264, p=0.608). Our results represent an initial study, it can be considered as preliminary and first of its kind in Slovak population. Further studies of ZBTB17 gene polymorphisms of more numerous files and additional functional investigations are needed to fully understand the role of genetic associations.

Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy, SNP polymorphism, ZBTB17 gene, bioscience

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
2384 Deleterious SNP’s Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Hamza Zidoum

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of human genetic variation on the function of human proteins using machine-learning algorithms. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism represents the most common form of human genome variation. We focus on the single amino-acid polymorphism located in the coding region as they can affect the protein function leading to pathologic phenotypic change. We use several supervised Machine Learning methods to identify structural properties correlated with increased risk of the missense mutation being damaging. SVM associated with Principal Component Analysis give the best performance.

Keywords: single-nucleotide polymorphism, machine learning, feature selection, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
2383 Study of Phenotypic Polymorphism and Detection of Genotypic Polymorphism in Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Insecta) Using RAPD PCR

Authors: Huma Balouch

Abstract:

Menochilus sexmaculatus commonly known as six spotted zig zag ladybird, is an aphidophagus and the most misidentified Coccinellids due to the occurrence of numerous color variants. The correct identification of Menochilus sexmaculatus and its strains is necessary to implement the use of biological control. In the present study phenotypic and genotypic polymorphism was investigated in Menochilus sexmaculatus collected from Punjab, NWFP and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. Six different morphs of the species were distinguished by analyzing its Elytral color and spot pattern and then Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to generate random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) from six different types of Menochilus sexmaculatus. Forty primers (OPA & OPC Kit) were used to perform RAPD PCR on six different types of Menochilus sexmaculatus of which, seven primers revealed different patterns related to the Menochilus sexmaculatus types. These seven primers (OPA-04, OPA-09, OPA-18, OPC-04, OPC-12, OPC-15 and OPC-18) produced 111 clear polymorphic bands and 6 scorable strain specific markers. The cluster analysis applied to RAPD data showed high polymorphism among six types and it can be concluded that these six types are six polymorphic strains of the same species.

Keywords: Menochilus sexmaculatus, aphidophagus, coccinellids, phenotypic and genotypic polymorphism, RAPD-PCR, strain specific markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
2382 Investigation of the Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Female Genital: Tuberculosis Cases

Authors: Swati Gautam, Amita Jain, Shyampyari Jaiswar

Abstract:

Objective: To elucidate the role of (ApaI&TaqI) VDR gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) cases. Background: Female genital TB represents about 15-20% of total extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB). Female subjects with vitamin D deficiency have been shown to be at higher risk of pulmonary TB as well as FGTB. In same context few functional polymorphism in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been considered as an important genetic risk factor that modulate the development of FGTB. Therefore we aimed, to elucidate the role of (ApaI&TaqI) VDR gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of FGTB. Study design: Case-Control study. Sample size: Cases (60) and Controls (60). Study site: Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Department of Microbiology, K.G.M.U. Lucknow, (UP). Inclusion criteria: Cases: Women with age group 20-35 years, premenstrual endometrial aspiration collected and included in the study, those were positive with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)/ TB-PCR/ LJ culture/ liquid culture. Controls: Women with age group 20-35 years having no history of ATT and all test negative for TB recruited as control. Exclusion criteria: -Women with endometriosis, polycystic ovaries (PCOD), positive on Chlamydia & gonorrhea, already on anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) excluded. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from cases and controls stored at -20ºC. Genomic DNA extraction was carried out by salting-out method. Genotyping of VDR gene (ApaI&TaqI) polymorphism was performed by using single amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR technique. PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS16.3 software & computing odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. Results: Increased risk of female genital tuberculosis was observed in AA genotype (OR =1.1419-6.212 95% CI, P*<0.036) and A allele (OR =1.255-3.518, 95% CI, P* < 0.006) in FGTB as compared to controls. Moreover A allele was found more frequent in FGTB patients. No significant difference was observed in TaqI gene polymorphism of VDR gene. Conclusion: The ApaI polymorphism is significantly associated with etiology of FGTB and plays an important role as a genetic risk factor in FGTB women.

Keywords: ARMS, ATT, EPTB, FGTB, VDR

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2381 Polymorphism of Candidate Genes for Meat Production in Lori Sheep

Authors: Shahram Nanekarania, Majid Goodarzia

Abstract:

Calpastatin and callipyge have been known as one of the candidate genes in meat quality and quantity. Calpastatin gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep and callipyge gene has been localized in the telomeric region on ovine chromosome 18. The objective of this study was identification of calpastatin and callipyge genes polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Lori sheep kept in Iran. Blood samples were taken from 120 Lori sheep breed and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. Polymorphism was identified using the PCR-RFLP technique. The PCR products were digested with MspI and FaqI restriction enzymes for calpastatin gene and callipyge gene, respectively. In this population, three patterns were observed and AA, AB, BB genotype have been identified with the 0.32, 0.63, 0.05 frequencies for calpastatin gene. The results obtained for the callipyge gene revealed that only the wild-type allele A was observed, indicating that only genotype AA was present in the population under consideration.

Keywords: polymorphism, calpastatin, callipyge, PCR-RFLP, Lori sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 513
2380 Impact of CYP3A5 Polymorphism on Tacrolimus to Predict the Optimal Initial Dose Requirements in South Indian Renal Transplant Recipients

Authors: S. Sreeja, Radhakrishnan R. Nair, Noble Gracious, Sreeja S. Nair, M. Radhakrishna Pillai

Abstract:

Background: Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant clinically used for the long term treatment of antirejection of transplanted organs in liver and kidney transplant recipients though dose optimization is poorly managed. However, So far no study has been carried out on the South Indian kidney transplant patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential influence of a functional polymorphism in CYP3A5*3 gene on tacrolimus physiological availability/dose ratio in South Indian renal transplant patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty five renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus were enrolled in this study. Their body weight, drug dosage, and therapeutic concentration of Tacrolimus were observed. All patients were on standard immunosuppressive regime of Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate mofetil along with steroids on a starting dose of Tac 0.1 mg/kg/day. CYP3A5 genotyping was performed by PCR followed with RFLP. Conformation of RFLP analysis and variation in the nucleotide sequence of CYP3A5*3 gene were determined by direct sequencing using a validated automated generic analyzer. Results: A significant association was found between tacrolimus per dose/kg/d and CYP3A5 gene (A6986G) polymorphism in the study population. The CYP3A5 *1/*1, *1/*3 and *3/*3 genotypes were detected in 5 (20 %), 5 (20 %) and 15 (60 %) of the 25 graft recipients, respectively. CYP3A5*3 genotypes were found to be a good predictor of tacrolimus Concentration/Dose ratio in kidney transplant recipients. Significantly higher L/D was observed among non-expressors 9.483 ng/mL(4.5- 14.1) as compared with the expressors 5.154 ng/mL (4.42-6.5 ) of CYP3A5. Acute rejection episodes were significantly higher for CYP3A5*1 homozygotes compared to patients with CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP3A5*3/*3 genotypes (40 % versus 20 % and 13 %, respectively ). The dose normalized TAC concentration (ng/ml/mg/kg) was significantly lower in patients having CYP3A5*1/*3 polymorphism. Conclusion: This is the first study to extensively determine the effect of CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in South Indian renal transplant recipients and also shows that majority of our patients carry mutant allele A6986G in CYP3A5*3 gene. Identification of CYP3A5 polymorphism prior to transplantation could contribute to evaluate the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus for each patient.

Keywords: kidney transplant patients, CYP3A5 genotype, tacrolimus, RFLP

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2379 MMP-2 Gene Polymorphism and Its Influence on Serum MMP-2 Levels in Pre-Eclampsia in Indian Population

Authors: Ankush Kalra, Mirza Masroor, Usha Manaktala, B. C. Koner, T. K. Mishra

Abstract:

Introduction: Pre-eclampsia affects 3-5% of pregnancies worldwide and increases maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Reduced placental perfusion induces the release of biomolecules by the placenta into maternal circulation causing endothelial dysfunction. Zinc dependent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) may be up-regulated and interact with circulating factors of oxidative stress and inflammation to produce endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia. Aim: To study the functional genetic polymorphism of MMP-2 gene (g-1306 C>T) in pre-eclampsia and its effect on serum MMP-2 levels in these patients. Method: Hundred pre-eclampsia patients and hundred age and gestation period matched healthy pregnant women with their consent were recruited in the study. Serum MMP-2 levels in all subjects were estimated using standard ELISA kits. MMP-2 gene (g.- 1306 C>T) SNPs were genotyped using whole blood by ASO-PCR. Result: The pre-eclampsia patients had higher serum levels of MMP-2 compared to the healthy pregnant (p < 0.05). Also the MMP-2 genotype was associated with significant alteration in the serum MMP-2 concentration in these patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study results suggest an association of MMP-2 genetic polymorphism and serum levels of MMP-2 to the path physiology of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy.

Keywords: allele specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), pre-eclampsia

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2378 Prevalence of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Variant in Tunisian Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Authors: Rim Frikha, Maha Ben Jema, Moez Elloumi, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); a common blood cancer characterized by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an essential folate metabolic enzyme in the processes of DNA synthesis and methylation. A common functional variant of the MTHFR gene, the A1298C, which induces disturbances in folate metabolism, may affect susceptibility to ALL. Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of MTHFR polymorphism A1298 > C in Tunisian children with ALL. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 Tunisian ALL children were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole venous blood collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Genotyping was carried out with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using MboII restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution and allele frequency of MTHFR A1298C was calculated in ALL patients. Results: The A1298C variant of MTHFR was found in 11(19.6%) heterozygous and one homozygous patient (3.5%). Conclusions: This result highlights that A1298C polymorphism of MTHFR is common in Tunisian childhood ALL and suggests that this variant may have a potential role in leukemogenesis. Genotyping of large samples and different ethnicities are required to validate these findings.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, A1298C variant, prevalence

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2377 DNA Polymorphism Studies of β-Lactoglobulin Gene in Native Saudi Goat Breeds

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Muhammad I. Qureshi, Jamal Sabir, Mohamed Mutawakil, Mohamed M. Ahmed, Hassan El Ashmaoui, Hassan Ramadan, Mohamed Abou-Alsoud, Mahmoud Abdel Sadek

Abstract:

β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is the dominant non-casein whey protein found in bovine milk and of most ruminants. The amino acid sequence of β-LG along with its 3-dimensional structure illustrates linkage with the lipocalin superfamily. Preliminary studies in goats indicated that milk yield can be influenced by polymorphism in genes coding for whey proteins. The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the incidence of functional polymorphisms in the exonic and intronic portions of β-LG gene in native Saudi goat breeds (Ardi, Habsi, and Harri). Blood samples were collected from 300 animals (100 for each breed) and genomic DNA was extracted using QIAamp DNA extraction Kit. A fragment of the β-LG gene from exon 7 to 3’ flanking region was amplified with pairs of specific primers. Subsequent digestion with Sac II restriction endonuclease revealed two alleles (A and B) and three different banding patterns or genotypes i.e. AA, AB and BB. The statistical analysis showed that β-LG AA genotype had higher milk yield than β-LG AB and β-LG BB genotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of the selected β-LG fragments was done and submitted to GenBank NCBI (Accession No. KJ544248, KJ588275, KJ588276, KJ783455, KJ783456 and KJ874959). Two already established SNPs in exon 7 (+4601 and +4603) and one fresh SNP in the 3’ UTR region were detected in the β-LG fragments with designated AA genotype. The polymorphisms in exon 7 did not produce any amino acid change. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of nucleotide sequences of native Saudi goats indicated evolutional similarity with the GenBank reference sequences of goat, Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus.

Keywords: β-Lactoglobulin, Saudi goats, PCR-RFLP, functional polymorphism, nucleotide sequencing, phylogenetic analysis

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2376 Association of 1565C/T Polymorphism of Integrin Beta-3 (ITGB3) Gene and Increased Risk for Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Premature Coronary Artery Disease among Iranian Population

Authors: Mehrdad Sheikhvatan, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Mehrdad Behmanesh, Shayan Ziaee

Abstract:

Contradictory results have been obtained regarding the role of integrin, beta 3 (ITGB3) gene polymorphisms in occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, we aimed to assess the association between 1565C/T polymorphism of ITGB3 gene and increased risk for acute MI in patients who suffered premature CAD in Iranian population. Our prospective study included 1000 patients (492 men and 508 women aged 21 to 55 years) referred to Tehran Heart center during a period of four years from 2008 to 2011 with the final diagnosis of premature CAD and classified into two groups with history of MI (n = 461) and without of MI (n = 539). The polymorphism variants were determined by PCR-RFLP technique by entering 10% of randomized samples and then genotyping of the polymorphism was also conducted by High Resolution Melting (HRM) method. Among study samples, 640 were followed with a median follow-up time 45.74 months for determining association of long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and genotypes of polymorphisms. There was no significant difference in the frequency of 1565C/T polymorphism between the MI and non-MI groups. The frequency of wild genotype was 69.2% and 72.2%, the frequency of homozygous genotype was 21.3% and 18.4%, and the frequency of mutant genotype was 9.5% and 9.5%, respectively (p=0.505). Results were also similar when adjusted for covariates in a multivariate logistic regression model. No significant difference was also found in total-MACE free survival rate between the patients with different genotypes of 1565C/T polymorphism in both MI and non-MI group. The carriage of the 1565C/T polymorphism of ITGB3 gene seems unlikely to be a significant risk factor for the development of MI in Iranian patients with premature CAD. The presence of this ITGB3 gene polymorphism may not also predict long-term cardiac events.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, gene, integrin, beta 3, polymorphism

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2375 Analysis of Endogenous Sirevirus in Germinating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Authors: Nermin Gozukirmizi, Buket Cakmak, Sevgi Marakli

Abstract:

Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant and has been studied as a model plant regarding its short annual life cycle and seven chromosome pairs. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE1 retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (gag, env and rt) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for gag, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for rt and env. The sequencing of SIRE1 gag, env and rt domains revealed 79% similarity for gag, 95% for env and 84% for rt to Ty1-copia retrotransposons. SIRE1 retrotransposon was identified in the soybean genome and has been studied on other plants (maize, rice, tomatoe etc.). This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

Keywords: barley, polymorphism, retrotransposon, SIRE1 virus

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2374 Association of Gln223Arg Polymorphism of Gene LEPR, Levels of Leptin and Nourishing Habits in Mexican Adolescents with Morbid Obesity

Authors: Claudia Patricia Beltran Miranda, Mónica López Anaya, Mónica Navarro Meza, Maria Leonor Valderrama Chairez

Abstract:

Background: Mexico occupies the second world-wide place of morbid obese people (10- 12 million). Factors that predispose the development of MO are genetic, environmental, physiological, psycho-social and behavioral (nourishing habits). Objective: Associate Gln223Arg polymorphism of gene LEPR, levels of leptina and nourishing habits with the presence of morbid obesity in adolescents of the south of Jalisco (México). Methods: In 41 adolescents (18 normal weight and 23 morbid obesity) of 12 to 19 years of age, both sexes that were measure size and weight with tanita scale and stadimeter to determine IMC. Morbid obesity was determined by tables of the WHO and was established with a standard deviation >3. The Gln223Arg polymorphism have been identify by PCR and leptina levels by ELISA. Nourishing habits were evaluate by the questionnaire the Adolescent Food Habits Checklist. The statistical analysis was performed to compare mean scores obtained from the questionnaire when we compare morbid obesity vs. normal weight adolescents with p=0.03 and a significance of 95%. Results: frequencies alellics and genics were not stadistics significatives p= 0,011 and p=0,279 respectly when were compared between normal weight adolescents and morbib obesity Leptin levels and nourishing habits were associated with morbid obesity. The polymorphism not shown significance with morbid obesity. Conclusions: Dietary habits and leptin levels in adolescents are important factor that predisposes the development of obesity in adolescents. The presence of the polymorphism are not associated with morbid obesity in these subjects.

Keywords: leptin, nourishing habits, morbid obesity, polymorphism

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2373 Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group G: Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Breast Cancer

Authors: Malik SS, Masood N, Mubarik S, Khadim TM

Abstract:

Introduction: Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene plays a crucial role in the correction of UV-induced DNA damage through nucleotide excision repair pathway. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in XPG gene have been reported to be associated with different cancers. Current case-control study was designed to evaluate the relationship between one of the most frequently found XPG (rs1047768 T>C) polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Methodology: A total of 200 individuals were screened for this polymorphism including 100 pathologically confirmed breast cancer cases and age-matched 100 controls. Genotyping was carried out using Tetra amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR and results were confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Results: Conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant association between TC genotype (OR: 8.9, CI: 2.0 – 38.7) and increased breast cancer risk. Although homozygous CC genotype was more frequent in patients as compared to controls, but it was statistically non-significant (OR: 3.9, CI: 0.4 – 35.7). Conclusion: In conclusion, XPG (rs1047768 T>C) polymorphism may contribute towards increased risk of breast cancer but other polymorphisms may also be evaluated to elucidate their role in breast cancer.

Keywords: XPG, breast cancer, NER, ARMS-PCR

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2372 Role of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV18, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism

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2371 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Iranian Native Silkworm Bombyx mori Using RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) Molecular Marker

Authors: Rouhollah Radjabi, Mojtaba Zarei, Elham Sanatgar, Hossein Shouhani

Abstract:

RAPD molecular markers in order to discrimination of the Iranian native Bombyx mori silkworm breeds were used. DNA extraction using phenol - chloroform was and the qualitative and quantitative measurements of extracted DNA and its dilution, the obtained bands on agarose gel 1.5 percent were marked and analyzed. Results showed that the bands are observed between 250-2500 bp and most bands have been observed as Gilani-orange, the lowest bands observed are Khorasani-lemon. Primer 3 with 100% polymorphism with the highest polymorphism and primer 2 with 61.5 polymorphism had the lowest percentage of polymorphism. Cluster analysis of races and placed them in three main groups, races Gilani - orange, Baghdad and Khorasani -pink if the first group, camel's thorn, Herati - yellow race was alone in the second group and Khorasani – lemon was alone in the third group. The greatest similarity between the races, between Khorasani- pink and Baghdad (0.64). RAPD markers have been determined different silkworm races based on various morphological or economic characteristics except geographic origin.

Keywords: silkworm, molecular marker, RAPD, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
2370 The MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Screening: A Challenge in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed, Afifa Sellami, Nozha Chakroun, Salima Daoud, Leila Keskes, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Introduction: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) defined as two or more pregnancy losses, is a serious clinical problem. Methylene-tetrahydro-folate-reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, commonly the variant C677T is recognized as an inherited thrombophilia which might affect embryonic development and pregnancy success and cause pregnancy complications as RPL. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and PCR-RFLP was performed for the molecular diagnosis of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism among 70 patients (35 couples) with more than 2 fetal losses. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of MTHFR C677T among Tunisian couples with RPL and to critically analyze the available literature on the importance of MTHFR polymorphism testing in the management of RPL. Result and comments: No C677T mutation was detected in the carriers of RPL. This result would be related to sample size and to different criteria (number of abortion), - The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and pregnancy complications has been reported but with controversial results. - A lack of evidence for MTHFR polymorphism testing previously recommended by ACMG (American College of Medical medicine). Our study highlights the importance of screening of MTHFR polymorphism since the real impact of such thrombotic molecular defect on the pregnancy outcome is evident. - Folic supplementation of these patients during pregnancy can prevent such complications and lead to a successful pregnancy outcome.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, C677T, recurrent pregnancy loss, genetic testing

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