Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 565

Search results for: nucleotide sequencing

565 Forensic Analysis of MTDNA Hypervariable Region HVII by Sanger Sequence Method in Iraq Population

Authors: H. Imad, Y. Cheah, O. Aamera


The aims of this research are to study the mitochondrial non-coding region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristics of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. A portion of a non-coding region encompassing positions 37 to 340 amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column then sequenced and detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer. New polymorphic positions 57, 63, and 101 are described may in future be suitable sources for identification purpose. The data obtained can be used to identify variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence most promising for identification variants.

Keywords: encompassing nucleotide positions 37 to 340, HVII, Iraq, mitochondrial DNA, polymorphism, frequency

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564 Metagenomics-Based Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases

Authors: Vyacheslav Furtak, Merja Roivainen, Olga Mirochnichenko, Majid Laassri, Bella Bidzhieva, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Vladimir Chizhikov, Konstantin Chumakov


Molecular epidemiology and environmental surveillance are parts of a rational strategy to control infectious diseases. They have been widely used in the worldwide campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, which otherwise would be complicated by the inability to rapidly respond to outbreaks and determine sources of the infection. The conventional scheme involves isolation of viruses from patients and the environment, followed by their identification by nucleotide sequences analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships. This is a tedious and time-consuming process that yields definitive results when it may be too late to implement countermeasures. Because of the difficulty of high-throughput full-genome sequencing, most such studies are conducted by sequencing only capsid genes or their parts. Therefore the important information about the contribution of other parts of the genome and inter- and intra-species recombination to viral evolution is not captured. Here we propose a new approach based on the rapid concentration of sewage samples with tangential flow filtration followed by deep sequencing and reconstruction of nucleotide sequences of viruses present in the samples. The entire nucleic acids content of each sample is sequenced, thus preserving in digital format the complete spectrum of viruses. A set of rapid algorithms was developed to separate deep sequence reads into discrete populations corresponding to each virus and assemble them into full-length consensus contigs, as well as to generate a complete profile of sequence heterogeneities in each of them. This provides an effective approach to study molecular epidemiology and evolution of natural viral populations.

Keywords: poliovirus, eradication, environmental surveillance, laboratory diagnosis

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563 DNA Polymorphism Studies of β-Lactoglobulin Gene in Native Saudi Goat Breeds

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Muhammad I. Qureshi, Jamal Sabir, Mohamed Mutawakil, Mohamed M. Ahmed, Hassan El Ashmaoui, Hassan Ramadan, Mohamed Abou-Alsoud, Mahmoud Abdel Sadek


β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is the dominant non-casein whey protein found in bovine milk and of most ruminants. The amino acid sequence of β-LG along with its 3-dimensional structure illustrates linkage with the lipocalin superfamily. Preliminary studies in goats indicated that milk yield can be influenced by polymorphism in genes coding for whey proteins. The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the incidence of functional polymorphisms in the exonic and intronic portions of β-LG gene in native Saudi goat breeds (Ardi, Habsi, and Harri). Blood samples were collected from 300 animals (100 for each breed) and genomic DNA was extracted using QIAamp DNA extraction Kit. A fragment of the β-LG gene from exon 7 to 3’ flanking region was amplified with pairs of specific primers. Subsequent digestion with Sac II restriction endonuclease revealed two alleles (A and B) and three different banding patterns or genotypes i.e. AA, AB and BB. The statistical analysis showed that β-LG AA genotype had higher milk yield than β-LG AB and β-LG BB genotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of the selected β-LG fragments was done and submitted to GenBank NCBI (Accession No. KJ544248, KJ588275, KJ588276, KJ783455, KJ783456 and KJ874959). Two already established SNPs in exon 7 (+4601 and +4603) and one fresh SNP in the 3’ UTR region were detected in the β-LG fragments with designated AA genotype. The polymorphisms in exon 7 did not produce any amino acid change. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of nucleotide sequences of native Saudi goats indicated evolutional similarity with the GenBank reference sequences of goat, Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus.

Keywords: β-Lactoglobulin, Saudi goats, PCR-RFLP, functional polymorphism, nucleotide sequencing, phylogenetic analysis

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562 Genome Sequencing of Infectious Bronchitis Virus QX-Like Strain Isolated in Malaysia

Authors: M. Suwaibah, S. W. Tan, I. Aiini, K. Yusoff, A. R. Omar


Respiratory diseases are the most important infectious diseases affecting poultry worldwide. One of the avian respiratory virus of global importance causing significant economic losses is Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). The virus causes a wide spectrum disease known as Infectious Bronchitis (IB), affecting not only the respiratory system but also the kidney and the reproductive system, depending on its strain. IB and Newcastle disease are two of the most prevalent diseases affecting poultry in Malaysia. However, a study on the molecular characterization of Malaysian IBV is lacking. In this study, an IBV strain IBS130 which was isolated in 2015 was fully sequenced using next-gene sequencing approach. Sequence analysis of IBS130 based on the complete genome, polyprotein 1ab and S1 genes were compared with other IBV sequences available in Genbank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). IBV strain IBS130 is characterised as QX-like strain based on whole genome and S1 gene sequence analysis. Comparisons of the virus with other IBV strains showed that the nucleotide identity ranged from 67% to 99.2%, depending on the region analysed. The similarity in whole genome nucleotide ranging from 84.9% to 90.7% with the least similar was from Singapore strains (84.9%) and highly similar with China QX-like strains. Meanwhile, the similarity in polyprotein 1ab ranging from 85.3% to 89.9% with the least similar to Singapore strains (85.3%) and highly similar with Mass strains from USA.

Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus, phylogenetic analysis, chicken, Malaysia

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561 Molecular-Genetics Studies of New Unknown APMV Isolated from Wild Bird in Ukraine

Authors: Borys Stegniy, Anton Gerilovych, Oleksii Solodiankin, Vitaliy Bolotin, Anton Stegniy, Denys Muzyka, Claudio Afonso


New APMV was isolated from white fronted goose in Ukraine. This isolate was tested serologically using monoclonal antibodies in haemagglutination-inhibition tests against APMV1-9. As the results obtained isolate showed cross reactions with APMV7. Following investigations were provided for the full genome sequencing using random primers and cloning into pCRII-TOPO. Analysis of 100 transformed colonies of E.coli using traditional sequencing gave us possibilities to find only 3 regions, which could identify by BLAST. The first region with the length of 367 bp had 70 % nucleotide sequence identity to the APMV 12 isolate Wigeon/Italy/3920_1/2005 at genome position 2419-2784. Next region (344 bp) had 66 % identity to the same APMV 12 isolate at position 4760-5103. The last region (365 bp) showed 71 % identity to Newcastle disease virus strain M4 at position 12569-12928.

Keywords: APMV, Newcastle disease virus, Ukraine, full genome sequencing

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560 Genome Sequencing of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 202-3

Authors: Yina A. Cifuentes Triana, Andrés M. Pinzón Velásco, Marío E. Velásquez Lozano


In this work the sequencing and genome characterization of a natural isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (strain 202-3), identified with potential for the production of second generation ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates is presented. This strain was selected because its capability to consume xylose during the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates, taking into account that many strains of S. cerevisiae are incapable of processing this sugar. This advantage and other prominent positive aspects during fermentation profiles evaluated in bagasse hydrolysates made the strain 202-3 a candidate strain to improve the production of second-generation ethanol, which was proposed as a first step to study the strain at the genomic level. The molecular characterization was carried out by genome sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform paired end; the assembly was performed with different programs, finally choosing the assembler ABYSS with kmer 89. Gene prediction was developed with the approach of hidden Markov models with Augustus. The genes identified were scored based on similarity with public databases of nucleotide and protein. Records were organized from ontological functions at different hierarchical levels, which identified central metabolic functions and roles of the S. cerevisiae strain 202-3, highlighting the presence of four possible new proteins, two of them probably associated with the positive consumption of xylose.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genome sequencing, xylose consumption

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559 Down-Regulated Gene Expression of GKN1 and GKN2 as Diagnostic Markers for Gastric Cancer

Authors: Amer A. Hasan, Mehri Igci, Ersin Borazan, Rozhgar A. Khailany, Emine Bayraktar, Ahmet Arslan


Gastric cancer (GC) has high morbidity and fatality rate in various countries and is still one of the most frequent and deadly diseases. Novel mitogenic and motogenic Gastrokine1 (GKN1) and Gastrokine 2 (GKN2) genes that are highly expressed in the normal stomach epithelium and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity and homeostasis of stomach mucosal epithelial cells. Significant loss of copy number and mRNA transcript of GKN1 and GKN2 gene expression were frequently observed in all types of gastric cancer. In this study, 47 paired samples that were grouped according to the types of gastric cancer and the clinical characteristics of the patients, including gender and average of age were investigated with gene expression analysis and mutation screening by monetering RT-PCR, SSCP and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Both GKN1 and GKN2 genes were observed significantly reduced found by (Wilcoxon signed rank test; p<0.05). As a result of gene screening, no mutation (no different genotype) was detected. It is considered that gene mutations are not the cause of inactivation of gastrokines. In conclusion, the mRNA expression level of GKN1 and GKN2 genes statistically was decreased regardless the gender, age or cancer type of patients. Reduced of gastrokine genes seems to occur at the initial steps of cancer development. In order to understand the investigation between gastric cancer and diagnostic biomarker; further analysis is necessary.

Keywords: gastric cancer, diagnostic biomarker, nucleotide sequencing, semi-quantitative RT-PCR

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558 Tenofovir-Amino Acid Conjugates Act as Polymerase Substrates: Implications for Avoiding Cellular Phosphorylation in the Discovery of Nucleotide Analogs

Authors: Weijie Gu, Sergio Martinez, Hoai Nguyen, Hongtao Xu, Piet Herdewijn, Steven De Jonghe, Kalyan Das


Nucleotide analogs are used for treating viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. To become polymerase substrates, a nucleotide analog must be phosphorylated by cellular kinases, which are rate-limiting. The goal of this study is to develop dNTP/NTP analogs directly from nucleotides. Tenofovir (TFV) analogs were synthesized by conjugating with natural or unnatural amino acids. It demonstrates that some conjugates act as dNTP analogs, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) catalytically incorporates the TFV part as the chain terminator. X-ray structures in complex with HIV-1 RT/dsDNA showed binding of the conjugates at the polymerase active site, however, in different modes in the presence of Mg²⁺ vs. Mn²⁺ ions. The adaptability of the compounds is seemingly essential for catalytic incorporation of TFV by RT. 4d with a carboxyl sidechain demonstrated the highest incorporation. 4e showed weak incorporation and rather behaved as a dNTP-competitive inhibitor. This result advocates the feasibility of designing NTP/dNTP analogs by chemical substitutions to nucleotide analogs.

Keywords: dNTP analogs, nucleotide analogs, polymerase, tenofovir, X-ray structure

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557 Enzymatic Repair Prior To DNA Barcoding, Aspirations, and Restraints

Authors: Maxime Merheb, Rachel Matar


Retrieving ancient DNA sequences which in return permit the entire genome sequencing from fossils have extraordinarily improved in recent years, thanks to sequencing technology and other methodological advances. In any case, the quest to search for ancient DNA is still obstructed by the damage inflicted on DNA which accumulates after the death of a living organism. We can characterize this damage into three main categories: (i) Physical abnormalities such as strand breaks which lead to the presence of short DNA fragments. (ii) Modified bases (mainly cytosine deamination) which cause errors in the sequence due to an incorporation of a false nucleotide during DNA amplification. (iii) DNA modifications referred to as blocking lesions, will halt the PCR extension which in return will also affect the amplification and sequencing process. We can clearly see that the issues arising from breakage and coding errors were significantly decreased in recent years. Fast sequencing of short DNA fragments was empowered by platforms for high-throughput sequencing, most of the coding errors were uncovered to be the consequences of cytosine deamination which can be easily removed from the DNA using enzymatic treatment. The methodology to repair DNA sequences is still in development, it can be basically explained by the process of reintroducing cytosine rather than uracil. This technique is thus restricted to amplified DNA molecules. To eliminate any type of damage (particularly those that block PCR) is a process still pending the complete repair methodologies; DNA detection right after extraction is highly needed. Before using any resources into extensive, unreasonable and uncertain repair techniques, it is vital to distinguish between two possible hypotheses; (i) DNA is none existent to be amplified to begin with therefore completely un-repairable, (ii) the DNA is refractory to PCR and it is worth to be repaired and amplified. Hence, it is extremely important to develop a non-enzymatic technique to detect the most degraded DNA.

Keywords: ancient DNA, DNA barcodong, enzymatic repair, PCR

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556 Phylogenetic Characterization of Atrazine-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soil in Eastern Thailand

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid


In this study sugarcane field soils with a long history of atrazine application in Chachoengsao and Chonburi provinces have been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. For the atrazine degrading bacteria isolation, the soils used in this study named ACS and ACB were inoculated in MS-medium containing atrazine. Six short rod and gram-negative bacterial isolates, which were able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen, were isolated and named as ACS1, ACB1, ACB3, ACB4, ACB5 and ACB6. From the 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolated bacteria ACS1 and ACB4 were identified as Rhizobium sp. with 89.1-98.7% nucleotide identity, ACB1 and ACB5 were identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. with 91.0-92.8% nucleotide identity, whereas ACB3 and ACB6 were Klebsiella sp. with 97.4-97.8% nucleotide identity.

Keywords: atrazine-degrading bacteria, bioremediation, Thai isolates, bacteria

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555 Genome Sequencing, Assembly and Annotation of Gelidium Pristoides from Kenton-on-Sea, South Africa

Authors: Sandisiwe Mangali, Graeme Bradley


Genome is complete set of the organism's hereditary information encoded as either deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid in most viruses. The three different types of genomes are nuclear, mitochondrial and the plastid genome and their sequences which are uncovered by genome sequencing are known as an archive for all genetic information and enable researchers to understand the composition of a genome, regulation of gene expression and also provide information on how the whole genome works. These sequences enable researchers to explore the population structure, genetic variations, and recent demographic events in threatened species. Particularly, genome sequencing refers to a process of figuring out the exact arrangement of the basic nucleotide bases of a genome and the process through which all the afore-mentioned genomes are sequenced is referred to as whole or complete genome sequencing. Gelidium pristoides is South African endemic Rhodophyta species which has been harvested in the Eastern Cape since the 1950s for its high economic value which is one motivation for its sequencing. Its endemism further motivates its sequencing for conservation biology as endemic species are more vulnerable to anthropogenic activities endangering a species. As sequencing, mapping and annotating the Gelidium pristoides genome is the aim of this study. To accomplish this aim, the genomic DNA was extracted and quantified using the Nucleospin Plank Kit, Qubit 2.0 and Nanodrop. Thereafter, the Ion Plus Fragment Library was used for preparation of a 600bp library which was then sequenced through the Ion S5 sequencing platform for two runs. The produced reads were then quality-controlled and assembled through the SPAdes assembler with default parameters and the genome assembly was quality assessed through the QUAST software. From this assembly, the plastid and the mitochondrial genomes were then sampled out using Gelidiales organellar genomes as search queries and ordered according to them using the Geneious software. The Qubit and the Nanodrop instruments revealed an A260/A280 and A230/A260 values of 1.81 and 1.52 respectively. A total of 30792074 reads were obtained and produced a total of 94140 contigs with resulted into a sequence length of 217.06 Mbp with N50 value of 3072 bp and GC content of 41.72%. A total length of 179281bp and 25734 bp was obtained for plastid and mitochondrial respectively. Genomic data allows a clear understanding of the genomic constituent of an organism and is valuable as foundation information for studies of individual genes and resolving the evolutionary relationships between organisms including Rhodophytes and other seaweeds.

Keywords: Gelidium pristoides, genome, genome sequencing and assembly, Ion S5 sequencing platform

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554 High-Throughput Mechanized Microfluidic Test Groundwork for Precise Microbial Genomics

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Gasemi Shayan, Parsa Sheykhzade


Ease shotgun DNA sequencing is changing the microbial sciences. Sequencing instruments are compelling to the point that example planning is currently the key constraining element. Here, we present a microfluidic test readiness stage that incorporates the key strides in cells to grouping library test groundwork for up to 96 examples and decreases DNA input prerequisites 100-overlay while keeping up or improving information quality. The universally useful microarchitecture we show bolsters work processes with subjective quantities of response and tidy up or catch steps. By decreasing the example amount necessities, we empowered low-input (∼10,000 cells) entire genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and soil miniaturized scale settlements with prevalent outcomes. We additionally utilized the upgraded throughput to succession ∼400 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa libraries and exhibit magnificent single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery execution that clarified phenotypically watched anti-toxin opposition. Completely coordinated lab-on-chip test arrangement beats specialized boundaries to empower more extensive organization of genomics across numerous fundamental research and translational applications.

Keywords: clinical microbiology, DNA, microbiology, microbial genomics

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553 Mutations in the GJB2 Gene Are the Cause of an Important Number of Non-Syndromic Deafness Cases

Authors: Habib Onsori, Somayeh Akrami, Mohammad Rahmati


Deafness is the most common sensory disorder with the frequency of 1/1000 in many populations. Mutations in the GJB2 (CX26) gene at the DFNB1 locus on chromosome 13q12 are associated with congenital hearing loss. Approximately 80% of congenital hearing loss cases are recessively inherited and 15% dominantly inherited. Mutations of the GJB2 gene, encoding gap junction protein Connexin 26 (Cx26), are the most common cause of hereditary congenital hearing loss in many countries. This report presents two cases of different mutations from Iranian patients with bilateral hearing loss. DNA studies were performed for the GJB2 gene by PCR and sequencing methods. In one of them, direct sequencing of the gene showed a heterozygous T→C transition at nucleotide 604 resulting in a cysteine to arginine amino acid substitution at codon 202 (C202R) in the fourth extracellular domain (TM4) of the protein. The analyses indicate that the C202R mutation appeared de novo in the proband with a possible dominant effect (GenBank: KF 638275). In the other one, DNA sequencing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Cx26 gene that is strongly associated with congenital non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL). So screening the mutations for hearing loss individuals referring to genetics counseling centers before marriage and or pregnancy is recommended.

Keywords: CX26, deafness, GJB2, mutation

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552 Solanum tuberosum Ammonium Transporter Gene: Some Bioinformatics Insights

Authors: A. T. Adetunji, F. B. Lewu, R. Mundembe


Plants require nitrogen (N) to support desired production levels. Nitrogen is available to plants in the form of nitrate or ammonium, which are transported into the cell with the aid of various transport proteins. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Solanum tuberosum AMT1 (StAMT1) was characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. Nucleotide database sequences were used to design AMT1-specific primers which were used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that StAMT1 is 92%, 83% and 76% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, Lotus japonicus LjAMT1.1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.2 respectively. StAMT1 fragments were shown to correspond to the 5th - 10th trans-membrane domains. Residue StAMT1 D15 is predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport.

Keywords: ammonium transporter, bioinformatics, nitrogen, primers, Solanum tuberosum

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551 Electrochemical APEX for Genotyping MYH7 Gene: A Low Cost Strategy for Minisequencing of Disease Causing Mutations

Authors: Ahmed M. Debela, Mayreli Ortiz , Ciara K. O´Sullivan


The completion of the human genome Project (HGP) has paved the way for mapping the diversity in the overall genome sequence which helps to understand the genetic causes of inherited diseases and susceptibility to drugs or environmental toxins. Arrayed primer extension (APEX) is a microarray based minisequencing strategy for screening disease causing mutations. It is derived from Sanger DNA sequencing and uses fluorescently dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) for termination of a growing DNA strand from a primer with its 3´- end designed immediately upstream of a site where single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurs. The use of DNA polymerase offers a very high accuracy and specificity to APEX which in turn happens to be a method of choice for multiplex SNP detection. Coupling the high specificity of this method with the high sensitivity, low cost and compatibility for miniaturization of electrochemical techniques would offer an excellent platform for detection of mutation as well as sequencing of DNA templates. We are developing an electrochemical APEX for the analysis of SNPs found in the MYH7 gene for group of cardiomyopathy patients. ddNTPs were labeled with four different redox active compounds with four distinct potentials. Thiolated oligonucleotide probes were immobilised on gold and glassy carbon substrates which are followed by hybridisation with complementary target DNA just adjacent to the base to be extended by polymerase. Electrochemical interrogation was performed after the incorporation of the redox labelled dedioxynucleotide. The work involved the synthesis and characterisation of the redox labelled ddNTPs, optimisation and characterisation of surface functionalisation strategies and the nucleotide incorporation assays.

Keywords: array based primer extension, labelled ddNTPs, electrochemical, mutations

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550 Efficient Reuse of Exome Sequencing Data for Copy Number Variation Callings

Authors: Chen Wang, Jared Evans, Yan Asmann


With the quick evolvement of next-generation sequencing techniques, whole-exome or exome-panel data have become a cost-effective way for detection of small exonic mutations, but there has been a growing desire to accurately detect copy number variations (CNVs) as well. In order to address this research and clinical needs, we developed a sequencing coverage pattern-based method not only for copy number detections, data integrity checks, CNV calling, and visualization reports. The developed methodologies include complete automation to increase usability, genome content-coverage bias correction, CNV segmentation, data quality reports, and publication quality images. Automatic identification and removal of poor quality outlier samples were made automatically. Multiple experimental batches were routinely detected and further reduced for a clean subset of samples before analysis. Algorithm improvements were also made to improve somatic CNV detection as well as germline CNV detection in trio family. Additionally, a set of utilities was included to facilitate users for producing CNV plots in focused genes of interest. We demonstrate the somatic CNV enhancements by accurately detecting CNVs in whole exome-wide data from the cancer genome atlas cancer samples and a lymphoma case study with paired tumor and normal samples. We also showed our efficient reuses of existing exome sequencing data, for improved germline CNV calling in a family of the trio from the phase-III study of 1000 Genome to detect CNVs with various modes of inheritance. The performance of the developed method is evaluated by comparing CNV calling results with results from other orthogonal copy number platforms. Through our case studies, reuses of exome sequencing data for calling CNVs have several noticeable functionalities, including a better quality control for exome sequencing data, improved joint analysis with single nucleotide variant calls, and novel genomic discovery of under-utilized existing whole exome and custom exome panel data.

Keywords: bioinformatics, computational genetics, copy number variations, data reuse, exome sequencing, next generation sequencing

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549 Scalable and Accurate Detection of Pathogens from Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing

Authors: Janos Juhasz, Sandor Pongor, Balazs Ligeti


Next-generation sequencing, especially whole genome shotgun sequencing, is becoming a common approach to gain insight into the microbiomes in a culture-independent way, even in clinical practice. It does not only give us information about the species composition of an environmental sample but opens the possibility to detect antimicrobial resistance and novel, or currently unknown, pathogens. Accurately and reliably detecting the microbial strains is a challenging task. Here we present a sensitive approach for detecting pathogens in metagenomics samples with special regard to detecting novel variants of known pathogens. We have developed a pipeline that uses fast, short read aligner programs (i.e., Bowtie2/BWA) and comprehensive nucleotide databases. Taxonomic binning is based on the lowest common ancestor (LCA) principle; each read is assigned to a taxon, covering the most significantly hit taxa. This approach helps in balancing between sensitivity and running time. The program was tested both on experimental and synthetic data. The results implicate that our method performs as good as the state-of-the-art BLAST-based ones, furthermore, in some cases, it even proves to be better, while running two orders magnitude faster. It is sensitive and capable of identifying taxa being present only in small abundance. Moreover, it needs two orders of magnitude less reads to complete the identification than MetaPhLan2 does. We analyzed an experimental anthrax dataset (B. anthracis strain BA104). The majority of the reads (96.50%) was classified as Bacillus anthracis, a small portion, 1.2%, was classified as other species from the Bacillus genus. We demonstrate that the evaluation of high-throughput sequencing data is feasible in a reasonable time with good classification accuracy.

Keywords: metagenomics, taxonomy binning, pathogens, microbiome, B. anthracis

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548 BingleSeq: A User-Friendly R Package for Single-Cell RNA-Seq Data Analysis

Authors: Quan Gu, Daniel Dimitrov


BingleSeq was developed as a shiny-based, intuitive, and comprehensive application that enables the analysis of single-Cell RNA-Sequencing count data. This was achieved via incorporating three state-of-the-art software packages for each type of RNA sequencing analysis, alongside functional annotation analysis and a way to assess the overlap of differential expression method results. At its current state, the functionality implemented within BingleSeq is comparable to that of other applications, also developed with the purpose of lowering the entry requirements to RNA Sequencing analyses. BingleSeq is available on GitHub and will be submitted to R/Bioconductor.

Keywords: bioinformatics, functional annotation analysis, single-cell RNA-sequencing, transcriptomics

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547 Isolate-Specific Variations among Clinical Isolates of Brucella Identified by Whole-Genome Sequencing, Bioinformatics and Comparative Genomics

Authors: Abu S. Mustafa, Mohammad W. Khan, Faraz Shaheed Khan, Nazima Habibi


Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide prevalence. There are at least four species and several strains of Brucella that cause human disease. Brucella genomes have very limited variation across strains, which hinder strain identification using classical molecular techniques, including PCR and 16 S rDNA sequencing. The aim of this study was to perform whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates of Brucella and perform bioinformatics and comparative genomics analyses to determine the existence of genetic differences across the isolates of a single Brucella species and strain. The draft sequence data were generated from 15 clinical isolates of Brucella melitensis (biovar 2 strain 63/9) using MiSeq next generation sequencing platform. The generated reads were used for further assembly and analysis. All the analysis was performed using Bioinformatics work station (8 core i7 processor, 8GB RAM with Bio-Linux operating system). FastQC was used to determine the quality of reads and low quality reads were trimmed or eliminated using Fastx_trimmer. Assembly was done by using Velvet and ABySS softwares. The ordering of assembled contigs was performed by Mauve. An online server RAST was employed to annotate the contigs assembly. Annotated genomes were compared using Mauve and ACT tools. The QC score for DNA sequence data, generated by MiSeq, was higher than 30 for 80% of reads with more than 100x coverage, which suggested that data could be utilized for further analysis. However when analyzed by FastQC, quality of four reads was not good enough for creating a complete genome draft so remaining 11 samples were used for further analysis. The comparative genome analyses showed that despite sharing same gene sets, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions existed across different genomes, which provided a variable extent of diversity to these bacteria. In conclusion, the next generation sequencing, bioinformatics, and comparative genome analysis can be utilized to find variations (point mutations, insertions and deletions) across different genomes of Brucella within a single strain. This information could be useful in surveillance and epidemiological studies supported by Kuwait University Research Sector grants MI04/15 and SRUL02/13.

Keywords: brucella, bioinformatics, comparative genomics, whole genome sequencing

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546 Clinical Impact of Ultra-Deep Versus Sanger Sequencing Detection of Minority Mutations on the HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotype Interpretations after Virological Failure

Authors: S. Mohamed, D. Gonzalez, C. Sayada, P. Halfon


Drug resistance mutations are routinely detected using standard Sanger sequencing, which does not detect minor variants with a frequency below 20%. The impact of detecting minor variants generated by ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) on HIV drug-resistance (DR) interpretations has not yet been studied. Fifty HIV-1 patients who experienced virological failure were included in this retrospective study. The HIV-1 UDS protocol allowed the detection and quantification of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase variants related to genotypes A, B, C, E, F, and G. DeepChek®-HIV simplified DR interpretation software was used to compare Sanger sequencing and UDS. The total time required for the UDS protocol was found to be approximately three times longer than Sanger sequencing with equivalent reagent costs. UDS detected all of the mutations found by population sequencing and identified additional resistance variants in all patients. An analysis of DR revealed a total of 643 and 224 clinically relevant mutations by UDS and Sanger sequencing, respectively. Three resistance mutations with > 20% prevalence were detected solely by UDS: A98S (23%), E138A (21%) and V179I (25%). A significant difference in the DR interpretations for 19 antiretroviral drugs was observed between the UDS and Sanger sequencing methods. Y181C and T215Y were the most frequent mutations associated with interpretation differences. A combination of UDS and DeepChek® software for the interpretation of DR results would help clinicians provide suitable treatments. A cut-off of 1% allowed a better characterisation of the viral population by identifying additional resistance mutations and improving the DR interpretation.

Keywords: HIV-1, ultra-deep sequencing, Sanger sequencing, drug resistance

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545 Genetic Variations of Two Casein Genes among Maghrabi Camels Reared in Egypt

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Amira M. Nowier, Medhat El-Denary


Camels play an important socio-economic role within the pastoral and agricultural system in the dry and semidry zones of Asia and Africa. Camels are economically important animals in Egypt where they are dual purpose animals (meat and milk). The analysis of chemical composition of camel milk showed that the total protein contents ranged from 2.4% to 5.3% and it is divided into casein and whey proteins. The casein fraction constitutes 52% to 89% of total camel milk protein and it divided into 4 fractions namely αs1, αs2, β and κ-caseins which are encoded by four tightly genes. In spite of the important role of casein genes and the effects of their genetic polymorphisms on quantitative traits and technological properties of milk, the studies for the detection of genetic polymorphism of camel milk genes are still limited. Due to this fact, this work focused - using PCR-RFP and sequencing analysis - on the identification of genetic polymorphisms and SNPs of two casein genes in Maghrabi camel breed which is a dual purpose camel breed in Egypt. The amplified fragments at 488-bp of the camel κ-CN gene were digested with AluI endonuclease. The results showed the appearance of three different genotypes in the tested animals; CC with three digested fragments at 203-, 127- and 120-bp, TT with three digested fragments at 203-, 158- and 127-bp and CT with four digested fragments at 203-, 158-, 127- and 120-bp. The frequencies of three detected genotypes were 11.0% for CC, 48.0% for TT and 41.0% for CT genotypes. The sequencing analysis of the two different alleles declared the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (C→T) at position 121 in the amplified fragments which is responsible for the destruction of a restriction site (AG/CT) in allele T and resulted in the presence of two different alleles C and T in tested animals. The nucleotide sequences of κ-CN alleles C and T were submitted to GenBank with the accession numbers; KU055605 and KU055606, respectively. The primers used in this study amplified 942-bp fragments spanning from exon 4 to exon 6 of camel αS1-Casein gene. The amplified fragments were digested with two different restriction enzymes; SmlI and AluI. The results of SmlI digestion did not show any restriction site whereas the digestion with AluI endonuclease revealed the presence of two restriction sites AG^CT at positions 68^69 and 631^632 yielding the presence of three digested fragments with sizes 68-, 563- and 293-bp.The nucleotide sequences of this fragment from camel αS1-Casein gene were submitted to GenBank with the accession number KU145820. In conclusion, the genetic characterization of quantitative traits genes which are associated with the production traits like milk yield and composition is considered an important step towards the genetic improvement of livestock species through the selection of superior animals depending on the favorable alleles and genotypes; marker assisted selection (MAS).

Keywords: genetic polymorphism, SNP polymorphism, Maghrabi camels, κ-Casein gene, αS1-Casein gene

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544 A Unified Model for Orotidine Monophosphate Synthesis: Target for Inhibition of Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: N. Naga Subrahmanyeswara Rao, Parag Arvind Deshpande


Understanding nucleotide synthesis reaction of any organism is beneficial to know the growth of it as in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to design anti TB drug. One of the reactions of de novo pathway which takes place in all organisms was considered. The reaction takes places between phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate and orotate catalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and divalent metal ion gives orotdine monophosphate, a nucleotide. All the reaction steps of three experimentally proposed mechanisms for this reaction were considered to develop kinetic rate expression. The model was validated using the data for four organisms. This model could successfully describe the kinetics for the reported data. The developed model can serve as a reliable model to describe the kinetics in new organisms without the need of mechanistic determination. So an organism-independent model was developed.

Keywords: mechanism, nucleotide, organism, tuberculosis

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543 Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Ammonium Transporter Gene Using Bioinformatics Approach

Authors: Adewole Tomiwa Adetunji, Francis Bayo Lewu, Richard Mundembe


Plants require nitrogen (N) to support desired production levels. There is a need for better understanding of N transport mechanism in order to improve N assimilation by plant root. Nitrogen is available to plants in the form of nitrate or ammonium, which are transported into the cell with the aid of various transport proteins. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which N is preferentially absorbed by plants. Solanum tuberosum AMT1 (StAMT1) was amplified, sequenced and characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. Nucleotide database sequences were used to design 976 base pairs AMT1-specific primers which include forward primer 5’- GCCATCGCCGCCGCCGG-3’ and reverse primer 5’-GGGTCAGATCCATACCCGC-3’. These primers were used to amplify the Solanum tuberosum AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned StAMT1 to the AMT1 family due to the clade and high similarity it shared with other plant AMT1 genes. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that StAMT1 is 92%, 83% and 76% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, Lotus japonicus LjAMT1.1, and Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.2 respectively. StAMT1 fragments were shown to correspond to the 5th-10th trans-membrane domains. Residue StAMT1 D15 is predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport.

Keywords: ammonium transporter, bioinformatics, nitrogen, primers, Solanum tuberosum

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542 Genomics of Adaptation in the Sea

Authors: Agostinho Antunes


The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of selected marine animal species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: marine genomics, evolutionary bioinformatics, human genome sequencing, genomic analyses

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541 Detection of Viral-Plant Interaction Using Some Pathogenesis Related Protein Genes to Identify Resistant Genes against Potato LeafRoll Virus and Potato Virus Y in Egyptian Isolates

Authors: Dalia. G. Aseel, E. E. Hafez, S. M. Hammad


Viral RNAs of both potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) were extracted from infected potato leaves collected from different Egyptian regions. Differential Display Polymerase Chain Reaction (DD-PCR) using (Endogluconase, β-1,3-glucanases, Chitinase, Peroxidase and Polyphenol oxidase) primers (forward strand) for was performed. The obtained data revealed different banding patterns depending on the viral type and the region of infection. Regarding PLRV, a 58 up regulated and 19 down regulated genes were detected, while, 31 up regulated and 14 down regulated genes were observed in case of PVY. Based on the nucleotide sequencing, variable phylogenetic relationships were reported for the three sequenced genes coding for: Induced stolen tip protein, Disease resistance RPP-like protein and non-specific lipid-transfer protein. In a complementary approach, using the quantitative Real-time PCR, the expressions of PRs genes understudy were estimated in the infected leaves by PLRV and PVY of three potato cultivars (Spunta, Diamont and Cara). The infection with both viruses inhibited the expressions of the five PRs genes. On the contrary, infected leaves by PLRV or PVY elevated the expression of some defense genes. This interaction also may be enhanced and/or inhibited the expression of some genes responsible for the plant defense mechanisms.

Keywords: PLRV, PVY, PR genes, DD-PCR, qRT-PCR, sequencing

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540 Molecular Characterization of Functional Domain (LRR) of TLR9 Genes in Malnad Gidda Cattle and Their Comparison to Cross Breed Cattle

Authors: Ananthakrishna L. R., Ramesh D., Kumar Wodeyar, Kotresh A. M., Gururaj P. M.


Malnad Gidda is the indigenous recognized cattle breed of Shivamogga District of Karnataka state, India is known for its disease resistance to many of the infectious diseases. There are 25 LRR (Leucine Rich Repeats) identified in bovine (Bos indicus) TLR9. The amino acid sequence of LRR is deduced to nucleotide sequence in BLASTx bioinformatic online tools. LRR2 to LRR10 are involved in pathogen recognition and binding in human TLR9 which showed a higher degree of nucleotide variations with respect to disease resistance to various pathogens. Hence, primers were designed to amplify the flanking sequences of LRR2 to LRR10, to discover the nucleotide variations if any, in Malnad Gidda breed of Cattle which is associated with disease resistance. The DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ten Malnad Gidda cattle. A desired and specific amplification product of 0.8 kb was obtained at an annealing temperature of 56.6ᵒC. All the PCR products were sequenced on both sides by gene-specific primers. The sequences were compared with TLR9 sequence of cross breed cattle obtained from NCBI data bank. The sequence analysis between Malnad Gidda and crossbreed cattle revealed no nucleotide variations in the region LRR2 to LRR9 which shows the conserved in pathogen binding domain (LRR) of TLR9.

Keywords: leucine rich repeats, Malnad Gidda, cross breed, TLR9

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539 Deleterious SNP’s Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Hamza Zidoum


This paper investigates the impact of human genetic variation on the function of human proteins using machine-learning algorithms. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism represents the most common form of human genome variation. We focus on the single amino-acid polymorphism located in the coding region as they can affect the protein function leading to pathologic phenotypic change. We use several supervised Machine Learning methods to identify structural properties correlated with increased risk of the missense mutation being damaging. SVM associated with Principal Component Analysis give the best performance.

Keywords: single-nucleotide polymorphism, machine learning, feature selection, SVM

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538 Variation in Carboxylesterase Activity in Spodoptera litura Fabricious (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Populations from India

Authors: V. Karuppaiah, J. C. Padaria, C. Srivastava


The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest various field and horticulture crops in India. Pest had virtually developed resistance to all commonly used insecticides. Enhanced detoxification is the prime mechanism that is dictated by detoxification different enzymes and carboxylesterase is one of the major enzyme responsible development of resistance. In India, insecticide resistance studies on S. litura are mainly deployed on detoxification enzymes activity and investigation at gene level alteration i.e. at nucleotide level is very merger. In the present study, we collected the S. litura larvae from three different cauliflower growing belt viz., IARI, New Delhi (Delhi), Palari, Sonepat (Haryana) and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) to study the role of carboxylesterase activity and its gene level variation The CarE activity was measured using UV-VIS spectrophotometer with 3rd instar larvae of S. litura. The elevated activity of CarE was observed in Sonepat strain (28.09 ± 0.09 µmol/min/mg of protein) followed by Delhi (26.72 ± 0.04 µmol/min/mg of protein) and Varanasi strain (10.00 ± 0.44 µmol/min/mg of protein) of S. litura. The genomic DNA was isolated from 3rd instar larvae and CarE gene was amplified using a primer sequence, F:5’tccagagttccttgtcaggcac3’; R:5’ctgcatcaagcatgtctc3. CarE gene, about 500bp was partially amplified, sequenced and submitted to NCBI (Accession No. KF835886, KF835887 and KF835888). The sequence data revealed polymorphism at nucleotide level in all the three strains and gene found to have 88 to 97% similarity with previous available nucleotide sequences of S. litura, S. littoralis and S. exiqua. The polymorphism at the nucleotide level could be a reason for differential activity of carboxylesterase enzymes among the strains. However, investigation at gene expression level would be useful to analyze the overproduction of carboxylesterase enzyme.

Keywords: carboxylesterase, CarE gene, nucleotide polymorphism, insecticide resistance, spodoptera litura

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537 A Clustering-Sequencing Approach to the Facility Layout Problem

Authors: Saeideh Salimpour, Sophie-Charlotte Viaux, Ahmed Azab, Mohammed Fazle Baki


The Facility Layout Problem (FLP) is key to the efficient and cost-effective operation of a system. This paper presents a hybrid heuristic- and mathematical-programming-based approach that divides the problem conceptually into those of clustering and sequencing. First, clusters of vertically aligned facilities are formed, which are later on sequenced horizontally. The developed methodology provides promising results in comparison to its counterparts in the literature by minimizing the inter-distances for facilities which have more interactions amongst each other and aims at placing the facilities with more interactions at the centroid of the shop.

Keywords: clustering-sequencing approach, mathematical modeling, optimization, unequal facility layout problem

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536 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data

Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang


Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.

Keywords: human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing

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