Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3308

Search results for: dental pulp stem cells

3308 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath

Abstract:

Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: collagenase/dispase, dental pulp stem cells, flow cytometry, irreversible pulpitis

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3307 Role of Nano Gelatin and Hydrogel Based Scaffolds in Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Husain S. Yawer, Vasim Raja Panwar, Nidhi Priya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the role of nano-gelatin and Bioengineered Scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Tooth decay and early fall have each been one of the most prevailing dental disorders which cause physical and emotional suffering and compromise the patient's quality of life. The design of novel scaffolding materials will be based on mimicking the architecture of natural dental extracellular matrix which may provide as in vivo environments for proper cell growth. This methodology will involve the combination of nano-fibred gelatin as well as biodegradable hydrogel based tooth scaffold. We have measured and optimized the Dental Pulp Stem Cells growth profile in cultures carried out on collagen-coated plastic surface, however, for tissue regeneration study, we aim to develop an enhanced microenvironment for stem cell growth and dental tissue regeneration. We believe biomimetic cell adhesion and scaffolds might provide a near in vivo growth environment for proper growth and differentiation of human DPSCs, which further help in dentin/pulp tissue regeneration.

Keywords: nano-gelatin, stem cells, dental pulp, scaffold

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3306 Sema4D/Plexin-B1 Signaling Regulates Osteo/Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Ting Zou, Chengfei Zhang

Abstract:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D)/Plexin-B1 signaling on osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and uncover its molecular mechanism. Methods: DPSCs were cultured in osteo/odontogenic medium. After treatment with Sema4D (10μg/mL), osteo/odontogenic differentiation and mineralization was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red S staining respectively. The expression of osteo/odontogenic genes (ALP, Col1A1, BSP, and Runx2) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. p-Plexin-B1, Plexin-B1, Col1A1, RhoA, and ErbB2 were analyzed by western. Results: ALP activity and mineralization formation of DPSCs were significantly decreased after treatment with Sema4D (P<0.05). Sema4D significantly down-regulated osteo/odontogenic-related genes expression (ALP, Col1A1, BSP, and Runx2). p-Plexin-B1, Plexin-B1 and RhoA protein expression levels increased after stimulated with Sema4D, while the expression of Col1A1 decreased. Pretreatment with Plexin-B1 antibody blocked Sema4D induced p-Plexin-B1 expression. Conclusion: Sema4D suppressed osteo/odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs via RhoA-mediated pathways.

Keywords: Sema4D/Plexin-B1, dental pulp stem cells, osteo/odontogenic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

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3305 Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Attenuate Streptozotocin-Induced Parotid Gland Injury in Rats

Authors: Gehan ElAkabawy

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus causes severe deteriorations of almost all the organs and systems of the body, as well as significant damage to the oral cavity. The oral changes are mainly related to salivary glands dysfunction characterized by hyposalivation and xerostomia, which significantly reduce diabetic patients’ quality of life. Human dental pulp stem cells represent a promising source for cell-based therapies, owing to their easy, minimally invasive surgical access, and high proliferative capacity. It was reported that the trophic support mediated by dental pulp stem cells can rescue the functional and structural alterations of damaged salivary glands. However, potential differentiation and paracrine effects of human dental pulp stem cells in diabetic-induced parotid gland damage have not been previously investigated. Our study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of intravenous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on parotid gland injury in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes. Methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly categorised into three groups: control, diabetic (STZ), and transplanted (STZ+hDPSCs). hDPSCs or vehicle was injected into the tail vein 7 days after STZ injection. The fasting blood glucose levels were monitored weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed, and the parotid gland weight, salivary flow rate, oxidative stress indices, parotid gland histology, and caspase-3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in parotid tissues were assessed 28 days post-transplantation. Results: Transplantation of hDPSCs downregulated blood glucose, improved the salivary flow rate, and reduced oxidative stress. The cells migrated to, survived, and differentiated into acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells in the STZ-injured parotid gland. Moreover, they downregulated the expression of caspase-3 and upregulated the expression of VEGF and PCNA, likely exerting pro-angiogenetic and antiapoptotic effects and promoting endogenous regeneration. In addition, the transplanted cells enhanced the parotid nitric oxide (NO) -tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) pathway. Conclusions: Our results show that hDPSCs can migrate to and survive within the STZ-injured parotid gland, where they prevent its functional and morphological damage by restoring normal glucose levels, differentiating into parotid cell populations, and stimulating paracrine-mediated regeneration. Thus, hDPSCs may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes-induced parotid gland injury.

Keywords: dental pulp stem cells, diabetes, streptozotocin, parotid gland

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3304 Role of Interleukin 6 on Cell Differentiations in Stem Cells Isolated from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth

Authors: Nunthawan Nowwarote, Waleerat Sukarawan, Prasit Pavasant, Thanaphum Osathanon

Abstract:

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine, regulating various biological responses in several tissues. A Recent study shows that IL-6 plays a role in stemness maintenance in stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). However, the role of IL-6 on cell differentiation in SHEDs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effect of IL-6 on SHEDs differentiation. Cells were isolated from dental pulp tissues of human deciduous teeth. Flow cytometry was used to determined mesenchymal stem cell marker expression, and the multipotential differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic lineage ) was also determined. The mRNA was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the phenotypes were confirmed by chemical and immunofluorescence staining. Results demonstrated that SHEDs expressed CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 but not CD45. Further, the up-regulation of osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic marker genes was observed upon maintaining cells in osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic induction medium, respectively. The addition of IL-6 induced osteogenic by up-regulated osteogenic marker gene also increased in vitro mineralization. Under neurogenic medium supplement with IL-6, up-regulated neurogenic marker. Whereas, an addition of IL-6 attenuated adipogenic differentiation by SHEDs. In conclusion, this evidence implies that IL-6 may participate in cells differentiation ability of SHEDs.

Keywords: SHEDs, IL-6, cell differentiations, dental pulp

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3303 Reconstruction of Alveolar Bone Defects Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mediated Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen/Poly(L-Lactide)

Authors: Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Fang Su, Xia Wu, Zhan-Ping Shi, Yan Lv, Jia-Zhu Wang

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the capacity of a tissue-engineered bone complex of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) mediated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide)(nHAC/PLA) to reconstruct critical-size alveolar bone defects in New Zealand rabbit. Methods: Autologous DPSCs were isolated from rabbit dental pulp tissue and expanded ex vivo to enrich DPSCs numbers, and then their attachment and differentiation capability were evaluated when cultured on the culture plate or nHAC/PLA. The alveolar bone defects were treated with nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone (AB) obtained from iliac bone or were left untreated as a control. X-ray and a polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling were performed post-operatively and the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after operation for histological observation and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Our results showed that DPSCs expressed STRO-1 and vementin, and favoured osteogenesis and adipogenesis in conditioned media. DPSCs attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on nHAC/PLA. The rhBMP-2 could significantly increase protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/protein, osteocalcin (OCN) content, and mineral formation of DPSCs cultured on nHAC/PLA. The X-ray graph, the fluorescent, histological observation and histomorphometric analysis showed that the nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2 tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2 and nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, or even autologous bone. Implanted DPSCs contribution to new bone were detected through transfected eGFP genes. Conclutions: Our findings indicated that stem cells existed in adult rabbit dental pulp tissue. The rhBMP-2 promoted osteogenic capability of DPSCs as a potential cell source for periodontal bone regeneration. The nHAC/PLA could serve as a good scaffold for autologous DPSCs seeding, proliferation and differentiation. The tissue-engineered bone complex with nHAC/PLA, rhBMP-2, and autologous DPSCs might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical reconstruction of periodontal bone defects.

Keywords: nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide), dental pulp stem cell, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, bone tissue engineering, alveolar bone

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3302 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi

Abstract:

Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

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3301 Umbilical Cord-Derived Cells in Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

Authors: Hasan Mahmud Reza

Abstract:

Extensive studies of the human umbilical cord, both basic and translational, over the last three decades have unveiled a plethora of information. The cord lining harbors at least two phenotypically different multipotent stem cells: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord lining epithelial stem cells (CLECs). These cells exhibit a mixed genetic profiling of both embryonic and adult stem cells, hence display a broader stem features than cells from other sources. We have observed that umbilical cord-derived cells are immunologically privileged and non-tumorigenic by animal study. These cells are ethically acceptable, thus provides a significant advantage over other stem cells. The high proliferative capacity, viability, differentiation potential, and superior harvest of these cells have made them better candidates in comparison to contemporary adult stem cells. Following 30 replication cycles, these cells have been observed to retain their stemness, with their phenotype and karyotype intact. Transplantation of bioengineered CLEC sheets in limbal stem cell-deficient rabbit eyes resulted in regeneration of clear cornea with phenotypic expression of the normal cornea-specific epithelial cytokeratin markers. The striking features of low immunogenicity protecting self along with co-transplanted allografts from rejection largely define the transplantation potential of umbilical cord-derived stem cells.

Keywords: cord lining epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell, regenerative medicine, umbilical cord

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3300 The Effect of Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Ling-Ling E, Lin Feng, Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Zhanping Shi, Juncheng Wang, Wei Luo, Yan Lv

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the two calcium phosphate composite scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). One nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA), imitating the composition and the micro-structure characteristics of the natural bone, was made by Beijing Allgens Medical Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (China). The other beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), being fully interoperability globular pore structure, was provided by Shanghai Bio-lu Biomaterials Co, Ltd. (China). We compared the absorption water rate and the protein adsorption rate of two scaffolds and the characterization of DPSCs cultured on the culture plate and both scaffolds under osteogenic differentiation media (ODM) treatment. The constructs were then implanted subcutaneously into the back of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 8 and 12 weeks to compare their bone formation capacity. The results showed that the ODM-treated DPSCs expressed osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (COLI) and osteopontin (OPN) by immunofluorescence staining. Positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, calcium deposition and calcium nodules were also observed on the ODM-treated DPSCs. The nHAC/PLA had significantly higher absorption water rate and protein adsorption rate than ß-TCP. The initial attachment of DPSCs seeded onto nHAC/PLA was significantly higher than that onto ß-TCP; and the proliferation rate of the cells was significantly higher than that of ß-TCP on 1, 3 and 7 days of cell culture. DPSCs+ß-TCP had significantly higher ALP activity, calcium/phosphorus content and mineral formation than DPSCs+nHAC/PLA. When implanted into the back of SCID mice, nHAC/PLA alone had no new bone formation, newly formed mature bone and osteoid were only observed in β-TCP alone, DPSCs+nHAC/PLA and DPSCs+β-TCP, and this three groups displayed increased bone formation over the 12-week period. The percentage of total bone formation area had no difference between DPSCs+β-TCP and DPSCs+nHAC/PLA at each time point,but the percentage of mature bone formation area of DPSCs+β-TCP was significantly higher than that of DPSCs+nHAC/PLA. Our results demonstrated that the DPSCs on nHAC/PLA had a better proliferation and that the DPSCs on β-TCP had a more mineralization in vitro, much more newly formed mature bones in vivo were presented in DPSCs+β-TCP group. These findings have provided a further knowledge that scaffold architecture has a different influence on the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells. This study may provide insight into the clinical periodontal bone tissue repair with DPSCs+β-TCP construct.

Keywords: dental pulp stem cells, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide), beta-tricalcium phosphate, periodontal tissue engineering, bone regeneration

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3299 Calcium Phosphate Cement/Gypsum Composite as Dental Pulp Capping

Authors: Jung-Feng Lin, Wei-Tang Chen, Chung-King Hsu, Chun-Pin Lin, Feng-Huei Lin

Abstract:

One of the objectives of operative dentistry is to maintain pulp health in compromised teeth. Mostly used methods for this purpose are direct pulp capping and pulpotomy, which consist of placement of biocompatible materials and bio-inductors on the exposed pulp tissue to preserve its health and stimulate repair by mineralized tissue formation. In this study, we developed a material (calcium phosphate cement (CPC)/gypsum composite) as the dental pulp capping material for shortening setting time and improving handling properties. We further discussed the influence of five different ratio of gypsum to CPC on HAP conversion, microstructure, setting time, weight loss, pH value, temperature difference, viscosity, mechanical properties, porosity, and biocompatibility.

Keywords: calcium phosphate cement, calcium sulphate hemihydrate, pulp capping, fast setting time

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3298 Application of Bioreactors in Regenerative Dentistry: Literature Review

Authors: Neeraj Malhotra

Abstract:

Background: Bioreactors in tissue engineering are used as devices that apply mechanical means to influence biological processes. They are commonly employed for stem cell culturing, growth and expansion as well as in 3D tissue culture. Contemporarily there use is well established and is tested extensively in the medical sciences, for tissue-regeneration and tissue engineering of organs like bone, cartilage, blood vessels, skin grafts, cardiac muscle etc. Methodology: Literature search, both electronic and hand search, was done using the following MeSH and keywords: bioreactors, bioreactors and dentistry, bioreactors & dental tissue engineering, bioreactors and regenerative dentistry. Articles published only in English language were included for review. Results: Bioreactors like, spinner flask-, rotating wall-, flow perfusion-, and micro-bioreactors and in-vivo bioreactor have been employed and tested for the regeneration of dental and like-tissues. These include gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, mucosa, cementum and blood vessels. Based on their working dynamics they can be customized in future for regeneration of pulp tissue and whole tooth regeneration. Apart from this, they have been successfully used in testing the clinical efficacy and biological safety of dental biomaterials. Conclusion: Bioreactors have potential use in testing dental biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches aimed at regenerative dentistry.

Keywords: bioreactors, biological process, mechanical stimulation, regenerative dentistry, stem cells

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3297 Hydroxyapatite Based Porous Scaffold for Tooth Tissue Engineering

Authors: Pakize Neslihan Taslı, Alev Cumbul, Gul Merve Yalcın, Fikrettin Sahin

Abstract:

A key experimental trial in the regeneration of large oral and craniofacial defects is the neogenesis of osseous and ligamentous interfacial structures. Currently, oral regenerative medicine strategies are unpredictable for repair of tooth supporting tissues destroyed as a consequence of trauma, chronic infection or surgical resection. A different approach combining the gel-casting method with Hydroxy Apatite HA-based scaffold and different cell lineages as a hybrid system leads to successively mimic the early stage of tooth development, in vitro. HA is widely accepted as a bioactive material for guided bone and tooth regeneration. In this study, it was reported that, HA porous scaffold preparation, characterization and evaluation of structural and chemical properties. HA is the main factor that exists in tooth and it is in harmony with structural, biological, and mechanical characteristics. Here, this study shows mimicking immature tooth at the late bell stage design and construction of HA scaffolds for cell transplantation of human Adipose Stem Cells (hASCs), human Bone Marrow Stem Cells (hBMSCs) and Gingival Epitelial cells for the formation of human tooth dentin-pulp-enamel complexes in vitro. Scaffold characterization was demonstrated by SEM, FTIR and pore size and density measurements. The biological contraction of dental tissues against each other was demonstrated by mRNA gene expressions, histopatologic observations and protein release profile by ELISA tecnique. The tooth shaped constructs with a pore size ranging from 150 to 300 µm arranged by gathering right amounts of materials provide interconnected macro-porous structure. The newly formed tissue like structures that grow and integrate within the HA designed constructs forming tooth cementum like tissue, pulp and bone structures. These findings are important as they emphasize the potential biological effect of the hybrid scaffold system. In conclusion, this in vitro study clearly demonstrates that designed 3D scaffolds shaped as a immature tooth at the late bell stage were essential to form enamel-dentin-pulp interfaces with an appropriate cell and biodegradable material combination. The biomimetic architecture achieved here is providing a promising platform for dental tissue engineering.

Keywords: tooth regeneration, tissue engineering, adipose stem cells, hydroxyapatite tooth engineering, porous scaffold

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3296 Modeling of Oxygen Supply Profiles in Stirred-Tank Aggregated Stem Cells Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Rimvydas Simutis

Abstract:

This paper investigates a possible practical solution for reasonable oxygen supply during the pluripotent stem cells expansion processes, where the stem cells propagate as aggregates in stirred-suspension bioreactors. Low glucose and low oxygen concentrations are preferred for efficient proliferation of pluripotent stem cells. However, strong oxygen limitation, especially inside of cell aggregates, can lead to cell starvation and death. In this research, the oxygen concentration profile inside of stem cell aggregates in a stem cell expansion process was predicted using a modified oxygen diffusion model. This profile can be realized during the stem cells cultivation process by manipulating the oxygen concentration in inlet gas or inlet gas flow. The proposed approach is relatively simple and may be attractive for installation in a real pluripotent stem cell expansion processes.

Keywords: aggregated stem cells, dissolved oxygen profiles, modeling, stirred-tank, 3D expansion

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3295 Morphological Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue of Dog Treated with Different Concentrations of Nano-Hydroxy Apatite

Authors: K. Barbaro, F. Di Egidio, A. Amaddeo, G. Lupoli, S. Eramo, G. Barraco, D. Amaddeo, C. Gallottini

Abstract:

In this study, we wanted to evaluate the effects of nano-hydroxy apatite (NHA) on mesenchymal stem cells extracted from subcutaneous adipose tissue of the dog. The stem cells were divided into 6 experimental groups at different concentrations of NHA. The comparison was made with a control group of stem cell grown in standard conditions without NHA. After 1 week, the cells were fixed with 10% buffered formalin for 1 hour at room temperature and stained with Giemsa, measured at the inverted optical microscope. The morphological evaluation of the control samples and those treated showed that stem cells adhere to the substrate and proliferate in the presence of nanohydroxy apatite at different concentrations showing no detectable toxic effects.

Keywords: nano-hydroxy apatite, adipose mesenchymal stem cells, dog, morphological evaluation

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3294 Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Potential Source for Cell Therapy in Liver Disorders

Authors: Laila Montaser, Hala Gabr, Maha El-Bassuony, Gehan Tawfeek

Abstract:

Orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT) is the final procedure of both end stage and metabolic liver diseases. Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative for OLT, but the sources of hepatocytes are limited. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and are a potential alternative source for hepatocytes. The MSCs from bone marrow are a promising target population as they are capable of differentiating along multiple lineages and, at least in vitro, have significant expansion capability. MSCs from bone marrow may have the potential to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into hepatocytes. Our study examined whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are stem cells originated from human bone marrow, are able to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. Our aim was to investigate the differentiation potential of BM-MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. Adult stem cell therapy could solve the problem of degenerative disorders, including liver disease.

Keywords: bone marrow, differentiation, hepatocyte, stem cells

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3293 Isolation, Characterization and Myogenic Differentiation of Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Fatma Y. Meligy

Abstract:

Objectives: The objectives of this study aimed to isolate and characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial membrane. Then to assess the potentiality of myogenic differentiation of these isolated MSCs. Methods: The MSCs were isolated from synovial membrane by digestion method. Three adult rats were used. The 5 -azacytidine was added to the cultured cells for one day. The isolated cells and treated cells are assessed using immunoflouresence, flowcytometry, PCR and real time PCR. Results: The isolated stem cells showed morphological aspect of stem cells they showed strong positivity to CD44 and CD90 in immunoflouresence while in CD34 and CD45 showed negative reaction. The treated cells with 5-azacytidine was shown to have positive reaction for desmin. Flowcytometric analysis showed that synovial MSCs had strong positive percentage for CD44(%98)and CD90 (%97) and low percentage for CD34 & CD45 while the treated cells showed positive percentage for myogenic marker myogenin (85%). As regard the PCR and Real time PCR, the treated cells showed positive reaction to the desmin primer. Conclusion: The adult MSCs were isolated successfully from synovial membrane and characterized with stem cell markers. The isolated cells could be differentiated in vitro into myogenic cells. These differentiated cells could be used in auto-replacement of diseased or traumatized muscle cells as a regenerative therapy for muscle disorders and trauma.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, synovial membrane, myogenic differentiation

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3292 The Using of Hybrid Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄)- Graphene Oxide Functionalized Surface with Collagen, to Target the Cancer Stem Cell

Authors: Ahmed Khalaf Reyad Raslan

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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) describe a class of pluripotent cancer cells that behave analogously to normal stem cells in their ability to differentiate into the spectrum of cell types observed in tumors. The de-differentiation processes, such as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), are known to enhance cellular plasticity. Here, we demonstrate a new hypothesis to use hybrid superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄)- graphene oxide functionalized surface with Collagen to target the cancer stem cell as an early detection tool for cancer. We think that with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the new hybrid system would be possible to track the cancer stem cells.

Keywords: hydrogel, alginate, reduced graphene oxide, collagen

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3291 Resons for Seeking Dental Care, Caries Profile and Treatment Need of Children in Tabuk, KSA

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri, Mariam Amri

Abstract:

Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease of childhood. The aims and objectives of this study were to identify the most common reason for seeking dental treatment and to determine caries profile and there is a treatment need in children visiting the hospital. A total of 170 Saudi children of age 1-5 years studied. Results show the most common reason for visiting hospital was decay followed by pain. These children show mean DMFT/DMFS of 9.8/22.4 and most commonly needed treatment was one-surface restoration followed by pulp treatment.

Keywords: dental caries, DMFT/DMFS index, prevalence, dental treatment need

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3290 Differential Expression of Biomarkers in Cancer Stem Cells and Side Populations in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Dipali Dhawan

Abstract:

Cancerous epithelial cells are confined to a primary site by the continued expression of adhesion molecules and the intact basal lamina. However, as the cancer progresses some cells are believed to undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) event, leading to increased motility, invasion and, ultimately, metastasis of the cells from the primary tumour to secondary sites within the body. These disseminated cancer cells need the ability to self-renew, as stem cells do, in order to establish and maintain a heterogeneous metastatic tumour mass. Identification of the specific subpopulation of cancer stem cells amenable to the process of metastasis is highly desirable. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cancer stem cells from luminal and basal breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468, MCF7 and T47D) on the basis of cell surface markers CD44 and CD24; as well as Side Populations (SP) using Hoechst 33342 dye efflux. The isolated populations were analysed for epithelial and mesenchymal markers like E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Sfrp1 and Vimentin by Western blotting and Immunocytochemistry. MDA-MB-231 cell lines contain a major population of CD44+CD24- cells whereas MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell lines show a side population. We observed higher expression of N-cadherin in MCF-7 SP cells as compared to MCF-7NSP (Non-side population) cells suggesting that the SP cells are mesenchymal like cells and hence express increased N-cadherin with stem cell-like properties. There was an expression of Sfrp1 in the MCF7- NSP cells as compared to no expression in MCF7-SP cells, which suggests that the Wnt pathway is expressed in the MCF7-SP cells. The mesenchymal marker Vimentin was expressed only in MDA-MB-231 cells. Hence, understanding the breast cancer heterogeneity would enable a better understanding of the disease progression and therapeutic targeting.

Keywords: cancer stem cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, biomarkers, breast cancer

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3289 A Novel Application of CORDYCEPIN (Cordycepssinensis Extract): Maintaining Stem Cell Pluripotency and Improving iPS Generation Efficiency

Authors: Shih-Ping Liu, Cheng-Hsuan Chang, Yu-Chuen Huang, Shih-Yin Chen, Woei-Cherng Shyu

Abstract:

Embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotnet stem cells (iPS) are both pluripotent stem cells. For mouse stem cells culture technology, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) was used to maintain the pluripotency of stem cells in vitro. However, LIF is an expensive reagent. The goal of this study was to find out a pure compound extracted from Chinese herbal medicine that could maintain stem cells pluripotency to replace LIF and improve the iPS generation efficiency. From 20 candidates traditional Chinese medicine we found that Cordycepsmilitaris triggered the up-regulation of stem cells activating genes (Oct4 and Sox2) expression levels in MEF cells. Cordycepin, a major active component of Cordycepsmilitaris, also could up-regulate Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression. Furthermore, we used ES and iPS cells and treated them with different concentrations of Cordycepin (replaced LIF in the culture medium) to test whether it was useful to maintain the pluripotency. The results showed higher expression levels of several stem cells markers in 10 μM Cordycepin-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryonic body formation and differentiation confirmed that 10 μM Cordycepin-containing medium was capable to maintain stem cells pluripotency after four times passages. For mechanism analysis, microarray analysis indicated extracellular matrix and Jak/Stat signaling pathway as the top two deregulated pathways. In ECM pathway, we determined that the integrin αVβ5 expression levels and phosphorylated Src levels increased after Cordycepin treatment. In addition, the phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Sat3 protein levels were increased after Cordycepin treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The expression of cytokines associated with Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway were also up-regulated by Q-PCR and ELISA assay. Lastly, we used Oct4-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following Cordycepin treatment. We observed that 10 Μm Cordycepin significantly increased the iPS generation efficiency in day 21. In conclusion, we demonstrated Cordycepin could maintain the pluripotency of stem cells through both of ECM and Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway and improved iPS generation efficiency.

Keywords: cordycepin, iPS cells, Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway, molecular biology

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3288 The Effects of Bisphosphonates on Osteonecrosis of Jaw Bone: A Stem Cell Perspective

Authors: Huseyin Apdik, Aysegul Dogan, Selami Demirci, Ezgi Avsar Apdik, Fikrettin Sahin

Abstract:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are crucial cell types for bone maintenance and growth along with resident bone progenitor cells providing bone tissue integrity during osteogenesis and skeletal growth. Any deficiency in this regulation would result in vital bone diseases. Of those, osteoporosis, characterized by a reduction in bone mass and mineral density, is a critical skeletal disease for especially elderly people. The commonly used drugs for the osteoporosis treatment are bisphosphonates (BPs). The most prominent role of BPs is to prevent bone resorption arisen from high osteoclast activity. However, administrations of bisphosphonates may also cause bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ). Up to the present, the researchers have proposed several circumstances for BIONJ. However, effects of long-term and/or high dose usage of BPs on stem cell’s proliferation, survival, differentiation or maintenance capacity have not been evaluated yet. The present study will be held to; figure out BPs’ effects on MSCs in vitro in the aspect of cell proliferation and toxicity, migration, angiogenic activity, lineage specific gene and protein expression levels, mesenchymal stem cell properties and potential signaling pathways affected by BP treatment. Firstly, mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) were proved using flow cytometry analysis. Cell viability analysis was completed to determine the cytotoxic effects of BPs (Zoledronate (Zol), Alendronate (Ale) and Risedronate (Ris)) on DPSCs and PDLSCs by the 3-(4,5-di-methyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Non-toxic concentrations of BPs were determined at 24 h under growth condition, and at 21 days under osteogenic differentiation condition for both cells. The scratch assay was performed to evaluate their migration capacity under the usage of determined of BPs concentrations at 24 h. The results revealed that while the scratch closure is 70% in the control group for DPSCs, it was 57%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. For PDLSs, while wound closure is 71% in control group, it was 65%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. As future experiments, tube formation assay and aortic ring assay will be done to determinate angiogenesis abilities of DPSCs and PDLSCs treated with BPs. Expression levels of osteogenic differentiation marker genes involved in bone development will be determined using real time-polymerase change reaction (RT-PCR) assay and expression profiles of important proteins involved in osteogenesis will be evaluated using western blotting assay for osteogenically differentiated MSCs treated with or without BPs. In addition to these, von Kossa staining will be performed to measure calcium mineralization status of MSCs.

Keywords: bisphosphonates, bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenesis

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3287 Immunoliposomes Conjugated with CD133 Antibody for Targeting Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells

Authors: Chuan Yin

Abstract:

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of cancer cells that possess the characteristics associated with normal stem cells. CD133 is a phenotype of melanoma CSCs responsible for melanoma metastasis and drug resistance. Although adriamycin (ADR) is commonly used drug in melanoma therapy, but it is ineffective in the treatment of melanoma CSCs. In this study, we constructed CD133 antibody conjugated ADR immunoliposomes (ADR-Lip-CD133) to target CD133+ melanoma CSCs. The results showed that the immunoliposomes possessed a small particle size (~150 nm), high drug encapsulation efficiency (~90%). After 72 hr treatment on the WM266-4 melanoma tumorspheres, the IC50 values of the drug formulated in ADR-Lip-CD133, ADR-Lip (ADR liposomes) and ADR are found to be 24.42, 57.13 and 59.98 ng/ml respectively, suggesting that ADR-Lip-CD133 was more effective than ADR-Lip and ADR. Significantly, ADR-Lip-CD133 could almost completely abolish the tumorigenic ability of WM266-4 tumorspheres in vivo, and showed the best therapeutic effect in WM266-4 melanoma xenograft mice. It is noteworthy that ADR-Lip-CD133 could selectively kill CD133+ melanoma CSCs of WM266-4 cells both in vitro and in vivo. ADR-Lip-CD133 represent a potential approach in targeting and killing CD133+ melanoma CSCs.

Keywords: cancer stem cells, melanoma, immunoliposomes, CD133

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3286 Plasma Engineered Nanorough Substrates for Stem Cells in vitro Culture

Authors: Melanie Macgregor-Ramiasa, Isabel Hopp, Patricia Murray, Krasimir Vasilev

Abstract:

Stem cells based therapies are one of the greatest promises of new-age medicine due to their potential to help curing most dreaded conditions such as cancer, diabetes and even auto-immune disease. However, establishing suitable in vitro culture materials allowing to control the fate of stem cells remain a challenge. Amongst the factor influencing stem cell behavior, substrate chemistry and nanotopogaphy are particularly critical. In this work, we used plasma assisted surface modification methods to produce model substrates with tailored nanotopography and controlled chemistry. Three different sizes of gold nanoparticles were bound to amine rich plasma polymer layers to produce homogeneous and gradient surface nanotopographies. The outer chemistry of the substrate was kept constant for all substrates by depositing a thin layer of our patented biocompatible polyoxazoline plasma polymer on top of the nanofeatures. For the first time, protein adsorption and stem cell behaviour (mouse kidney stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells) were evaluated on nanorough plasma deposited polyoxazoline thin films. Compared to other nitrogen rich coatings, polyoxazoline plasma polymer supports the covalent binding of proteins. Moderate surface nanoroughness, in both size and density, triggers cell proliferation. In association with polyoxazoline coating, cell proliferation is further enhanced on nanorough substrates. Results are discussed in term of substrates wetting properties. These findings provide valuable insights on the mechanisms governing the interactions between stem cells and their growth support.

Keywords: nanotopography, stem cells, differentiation, plasma polymer, oxazoline, gold nanoparticles

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3285 The Role of Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in the Repair of Damaged Inner Ear in Albino Rats

Authors: Ahmed Gaber Abdel Raheem, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is largely caused by the degeneration of the cochlea. Therapeutic options for SNHL are limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. The cell transplantation approach to the regeneration of hair cells has gained considerable attention because stem cells are believed to accumulate in the damaged sites and have the potential for the repair of damaged tissues. The aim of the work: was to assess the use of bone marrow transplantation in repair of damaged inner ear hair cells in rats after the damage had been inflicted by Amikacin injection. Material and Methods: Thirty albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. Each group ten rats. Group I: used as control. Group II: Were given Amikacin- intratympanic injection till complete loss of hearing function. This could be assessed by Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAEs) and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR). GroupIII: were given intra-peritoneal injection of bone marrow stem cell after complete loss of hearing caused by Amikacin. Clinical assessment was done using DPOAEs and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR), before and after bone marrow injection. Histological assessment of the inner ear was done by light and electron microscope. Also, Detection of stem cells in the inner ear by immunohistochemistry. Results: Histological examination of the specimens showed promising improvement in the structure of cochlea that may be responsible for the improvement of hearing function in rats detected by DPOAEs and / or ABR. Conclusion: Bone marrow stem cells transplantation might be useful for the treatment of SNHL.

Keywords: amikacin, hair cells, sensorineural hearing loss, stem cells

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3284 A Ferutinin Analogue with Enhanced Potency and Selectivity against Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cells in vitro

Authors: Remi Safi, Aline Hamade, Najat Bteich, Jamal El Saghir, Mona Diab Assaf, Marwan El-Sabban, Fadia Najjar

Abstract:

Estrogen is considered a risk factor for breast cancer since it promotes breast-cell proliferation. The jaesckeanadiol-3-p-hydroxyphenylpropanoate, a hemi-synthetic analogue of the natural phytoestrogen ferutinin (jaesckeanadiol-p-hydroxybenzoate), is designed to be devoid of estrogenic activity. This analogue induces a cytotoxic effect 30 times higher than that of ferutinin towards MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. We compared these two compounds with respect to their effect on proliferation, cell cycle distribution and cancer stem-like cells in the MCF-7 cell line. Treatment with ferutinin (30 μM) and its analogue (1 μM) produced a significant accumulation of cells at the pre G0/G1 cell cycle phase and triggered apoptosis. Importantly, this compound retains its anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer stem/progenitor cells that are naturally insensitive to ferutinin at the same dose. These results position ferutinin analogue as an effective compound inhibiting the proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells and consistently targeting their stem-like cells.

Keywords: ferutinin, hemi-synthetic analogue, breast cancer, estrogen, stem/progenitor cells

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3283 A Prospective Study on the Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

Authors: Prabhu Thangaraju, Manoj Deepak, A. Sivakumar

Abstract:

Removal of inter vertebral disc along with spinal fusion has many disadvantages such as causing stress fractures. If it is possible regenerate the spine it would be possible avoid the complications of the surgery and achieve better results. Our study involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerating the discs. Our study involved 10 patients who presented with degenerative disc disease between 2008-2011 in our hospital. After adequate pre-operative check prepared mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the disc spaces. These patients were subjected to conservative therapy for a minimum of six weeks before they were accepted into the study. They were followed up regularly for a minimum of 2years with serial radiographs and MRI. 8 out of the 10 patients had completed reduction in the pain. The T2 weighted MRI images in 9 out of the 10 patients showed a bright signal compared the previous Images which indicated that there was improvement in the hydration levels. From the case study of 10 patients who were subjected to mesenchymal cell therapy in our hospital, we can conclude that the use of mesenchymal cells in treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration in a safe and effective option.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, intervertebral disc, the spine, disc degeneration

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3282 Comparative Stem Cells Therapy for Regeneration of Liver Fibrosis

Authors: H. M. Imam, H. M. Rezk, A. F. Tohamy

Abstract:

Background: Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is considered as a unique source for stem cells. HUCB contain different types of progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocytes. Aims: To investigate the potential of rat's liver damage repair using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). We investigated the feasibility for hUCMSCs in recovery from liver damage. Moreover, investigating fibrotic liver repair and using the CCl4-induced model for liver damage in the rat. Methods: Rats were injected with 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 to induce liver damage and progressive liver fibrosis. hUCMSCs were injected into the rats through the tail vein; Stem cells were transplanted at a dose of 1×106 cells/rat after 72 hours of CCl4 injection without receiving any immunosuppressant. After (6 and 8 weeks) of transplantation, blood samples were collected to assess liver functions (ALT, AST, GGT and ALB) and level of Procollagen III as a liver fibrosis marker. In addition, hepatic tissue regeneration was assessed histopathologically and immunohistochemically using antihuman monoclonal antibodies against CD34, CK19 and albumin. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significantly increased recovery from liver damage in the transplanted group. In addition, HUCB stem cells transdifferentiated into functional hepatocytes in rats with hepatic injury which results in improving liver structure and function. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that transplantation of hUCMSCs may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating liver fibrosis. Therefore, hUCMSCs are a potential option for treatment of liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: carbon tetra chloride, liver fibrosis, mesenchymal stem cells, rat

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3281 Hsa-miR-192-5p, and Hsa-miR-129-5p Prominent Biomarkers in Regulation Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells Genes Microenvironment

Authors: Rasha Ahmadi

Abstract:

Glioblastoma is one of the most frequent brain malignancies, having a high mortality rate and limited survival in individuals with this malignancy. Despite different treatments and surgery, recurrence of glioblastoma cancer stem cells may arise as a subsequent tumor. For this reason, it is crucial to research the markers associated with glioblastoma stem cells and specifically their microenvironment. In this study, using bioinformatics analysis, we analyzed and nominated genes in the microenvironment pathways of glioblastoma stem cells. In this study, an appropriate database was selected for analysis by referring to the GEO database. This dataset comprised gene expression patterns in stem cells derived from glioblastoma patients. Gene clusters were divided as high and low expression. Enrichment databases such as Enrichr, STRING, and GEPIA were utilized to analyze the data appropriately. Finally, we extracted the potential genes 2700 high-expression and 1100 low-expression genes are implicated in the metabolic pathways of glioblastoma cancer progression. Cellular senescence, MAPK, TNF, hypoxia, zimosterol biosynthesis, and phosphatidylinositol metabolism pathways were substantially expressed and the metabolic pathways were downregulated. After assessing the association between protein networks, MSMP, SOX2, FGD4 ,and CNTNAP3 genes with high expression and DMKN and SBSN genes with low were selected. All of these genes were observed in the survival curve, with a survival of fewer than 10 percent over around 15 months. hsa-mir-192-5p, hsa-mir-129-5p, hsa-mir-215-5p, hsa-mir-335-5p, and hsa-mir-340-5p played key function in glioblastoma cancer stem cells microenviroments. We introduced critical genes through integrated and regular bioinformatics studies by assessing the amount of gene expression profile data that can play an important role in targeting genes involved in the energy and microenvironment of glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Have. This study indicated that hsa-mir-192-5p, and hsa-mir-129-5p are appropriate candidates for this.

Keywords: Glioblastoma, Cancer Stem Cells, Biomarker Discovery, Gene Expression Profiles, Bioinformatics Analysis, Tumor Microenvironment

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3280 In vitro Establishment and Characterization of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Derived Cancer Stem-Like Cells

Authors: Varsha Salian, Shama Rao, N. Narendra, B. Mohana Kumar

Abstract:

Evolving evidence proposes the existence of a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of undifferentiated, self-renewing cancer stem cells, responsible for exhibiting resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapy, recurrence, metastasis and heterogeneous tumor formation. Importantly, the mechanisms exploited by cancer stem cells to resist chemotherapy are very less understood. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most regularly diagnosed cancer types in India and is associated commonly with alcohol and tobacco use. Therefore, the isolation and in vitro characterization of cancer stem-like cells from patients with OSCC is a critical step to advance the understanding of the chemoresistance processes and for designing therapeutic strategies. With this, the present study aimed to establish and characterize cancer stem-like cells in vitro from OSCC. The primary cultures of cancer stem-like cell lines were established from the tissue biopsies of patients with clinical evidence of an ulceroproliferative lesion and histopathological confirmation of OSCC. The viability of cells assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay showed more than 95% at passage 1 (P1), P2 and P3. Replication rate was performed by plating cells in 12-well plate and counting them at various time points of culture. Cells had a more marked proliferative activity and the average doubling time was less than 20 hrs. After being cultured for 10 to 14 days, cancer stem-like cells gradually aggregated and formed sphere-like bodies. More spheroid bodies were observed when cultured in DMEM/F-12 under low serum conditions. Interestingly, cells with higher proliferative activity had a tendency to form more sphere-like bodies. Expression of specific markers, including membrane proteins or cell enzymes, such as CD24, CD29, CD44, CD133, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is being explored for further characterization of cancer stem-like cells. To summarize the findings, the establishment of OSCC derived cancer stem-like cells may provide scope for better understanding the cause for recurrence and metastasis in oral epithelial malignancies. Particularly, identification and characterization studies on cancer stem-like cells in Indian population seem to be lacking thus provoking the need for such studies in a population where alcohol consumption and tobacco chewing are major risk habits.

Keywords: cancer stem-like cells, characterization, in vitro, oral squamous cell carcinoma

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3279 Studying the Antiapoptotic Activity of Β Cells from Cord Blood Based Mesenchymal Stem Cells as an Approach to Treat Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parcha Sreenivasa Rao, P. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus is metabolic disorder, characterized by high glucose levels in the blood due to one of the reason i.e., the death of β cells. The lack of β cells leads to the reduced insulin levels. The β cell death generally occurs due to apoptosis induced by the several cytokines. IL-1β, IFN- ϒ and TNF –α cytokines that are generally cause apoptosis to the β cell. The nutrient based apoptosis is generally seen with high glucose and free fatty acids. It is also noted that the β cell death triggered by Fas ligand and its receptor Fas at the surface of the activated CD8+ T- lymphocytes. Reports also reveal that the β cell apoptosis is under control of the transcription factors NF-kB and STAT- 1. The arresting or opposing of the β cell apoptosis can be overcome by the different growth factors like GLP-1, growth hormone, prolactin, VEGF, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4, Vildagliptin, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid, trichistatin-A, XIAP, Bcl-2, FGF-21. Present investigation explains antiapoptotic property of the β cells derived from the mesenchymal stem cells of umbilical cord.

Keywords: stem cells, umblical cord, diabetes, apoptosis

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