Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 96

Search results for: agglomeration

96 A Study of the Interactions between the Inter-City Traffic System and the Spatial Structure Evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from Time and Space Dimensions

Authors: Zhang Cong, Cai Runlin, Jia Fengjiao


The evolution of the urban agglomeration spatial structure requires strong support of the inter-city traffic system. And the inter-city traffic system can not only meet the demand of the urban agglomeration transportation but also guide the economic development. To correctly understand the relationship between inter-city traffic planning and urban agglomeration can help the urban agglomeration coordinated developing with the inter-city traffic system. The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most representative urban agglomerations in China with strong economic vitality, high city levels, diversified urban space form, and improved transport infrastructure. With the promotion of industrial division in the Yangtze River Delta and the regional travel facilitation brought by inter-city traffic, the urban agglomeration is characterized by highly increasing of inter-city transportation demand, the urbanization of regional traffic, adjacent regional transportation links breaking administrative boundaries, the networked channels and so on. Therefore, the development of inter-city traffic system presents new trends and challenges. This paper studies the interactions between inter-city traffic system and regional economic growth, regional factor flow, and regional spatial structure evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from two dimensions of time and space. On this basis, the adaptability of inter-city traffic development mode and urban agglomeration space structure is analyzed. First of all, the coordination between urban agglomeration planning and inter-city traffic planning is judged from the planning level. Secondly, the coordination between inter-city traffic elements and industries and population distributions is judged from the perspective of space. Finally, the coordination of the cross-regional planning and construction of inter-city traffic system is judged. The conclusions can provide an empirical reference for intercity traffic planning in Yangtze River Delta region and other urban agglomerations, and it is also of great significance to optimize the allocation of urban agglomerations and the overall operational efficiency.

Keywords: evolution, interaction, inter-city traffic system, spatial structure

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95 Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Biomass with Elevated Alkali Content: A Comparative Study between Two Alternative Bed Materials

Authors: P. Ninduangdee, V. I. Kuprianov


Palm kernel shell is an important bioenergy resource in Thailand. However, due to elevated alkali content in biomass ash, this oil palm residue shows high tendency to bed agglomeration in a fluidized-bed combustion system using conventional bed material (silica sand). In this study, palm kernel shell was burned in the conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina and dolomite as alternative bed materials to prevent bed agglomeration. For each bed material, the combustion tests were performed at 45kg/h fuel feed rate with excess air within 20–80%. Experimental results revealed rather weak effects of the bed material type but substantial influence of excess air on the behaviour of temperature, O2, CO, CxHy, and NO inside the reactor, as well as on the combustion efficiency and major gaseous emissions of the conical FBC. The optimal level of excess air ensuring high combustion efficiency (about 98.5%) and acceptable level of the emissions was found to be about 40% when using alumina and 60% with dolomite. By using these alternative bed materials, bed agglomeration can be prevented when burning the shell in the proposed conical FBC. However, both bed materials exhibited significant changes in their morphological, physical and chemical properties in the course of the time.

Keywords: palm kernel shell, fluidized-bed combustion, alternative bed materials, combustion and emission performance, bed agglomeration prevention

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94 Right of the City and Urban Boundaries: An Analytical Study of the Settlements in the Border of the River ‘Riachuelo’ on the Urban Agglomeration of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Authors: Mitchell De Sousa


The city of Buenos Aires and its agglomeration concentrates more than the thirty percent of the Argentine population. Historically, the political governments (essentially during the neoliberal ones) focused all the equipment, investment, progress on the north of the city since it is the place where all the financial, core services, and the main country harbor is. The south part of the town and all the cities around the south portion of it is has been, historically, where are concentrated the more vital unfulfilled needs of this population. The river that cross over the urban agglomeration of Buenos Aires, the Matanza-Riachuelo, has been historically a place of urban segregation since it is located south of the main town. From the post-colonial times, the river has been officially a place that separates the jurisdiction of the city of Buenos Aires with some of the towns that were built around the urban agglomeration. Since its place has never been treated as a whole and has always been treated as a boundary, there is always been a focus for factories to dispose its waste and an attractive place for a large portion of the underclasses to settled down there, occupying illegally the previous terrains that were once from the railway, now abandoned. Regarding those issues and adding a one more problematic one, those who lives beyond the boundary has few access to enter the main capital city. A few bridges connect some portions of it over the Matanza Riachuelo River, which there is also a limited accessibility to the main city from the south. Because of such, the main entrances to the town are always collapsed by all the services that the urban agglomeration offer (from buses to trains and individual cars). Beyond all the enlisted problems, the contamination of the river makes it one of the most contaminated rivers on the entire world. Those who lives in the settlements are in there for themselves, so the fight from them to their right of the city and their claims to the state for intervention in the urban coast is one of the most promising discussions surrounding this place of this urban agglomeration. The study focuses on the perception of those who lives in this boundary through interviews and collective experiences and is a part of a more developed project in the University of Buenos Aires study called ‘Urban landscape and a sustainable study through the interdisciplinary. Urban strategies on city borders’.

Keywords: Buenos Aires, landscape, mobility, popular sectors, urban segregation

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93 Modeling of Polyethylene Particle Size Distribution in Fluidized Bed Reactors

Authors: R. Marandi, H. Shahrir, T. Nejad Ghaffar Borhani, M. Kamaruddin


In the present study, a steady state population balance model was developed to predict the polymer particle size distribution (PSD) in ethylene gas phase fluidized bed olefin polymerization reactors. The multilayer polymeric flow model (MPFM) was used to calculate the growth rate of a single polymer particle under intra-heat and mass transfer resistance. The industrial plant data were used to calculate the growth rate of polymer particle and the polymer PSD. Numerical simulations carried out to describe the influence of effective monomer diffusion coefficient, polymerization rate and initial catalyst size on the catalyst particle growth and final polymer PSD. The results present that the intra-heat and mass limitation is important for the ethylene polymerization, the growth rate of particle and the polymer PSD in the fluidized bed reactor. The effect of the agglomeration on the PSD is also considered. The result presents that the polymer particle size distribution becomes broader as the agglomeration exits.

Keywords: population balance, olefin polymerization, fluidized bed reactor, particle size distribution, agglomeration

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92 The Relationship between Metropolitan Space and Spatial Distribution of Main Innovative Actors: The Case of Yangtze Delta Metropolitan in China

Authors: Jun Zhou, Xingping Wang, Paul Milbourne


Evidences in the world shows that the industry and population have being greatly concentrated in metropolitan regions which is getting to be the most important area for the economic power and people living standard in the future. In the meanwhile, the relevant innovation theories of Agglomeration, New Industrial Geography and Modern Evolutionary innovation prove that the reason why the agglomeration in world-class city and metropolitan areas and also verify innovation is the key point for the development of metropolis. The primary purpose of this paper is to analyze the geographical spatial characteristics of innovative subjects which contain firm, university, research institution, government and intermediary organ in metropolis throughout the amount data analysis in Yangtze River Metropolis in China. The results show three main conclusions. The first is different subjects in different regions have different spatial characteristics. The second one is different structure and pattern between the subjects also can produce different innovative effect. The last but not the least is agglomeration of innovative subjects’ is not only influenced by the innovative network or local policies but also affected by the localized industry characteristics and culture which are getting to be the most important crucial factors.

Keywords: metropolitan development, innovative subject, spatial, Yangtze River Metropolis, China

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91 Effect of Needle Diameter on the Morphological Structure of Electrospun n-Bi2O3/Epoxy-PVA Nanofiber Mats

Authors: Bassam M. Abunahel, Nurul Zahirah Noor Azman, Munirah Jamil


The effect of needle diameter on the morphological structure of electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy-PVA nanofibers has been investigated using three different types of needle diameters. The results were observed and investigated using two techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The first technique is backscattered SEM while the second is secondary electron SEM. The results demonstrate that there is a correlation between the needle diameter and the morphology of electrospun nanofibers. As the internal needle diameter decreases, the average nanofiber diameter decreases and the fibers get thinner and smoother without agglomeration or beads formation. Moreover, with small needle diameter the nanofibrous porosity get larger compared with large needle diameter.

Keywords: needle diameter, fiber diameter, porosity, agglomeration

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90 Impact Factor Analysis for Spatially Varying Aerosol Optical Depth in Wuhan Agglomeration

Authors: Wenting Zhang, Shishi Liu, Peihong Fu


As an indicator of air quality and directly related to concentration of ground PM2.5, the spatial-temporal variation and impact factor analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) have been a hot spot in air pollution. This paper concerns the non-stationarity and the autocorrelation (with Moran’s I index of 0.75) of the AOD in Wuhan agglomeration (WHA), in central China, uses the geographically weighted regression (GRW) to identify the spatial relationship of AOD and its impact factors. The 3 km AOD product of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is used in this study. Beyond the economic-social factor, land use density factors, vegetable cover, and elevation, the landscape metric is also considered as one factor. The results suggest that the GWR model is capable of dealing with spatial varying relationship, with R square, corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and standard residual better than that of ordinary least square (OLS) model. The results of GWR suggest that the urban developing, forest, landscape metric, and elevation are the major driving factors of AOD. Generally, the higher AOD trends to located in the place with higher urban developing, less forest, and flat area.

Keywords: aerosol optical depth, geographically weighted regression, land use change, Wuhan agglomeration

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89 Proinflammatory Response of Agglomerated TiO2 Nanoparticles in Human-Immune Cells

Authors: Vaiyapuri Subbarayn Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A. Alshatwi


The widespread use of Titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), now are found with different physic-chemical properties (size, shape, chemical properties, agglomeration, etc.) in many processed foods, agricultural chemicals, biomedical products, food packaging and food contact materials, personal care products, and other consumer products used in daily life. Growing evidences have been highlighted that there are risks of physico-chemical properties dependent toxicity with special attention to “TiO2-NPs and human immune system”. Unfortunately, agglomeration and aggregation have frequently been ignored in immuno-toxicological studies, even though agglomeration and aggregation would be expected to affect nanotoxicity since it changes the size, shape, surface area, and other properties of the TiO2-NPs. In this present investigation, we assessed the immune toxic effect of TiO2-NPs on human immune cells Total WBC including Lymphocytes (T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD3+, CD4+), Suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD3+/CD8+) and NK cells (CD3-/CD16+ and CD56+), Monocytes (CD14+, CD3-) and B lymphocytes (CD19+, CD3-) in order to find the immunological response (IL1A, IL1B, IL2 IL-4, IL5 IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and TNF-a) and redox gene regulation (TNF, p53, BCl-2, CAT, GSTA4, TNF, CYP1A, POR, SOD1, GSTM3, GPX1, and GSR1)-linking physicochemical properties with special reference to agglomeration of TiO2-NPs. Our findings suggest that TiO2-NPs altered cytokine production, enhanced phagocytic indexing, metabolic stress through specific immune regulatory- genes expression in different WBC subsets and may contribute to pro-inflammatory response. Although TiO2-NPs have great advantages in the personal care products, biomedical, food and agricultural products, its chronic and acute immune-toxicity still need to be assessed carefully with special reference to food and environmental safety.

Keywords: TiO2 nanoparticles, oxidative stress, cytokine, human immune cells

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88 Insights into Particle Dispersion, Agglomeration and Deposition in Turbulent Channel Flow

Authors: Mohammad Afkhami, Ali Hassanpour, Michael Fairweather


The work described in this paper was undertaken to gain insight into fundamental aspects of turbulent gas-particle flows with relevance to processes employed in a wide range of applications, such as oil and gas flow assurance in pipes, powder dispersion from dry powder inhalers, and particle resuspension in nuclear waste ponds, to name but a few. In particular, the influence of particle interaction and fluid phase behavior in turbulent flow on particle dispersion in a horizontal channel is investigated. The mathematical modeling technique used is based on the large eddy simulation (LES) methodology embodied in the commercial CFD code FLUENT, with flow solutions provided by this approach coupled to a second commercial code, EDEM, based on the discrete element method (DEM) which is used for the prediction of particle motion and interaction. The results generated by LES for the fluid phase have been validated against direct numerical simulations (DNS) for three different channel flows with shear Reynolds numbers, Reτ = 150, 300 and 590. Overall, the LES shows good agreement, with mean velocities and normal and shear stresses matching those of the DNS in both magnitude and position. The research work has focused on the prediction of those conditions favoring particle aggregation and deposition within turbulent flows. Simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of particle size, density and concentration on particle agglomeration. Furthermore, particles with different surface properties have been simulated in three channel flows with different levels of flow turbulence, achieved by increasing the Reynolds number of the flow. The simulations mimic the conditions of two-phase, fluid-solid flows frequently encountered in domestic, commercial and industrial applications, for example, air conditioning and refrigeration units, heat exchangers, oil and gas suction and pressure lines. The particle size, density, surface energy and volume fractions selected are 45.6, 102 and 150 µm, 250, 1000 and 2159 kg m-3, 50, 500, and 5000 mJ m-2 and 7.84 × 10-6, 2.8 × 10-5, and 1 × 10-4, respectively; such particle properties are associated with particles found in soil, as well as metals and oxides prevalent in turbulent bounded fluid-solid flows due to erosion and corrosion of inner pipe walls. It has been found that the turbulence structure of the flow dominates the motion of the particles, creating particle-particle interactions, with most of these interactions taking place at locations close to the channel walls and in regions of high turbulence where their agglomeration is aided both by the high levels of turbulence and the high concentration of particles. A positive relationship between particle surface energy, concentration, size and density, and agglomeration was observed. Moreover, the results derived for the three Reynolds numbers considered show that the rate of agglomeration is strongly influenced for high surface energy particles by, and increases with, the intensity of the flow turbulence. In contrast, for lower surface energy particles, the rate of agglomeration diminishes with an increase in flow turbulence intensity.

Keywords: agglomeration, channel flow, DEM, LES, turbulence

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87 Study for Utilization of Industrial Solid Waste, Generated by the Discharge of Casting Sand Agglomeration with Clay, Blast Furnace Slag and Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash in Concrete Composition

Authors: Mario Sergio de Andrade Zago, Javier Mazariegos Pablos, Eduvaldo Paulo Sichieri


This research project accomplished a study on the technical feasibility of recycling industrial solid waste generated by the discharge of casting sand agglomeration with clay, blast furnace slag and sugar cane bagasse ash. For this, the plan proposed a methodology that initially establishes a process of solid waste encapsulation, by using solidification/stabilization technique on Portland cement matrices, in which the residuals act as small and large aggregates on the composition of concrete, and later it presents the possibility of using this concrete in the manufacture of concrete pieces (concrete blocks) for paving. The results obtained in this research achieved the objective set with great success, regarding the manufacturing of concrete pieces (blocks) for paving urban roads, whenever there is special vehicle traffic or demands capable of producing accentuated abrasion effects (surpassing the 50 MPa required by the regulation), which probes the technical practicability of using waste from sand casting agglomeration with clay and blast furnace slag used in this study, unlocking usage possibilities for construction.

Keywords: industrial solid waste, solidification/stabilization, Portland cement, reuse, bagasse ash in the sugar cane, concrete

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86 Identifying and Optimizing the Critical Excipients in Moisture Activated Dry Granulation Process for Two Anti TB Drugs of Different Aqueous Solubilities

Authors: K. Srujana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar


Isoniazide (INH) a freely water soluble and pyrazinamide (Z) a practically water insoluble first line anti tubercular (TB) drugs were identified as candidates for optimizing the Moisture Activated Dry Granulation (MADG) process. The work focuses on identifying the effect of binder type and concentration as well as the effect of magnesium stearate level on critical quality attributes of Disintegration time (DT) and in vitro dissolution test when the tablets are processed by the MADG process. Also, the level of the drug concentration, binder concentration and fluid addition during the agglomeration stage of the MADG process was evaluated and optimized. For INH, it was identified that for tablets with HPMC as binder at both 2% w/w and 5% w/w level and Magnesium stearate upto 1%w/w as lubrication the DT is within 1 minute and the dissolution rate is the fastest (> 80% in 15 minutes) as compared to when PVP or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. Regarding the process, fast disintegrating and rapidly dissolving tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 25% w/w 0% w/w binder and 0.033%. w/w. At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is also slower. For pyrazinamide,it was identified that for the tablets with 2% w/w level of each of PVP as binder and Cross Caramellose Sodium disintegrant the DT is within 2 minutes and the dissolution rate is the fastest(>80 in 15 minutes)as compared to when HPMC or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. This may be attributed to the fact that PVP may be acting as a solubilizer for the practically insoluble Pyrazinamide. Regarding the process,fast dispersing and rapidly disintegrating tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 10% w/w,25% w/w binder and 1% w/w.At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is comparatively slower and less complete.

Keywords: agglomeration stage, isoniazide, MADG, moisture distribution stage, pyrazinamide

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85 Study on the Relationship between the Urban Geography and Urban Agglomeration to the Effects of Carbon Emissions

Authors: Peng-Shao Chen, Yen-Jong Chen


In recent years, global warming, the dramatic change in energy prices and the exhaustion of natural resources illustrated that energy-related topic cannot be ignored. Despite the relationship between the cities and CO₂ emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in the geographical location of the city. However, the geographical climate has a great impact on lifestyle from city to city, such as the type of buildings, the major industry of the city, etc. Therefore, the paper instigates empirically the effects of kinds of urban factors and CO₂ emissions with consideration of the different geographic, climatic zones which cities are located. Using the regression model and a dataset of urban agglomeration in East Asia cities with over one million population, including 2005, 2010, and 2015 three years, the findings suggest that the impact of urban factors on CO₂ emissions vary with the latitude of the cities. Surprisingly, all kinds of urban factors, including the urban population, the share of GDP in service industry, per capita income, and others, have different level of impact on the cities locate in the tropical climate zone and temperate climate zone. The results of the study analyze the impact of different urban factors on CO₂ emissions in urban area with different geographical climate zones. These findings will be helpful for the formulation of relevant policies for urban planners and policy makers in different regions.

Keywords: carbon emissions, urban agglomeration, urban factor, urban geography

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84 Influence of Hygro-Thermo-Mechanical Loading on Buckling and Vibrational Behavior of FG-CNT Composite Beam with Temperature Dependent Characteristics

Authors: Puneet Kumar, Jonnalagadda Srinivas


The authors report here vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube-polymer composite (FG-CNTPC) beams under hygro-thermo-mechanical environments using higher order shear deformation theory. The material properties of CNT and polymer matrix are often affected by temperature and moisture content. A micromechanical model with agglomeration effect is employed to compute the elastic, thermal and moisture properties of the composite beam. The governing differential equation of FG-CNTRPC beam is developed using higher-order shear deformation theory to account shear deformation effects. The elastic, thermal and hygroscopic strain terms are derived from variational principles. Moreover, thermal and hygroscopic loads are determined by considering uniform, linear and sinusoidal variation of temperature and moisture content through the thickness. Differential equations of motion are formulated as an eigenvalue problem using appropriate displacement fields and solved by using finite element modeling. The obtained results of natural frequencies and critical buckling loads show a good agreement with published data. The numerical illustrations elaborate the dynamic as well as buckling behavior under uniaxial load for different environmental conditions, boundary conditions and volume fraction distribution profile, beam slenderness ratio. Further, comparisons are shown at different boundary conditions, temperatures, degree of moisture content, volume fraction as well as agglomeration of CNTs, slenderness ratio of beam for different shear deformation theories.

Keywords: hygrothermal effect, free vibration, buckling load, agglomeration

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83 Elastic Behaviour of Graphene Nanoplatelets Reinforced Epoxy Resin Composites

Authors: V. K. Srivastava


Graphene has recently attracted an increasing attention in nanocomposites applications because it has 200 times greater strength than steel, making it the strongest material ever tested. Graphene, as the fundamental two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure with exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, has emerged as a rapidly rising star in the field of material science. Graphene, as defined, as a 2D crystal, is composed of monolayers of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycombed network with six-membered rings, which is the interest of both theoretical and experimental researchers worldwide. The name comes from graphite and alkene. Graphite itself consists of many graphite-sheets stacked together by weak van der Waals forces. This is attributed to the monolayer of carbon atoms densely packed into honeycomb structure. Due to superior inherent properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) over other nanofillers, GnP particles were added in epoxy resin with the variation of weight percentage. It is indicated that the DMA results of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan δ, defined as the ratio of elastic modulus and imaginary (loss) modulus versus temperature were affected with addition of GnP in the epoxy resin. In epoxy resin, damping (tan δ) is usually caused by movement of the molecular chain. The tan δ of the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composite is much lower than that of epoxy resin alone. This finding suggests that addition of graphene nanoplatelets effectively impedes movement of the molecular chain. The decrease in storage modulus can be interpreted by an increasing susceptibility to agglomeration, leading to less energy dissipation in the system under viscoelastic deformation. The results indicates the tan δ increased with the increase of temperature, which confirms that tan δ is associated with magnetic field strength. Also, the results show that the nanohardness increases with increase of elastic modulus marginally. GnP filled epoxy resin gives higher value than the epoxy resin, because GnP improves the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Debonding of GnP is clearly observed in the micrograph having agglomeration of fillers and inhomogeneous distribution. Therefore, DMA and nanohardness studies indiacte that the elastic modulus of epoxy resin is increased with the addition of GnP fillers.

Keywords: agglomeration, elastic modulus, epoxy resin, graphene nanoplatelet, loss modulus, nanohardness, storage modulus

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82 Structural Analysis of Phase Transformation and Particle Formation in Metastable Metallic Thin Films Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

Authors: Pouyan Motamedi, Ken Bosnick, Ken Cadien, James Hogan


Growth of conformal ultrathin metal films has attracted a considerable amount of attention recently. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) is a method capable of growing conformal thin films at low temperatures, with an exemplary control over thickness. The authors have recently reported on growth of metastable epitaxial nickel thin films via PEALD, along with a comprehensive characterization of the films and a study on the relationship between the growth parameters and the film characteristics. The goal of the current study is to use the mentioned films as a case study to investigate the temperature-activated phase transformation and agglomeration in ultrathin metallic films. For this purpose, metastable hexagonal nickel thin films were annealed using a controlled heating/cooling apparatus. The transformations in the crystal structure were observed via in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The samples were annealed to various temperatures in the range of 400-1100° C. The onset and progression of particle formation were studied in-situ via laser measurements. In addition, a four-point probe measurement tool was used to record the changes in the resistivity of the films, which is affected by phase transformation, as well as roughening and agglomeration. Thin films annealed at various temperature steps were then studied via atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, in order to get a better understanding of the correlated mechanisms, through which phase transformation and particle formation occur. The results indicate that the onset of hcp-to-bcc transformation is at 400°C, while particle formations commences at 590° C. If the annealed films are quenched after transformation, but prior to agglomeration, they show a noticeable drop in resistivity. This can be attributed to the fact that the hcp films are grown epitaxially, and are under severe tensile strain, and annealing leads to relaxation of the mismatch strain. In general, the results shed light on the nature of structural transformation in nickel thin films, as well as metallic thin films, in general.

Keywords: atomic layer deposition, metastable, nickel, phase transformation, thin film

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81 The Effects of Cultural Distance and Institutions on Foreign Direct Investment Choices: Evidence from Turkey and China

Authors: Nihal Kartaltepe Behram, Göksel Ataman, Dila Okçu


With the development of foreign direct investments, the social, cultural, political and economic interactions between countries and institutions have become visible and they have become determining factors for the strategic structuring and market goals. In this context the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultural distance and institutions on foreign direct investment choices in terms of location and investment model. For international establishments, the concept of culture, as well as the concept of cultural distance, is taken specifically into consideration, especially in the selection of methods for entering the market. In the researches and empirical studies conducted, a direct relationship between cultural distance and foreign direct investments is set and institutions and effective variable factors are examined at the level of defining the investment types. When the detailed calculation strategies and empirical researches and studies are taken into consideration, the most common methods for determining the direct investment model, considering the cultural distances, are full-ownership enterprises and joint ventures. Also, when all of the factors affecting the investments are taken into consideration, it was seen that the effect of institutions such as Government Intervention, Intellectual Property Rights, Corruption and Contract Enforcements is very important. Furthermore agglomeration is more intense and effective on the investment, compared to other factors. China has been selected as the target country, due to its effectiveness in world economy and its contributions to developing countries, which has commercial relationships with. Qualitative research methods are used for this study conducted, to measure the effects of determinative variable factors in the hypotheses of study, on the direct foreign investors and to evaluate the findings. In this study in-depth interview is used as a data collection method and the data analysis is made through descriptive analysis. Foreign Direct Investments are so reactive to institutions and cultural distance is identified by all interviews and analysis. On the other hand, agglomeration is the most strong determiner factor on foreign direct investors in Chinese Market. The reason of this factors, which comprise the sectorial aggregate, are not the strongest factors as agglomeration that the most important finding. We expect that this study became a beneficial guideline for developed and developing countries and local and national institutions’ strategic plans.

Keywords: China, cultural distance, Foreign Direct Investments, institutions

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80 Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Varying Calcination Temperature for Photocatalytic Degradation of Ethylbenzene

Authors: Darlington Ashiegbu, Herman Johannes Potgieter


The increasing utilization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as a better alternative to TiO₂ has been attributed to its wide bandgap (3.37eV), lower production cost, ability to absorb over a larger range of the UV-spectrum and higher efficiency in some cases. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel process and calcined at 400ᵒC, 500ᵒC, and 650ᵒC. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurement. Scanning electron micrograph revealed pseudo-spherical and rod-like morphologies and a high rate of agglomeration for the sample calcined at 650ᵒC, Brunnauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area measurement was highest in the sample calcined at 500ᵒC, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirmed the purity of the samples as only Zn and O₂ were detected and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO nanoparticles. All three samples were utilized in the degradation of ethylbenzene, and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer was utilized in monitoring degradation of ethylbenzene. The sample calcined at 500ᵒC had the highest surface area for reaction, lowest agglomeration and the highest photocatalytic activity in the degradation of ethylbenzene. This revealed temperature as a very important factor in improved and higher photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: ethylbenzene, pseudo-spherical, sol-gel, zinc oxide

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79 Analysis of Spatiotemporal Efficiency and Fairness of Railway Passenger Transport Network Based on Space Syntax: Taking Yangtze River Delta as an Example

Authors: Lin Dong, Fei Shi


Based on the railway network and the principles of space syntax, the study attempts to reconstruct the spatial relationship of the passenger network connections from space and time perspective. According to the travel time data of main stations in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration obtained by the Internet, the topological drawing of railway network under different time sections is constructed. With the comprehensive index composed of connection and integration, the accessibility and network operation efficiency of the railway network in different time periods is calculated, while the fairness of the network is analyzed by the fairness indicators constructed with the integration and location entropy from the perspective of horizontal and vertical fairness respectively. From the analysis of the efficiency and fairness of the railway passenger transport network, the study finds: (1) There is a strong regularity in regional system accessibility change; (2) The problems of efficiency and fairness are different in different time periods; (3) The improvement of efficiency will lead to the decline of horizontal fairness to a certain extent, while from the perspective of vertical fairness, the supply-demand situation has changed smoothly with time; (4) The network connection efficiency of Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang regions is higher than that of the western regions such as Anqing and Chizhou; (5) The marginalization of Nantong, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Taizhou is obvious. The study explores the application of spatial syntactic theory in regional traffic analysis, in order to provide a reference for the development of urban agglomeration transportation network.

Keywords: spatial syntax, the Yangtze River Delta, railway passenger time, efficiency and fairness

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78 Relation between Electrical Properties and Application of Chitosan Nanocomposites

Authors: Evgen Prokhorov, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas


The polysaccharide chitosan (CS) is an attractive biopolymer for the stabilization of several nanoparticles in acidic aqueous media. This is due in part to the presence of abundant primary NH2 and OH groups which may lead to steric or chemical stabilization. Applications of most CS nanocomposites are based upon the interaction of high surface area nanoparticles (NPs) with different substance. Therefore, agglomeration of NPs leads to decreasing effective surface area such that it may decrease the efficiency of nanocomposites. The aim of this work is to measure nanocomposite’s electrical conductivity phenomena that will allow one to formulate optimal concentrations of conductivity NPs in CS-based nanocomposites. Additionally, by comparing the efficiency of such nanocomposites, one can guide applications in the biomedical (antibacterial properties and tissue regeneration) and sensor fields (detection of copper and nitrate ions in aqueous solutions). It was shown that the best antibacterial (CS-AgNPs, CS-AgNPs-carbon nanotubes) and would healing properties (CS-AuNPs) are observed in nanocomposites with concentrations of NPs near the percolation threshold. In this regard, the best detection limit in potentiometric and impedimetric sensors for detection of copper ions (using CS-AuNPs membrane) and nitrate ions (using CS-clay membrane) in aqueous solutions have been observed for membranes with concentrations of NPs near percolation threshold. It is well known that at the percolation concentration of NPs an abrupt increasing of conductivity is observed due to the presence of physical contacts between NPs; above this concentration, agglomeration of NPs takes place such that a decrease in the effective surface and performance of nanocomposite appear. The obtained relationship between electrical percolation threshold and performance of polymer nanocomposites with conductivity NPs is important for the design and optimization of polymer-based nanocomposites for different applications.

Keywords: chitosan, conductivity nanoparticles, percolation threshold, polymer nanocomposites

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77 Preparation of Nano-Scaled linbo3 by Polyol Method

Authors: Gabriella Dravecz, László Péter, Zsolt Kis


Abstract— The growth of optical LiNbO3 single crystal and its physical and chemical properties are well known on the macroscopic scale. Nowadays the rare-earth doped single crystals became important for coherent quantum optical experiments: electromagnetically induced transparency, slow down of light pulses, coherent quantum memory. The expansion of applications is increasingly requiring the production of nano scaled LiNbO3 particles. For example, rare-earth doped nanoscaled particles of lithium niobate can be act like single photon source which can be the bases of a coding system of the quantum computer providing complete inaccessibility to strangers. The polyol method is a chemical synthesis where oxide formation occurs instead of hydroxide because of the high temperature. Moreover the polyol medium limits the growth and agglomeration of the grains producing particles with the diameter of 30-200 nm. In this work nano scaled LiNbO3 was prepared by the polyol method. The starting materials (niobium oxalate and LiOH) were diluted in H2O2. Then it was suspended in ethylene glycol and heated up to about the boiling point of the mixture with intensive stirring. After the thermal equilibrium was reached, the mixture was kept in this temperature for 4 hours. The suspension was cooled overnight. The mixture was centrifuged and the particles were filtered. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement was carried out and the size of the particles were found to be 80-100 nms. This was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigations. The element analysis of SEM showed large amount of Nb in the sample. The production of LiNbO3 nano particles were succesful by the polyol method. The agglomeration of the particles were avoided and the size of 80-100nm could be reached.

Keywords: lithium-niobate, nanoparticles, polyol, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
76 The Evolution of Spatio-Temporal Patterns of New-Type Urbanization in the Central Plains Economic Region in China

Authors: Sun fang, Zhang Wenxin


This paper establishes an evaluation index system for spatio-temporal patterns of urbanization, with the county as research unit. We use the Entropy Weight method, coefficient variance, the Theil index and ESDA-GIS to analyze spatial patterns and evolutionary characteristics of New-Type Urbanization in the Central Plains Economic Region (CPER) between 2000 and 2011. Results show that economic benefit, non-agricultural employment level and level of market development are the most important factors influencing the level of New-Type Urbanization in the CPER; overall regional differences in New-Type Urbanization have declined while spatial correlations have increased from 2000 to 2011. The overall spatial pattern has changed little, however; differences between the western and eastern areas of the CPER are clear, and the pattern of a strong west and weak east did not change significantly over the study period. Areas with high levels of New-Type Urbanization were mostly distributed along the Beijing-Guangzhou and LongHai Railways on both sides, a new influx of urbanization was tightly clustered around ZhengZhou in the Central Henan Urban Agglomeration, but this trend was found to be weakening slightly. The level of New-Type Urbanization in municipal districts was found to be much higher than it was in the county generally. Provincial borders experienced a lower rate of growth and a lower level of New-Type Urbanization than did any other areas, consistently forming clusters of cold spots and sub-cold spots. The analysis confirms that historical development, location, and diffusion effects of urban agglomeration are the main drivers of changes in New-Type Urbanization patterns in CPER.

Keywords: new-type urbanization, spatial pattern, central plains economic region, spatial evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
75 Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles

Authors: O. Ualibek, C. Spitas, V. Inglezakis, G. Itskos


This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, fly ash nanoparticles, aluminium 2024, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
74 The Use of Space Syntax in Urban Transportation Planning and Evaluation: Limits and Potentials

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Yueh-Lung Lin, Zhong Wang


Transportation planning is an academic integration discipline combining research and practice with the aim of mobility and accessibility improvements at both strategic-level policy-making and operational dimensions of practical planning. Transportation planning could build the linkage between traffic and social development goals, for instance, economic benefits and environmental sustainability. The transportation planning analysis and evaluation tend to apply empirical quantitative approaches with the guidance of the fundamental principles, such as efficiency, equity, safety, and sustainability. Space syntax theory has been applied in the spatial distribution of pedestrian movement or vehicle flow analysis, however rare has been written about its application in transportation planning. The correlated relationship between the variables of space syntax analysis and authentic observations have declared that the urban configurations have a significant effect on urban dynamics, for instance, land value, building density, traffic, crime. This research aims to explore the potentials of applying Space Syntax methodology to evaluate urban transportation planning through studying the effects of urban configuration on cities transportation performance. By literature review, this paper aims to discuss the effects that urban configuration with different degrees of integration and accessibility have on three elementary components of transportation planning - transportation efficiency, transportation safety, and economic agglomeration development - via intensifying and stabilising the nature movements generated by the street network. And then the potential and limits of Space Syntax theory to study the performance of urban transportation and transportation planning would be discussed in the paper. In practical terms, this research will help future research explore the effects of urban design on transportation performance, and identify which patterns of urban street networks would allow for most efficient and safe transportation performance with higher economic benefits.

Keywords: transportation planning, space syntax, economic agglomeration, transportation efficiency, transportation safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
73 Synthesis and Study the Effect of HNTs on PVA/Chitosan Composite Material

Authors: Malek Ali


Composites materials of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Chitosan (CS) have been synthesized and characterized successfully. HNTs have been added to composites to enhance the mechanical and degradation properties by hydrogen bonding interactions, compatibility, and chemical crosslink between HNTs and PVA. PVA/CS/HNTs composites prepared with different concentration ratio. SEM micrographs of composites surface showed that more agglomeration with more chitosan ratio. Mechanical and degradation properties were characterized and the result indicates that Mechanical and degradation of 80%PVA/5%Chitosan/15%HNTs higher than the others PVA/CS/HNTs composites.

Keywords: PVA/chitosan, composites, PVA/CS/HNTs, HNTs

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
72 The Effect of Fuel Type on Synthesis of CeO2-MgO Nano-Powder by Combustion Method

Authors: F. Ghafoori-Najafabadi, R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori


In this study, nanocrystalline CeO2-MgO powders were synthesized by combustion reactions using citric acid, ethylene glycol, and glycine as different fuels and nitrate as an oxidant. The powders obtained with different kinds of fuels are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size and morphology of the particles and the extent of agglomeration in the powders were studied using SEM analysis. It is observed that the variation of fuel has an intense influence on the particle size and morphology of the resulting powder. X-ray diffraction revealed that any combined phases were observed, and that MgO and CeO2 phases were formed, separately.

Keywords: nanoparticle, combustion synthesis, CeO2-MgO, nano-powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
71 Study on the Controlled Growth of Lanthanum Hydroxide and Manganese Oxide Nano Composite under the Presence of Cationic Surfactant

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Verma


Lanthanum hydroxide and manganese oxide nanocomposite are synthesized by chemical routes. Physical characterization is done by TEM to look at the size and dispersion of the nanoparticles in the composite. Chemical characterization is done by X-ray diffraction technique and FTIR to ascertain the attachment of the functionalities and bond stretching. Further thermal analysis is done by thermogravimetric analysis to find the tendency of the thermal decomposition in the elevated temperature range of 0-1000°C. Proper analysis and correlation of the various results obtained suggested the controlled growth of crystalline without agglomeration and good stability in the various temperature ranges of the composite.

Keywords: nanoparticles, XRD, TEM, lanthanum hydroxide, manganese oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
70 Mineralogical Characterization and Petrographic Classification of the Soil of Casablanca City

Authors: I. Fahi, T. Remmal, F. El Kamel, B. Ayoub


The treatment of the geotechnical database of the region of Casablanca was difficult to achieve due to the heterogeneity of the nomenclature of the lithological formations composing its soil. It appears necessary to harmonize the nomenclature of the facies and to produce cartographic documents useful for construction projects and studies before any investment program. To achieve this, more than 600 surveys made by the Public Laboratory for Testing and Studies (LPEE) in the agglomeration of Casablanca, were studied. Moreover, some local observations were made in different places of the metropolis. Each survey was the subject of a sheet containing lithological succession, macro and microscopic description of petrographic facies with photographic illustration, as well as measurements of geomechanical tests. In addition, an X-ray diffraction analysis was made in order to characterize the surficial formations of the region.

Keywords: Casablanca, guidebook, petrography, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
69 The Quantitative Analysis of the Traditional Rural Settlement Plane Boundary

Authors: Yifan Dong, Xincheng Pu


Rural settlements originate from the accumulation of residential building elements, and their agglomeration forms the settlement pattern and defines the relationship between the settlement and the inside and outside. The settlement boundary is an important part of the settlement pattern. Compared with the simplification of the urban settlement boundary, the settlement of the country is more complex, fuzzy and uncertain, and then presents a rich and diverse boundary morphological phenomenon. In this paper, China traditional rural settlements plane boundary as the research object, using fractal theory and fractal dimension method, quantitative analysis of planar shape boundary settlement, and expounds the research for the architectural design, ancient architecture protection and renewal and development and the significance of the protection of settlements.

Keywords: rural settlement, border, fractal, quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
68 A Survey on Intelligent Techniques Based Modelling of Size Enlargement Process for Fine Materials

Authors: Mohammad Nadeem, Haider Banka, R. Venugopal


Granulation or agglomeration is a size enlargement process to transform the fine particulates into larger aggregates since the fine size of available materials and minerals poses difficulty in their utilization. Though a long list of methods is available in the literature for the modeling of granulation process to facilitate the in-depth understanding and interpretation of the system, there is still scope of improvements using novel tools and techniques. Intelligent techniques, such as artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, self-organizing map, support vector machine and others, have emerged as compelling alternatives for dealing with imprecision and complex non-linearity of the systems. The present study tries to review the applications of intelligent techniques in the modeling of size enlargement process for fine materials.

Keywords: fine material, granulation, intelligent technique, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
67 Regenerated Cellulose Prepared by Using NaOH/Urea

Authors: Lee Chiau Yeng, Norhayani Othman


Regenerated cellulose fiber is fabricated in the NaOH/urea aqueous solution. In this work, cellulose is dissolved in 7 .wt% NaOH/12 .wt% urea in the temperature of -12 °C to prepare regenerated cellulose. Thermal and structure properties of cellulose and regenerated cellulose was compared and investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Results of FeSEM revealed that the regenerated cellulose fibers showed a more circular shape with irregular size due to fiber agglomeration. FTIR showed the difference in between the structure of cellulose and the regenerated cellulose fibers. In this case, regenerated cellulose fibers have a cellulose II crystalline structure with lower degree of crystallinity. Regenerated cellulose exhibited better thermal stability than the cellulose.

Keywords: regenerated cellulose, cellulose, NaOH, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 309