Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: acetylcholinesterase

36 Molecular Interaction of Acetylcholinesterase with Flavonoids Involved in Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Wassila Soufi, Bouckli Hacene, Ghalem


Neurodegenerative diseases include more than 600 affections that alter the structures of the brain, the best known being Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Neurodegenerative diseases form a heterogeneous and complex group of evolving chronic diseases characterized by a progressive dysfunction of the nervous system caused by a deterioration in the functioning of nerve cells, especially neurons. In the context of the study of the mechanisms governing the evolution of AD disease, we have found that natural flavonoids are good acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that reduce the rate of ßA secretion in neurons. This work is to study the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is an enzyme involved in the Alzheimer's disease by methods of molecular modeling. These results will probably help in the development of an effective therapeutic tool in the fight against the development of Alzheimer's disease. Our goal of the research is to study the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)by molecular modeling methods.

Keywords: alzheimer's disease, acetylcholinesterase, flavonoids, molecular modeling

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35 The Inhibitory Effect of Riceberry Rice Extract on Acetylcholinesterase Activity

Authors: Yaiprae Chatree, Tawan Chaiwon, Rodjana Chunhabundit, Kritsana Piriyawatcharakon, Waralai Ratwiset, Sasiwimol Chaiya


The world is facing a serious situation of aging society. Elderly may have many physical health problems due to degenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Riceberry rice relatively contain high levels of carbohydrate, vitamin E, -oryzanol, and also abundant of bioactive compound of anthocyanin. This study aimed to determine the inhibitory effect of Riceberry rice crude extract on acetylcholinesterase activity. The active compound was extracted by using 70% ethanol (v/v). The inhibitory effect of Riceberry rice on acetylcholinesterase was evaluated by using slightly modified method of Ellman’s method. The 120 seconds time interval of kinetics measurement showed that Riceberry rice extract at concentrations of 2.5-12.5 mg/ml presented the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity at the statistically significant difference at p  0.05 compared to control group over 60 -120 seconds. At the concentrations of 10 and 12.5 mg/ml of Riceberry rice extract expressed the high percentage of inhibitory activity of 50.86 and 71.22%, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Riceberry rice extract; considered to the end point, was found at concentration of 9.34 mg/ml. The physostigmine (positive control); however, showed a higher inhibitory capacity than that of Riceberry rice extract. The inhibitory activity of the positive control group was around at 80.40 – 90.41%. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that Riceberry rice extract possessed the inhibitory capacity of acetylcholinesterase activity. Moreover, at the concentrations of 12.5 mg/ml it showed the identical inhibitory effect with physostigmine group. The Riceberry rice extract might be able to alleviate the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer's disease, riceberry rice

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34 In vitro and in vivo Assessment of Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of the Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: K. Biswas, U. H. Armin, S. M. J. Prodhan, J. A. Prithul, S. Sarker, F. Afrin


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder) is mostly predominant cause of dementia in the elderly. Prolonging the function of acetylcholine by inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase is most effective treatment therapy of AD. Traditionally Pterocarpus santalinus L. is widely known for its medicinal use. In this study, in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was investigated and methanolic extract of the plant showed significant activity. To confirm this activity (in vivo), learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. For the test, memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist). Anti-amnesic effect of the extract was investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. The study also includes brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results proved that scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly decreased by administration of the extract solution, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that bark extract of Pterocarpus santalinus can be better option for further studies on AD via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Pterocarpus santalinus, cholinesterase inhibitor, passive avoidance, Alzheimer’s disease

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33 Biosensors for Parathion Based on Au-Pd Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Chao-Nan Ge, Rui Li


An electrochemical biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides was developed based on electrochemical co-deposition of Au and Pd nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used for characterization of the surface structure. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) demonstrates that the films are uniform and the nanoclusters are homogeneously distributed on the GCE surface. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on the Au and Pd nanoparticle modified electrode (Au-Pd/GCE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The electrochemical behavior of thiocholine at the biosensor (AChE/Au-Pd/GCE) was studied. The biosensors exhibited substantial electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of thiocholine. The peak current of linear scan voltammetry (LSV) of thiocholine at the biosensor is proportional to the concentration of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) over the range of 2.5 × 10-6 to 2.5 × 10-4 M in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The percent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was proportional to the logarithm of parathion concentration in the range of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-6 M. The detection limit of parathion was 2.6 × 10-9 M. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Au-Pd nanoparticles, electrochemical biosensors, parathion

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32 Comparison of Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators Cytotoxicity with Their Structure

Authors: Lubica Muckova, Petr Jost, Jaroslav Pejchal, Daniel Jun


The development of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, i.e. antidotes against organophosphorus poisoning, is an important goal of defence research. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity and chemical structure of 5 currently available (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, and asoxime) and 4 newly developed compounds (K027, K074, K075, and K203). In oximes, there could be at least four important structural factors affecting their toxicity, including the number of oxime groups in the molecule, the position of oxime group(s) on pyridinium ring, the length of carbon linker, and the substitution by oxygen or insertion of the double bond into the connection chain. The cytotoxicity of tested substances was measured using colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT assay) in SH-SY5Y cell line. Toxicity was expressed as toxicological index IC₅₀. The tested compounds showed different cytotoxicity ranging from 1.5 to 27 mM. K027 was the least, and methoxime was the most toxic reactivator. The lowest toxicity was found in a monopyridinium reactivator and bispyridinium reactivators with simple 3C carbon linker. Shortening of connection chain length to 1C, incorporation of oxygen moiety into 3C compounds, elongation of carbon linker to 4C and insertion of a double bond into 4C substances increase AChE reactivators' cytotoxicity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a long-term organization development plan Medical Aspects of Weapons of Mass Destruction of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity, organophosphorus poisoning, reactivators of acetylcholinesterase

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31 Synthesis and Anticholinesterase Activity of Carvacrol Derivatives

Authors: Fatih Sonmez


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common form of dementia that affects aged people. Acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolase involved in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter ACh in the central and peripheral nervous system. Carvacrol (5-iso-propyl-2-methyl-phenol) is a main bioactive monoterpene isolated from many medicinal herbs, such as Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctate and Origanum vulgare spp. It is known that carvacrol has been widely used as an active anti-inflammatory ingredient, which can inhibit the isoproterenol induced inflammation in myocardial infarcted rats. In this paper, a series of 12 carvacrol substituted carbamate derivatives (2a-l) was synthesized and their inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE were evaluated. Among them, 2d exhibited the strongest inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 2.22 µM, which was 130-fold more than that of carvacrol (IC50 = 288.26 µM).

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Carbamate, Carvacrol

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30 Cholinesterase Inhibitory Indole Alkaloids from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa

Authors: Mehran Fadaeinasab, Alireza Basiri, Yalda Kia, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah


Two new, rauvolfine C and 3- methyl-10,11-dimethoxyl-6- methoxycarbonyl- β- carboline, along with five known indole alkaloids, macusine B, vinorine, undulifoline, isoresrpiline and rescinnamine were isolated from the bark of Rauvolfia reflexa. All the compounds showed good to moderate cholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 8.06 to 73.23 πM, except rauvolfine C that was inactive against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Rescinnamine, a dual inhibitor was found to be the most potent inhibitor among the isolated alkaloids against both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Molecular docking revealed that rescinnamine interacted differently on AChE and BChE, by means of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Keywords: Rauvolfia reflexa, indole alkaloids, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, molecular docking

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29 Chronic Toxicity of Halofenozide on a Larvivorous Fish, Gambusia affinis: Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione S-transferase Activities and Glutathione

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine


The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: biomarkers, chronic toxicity, insecticide, halofenozide, Gambusia affinis, pollution

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28 Kinetics and Toxicological Effects of Kickxia elatine Extract-Based Silver Nanoparticles on Rat Brain Acetylcholinesterase

Authors: Noor Ul Huda, Mushtaq Ahmed, Nadia Mushtaq, Naila Sher, Rahmat Ali Khan


Purpose: The green synthesis of AgNPs has been favored over chemical synthesis due to their distinctive properties such as high dispersion, surface-to-volume ratio, low toxicity, and easy preparation. In the present work, the biosynthesis of AgNPs (KE-AgNPs) was carried out in one step by using the traditionally used plant Kickxia elatine (KE) extract and then investigated its enzyme inhibiting activity against rat’s brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro. Methods: KE-AgNPs were synthesized from 1mM AgNO₃ using KE extract and characterized by UV–spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR analysis. Rat’s brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity was evaluated by the standard protocol. Results: UV–spectrum at 416 nm confirmed the formation of KE-AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presented 2θ values corresponding to the crystalline nature of KE-AgNPs with an average size of 42.47nm. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis confirmed the presence of spherical-shaped and huge density KE-AgNPs with a size of 50nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) suggested that the functional groups present in KE extract and on the surface of KE-AgNPs are responsible for the stability of biosynthesized NPs. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) displayed an intense sharp peak at 3.2 keV, presenting that Ag was the chief element with 61.67%. Both KE extract and KE-AgNPs showed good and potent anti-AChE activity, with higher inhibition potential at a concentration of 175 µg/ml. Statistical analysis showed that both KEE and AgNPs exhibited non-competitive type inhibition against AChE, i.e., Vmax decreased (34.17-68.64% and 22.29- 62.10%) in the concentration-dependent mode for KEE and KE-AgNPs respectively and while Km values remained constant. Conclusions: KEE and KE-AgNPs can be considered an inhibitor of rats’ brain AChE, and the synthesis of KE-AgNPs-based drugs can be used as a cheaper and alternative option against diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Kickxia elatine, AgNPs, brain homogenate, acetylcholinesterase, kinetics

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27 In vitro And in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum Basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt

Authors: Mariane G. Tadros, Shahira M. Ezzat, Maha M. Salama, Mohamed A. Farag


In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was investigated and both samples showed significant activity. As a result, the major constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column chromatography. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activity of the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Ocimum baselicum, Ocimum africanum, GC/MS analysis, anticholinesterase

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26 Isolation, Characterization and Biological Activities of Compounds Isolated from Callicarpa maingayi

Authors: Muhammad A. Ado, Intan S. Ismail, Hasanah M. Ghazali, Faridah Abas


In this study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents of soluble fractions of dichloromethane (DCM) of methanolic leaves extract of the Callicarpa maingayi. The phytochemicals investigation has resulted in the isolation of three triterpenoids (euscaphic acid (1), arjunic acid (2), and ursolic acid (3)) together with two flavones apigenin (4) and acacetin (5)), two phytosterols (stigmasterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (6) and sitosterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (7)), and one fatty acid (n-hexacosanoic acid (8)). Six (6) compounds isolated from this species were isolated for the first time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8). Their structures were elucidated and identified by spectral methods of one and two-dimensional NMR techniques, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and comparison with the previously reported literature. The biological activity of three compounds (1-3) was carried out on acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity. Compound (3) was found to displayed good inhibition against AChE with an IC₅₀ value of 21.5 ± 0.022 μM.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Callicarpa maingayi, euscaphic acid, ursolic acid

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25 Biomonitoring of Marine Environment by Using a Bioindicator Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria): Biomarkers Responses

Authors: Karima Sifi, Noureddine Soltani


Annaba gulf is the most important touristic and economic area located on the east coast of Algeria. However, these fishery resources are threatened by the pollution due to the progress of economic activity. As part of a biomonitoring program on the quality of waters of the Gulf of Annaba, the specific activity of two biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathion S-transferase (GST) has been measured in edible bivalve Donax trunculus. The samples have been collected during the year 2013 in two sites: El Battah, distant from polluted sources, and Sidi Salem, located near the harbor and different industrial waste. The results showed a significant inhibition of AChE activity and a significant increase in the activity of the GST in samples collected from Sidi Salem as compared to El Battah. The inhibition of the AChE and the increase of the GST in Sidi Salem are in relation with the level of exposition of this site to the pollution.

Keywords: Donax trunculus, annaba gulf, acetylcholinesterase, glutathion s-transferase, biomonitoring, pollution

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24 Biochemical Efficacy, Molecular Docking and Inhibitory Effect of 2,3-Dimethylmaleic Anhydride on Acetylcholinesterases

Authors: Kabrambam D. Singh, Dinabandhu Sahoo, Yallappa Rajashekar


Evolution has caused many insects to develop resistance to several synthetic insecticides. This problem along with the persisting concern regarding the health and environmental safety issues of the existing synthetic insecticides has urged the scientific fraternity to look for a new plant-based natural insecticide with inherent eco-friendly nature. Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae family) is widely grown throughout the South- East Asian Countries for its edible corms and leaves. Various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass) were used for the isolation and characterization of isolated bioactive molecule named 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione). This compound was found to be highly toxic, even at low concentration, against several storage grain pests when used as biofumigant. Experimental studies on the mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride revealed that the biofumigant act as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in cockroach and stored grain insects. The knockdown activity of bioactive compound is concurrent with in vivo inhibition of AChE; at KD99 dosage of bioactive molecule showed more than 90% inhibition of AChE activity in test insects. The molecule proved to affect the antioxidant enzyme system; superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and also found to decrease reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the treated insects. The above results indicate involvement of inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance as the potential mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride. In addition, the study reveals computational docking programs elaborate the possible interaction of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride with enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of Periplaneta americana. Finally, the results represent that toxicity of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride might be associated with inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance.

Keywords: 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott, Biofumigant, acetylcholinesterase, antioxidant enzyme, molecular docking

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23 A Preliminary in vitro Investigation of the Acetylcholinesterase and α-Amylase Inhibition Potential of Pomegranate Peel Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula


The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes them major global health problems. Recently, the inhibition of key enzyme activity is considered a potential treatment of both diseases. Specifically, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the key enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, is a promising approach for the treatment of AD, while inhibition of α-amylase retards the hydrolysis of carbohydrates and, thus, reduces hyperglycemia. Unfortunately, commercially available AChE and α-amylase inhibitors are reported to possess side effects. Consequently, there is a need to develop safe and effective treatments for both diseases. In the present study, pomegranate peel (PP) was extracted using various solvents of increasing polarity, while two extraction methods were employed, the conventional maceration and the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The concentration of bioactive phytoconstituents, such as total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) in the prepared extracts was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and the aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-neurodegenerative and anti-hyperglycemic activity of all extracts was determined using AChE and α-amylase inhibitory activity assays, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the extracts against AChE and α-amylase was characterized by estimating their IC₅₀ value using a dose-response curve, while galanthamine and acarbose were used as positive controls, respectively. Finally, the kinetics of AChE and α-amylase in the presence of the most inhibitory potent extracts was determined by the Lineweaver-Burk plot. The methanolic extract prepared using the UAE contained the highest amount of phytoconstituents, followed by the respective ethanolic extract. All extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner, while the increased anticholinesterase activity of the methanolic (IC₅₀ = 32 μg/mL) and ethanolic (IC₅₀ = 42 μg/mL) extract was positively correlated with their TPC content. Furthermore, the activity of the aforementioned extracts was comparable to galanthamine. Similar results were obtained in the case of α-amylase, however, all extracts showed lower inhibitory effect on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme than on AChE, since the IC₅₀ value ranged from 84 to 100 μg/mL. Also, the α-amylase inhibitory effect of the extracts was lower than acarbose. Finally, the methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared by UAE inhibited both enzymes in a mixed (competitive/noncompetitive) manner since the Kₘ value of both enzymes increased in the presence of extracts, while the Vmax value decreased. The results of the present study indicate that PP may be a useful source of active compounds for the management of AD and DM. Moreover, taking into consideration that PP is an agro-industrial waste product, its valorization could not only result in economic efficiency but also reduce the environmental pollution.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer’s disease, α-amylase, diabetes mellitus, pomegranate

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22 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Benzoxazole Derivatives as Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase / Butyrylcholinesterase and Tyrosinase

Authors: Ozlem Temiz-Arpaci, Meryem Tasci, Fatma Sezer Senol, İlkay Erdogan Orhan


Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration of memory and cognition, occurs more frequently in elderly people. Current treatment approaches in this disease with the major therapeutic strategy are based on the AChE and BChE inhibition. On the other hand, tyrosinase inhibition has become a target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) since this enzyme may play a role in neuromelanin formation in the human brain and could be critical in the formation of dopamine neurotoxicity associated with neurodegeneration linked to PD. Also benzoxazoles are structural isosteres of natural nucleotides that can interact with biopolymers so that benzoxazoles showed a lot of different biological activities. In this study, a series of 2,5-disubstituted-benzoxazole derivatives were synthesized and were evaluated as possible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) / butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase. The results demonstrated that the compounds exhibited a weak spectrum of AChE / BChE inhibitory activity ranging between 3.92% - 54.32% except compound 8 which showed no activity against AChE and compound 4 which showed no activity against BChE at the specified molar concentrations. Also, the compounds indicated lower than tyrosinase inhibitory activity of ranging between 8.14% - 22.90% to that of reference (kojic acid).

Keywords: AChE and BChE inhibition, Alzheimer’s disease, benzoxazoles, tyrosinase inhibition

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21 Evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase Activities in the Land Snail Helix aspersa Exposed to Thiamethoxam

Authors: Ait Hamlet Smina, Bensoltane Samira, Djekoun Mohamed, Berrebbah Houria


In Algeria, the use of insecticides and other phytosanitary products are considerably spreading with the development of agriculture. But, the analyses of the residues of pesticides are not systematically made. In this context, we estimated through an experimental study, the effect of a neonicotinoid insecticide, the thiamethoxam which is used as a commercial preparation on the land snail Helix aspersa. This snail is one of the most abundant gastropod in North-East Algeria. Little information is available in the literature concerning the study of the biochemical markers of mollusks which are exposed to insecticides and especially, thiamethoxam.In this work, adult snails Helix aspersa were used to estimate the effect of a neonicotinoid insecticide (thiamethoxam) on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in this gastropod after a treatment of 6 weeks. During this period, snails were exposed by ingestion and contact to fresh lettuce leaves which were soaked with an insecticide solution. The thiamethoxam test solutions were 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L, which are lower or equal to the concentrations that are applied in field. The results showed that the enzymatic activities of AChE and GST and CAT increased significantly with a dose-dependent manner. These results confirmed the toxic effect of thiamethoxam on snails exposed to the lettuce contaminated with this neonicotinoid insecticide, likely to be used as biomarker of exposure, at first to thiamethoxam then to other insecticides belonging to the same chemical family, currently present in the environment.

Keywords: helix aspersa, insecticide, thiamethoxam, AChE, GST, CAT

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20 Neuroprotective Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Hanan F. Aly, Fateheya M. Metwally, Hanaa H. Ahmed


The current study is undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) against the development of Alzheimer’s disease in experimental rat model. Alzheimer’s disease was produced in young female ovariectomized rats by intraperitoneal administration of AlCl3 (4.2 mg/kg body weight) daily for 12 weeks. Half of these animals also received orally DHEA (250 mg/kg body weight, three times weekly) for 18 weeks. Control groups of animals received either DHAE alone, or no DHEA, or were not ovariectomized. After such treatment the animals were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, antiapoptotic marker Bcl-2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Also, brain cholinergic markers (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine) were determined. The results revealed significant increase in oxidative stress parameters associated with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats. Significant depletion in brain Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were also detected. Moreover, significant elevations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity accompanied with significant reduction in acetylcholine level were recorded. Significant amelioration in all investigated parameters was detected as a result of treatment of Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats with DHEA. These results were confirmed by histological examination of brain sections. These results clearly indicate a neuroprotective effect of DHEA against Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, oxidative stress, apoptosis, dehydroepiandrosterone

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19 Cerebrum Maturity Damage Induced by Fluoride in Suckling Mice

Authors: Hanen Bouaziz, Françoise Croute, Najiba Zeghal


In order to investigate the toxic effects of fluoride on cerebrum maturity of suckling mice, we treated adult female mice of Swiss Albinos strain by 500 ppm NaF in their drinking water from the 15th day of pregnancy until the day 14 after delivery. All mice were sacrificed on day 14 after parturition. During treatment, levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, the marker of lipid peroxidation extend, increased, while the activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase and the level of glutathione decreased significantly in cerebellum compared with those of the control group. These results suggested that fluoride enhanced oxidative stress, thereby disturbing the antioxidant defense of nursing pups. In addition, acetylcholinesterase activity in cerebellum was inhibited after treatment with fluoride. In cerebellum of mice, migration of neurons from the external granular layer to the internal granular layer occurred postnatally. Key guidance signals to these migrating neurons were provided by laminin, an extracellular matrix protein fixed to the surface of astrocytes. In the present study, we examined the expression and distribution of laminin in cerebellum of 14-day-old mice. Immunoreactive laminin was disappeared by postnatal day 14 in cerebellum parenchyma of control pups and was restricted to vasculature despite the continued presence of granular cells in the external granular layer. In contrast, in cerebellum of NaF treated pups, laminin was deposited in organised punctuate clusters in the molecular layer. These data indicated that the disruption of laminin distribution might play a major role in the profound derangement of neuronal migration observed in cerebellum of NaF treated pups.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase activity, cerebellum, laminin, oxidative stress, suckling mice

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18 Involvement of Nrf2 in Kolaviron-Mediated Attenuation of Behavioural Incompetence and Neurodegeneration in a Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Yusuf E. Mustapha, Inioluwa A Akindoyeni, Oluwatoyin G. Ezekiel, Ifeoluwa O. Awogbindin, Ebenezer O. Farombi


Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent motor disorder. Available therapies are palliative with no effect on disease progression. Kolaviron (KV), a natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects in Parkinsonian flies and rats. Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective effect of KV, focusing on the DJ1/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Methodology: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to inhibit Nrf2. Murine model of PD was established with four doses of MPTP (20 mg/kg i.p.) at 2 hours interval. MPTP mice were pre-treated with either KV (200 mg/kg/day p.o), ATRA, or both conditions for seven days before PD induction. Motor behaviour was evaluated, and markers of oxidative stress/damage and its regulators were assessed with immunofluorescence and ELISA techniques. Results: MPTP-treated mice covered less distance with reduced numbers of anticlockwise rotations, heightened freezing, and prolonged immobility when compared to control. However, KV significantly attenuated these deficits. Pretreatment of MPTP mice with KV upregulated Nrf2 expression beyond MPTP level with a remarkable reduction in Keap1 expression and marked elevation of DJ-1 level, whereas co-administration with ATRA abrogated these effects. KV treatment restored MPTP-mediated depletion of endogenous antioxidant, striatal oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. However, ATRA treatment potentiated acetylcholinesterase inhibition and attenuated the protective effect of KV on the level of nitric oxide and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusion: Kolaviron protects Parkinsonian mice by stabilizing and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Thus, kolaviron can be explored as a pharmacological lead in PD management.

Keywords: Garcinia kola, Kolaviron, Parkinson Disease, Nrf2, behavioral incompetence, neurodegeneration

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17 Impact of Two Xenobiotics in Mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis: Several Approaches

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine


The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of two xenobiotics (a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide and heavy metals: cadmium, more toxic and widespread in the region) in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Several approaches were examined: Acute toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide: The acute toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide was examined in juvenile and adult males and females of G. affinis at different concentrations, cadmium causes mortality of the species studied with a relation dose-response. In laboratory conditions, the impact of cadmium was determined on two biomarkers of environmental stress: glutathione and acetylcholinesterase. The results show that the juvenile followed by adult males are more susceptible than adult females, while the halofenozide does not have any effect on the mortality of juvenile and adult males and females of G.affinis. Chronic toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide: both xenobiotics were added to the water fish raising at different doses tested in juveniles and adults males and females during two months of experience. Growth and metric indices; results show that halofenozide added to the water juveniles of G. affinis has no effect on their growth (length and weight). On the other side, the cadmium at the dose 5 µg/L shows a higher toxicity against juvenile, where he appears to reduce significantly their linear growth and weight. In females, the both xenobiotics have significant effects on metric indices, but these effects are more important on the hepatosomatic index that the gonadosomatic index and the coefficient of condition. Biomarkers; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: gambusia affinis, insecticide, heavy metal, morphology, biomarkers, chronic toxicity, acute toxicity, pollution

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16 Structure-Guided Optimization of Sulphonamide as Gamma–Secretase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Vaishali Patil, Neeraj Masand


In older people, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is turning out to be a lethal disease. According to the amyloid hypothesis, aggregation of the amyloid β–protein (Aβ), particularly its 42-residue variant (Aβ42), plays direct role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ is generated through sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β–secretase (BACE) and γ–secretase (GS). Thus in the treatment of AD, γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) are potential disease-modifying as they selectively lower pathogenic Aβ42 levels by shifting the enzyme cleavage sites without inhibiting γ–secretase activity. This possibly avoids known adverse effects observed with complete inhibition of the enzyme complex. Virtual screening, via drug-like ADMET filter, QSAR and molecular docking analyses, has been utilized to identify novel γ–secretase modulators with sulphonamide nucleus. Based on QSAR analyses and docking score, some novel analogs have been synthesized. The results obtained by in silico studies have been validated by performing in vivo analysis. In the first step, behavioral assessment has been carried out using Scopolamine induced amnesia methodology. Later the same series has been evaluated for neuroprotective potential against the oxidative stress induced by Scopolamine. Biochemical estimation was performed to evaluate the changes in biochemical markers of Alzheimer’s disease such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), Glutathione reductase (GSH), and Catalase. The Scopolamine induced amnesia model has shown increased Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels and the inhibitory effect of test compounds in the brain AChE levels have been evaluated. In all the studies Donapezil (Dose: 50µg/kg) has been used as reference drug. The reduced AChE activity is shown by compounds 3f, 3c, and 3e. In the later stage, the most potent compounds have been evaluated for Aβ42 inhibitory profile. It can be hypothesized that this series of alkyl-aryl sulphonamides exhibit anti-AD activity by inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme as well as inhibition of plaque formation on prolong dosage along with neuroprotection from oxidative stress.

Keywords: gamma-secretase inhibitors, Alzzheimer's disease, sulphonamides, QSAR

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15 Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with Ingestion of Herbal Mixtures Containing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Case Study

Authors: M. Hakami, A. Jammaly, I. Attafi, M. Oraiby, M. Jeraiby


We reviewed an unusual case of a 65-year-old male taking an herbal mixture containing compounds with anticholinesterase activity for a long period of time, presented with acute my myocardial infarction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by death. Clinically, there are findings correlated with anticholinesterase activity, such as bilateral miosis, diaphoresis, vomiting and fasciculation without a history of any toxic ingestion or exposure. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening studies identified the presence of thymol, anethole in the herbal extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in the blood sample. Hence, with this case report, we intend to highlight the necessity of evaluating the long-term use of the herbal mixture.

Keywords: cholinesterase inhibitors, thymole, anethole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, cardiac toxicity, myocardial infarction

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14 Gambusia an Excellent Indicator of Metals Stress

Authors: W. Khati, Y. Guasmi


The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied in freshwater fish exposed to two heavy metals lead and cadmium. Measurements were made after short exposures (4 and 7 days) at concentrations of 1, 5, and 7μg/L cadmium and 1.25, 2.25, and 5 mg/L of lead. Cadmium induced no significant increases in activity of AChE in the gills for the lowest dose. Except significant inhibition on 7 days. In muscle of Gambusia, under stress of metallic lead, the activity increases compared to the control are noted at 4 days of treatment and inhibitions to 7 days of exposure. The analysis of variance (time, treatment) indicates only a very significant time effect (p<0.05), and as for cadmium, a significant body effect (p<0.01) is recorded. This small fish sedentary, colonizing particularly quiet environments, polluted, can only be the ideal bioindicator of contamination and bioaccumulation of metals. The presence of lead and cadmium in the bodies of fish is a risk factor not only for the lives of these aquatic species, but also for the man who is the top predator at the end of the food chain.

Keywords: biomarkers, bioindicator, environmenlal health, metals

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13 Hepatoxicity induced Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Baron in albino rats

Authors: Manal E. A Elhalwagy, Nadia Amin Abdulmajeed, Hanan S. Alnahdi, Enas N. Danial


Baron is herbicide includes (48% glyphosate) widely used in Egypt. The present study assesses the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of baron on rats liver. Two groups of rats were treated orally with 1/10 LD 50, (275.49 mg kg -1) and 1/40 LD 50, (68.86 mg kg-1) glyphosate for 28 days compared with control group. Serum and liver tissues were taken at 14 and 28 days of treatment. An inhibition in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were recorded at both treatment periods and reduction in total serum protein (TP) and albumin (ALB). However, non-significant changes in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Elevation in oxidative stress biomarker malondyaldehyde (MDA) and the decline in detoxification biomarker total reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues led to increase in percentage of DNA damage. Destruction in liver tissue architecture was observed . Although, Baron was classified in the safe category pesticides repeated exposure to small doses has great danger effect.

Keywords: glyphosate, liver toxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage, commet assay

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12 Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 4-(Phenylsulfonamido)Benzamide Derivatives as Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Authors: Sushil Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar, Ankit Ganeshpurkar, Ravi Singh, Devendra Kumar


In spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. It results in cognitive and memory impairment due to loss of cholinergic neurons, which is considered to be one of the contributing factors. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor which also inhibits butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and improves the memory and brain’s cognitive functions, is the most successful and prescribed drug to treat the symptoms of AD. The present work is based on designing of the selective BuChE inhibitors using computational techniques. In this work, machine learning models were trained using classification algorithms followed by screening of diverse chemical library of compounds. The various molecular modelling and simulation techniques were used to obtain the virtual hits. The amide derivatives of 4-(phenylsulfonamido) benzoic acid were synthesized and characterized using 1H & 13C NMR, FTIR and mass spectrometry. The enzyme inhibition assays were performed on equine plasma BuChE and electric eel’s AChE by method developed by Ellman et al. Compounds 31, 34, 37, 42, 49, 52 and 54 were found to be active against equine BuChE. N-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide and N-(2-bromophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide (compounds 34 and 37) displayed IC50 of 61.32 ± 7.21 and 42.64 ± 2.17 nM against equine plasma BuChE. Ortho-substituted derivatives were more active against BuChE. Further, the ortho-halogen and ortho-alkyl substituted derivatives were found to be most active among all with minimal AChE inhibition. The compounds were selective toward BuChE.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, butyrylcholinesterase, machine learning, sulfonamides

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11 Study of the Genotoxic Potential of Plant Growth Regulator Ethephon

Authors: Mahshid Hodjat, Maryam Baeeri, Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar, Mohammad Abdollahi


Ethephon is one of the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture that its application has been increased in recent years. The toxicity of organophosphate compounds is mostly attributed to their potent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and their involvement in neurodegenerative disease. Although there are few reports on butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory role of ethephon, still there is no evidence on neurotoxicity and genotoxicity of this compound. The aim of the current study is to assess the potential genotoxic effect of ethephon using two genotoxic endpoints; γH2AX expression and comet assay on embryonic murine fibroblast. γH2AX serves as an early and sensitive biomarker for evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemicals. Oxidative stress biomarkers, including intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity were also examined. The results showed a significant increase in cell proliferation 24h post-treatment with 10, 40,160µg/ml ethephon. The γH2AX expression and γH2AX foci count per cell were increased at low concentration of ethephon that was concomitant with increased DNA damage break at 40 and 160 µg/ml as illustrated by increased comet tail moment. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS formation were observed at 160 µg/ml and higher doses. The results showed that low-dose of ethephon promoted cell proliferation while induce DNA damage, raising the possibility of ethephon mutagenicity. Ethephon-induced genotoxic effect of low dose might not related to oxidative damage. However, ethephon was found to increase oxidative stress at higher doses, lead to cellular cytotoxicity. Taken together, all data indicated that ethylene, deserves more attention as a plant regulator with potential genotoxicity for which appropriate control is needed to reduce its usage.

Keywords: ethephon, DNA damage, γH2AX, oxidative stress

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10 Silymarin Reverses Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficit in Object Recognition Test in Rats: A Behavioral, Biochemical, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

Authors: Salma A. El-Marasy, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam, Omar A. Ahmed-Farid


Dementia is characterized by impairments in memory and other cognitive abilities. This study aims to elucidate the possible ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia using the object recognition test (ORT). The study was extended to demonstrate the role of cholinergic activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes in the anti-amnestic effect of silymarin in demented rats. Wistar rats were pretreated with silymarin (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) or donepezil (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 consecutive days. Dementia was induced after the last drug administration by a single intraperitoneal dose of scopolamine (16 mg/kg). Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses were then performed. Rats pretreated with silymarin counteracted scopolamine-induced non-spatial working memory impairment in the ORT and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), restored gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) contents in the cortical and hippocampal brain homogenates. Silymarin dose-dependently reversed scopolamine-induced histopathological changes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that silymarin dose-dependently mitigated protein expression of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in the brain cortex and hippocampus. All these effects of silymarin were similar to that of the standard anti-amnestic drug, donepezil. This study reveals that the ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia in rats using the ORT maybe in part mediated by, enhancement of cholinergic activity, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as mitigation in brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes.

Keywords: dementia, donepezil, object recognition test, rats, silymarin, scopolamine

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9 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Abdul Rashid, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif


Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: natural extract, medicinal plant, toxic effects, enzyme inhibition, acetone extract

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8 Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Mycelial Polysaccharides from Calocybe indica in Hyperlipidemic Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

Authors: Govindan Sudha, Mathumitha Subramaniam, Alamelu Govindasamy, Sasikala Gunasekaran


The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Hypsizygus ulmarius polysaccharides (HUP) on reducing oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in D-galactose induced aging mice. Mice were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (150 mg/kg per day) for 6 weeks and were administered HUP simultaneously. Aged mice receiving vitamin E (100 mg/kg) served as positive control. Chronic administration of D-galactose significantly impaired cognitive performance oxidative defence and mitochondrial enzymes activities as compared to control group. The results showed that HUP (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved the learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. Biochemical examination revealed that HUP significantly increased the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial enzymes-NADH dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), Na+K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ATPase activities, elevated the lowered total anti-oxidation capability (TAOC), glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and decreased the raised acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxide (HPO), protein carbonyls (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels in brain of aging mice induced by D-gal in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, present study highlights the potential role of HUP against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. In vitro studies on the effect of HUP on scavenging DPPH, ABTS, DMPD, OH radicals, reducing power, B-carotene bleaching and lipid peroxidation inhibition confirmed the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of HUP. The results suggest that HUP possesses anti-aging efficacy and may have potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: aging, antioxidants, mushroom, neurotoxicity

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7 Therapeutic Efficacy of Clompanus Pubescens Leaves Fractions via Downregulation of Neuronal Cholinesterases/NA⁺-K⁺ ATPase/IL-1 β and Improving the Neurocognitive and Antioxidants Status of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Amos Sunday Onikanni, Bashir Lawal, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Gomaa Mostafa-Hedeab, Mohammed Alorabi, Simona Cavalu, Augustine O. Olusola, Chih-Hao Wang, Gaber El-Saber Batiha


The increasing global burden of diabetes mellitus has called for the search for a therapeutic alternative that offers better activities and safety than conventional chemotherapy. Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties of different fractions (ethyl acetate, N-butanol and residual aqueous) of Clompanus pubescens leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results revealed a significant elevation in the levels of blood glucose, pro-inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation, neuronal activities of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, nitric oxide, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and Na+/K+-ATPase in diabetic non treated rats. In addition, decreased levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed. Treatment with different fractions of C. pubescens leaves resulted in a significant reversal of the biochemical alteration and improved the neurocognitive deficit in STZ-induced diabetic rats. However, the ethyl-acetate fraction demonstrated higher activities than the other fractions and was characterized for its phytoconstituents, revealing the presence of Gallic acid (713.00 ppm), catechin (0.91 ppm), ferulic acid (0.98 ppm), rutin (59.82 ppm), quercetin (3.22 ppm) and kaempferol (4.07 ppm). Our molecular docking analysis revealed that these compounds exhibited different binding affinities and potentials for targeting BChE/AChE/ IL-1 β/Na+-K+-ATPase. However, only Kampferol and ferulic exhibited good drug-like, ADMET, and permeability properties suitable for use as a neuronal drug target agent. Hence, the ethyl-acetate fraction of C. pubescent leaves could be considered a source of promising bioactive metabolite for the treatment and management of cognitive impairments related to type II diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, neuroprotective, antioxidant, pro-inflammatory cytokines

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