Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4490

Search results for: traditional Chinese medicines

4490 Care at the Intersection of Biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: Narratives of Integration, Negotiation, and Provision

Authors: Jessica Ding

Abstract:

The field of global health is currently advocating for a resurgence in the use of traditional medicines to improve people-centered care. Healthcare policies are rapidly changing in response; in China, the increasing presence of TCM in the same spaces as biomedicine has led to a new term: integrative medicine. However, the existence of TCM as a part of integrative medicine creates a pressing paradoxical tension where TCM is both seen as a marginalized system within ‘modern’ hospitals and as a modality worth integrating. Additionally, the impact of such shifts has not been fully explored: the World Health Organization for one focuses only on three angles —practices, products, and practitioners— with regards to traditional medicines. Through ten weeks of fieldwork conducted at an urban hospital in Shanghai, China, this research expands the perspective of existing strategies by looking at integrative care through a fourth lens: patients and families. The understanding of self-care, health-seeking behavior, and non-professional caregiving structures are critical to grasping the significance of traditional medicine for people-centered care. Indeed, those individual and informal health care expectations align with the very spaces and needs that traditional medicine has filled before such ideas of integration. It specifically looks at this issue via three processes that operationalize experiences of care: (1) how aspects of TCM are valued within integrative medicine, (2) how negotiations of care occur between patients and doctors, and (3) how 'good quality' caregiving presents in integrative clinical spaces. This research hopes to lend insight into how culturally embedded traditions, bureaucratic and institutional rationalities, and social patterns of health-seeking behavior influence care to shape illness experiences at the intersection of two medical modalities. This analysis of patients’ clinical and illness experiences serves to enrich the narratives of integrative medical care’s ability to provide patient-centered care to determine how international policies are realized at the individual level. This anthropological study of the integration of Traditional Chinese medicine in local contexts can reveal the extent to which global strategies, as promoted by the WHO and the Chinese government actually align with the expectations and perspectives of patients receiving care. Ultimately, this ethnographic analysis of a local Chinese context hopes to inform global policies regarding the future use and integration of traditional medicines.

Keywords: emergent systems, global health, integrative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, TCM

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4489 The Modern Significance of Chinese Traditional Gardens for the Development of Modern Eco-Garden Cities

Authors: Liang Zhang

Abstract:

Chinese traditional gardens are the historical and cultural treasures of the whole mankind, among which the excellent parts still have important guiding significance for modern urban design. Based on the background of eco-garden city and reality, through the analysis of various design elements of classical gardens, combined with the needs of today's urban development, starting from the three needs of landscape, energy saving and environmental protection. To explore how Chinese traditional gardens can be revitalized in modern urban planning.

Keywords: Chinese traditional gardens, eco-garden city, modern urban planning, urban development

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4488 The Same Rules of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treating Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria and Hypertension

Authors: Heng W. Chang, Mao F. Sun

Abstract:

Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) and hypertension are rarely discussed together in modern and traditional Chinese medicine, and often belong to different medical departments. However, in traditional Chinese medicinal theory, the two diseases have some similar characters. For example, they are both relevant to 'wind'. This study conducted a literature review using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure to identify herbs yielding the same effect for the two diseases. The finding showed that the common herbs used most frequently is Rehmanniae. The conclusion is that the same TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) mechanism of the two diseases may be 'blood heat'. It requires further study to prove it in the future.

Keywords: urticaria, herbs, hypertension, Rehmanniae

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4487 An Exploratory Study of Chinese Paper-Cut Art in Household Product Design

Authors: Ruining Wu, Na Song

Abstract:

Paper-cut, as one of the Chinese traditional folk decoration art, has become a unique visual aesthetic characteristics of the Chinese nation in the long-term evolution of cultural symbols. Chinese paper-cut art is the treasure-house for product design in natural resources. This paper first analyzed Chinese folk art of historical origin, cultural background, cultural values, aesthetic value, style features of Chinese paper cut art, then analyzed the design thought and design cases of paper-cut art application in different areas, such as clothing design, logo design and product design areas. Through the research of Chinese paper-cut art culture and design elements, this paper aims to build a household product design concept of Chinese traditional culture.

Keywords: paper-cut art, culture, household products, design

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4486 Investigation and Research on Construction Technology of Tenon and Mortise in Traditional Chinese Architecture

Authors: Liang Zhang

Abstract:

Chinese traditional architecture has developed a school of its own in the world. It has a different structure and construction technology from western architecture. Tenon and mortise structure and construction technology, as the key to the construction of traditional Chinese architecture, have been inherited for thousands of years by traditional craftsmen in various regions of China. However, the traditional architecture varies greatly in different times and regional cultures in China. It is still a lack of research whether this difference extends to mortise and tenon technology. In this study, we measured the mortise and tenon of traditional buildings in Fujian province, Yunnan province, and Northern China; Interviewed some old craftsmen about their traditional construction methods, And compared the today's traditional mortise and tenon technology with that of Song and Qing Dynasties. The results showed that although Chinese traditional architecture has the same origin, the mortise and tenon construction technology systems have been developed at different times, regions, and cultures. For example, tenon and mortise technology in Yunnan Province needs to ensure the ability of buildings to resist earthquakes, while that in Fujian Province needs to ensure the ability of buildings to withstand typhoons. People in different regions, cultures, and times have a different understanding of architectural aesthetics, and the evolution of tools also has different effects on mortise and tenon technology. This study explains the manifestations and causes of these differences. At the same time, due to the impact of modern architectural technology, mortise, and tenon, traditional technology is also rapidly disappearing. As a sorting and collection of mortise and tenon techniques of traditional Chinese architecture, this paper puts forward the corresponding traditional technology protection strategy, to guide the protection and maintenance of local traditional buildings.

Keywords: tenon and mortise, traditional Chinese architecture, traditional craftsmen, construction technology

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4485 The Enlightenment of the Ventilation System in Chinese Traditional Residence to Architecture Design

Authors: Wu Xingchun, Chen Xi

Abstract:

Nowadays, China's building energy consumption constitutes 25% of the total energy consumption, half of which was caused by air conditioning in both summer and winter. The ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence, which is totally passive and environmentally friendly, works effectively to create comfortable indoor environment. The research on the ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence can provide advancements to architecture design and energy savings to the society. Through field investigation, case analysis, strategy proposing and other methods, it comes out that the location and layout, the structure system and the design of atrium are the most important elements for a good ventilation system. Taking every factor into consideration, techniques are deployed extensively such as the organization of draught, the design of the thermal pressure ventilation system and the application of modern materials. With the enlightenment of the ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence, we can take effective measures to achieve low energy consumption and sustainable architecture.

Keywords: ventilation system, chinese traditional residence, energy consumption, sustainable architecture

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4484 Sustainable Behavior and Design in Chinese Traditional Culture

Authors: Jin Chuhao

Abstract:

Sustainable design is the key for the human to realize the harmonious development. However, sustainable design requires localization that combines their own regional culture’s characteristics, then forms the most common cultural identity. As a result, the concept of sustainable design integrates into social behavior and promotes the harmonious development. Chinese Confucian doctrine is one of the important thoughts of human culture, which is accepted by more and more people. This paper summarizes the sustainable concept from the Chinese traditional culture and local design, discusses how they change the life of human being and produces enlightenment and significance to China and world.

Keywords: sustainable design, Chinese traditional culture, harmonious development, Confucianism

Procedia PDF Downloads 593
4483 Afrikan Natural Medicines: An Innovation-Based Model for Medicines Production, Curriculum Development and Clinical Application

Authors: H. Chabalala, A. Grootboom, M. Tang

Abstract:

The innovative development, production, and clinical utilisation of African natural medicines requires frameworks from systematisation, innovation, registration. Afrika faces challenges when it comes to these sectors. The opposite is the case as is is evident in ancient Asian (Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha) medical systems, which are interfaced into their respective national health and educational systems. Afrikan Natural Medicines (ANMs) are yet to develop systematisation frameworks, i.e. disease characterisation and medicines classification. This paper explores classical medical systems drawn from Afrikan and Chinese experts in natural medicines. An Afrikological research methodology was used to conduct in-depth interviews with 20 key respondents selected through purposeful sampling technique. Data was summarised into systematisation frameworks for classical disease theories, patient categorisation, medicine classification, aetiology and pathogenesis of disease, diagnosis and prognosis techniques and treatment methods. It was discovered that ancient Afrika had systematic medical cosmologies, remnants of which are evident in most Afrikan cultural health practices. Parallels could be drawn from classical medical concepts of antiquity, like Chinese Taoist and Indian tantric health systems. Data revealed that both the ancient and contemporary ANM systems were based on living medical cosmologies. The study showed that African Natural Healing Systems have etiological systems, general pathogenesis knowledge, differential diagnostic techniques, comprehensive prognosis and holistic treatment regimes. Systematisation models were developed out of these frameworks, and this could be used for evaluation of clinical research, medical application including development of curriculum for high-education. It was envisaged that frameworks will pave way towards the development, production and commercialisation of ANMs. This was piloted in inclusive innovation, technology transfer and commercialisation of South African natural medicines, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and health infusions. The central model presented here in will assist in curriculum development and establishment of Afrikan Medicines Hospitals and Pharmaceutical Industries.

Keywords: African Natural Medicines, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Medical Cosmology, Clinical Application

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4482 A Sociological Exploration of How Chinese Highly Educated Women Respond to the Gender Stereotype in China

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In this study, Chinese highly educated women referred to those women who are currently doing their Ph.D. studies, and those who have already had Ph.D. degrees. In ancient Chinese society, women were subordinated to men. The only gender role of women was to be a wife and a mother. With the rapid development of China, women are encouraged to pursue higher education. As a result of this, the number of highly educated women is growing very quickly. However, people, especially men, believe that highly educated women are challenging the traditional image of Chinese women. It is thus believed that highly educated women are very different with the traditional women. They are demonstrating an image of independent and confident women with promising careers. Plus, with the reinforcement of mass media, highly educated women are regarded as non-traditional women. People stigmatize them as the 'third gender' on the basis of male and female. Now, the 'third gender' has become a gender stereotype of highly educated women. In this study, 20 participants were interviewed to explore their perceptions of self and how these highly educated women respond to the stereotype. The study finds that Chinese highly educated women are facing a variety of problems and difficulties in their daily life, and they believe that one of the leading causes is the contradiction between patriarchal values and the views of gender equality in contemporary China. This study gives rich qualitative data in the research of Chinese women and will help to extend the current Chinese gender studies.

Keywords: Chinese highly educated women, gender stereotype, self, the ‘third gender’

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4481 Traditional Medicines Used for the Enhancement of Male Sexual Performance among the Indigenous Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: A. N. Sharma

Abstract:

A traditional medicine comprises a knowledge system, practices related to the cure of various ailments that developed over generations by indigenous people or populations. The indigenous populations developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-though hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of traditional medicines for the enhancement of male sexual performance among the indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh, India. Madhya Pradesh state is situated more or less in the central part of India. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, traditional health service providers of Sagar district, and other indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh. It may be concluded that sizable traditional medicines exist in Madhya Pradesh, India, for the enhancement of male sexual performance, which still awaits for scientific exploration and intensive pharmaceutical investigations.

Keywords: Bharias, indigenous, Madhya Pradesh, sexual performance, traditional medicine

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4480 “Context” Thinking of Contemporary Urban History Space under the Basis of Enlightenment of Chinese Traditional Cultural Philology: Taking West Expansion Plan of Tianyi Pavilion as An Example

Authors: Wei Yan, Wei Dong

Abstract:

Facing the understanding problem of update and preservation of urban history space under background of rapid Chinese urbanization, so at first there is a need to dig the philosophic principles of “antithesis” and “unification” which are contained in the traditional Chinese literature known as “antithesis” and do the job of planning translation by personal understanding in order to form understanding and value systems of dialectical urban history space under the foundation of “antithesis”. Then we could put forward a “context” concept for urban history space under the foregoing basis. After that, we will take the update and preservation of Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion’s historical district as an example to discuss problems related to understanding of urban history area under the basis of Chinese tradition culture, improvement of value system, construction of urban trait space and Chinese “localization” of planning theory.

Keywords: antithesis, traditional values, city renewal and conservation, the “context” of city history space

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
4479 The Sustainable Development of Chinese Rural Areas Promoted by Agricultural Cultural and Creative Industries

Authors: Jin Chuhao, Chen Xiang

Abstract:

In recent years, due to the rapid development of Chinese urbanization, a great deal of rural population surge into urban to make a living. This fact causes the vicious circulation of rural development including sharp decrease of agricultural labor force in rural area, the obvious increase of rural land price, the shrinking of traditional agriculture and the bigger gap between Chinese urban and rural areas. With the improvement of living condition and ideological level of the Chinese people, the use and renewal of the traditional villages are gaining more and more attention, thus agricultural cultural and creative industries appears. Basing on the investigation of practical projects, this paper discusses how the agricultural cultural and creative industries promote the sustainable development of Chinese rural areas.

Keywords: sustainable design, Chinese rural areas, renewal, agricultural cultural and creative industries

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4478 Shaping Traditional Chinese Culture in Contemporary Fashion: ‘Guochao’ as a Rising Aesthetic and the Case Study of the Designer Brand Angel Chen

Authors: Zhe Ginnie Wang

Abstract:

Recent cultural design studies have begun to shed light on the discussion of Western-Eastern cultural and aesthetic hybridization, especially in the field of fashion. With the unprecedented spread of cultural Chinese fashion design in the global fashion system, the under-identified ‘Guochao’ aesthetic that has emerged in the global market needs to be academically emphasized with a methodological approach looking at the Western-Eastern cultural hybridization present in fashion visualization. Through an in-depth and comprehensive investigation of a representative international-based Chinese designer, Angel Chen's fashion show 'Madam Qing', this paper provides a methodological approach on how a form of traditional culture can be effectively extracted and applied to modern design using the most effective techniques. The central approach examined in this study involves creating aesthetic revolutions by addressing Chinese cultural identity through re-creating and modernizing traditional Chinese culture in design.

Keywords: style modernization, Chinese culture, guochao, design identity, fashion show, Angel Chen

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4477 Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.

Keywords: Chinese female Ph.D. students, the ‘leftover women’, the Chinese patriarchal society, gender role, Chinese culture

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4476 Critical Assessment of Herbal Medicine Usage and Efficacy by Pharmacy Students

Authors: Anton V. Dolzhenko, Tahir Mehmood Khan

Abstract:

An ability to make an evidence-based decision is a critically important skill required for practicing pharmacists. The development of this skill is incorporated into the pharmacy curriculum. We aimed in our study to estimate perception of pharmacy students regarding herbal medicines and their ability to assess information on herbal medicines professionally. The current Monash University curriculum in Pharmacy does not provide comprehensive study material on herbal medicines and students should find their way to find information, assess its quality and make a professional decision. In the Pharmacy course, students are trained how to apply this process to conventional medicines. In our survey of 93 undergraduate students from year 1-4 of Pharmacy course at Monash University Malaysia, we found that students’ view on herbal medicines is sometimes associated with common beliefs, which affect students’ ability to make evidence-based conclusions regarding the therapeutic potential of herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines is widespread and 95.7% of the participated students have prior experience of using them. In the scale 1 to 10, students rated the importance of acquiring herbal medicine knowledge for them as 8.1±1.6. More than half (54.9%) agreed that herbal medicines have the same clinical significance as conventional medicines in treating diseases. Even more, students agreed that healthcare settings should give equal importance to both conventional and herbal medicine use (80.6%) and that herbal medicines should comply with strict quality control procedures as conventional medicines (84.9%). The latter statement also indicates that students consider safety issues associated with the use of herbal medicines seriously. It was further confirmed by 94.6% of students saying that the safety and toxicity information on herbs and spices are important to pharmacists and 95.7% of students admitting that drug-herb interactions may affect therapeutic outcome. Only 36.5% of students consider herbal medicines as s safer alternative to conventional medicines. The students use information on herbal medicines from various sources and media. Most of the students (81.7%) obtain information on herbal medicines from the Internet and only 20.4% mentioned lectures/workshop/seminars as a source of such information. Therefore, we can conclude that students attained the skills on the critical assessment of therapeutic properties of conventional medicines have a potential to use their skills for evidence-based decisions regarding herbal medicines.

Keywords: evidence-based decision, pharmacy education, student perception, traditional medicines

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4475 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

Abstract:

This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the pictogram Chinese characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assistant the learner learning Chinese as second language (SCL) in Chinese language learning specifically on memorize Chinese characters. Commonly, the SCL will give up and frustrate easily while memorize the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation is able to help on memorize the Chinese character by the help of visually storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of SCL.

Keywords: Chinese e-learning, innovative Chinese character representation, knowledge management, language learning

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4474 Another Justice: Litigation Masters in Chinese Legal Story

Authors: Lung-Lung Hu

Abstract:

Ronald Dworkin offered a legal theory of ‘chain enterprise’ that all the judges in legal history altogether create a ‘law’ aiming a specific purpose. Those judges are like co-writers of a chain-story who not only create freely but also are constrained by the story made by the judges before them. The law created by Chinese traditional judges is another case, they, compared with the judges mentioned by Ronald Dworkin, have relatively narrower space of making a legal sentence according to their own discretions because the statutes in Chinese traditional law at the very beginning have been designed as panel code that leaves small room to judge’s discretion. Furthermore, because law is a representative of the authority of the government, i.e. the emperor, any misjudges and misuses deviated from the law will be considered as a challenge to the supreme power. However, different from judges as the defenders of law, Chinese litigation masters who want to win legal cases have to be offenders challenging the verdict that does not favor his or his client’s interest. Besides, litigation master as an illegal or non-authorized profession does not belong to any legal system, therefore, they are relatively freer to ‘create’ the law. According to Stanley Fish’s articles that question Ronald Dworkin and Owen Fiss’ ideas about law, he construes that, since law is made of language, law is open to interpretations that cannot be constrained by any rules or any particular legal purposes. Stanley Fish’s idea can also be applied on the analysis about the stories of Chinese litigation masters in traditional Chinese literature. These Chinese litigation masters’ legal opinions in the so-called chain enterprise are like an unexpected episode that tries to revise the fixed story told by law. Although they are not welcome to the officials and also to the society, their existence is still a phenomenon representing another version of justice different from the official’s and can be seen as a de-structural power to the government. Hence, in this present paper the language and strategy applied by Chinese litigation masters in Chinese legal stories will be analysed to see how they refute made legal judgments and challenge the official standard of justice.

Keywords: Chinese legal stories, interdisciplinary, litigation master, post-structuralism

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4473 Preliminary Study on Chinese Traditional Garden Making Based on Water Storage Projects

Authors: Liu Fangxin, Zhao Jijun

Abstract:

Nowadays, China and the world are facing the same problems of flooding, city waterlogging and other environment issues. Throughout history, China had many excellent experiences dealing with the flood, and can be used as a significant reference for contemporary urban construction. In view of this, the research used the method of literature analysis to find out the main water storage measures in ancient cities, including reservoir storage and pond water storage. And it used the case study method to introduce the historical evolution, engineering measures and landscape design of 4 typical ancient Chinese cities in details. Then we found the pond and the reservoir were the main infrastructures for the ancient Chinese city to avoid the waterlogging and flood. At last this paper summed up the historical experience of Chinese traditional water storage and made conclusions that the establishment of a reasonable green water storage facilities could be used to solve today's rain and flood problems, and hoped to give some enlightenment of stormwater management to our modern city.

Keywords: ancient Chinese cities, water storage project, Chinese classical gardening, stormwater management, green facilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
4472 A Simple Fluid Dynamic Model for Slippery Pulse Pattern in Traditional Chinese Pulse Diagnosis

Authors: Yifang Gong

Abstract:

Pulse diagnosis is one of the most important diagnosis methods in traditional Chinese medicine. It is also the trickiest method to learn. It is known as that it can only to be sensed not explained. This becomes a serious threat to the survival of this diagnostic method. However, there are a large amount of experiences accumulated during the several thousand years of practice of Chinese doctors. A pulse pattern called 'Slippery pulse' is one of the indications of pregnancy. A simple fluid dynamic model is proposed to simulate the effects of the existence of a placenta. The placenta is modeled as an extra plenum in an extremely simplified fluid network model. It is found that because of the existence of the extra plenum, indeed the pulse pattern shows a secondary peak in one pulse period. As for the author’s knowledge, this work is the first time to show the link between Pulse diagnoses and basic physical principle. Key parameters which might affect the pattern are also investigated.

Keywords: Chinese medicine, flow network, pregnancy, pulse

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4471 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

Abstract:

Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: bioactive chemical markers, herbal medicines, quality assessment, quality control

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4470 Chinese Remainder Theorem and Decidability

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

Abstract:

The Chinese remainder theorem deals with systems of modular equations. It has many applications. The Chinese remainder theorem requires that modules be pairwise coprime. In this paper, we discuss the general Chinese remainder theorem, which does not require this restriction on modules. We also show interesting applications of the general Chinese remainder theorem in proving decidability.

Keywords: Chinese remainder theorem, decidability, general Chinese remainder theorem, quantifier-elimination

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4469 Cultural Understanding in Chinese Language Education for Foreigners: A Quest for Better Integration

Authors: Linhan Sun

Abstract:

With the gradual strengthening of China's economic development, more and more people around the world are learning Chinese due to economic and trade needs, which has also promoted the research related to Chinese language education for foreigners. Because the Chinese language system is different from the Western language system, learning Chinese is not easy for many learners. In addition, language learning cannot be separated from the learning and understanding of culture. How to integrate cultural learning into the curriculum of Chinese language education for foreigners is the focus of this study. Through a semi-structured in-depth interview method, 15 foreigners who have studied or are studying Chinese participated in this study. This study found that cultural learning and Chinese as a foreign language are relatively disconnected. In other words, learners were able to acquire a certain degree of knowledge of the Chinese language through textbooks or courses but did not gain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture.

Keywords: Chinese language education, Chinese culture, qualitative methods, intercultural communication

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4468 The Geometrical Cosmology: The Projective Cast of the Collective Subjectivity of the Chinese Traditional Architectural Drawings

Authors: Lina Sun

Abstract:

Chinese traditional drawings related to buildings and construction apply a unique geometry differentiating with western Euclidean geometry and embrace a collection of special terminologies, under the category of tu (the Chinese character for drawing). This paper will on one side etymologically analysis the terminologies of Chinese traditional architectural drawing, and on the other side geometrically deconstruct the composition of tu and locate the visual narrative language of tu in the pictorial tradition. The geometrical analysis will center on selected series of Yang-shi-lei tu of the construction of emperors’ mausoleums in Qing Dynasty (1636-1912), and will also draw out the earlier architectural drawings and the architectural paintings such as the jiehua, and paintings on religious frescoes and tomb frescoes as the comparison. By doing these, this research will reveal that both the terminologies corresponding to different geometrical forms respectively indicate associations between architectural drawing and the philosophy of Chinese cosmology, and the arrangement of the geometrical forms in the visual picture plane facilitates expressions of the concepts of space and position in the geometrical cosmology. These associations and expressions are the collective intentions of architectural drawing evolving in the thousands of years’ tradition without breakage and irrelevant to the individual authorship. Moreover, the architectural tu itself as an entity, not only functions as the representation of the buildings but also express intentions and strengthen them by using the Chinese unique geometrical language flexibly and intentionally. These collective cosmological spatial intentions and the corresponding geometrical words and languages reveal that the Chinese traditional architectural drawing functions as a unique architectural site with subjectivity which exists parallel with buildings and express intentions and meanings by itself. The methodology and the findings of this research will, therefore, challenge the previous researches which treat architectural drawings just as the representation of buildings and understand the drawings more than just using them as the evidence to reconstruct the information of buildings. Furthermore, this research will situate architectural drawing in between the researches of Chinese technological tu and artistic painting, bridging the two academic areas which usually treated the partial features of architectural drawing separately. Beyond this research, the collective subjectivity of the Chinese traditional drawings will facilitate the revealing of the transitional experience from traditions to drawing modernity, where the individual subjective identities and intentions of architects arise. This research will root for the understanding both the ambivalence and affinity of the drawing modernity encountering the traditions.

Keywords: Chinese traditional architectural drawing (tu), etymology of tu, collective subjectivity of tu, geometrical cosmology in tu, geometry and composition of tu, Yang-shi-lei tu

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4467 Number Variation of the Personal Pronoun we Used by Chinese English Learners

Authors: Qiong Hu, Ming Yue

Abstract:

Language variation signals the newest usage of language community, which might become the developmental trend of that language. However, language textbooks cannot keep up with these emergent usages. Most Chinese English learners nowadays are still exposed to traditional grammar prescribed in the textbook so that some variational usages cannot be acquired. The personal pronoun we is prescribed as a plural pronoun in the textbook grammar, but its number value is more flexible in actual use. Based on the Chinese Learner English Corpus (CLEC), and with the homemade Friends corpus as reference, the present research explores the number value of the first person pronoun we used by Chinese English learners. With consideration of the subjectivity of we, this paper annotated the number value of all the wes in “we+ PCU (Perception-cognation-utterance) verbs” collocations. Results show that though exposed to traditional textbooks which prescribe the plural reference of we, there still exists some unconventional usage (singular or vague in reference) in the writings of Chinese English learners, which is less frequent than that of the native speeches. Corpus data and results from manual semantic annotation show that this could be due to the impact of formulaic sequence on the learners and the positive transfer from their native language. An improved SLA model of native language, target language and interlanguage is put forward to recognize the existence of variation in second language acquisition, which should be given more attention during teaching.

Keywords: Chinese English learners, number, PCU verbs, Personal pronoun we

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4466 Translation Choices of Logical Meaning from Chinese into English: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Perspective

Authors: Xueying Li

Abstract:

Different from English, it is common to observe Chinese clauses logically related in an implicit way without any conjunctions. This typological difference has posed a great challenge for Chinese-English translators, as 1) translators may interpret logical meaning in different ways when there are no conjunctions in Chinese Source Text (ST); 2) translators may have questions whether to make Chinese implicit logical meaning explicit or to remain implicit in Target Text (TT), and whether other dimensions of logical meaning (e.g., type of logical meaning) should be shifted or not. Against this background, this study examines a comprehensive arrange of Chinese-English translation choices of logical meaning to deal with this challenge in a systematic way. It compiles several ST-TT passages from a set of translation textbooks in a corpus, namely Ying Yu Bi Yi Shi Wu (Er Ji)) [Translation Practice between Chinese and English: Intermediate Level] and its supportive training book, analyzes how logical meaning in ST are translated in TT in texts across different text types with Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) as the theoretical framework, and finally draws a system network of translation choices of logical meaning from Chinese into English. Since translators may probably think about semantic meaning rather than lexico-grammatical resources in translation, this study goes away from traditional lexico-grammatical choices, but rather describing translation choices from the semantic level. The findings in this study can provide some help and support for translation practitioners so that they can understand that besides explicitation, there are a variety of possible linguistic choices available for making informed decisions when translating Chinese logical meaning into English.

Keywords: Chinese-English translation, logical meaning, systemic functional linguistics, translation choices

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4465 Constructing Digital Memory for Chinese Ancient Village: A Case on Village of Gaoqian

Authors: Linqing Ma, Huiling Feng, Jihong Liang, Yi Qian

Abstract:

In China, some villages have survived in the long history of changes and remain until today with their unique styles and featured culture developed in the past. Those ancient villages, usually aged for hundreds or thousands of years, are the mirror for traditional Chinese culture, especially the farming-studying culture represented by the Confucianism. Gaoqian, an ancient village with a population of 3,000 in Zhejiang province, is such a case. With a history dating back to Yuan Dynasty, Gaoqian Village has 13 well-preserved traditional Chinese houses with a courtyard, which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. It is a fine specimen to study traditional rural China. In China, some villages have survived in the long history of changes and remain until today with their unique styles and featured culture developed in the past. Those ancient villages, usually aged for hundreds or thousands of years, are the mirror for traditional Chinese culture, especially the farming-studying culture represented by the Confucianism. Gaoqian, an ancient village with a population of 3,000 in Zhejiang province, is such a case. With a history dating back to Yuan Dynasty, Gaoqian Village has 13 well-preserved traditional Chinese houses with a courtyard, which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. It is a fine specimen to study traditional rural China. Then a repository for the memory of the Village will be completed by doing arrangement and description for those multimedia resources such as texts, photos, videos and so on. Production of Creative products with digital technologies is also possible based a thorough understanding of the culture feature of Gaoqian Village using research tools for literature and history studies and a method of comparative study. Finally, the project will construct an exhibition platform for the Village and its culture by telling its stories with completed structures and treads.

Keywords: ancient villages, digital exhibition, multimedia, traditional culture

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4464 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

Abstract:

Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture

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4463 A Saudi Herbal Database: An Approach for Organizing the Rich Herbal Resource of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

The use of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle has gained a significant acceptance across the globe. The increasing popularity of Herbal Medicine can be owed to the fact that is relatively inexpensive and has lesser side effects as compared to general medicines. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a rich heritage of herbal medicine for overages. However, the information about essential traditional herbs of Arabian origin and their implication in the treatment of various diseases are not well documented in an organized manner. Therefore, the requirement of a local platform (database system) for herbal medicines of Arab origin is the need of the day. In this context, various questionnaire and surveys were conducted over a period of 6 months. The surveys were targeted to identify a range of herbal remedies used by the communities of Saudi Arabia e.g., pharmacists and local people. The survey leads us to identify many of the mysterious local medicinal herbs used for the treatment of various ailments and thus reveals a unique insight into the natural herbal resource of Saudi Arabia. The information of the herbal medicines will be further used to develop a Saudi herbal database system using the principles of waterfall method. An interactive dynamic electronic web portal of the herbal database system will be built using MySQL and PHP for accessing the information available in the Saudi herbal database system. The web portal will be a step forward in creating awareness among the Arab nationals of their rich herbal heritage.

Keywords: Saudi herbal medicine, community survey, database system and design, MySQL, PHP

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4462 Commodification of the Chinese Language: Investigating Language Ideology in the Chinese Complementary Schools’ Online Discourse

Authors: Yuying Liu

Abstract:

Despite the increasing popularity of Chinese and the recognition of the growing commodifying ideology of Chinese language in many contexts (Liu and Gao, 2020; Guo, Shin and Shen 2020), the ideological orientations of the Chinese diaspora community towards the Chinese language remain under-researched. This research contributes seeks to bridge this gap by investigating the micro-level language ideologies embedded in the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. Informed by Ruíz’s (1984) metaphorical representations of language, 11 Chinese complementary schools’ websites were analysed as discursive texts that signal the language policy and ideology to prospective learners and parents were analysed. The results of the analysis suggest that a move from a portrayal of Chinese as linked to student heritage identity, to the commodification of linguistic and cultural diversity, is evident. It denotes the growing commodifying ideology among the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. The changing profile of the complementary school, from serving an ethnical community to teaching Chinese as a foreign language for the wider community, indicates the possibility of creating the a positive synergy between the Complementary school and the mainstream education. This study contributes to the wider discussions of language ideology and language planning, with regards to modern language learning and heritage language maintenance.

Keywords: the Chinese language;, Chinese as heritage language, Chinese as foreign language, Chinese community schools

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4461 Using Reading to Learn Pedagogy to Promote Chinese Written Vocabulary Acquisition: An Evaluative Study

Authors: Mengping Cheng, John Everatt, Alison Arrow, Amanda Denston

Abstract:

Based on the available evidence, Chinese heritage language learners have a basic level of Chinese language proficiency with lower capability in literacy compared to speaking. Low levels of literacy are likely related to the lack of reading activities in current textbook-based pedagogy used in Chinese community schools. The present study aims to use Reading to Learn pedagogy which is a top-down language learning model and test the effectiveness of Reading to Learn on Chinese heritage learners’ written vocabulary acquisition. A quasi-experiment with the pre-test/post-test non-equivalent group design was conducted. The experimental group received Reading to Learn instructions and the control group had traditional textbook-based instructions. Participants were given Chinese characters tasks (a recognize-and-read task and a listen-and-point task), vocabulary tasks (a receptive vocabulary task and a productive vocabulary task) and a sentence cloze test in pre-tests and post-tests. Data collection is in progress and results will be available shortly. If the results show more improvement of Chinese written vocabulary in the experimental group than in the control group, it will be recommended that Reading to Learn pedagogy is valuable to be used to maintain and develop Chinese heritage language literacy.

Keywords: Chinese heritage language, experimental research, Reading to Learn pedagogy, vocabulary acquisition

Procedia PDF Downloads 74