Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1294

Search results for: genetic fidelity

1294 Evaluation of Genetic Fidelity and Phytochemical Profiling of Micropropagated Plants of Cephalantheropsis obcordata: An Endangered Medicinal Orchid

Authors: Gargi Prasad, Ashiho A. Mao, Deepu Vijayan, S. Mandal

Abstract:

The main objective of the present study was to optimize and develop an efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of a medicinally important orchid Cephalantheropsis obcordata (Lindl.) Ormerod along with genetic stability analysis of regenerated plants. This plant has been traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine and the decoction of whole plant is known to possess anticancer activity. Nodal segments used as explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of isopentenyl adenine (2iP). The rooted plants were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse with 100% survival rate. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to assess the genetic fidelity of in vitro raised plants and the mother plant. It was revealed that monomorphic bands showing the absence of polymorphism in all in vitro raised plantlets analyzed, confirming the genetic uniformity among the regenerants. Phytochemical analysis was done to compare the antioxidant activities and HPLC fingerprinting assay of 80% aqueous ethanol extract of the leaves and stem of in vitro and in vivo grown C. obcordata. The extracts of the plants were examined for their antioxidant activities by using free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method, 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability, reducing power capacity, estimation of total phenolic content, flavonoid content and flavonol content. A simplified method for the detection of ascorbic acid, phenolic acids and flavonoids content was also developed by using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This is the first report on the micropropagation, genetic integrity study and quantitative phytochemical analysis of in vitro regenerated plants of C. obcordata.

Keywords: Cephalantheropsis obcordata, genetic fidelity, ISSR markers, HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1293 Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modelling with Kriging

Authors: Selvakumar Ulaganathan, Ivo Couckuyt, Francesco Ferranti, Tom Dhaene, Eric Laermans

Abstract:

Variable-fidelity surrogate modelling offers an efficient way to approximate function data available in multiple degrees of accuracy each with varying computational cost. In this paper, a Kriging-based variable-fidelity surrogate modelling approach is introduced to approximate such deterministic data. Initially, individual Kriging surrogate models, which are enhanced with gradient data of different degrees of accuracy, are constructed. Then these Gradient enhanced Kriging surrogate models are strategically coupled using a recursive CoKriging formulation to provide an accurate surrogate model for the highest fidelity data. While, intuitively, gradient data is useful to enhance the accuracy of surrogate models, the primary motivation behind this work is to investigate if it is also worthwhile incorporating gradient data of varying degrees of accuracy.

Keywords: Kriging, CoKriging, Surrogate modelling, Variable- fidelity modelling, Gradients

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
1292 Assessing the Impact of High Fidelity Human Patient Simulation on Teamwork among Nursing, Medicine and Pharmacy Undergraduate Students

Authors: S. MacDonald, A. Manuel, R. Law, N. Bandruak, A. Dubrowski, V. Curran, J. Smith-Young, K. Simmons, A. Warren

Abstract:

High fidelity human patient simulation has been used for many years by health sciences education programs to foster critical thinking, engage learners, improve confidence, improve communication, and enhance psychomotor skills. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research on the use of high fidelity human patient simulation to foster teamwork among nursing, medicine and pharmacy undergraduate students. This study compared the impact of high fidelity and low fidelity simulation education on teamwork among nursing, medicine and pharmacy students. For the purpose of this study, two innovative teaching scenarios were developed based on the care of an adult patient experiencing acute anaphylaxis: one high fidelity using a human patient simulator and one low fidelity using case based discussions. A within subjects, pretest-posttest, repeated measures design was used with two-treatment levels and random assignment of individual subjects to teams of two or more professions. A convenience sample of twenty-four (n=24) undergraduate students participated, including: nursing (n=11), medicine (n=9), and pharmacy (n=4). The Interprofessional Teamwork Questionnaire was used to assess for changes in students’ perception of their functionality within the team, importance of interprofessional collaboration, comprehension of roles, and confidence in communication and collaboration. Student satisfaction was also assessed. Students reported significant improvements in their understanding of the importance of interprofessional teamwork and of the roles of nursing and medicine on the team after participation in both the high fidelity and the low fidelity simulation. However, only participants in the high fidelity simulation reported a significant improvement in their ability to function effectively as a member of the team. All students reported that both simulations were a meaningful learning experience and all students would recommend both experiences to other students. These findings suggest there is merit in both high fidelity and low fidelity simulation as a teaching and learning approach to foster teamwork among undergraduate nursing, medicine and pharmacy students. However, participation in high fidelity simulation may provide a more realistic opportunity to practice and function as an effective member of the interprofessional health care team.

Keywords: acute anaphylaxis, high fidelity human patient simulation, low fidelity simulation, interprofessional education

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
1291 Assesment of Genetic Fidelity of Micro-Clones of an Aromatic Medicinal Plant Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng

Authors: Ramesh Joshi, Nisha Khatik

Abstract:

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng locally known as “Curry patta” or “Meetha neem” belonging to the family Rutaceae that grows wildly in Southern Asia. Its aromatic leaves are commonly used as the raw material for traditional medicinal formulations in India. The leaves contain essential oil and also used as a condiment. Several monomeric and binary carbazol alkaloids present in the various plant parts. These alkaloids have been reported to possess anti-microbial, mosquitocidal, topo-isomerase inhibition and antioxidant properties. Some of the alkaloids reported in this plant have showed anti carcinogenic and anti-diabetic properties. The conventional method of propagation of this tree is limited to seeds only, which retain their viability for only a short period. Hence, a biotechnological approach might have an advantage edging over traditional breeding as well as the genetic improvement of M. koenigii within a short period. The development of a reproducible regeneration protocol is the prerequisite for ex situ conservation and micropropagation. An efficient protocol for high frequency regeneration of in vitro plants of Murraya koenigii via different explants such as- nodal segments, intermodal segments, leaf, root segments, hypocotyle, cotyledons and cotyledonary node explants is described. In the present investigation, assessment of clonal fidelity in the micropropagated plantlets of Murraya koenigii was attempted using RAPD and ISSR markers at different pathways of plant tissue culture technique. About 20 ISSR and 40 RAPD primers were used for all the samples. Genomic DNA was extracted by CTAB method. ISSR primer were found to be more suitable as compared to RAPD for the analysis of clonal fidelity of M. koenigii. The amplifications however, were finally performed using RAPD, ISSR markers owing to their better performance in terms of generation of amplification products. In RAPD primer maximum 75% polymorphism was recorded in OPU-2 series which exhibited out of 04 scorable bands, three bands were polymorphic with a band range of size 600-1500 bp. In ISSR primers the UBC 857 showed 50% polymorphism with 02 band were polymorphic of band range size between 400-1000 bp.

Keywords: genetic fidelity, Murraya koenigii, aromatic plants, ISSR primers

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1290 Molecular Insights into the Genetic Integrity of Long-Term Micropropagated Clones Using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) Markers: A Case Study with Ansellia africana, an Endangered, Medicinal Orchid

Authors: Paromik Bhattacharyya, Vijay Kumar, Johannes Van Staden

Abstract:

Micropropagation is an important tool for the conservation of threatened and commercially important plant species of which orchids deserve special attention. Ansellia africana is one such medicinally important orchid species having much commercial significance. Thus, development of regeneration protocols for producing clonally stable regenerates using axillary buds is of much importance. However, for large-scale micropropagation to become not only successful but also acceptable by end-users, somaclonal variations occurring in the plantlets need to be eliminated. In the light of the various factors (genotype, ploidy level, in vitro culture age, explant and culture type, etc.) that may account for the somaclonal variations of divergent genetic changes at the cellular and molecular levels, genetic analysis of micropropagated plants using a multidisciplinary approach is of utmost importance. In the present study, the clonal integrity of the long term micropropagated A. africana plants were assessed using advanced molecular marker system i.e. Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT). Our studies recorded a clonally stable regeneration protocol for A. africana with a very high degree of clonal fidelity amongst the regenerates. The results obtained from these molecular analyses could help in modifying the regeneration protocols for obtaining clonally stable true to type plantlets for sustainable commercial use.

Keywords: medicinal orchid micropropagation, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), RAP), traditional African pharmacopoeia, genetic fidelity

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
1289 A Survey of Grammar-Based Genetic Programming and Applications

Authors: Matthew T. Wilson

Abstract:

This paper covers a selection of research utilizing grammar-based genetic programming, and illustrates how context-free grammar can be used to constrain genetic programming. It focuses heavily on grammatical evolution, one of the most popular variants of grammar-based genetic programming, and the way its operators and terminals are specialized and modified from those in genetic programming. A variety of implementations of grammatical evolution for general use are covered, as well as research each focused on using grammatical evolution or grammar-based genetic programming on a single application, or to solve a specific problem, including some of the classically considered genetic programming problems, such as the Santa Fe Trail.

Keywords: context-free grammar, genetic algorithms, genetic programming, grammatical evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
1288 Level of Awareness of Genetic Counselling in Benue State Nigeria: Its Advocacy on the Inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Agi Sunday

Abstract:

A descriptive analysis of reported cases of sickle cell disease and the level of awareness about genetic counselling in 30 hospitals were carried out. Additionally, 150 individuals between ages 16-45 were randomly selected for evaluation of genetic counselling awareness. The main tools for this study were questionnaires which were taken to hospitals, and individuals completed the others. The numbers of reported cases of sickle cell disease recorded in private, public and teaching hospitals were 14 and 57; 143 and 89; 272 and 57 for the periods of 1995-2000 and 2001-2005, respectively. A general informal genetic counselling took place mostly in the hospitals visited. 122 (86%) individuals had the knowledge of genetic disease and only 43 (30.3%) individuals have been exposed to genetic counselling. 64% of individuals agreed that genetic counselling would help in the prevention of genetic disease.

Keywords: sickle disease, genetic counseling, genetic testing, advocacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1287 A Review Paper on Data Mining and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sikander Singh Cheema, Jasmeen Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, the concept of data mining is summarized and its one of the important process i.e KDD is summarized. The data mining based on Genetic Algorithm is researched in and ways to achieve the data mining Genetic Algorithm are surveyed. This paper also conducts a formal review on the area of data mining tasks and genetic algorithm in various fields.

Keywords: data mining, KDD, genetic algorithm, descriptive mining, predictive mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
1286 Hardware for Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Reza Tati

Abstract:

Genetic algorithm is a soft computing method that works on set of solutions. These solutions are called chromosome and the best one is the absolute solution of the problem. The main problem of this algorithm is that after passing through some generations, it may be produced some chromosomes that had been produced in some generations ago that causes reducing the convergence speed. From another respective, most of the genetic algorithms are implemented in software and less works have been done on hardware implementation. Our work implements genetic algorithm in hardware that doesn’t produce chromosome that have been produced in previous generations. In this work, most of genetic operators are implemented without producing iterative chromosomes and genetic diversity is preserved. Genetic diversity causes that not only do not this algorithm converge to local optimum but also reaching to global optimum. Without any doubts, proposed approach is so faster than software implementations. Evaluation results also show the proposed approach is faster than hardware ones.

Keywords: hardware, genetic algorithm, computer science, engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
1285 A User Centred Based Approach for Designing Everyday Product: A Case Study of an Alarm Clock

Authors: Obokhai Kess Asikhia

Abstract:

This work explores design concept generation by understanding user needs through observation and interview. The aim is to examine several principles and guidelines in obtaining evidence from observing how users interact with the targeted product and interviewing them to acquire deep insights of their needs. With the help of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), the identified needs of the users while interacting with the product were ranked using the normalised weighting approach. Furthermore, a low fidelity prototype of the alarm clock is developed with a view of addressing the identified needs of the users. Finally, the low fidelity prototype design was evaluated with two design prototypes already existing in the market through a study involving 30 participants. Preliminary results reveal higher performance ratings by the majority of the participants of the new prototype compared to the other existing alarm clocks in the market used in the study.

Keywords: design concept, low fidelity prototype, normalised weighting approach, quality function deployment, user needs

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1284 Enhancement of Genetic Diversity through Cross Breeding of Two Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, A. Chakrabarty

Abstract:

Two popular and highly valued fish, Stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) and Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) are considered for observing genetic enhancement. Cross breeding was performed considering wild and farmed fish through inducing agent. Five RAPD markers were used to assess genetic diversity among parents and offspring of these two catfish for evaluating genetic enhancement in F1 generation. Considering different genetic data such as banding pattern of DNA, polymorphic loci, polymorphic information content (PIC), inter individual pair wise similarity, Nei genetic similarity, genetic distance, phylogenetic relationships, allele frequency, genotype frequency, intra locus gene diversity and average gene diversity of parents and offspring of these two fish were analyzed and finally in both cases higher genetic diversity was found in F1 generation than the parents.

Keywords: Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, cross breeding, genetic enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
1283 High Fidelity Interactive Video Segmentation Using Tensor Decomposition, Boundary Loss, Convolutional Tessellations, and Context-Aware Skip Connections

Authors: Anthony D. Rhodes, Manan Goel

Abstract:

We provide a high fidelity deep learning algorithm (HyperSeg) for interactive video segmentation tasks using a dense convolutional network with context-aware skip connections and compressed, 'hypercolumn' image features combined with a convolutional tessellation procedure. In order to maintain high output fidelity, our model crucially processes and renders all image features in high resolution, without utilizing downsampling or pooling procedures. We maintain this consistent, high grade fidelity efficiently in our model chiefly through two means: (1) we use a statistically-principled, tensor decomposition procedure to modulate the number of hypercolumn features and (2) we render these features in their native resolution using a convolutional tessellation technique. For improved pixel-level segmentation results, we introduce a boundary loss function; for improved temporal coherence in video data, we include temporal image information in our model. Through experiments, we demonstrate the improved accuracy of our model against baseline models for interactive segmentation tasks using high resolution video data. We also introduce a benchmark video segmentation dataset, the VFX Segmentation Dataset, which contains over 27,046 high resolution video frames, including green screen and various composited scenes with corresponding, hand-crafted, pixel-level segmentations. Our work presents a improves state of the art segmentation fidelity with high resolution data and can be used across a broad range of application domains, including VFX pipelines and medical imaging disciplines.

Keywords: computer vision, object segmentation, interactive segmentation, model compression

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1282 Genetic Variation of Shvicezebuvides Cattle in Tajikistan Based on Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Norezzine Abdelaziz, Rebouh Nazih Yacer, Kezimana Parfait, Parpura D. I., Gadzhikurbanov A., Anastasios Dranidis

Abstract:

The genetic variation of Shvicezebuvides cattle from three different farms in the Tajikistan Republic was studied using 10 microsatellite markers (SSR). The trials were laid out using a multi- locus analysis system for the analysis of cattle microsatellite locus. An estimated genetic variability of the examined livestock is given in the article. The results of our SSR analysis as well as the numbers and frequencies of common alleles in studied samples, we established a high genetic similarity of studied samples. These results can also be furthermore useful in the decision making for preservation and rational genetic resources usage of the Tajik Shvicezebuvides cattle.

Keywords: genetic characteristic, frequencies of the occurrence alleles, microsatellite markers, Swiss cattle

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
1281 High-Fidelity 1D Dynamic Model of a Hydraulic Servo Valve Using 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics and Electromagnetic Finite Element Analysis

Authors: D. Henninger, A. Zopey, T. Ihde, C. Mehring

Abstract:

The dynamic performance of a 4-way solenoid operated hydraulic spool valve has been analyzed by means of a one-dimensional modeling approach capturing flow, magnetic and fluid forces, valve inertia forces, fluid compressibility, and damping. Increased model accuracy was achieved by analyzing the detailed three-dimensional electromagnetic behavior of the solenoids and flow behavior through the spool valve body for a set of relevant operating conditions, thereby allowing the accurate mapping of flow and magnetic forces on the moving valve body, in lieu of representing the respective forces by lower-order models or by means of simplistic textbook correlations. The resulting high-fidelity one-dimensional model provided the basis for specific and timely design modification eliminating experimentally observed valve oscillations.

Keywords: dynamic performance model, high-fidelity model, 1D-3D decoupled analysis, solenoid-operated hydraulic servo valve, CFD and electromagnetic FEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1280 Security System for Safe Transmission of Medical Image

Authors: Mohammed Jamal Al-Mansor, Kok Beng Gan

Abstract:

This paper develops an optimized embedding of payload in medical image by using genetic optimization. The goal is to preserve region of interest from being distorted because of the watermark. By using this developed system there is no need of manual defining of region of interest through experts as the system will apply the genetic optimization to select the parts of image that can carry the watermark with guaranteeing less distortion. The experimental results assure that genetic based optimization is useful for performing steganography with less mean square error percentage.

Keywords: AES, DWT, genetic algorithm, watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1279 Genetic Characterization of Barley Genotypes via Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat

Authors: Mustafa Yorgancılar, Emine Atalay, Necdet Akgün, Ali Topal

Abstract:

In this study, polymerase chain reaction based Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) from DNA fingerprinting techniques were used to investigate the genetic relationships among barley crossbreed genotypes in Turkey. It is important that selection based on the genetic base in breeding programs via ISSR, in terms of breeding time. 14 ISSR primers generated a total of 97 bands, of which 81 (83.35%) were polymorphic. The highest total resolution power (RP) value was obtained from the F2 (0.53) and M16 (0.51) primers. According to the ISSR result, the genetic similarity index changed between 0.64–095; Lane 3 with Line 6 genotypes were the closest, while Line 36 were the most distant ones. The ISSR markers were found to be promising for assessing genetic diversity in barley crossbreed genotypes.

Keywords: barley, crossbreed, genetic similarity, ISSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1278 Factors Determining Intention to Pursue Genetic Testing for People in Taiwan

Authors: Ju-Chun Chien

Abstract:

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion proposed that the role of health services should shift the focus from cure to prevention. Nowadays, besides having physical examinations, people could also conduct genetic tests to provide important information for diagnosing, treating, and/or preventing illnesses. However, because of the incompletion of the Chinese Genetic Database, people in Taiwan were still unfamiliar with genetic testing. The purposes of the present study were to: (1) Figure out people’s attitudes towards genetic testing. (2) Examine factors that influence people’s intention to pursue genetic testing by means of the Health Belief Model (HBM). A pilot study was conducted on 249 Taiwanese in 2017 to test the feasibility of the self-developed instrument. The reliability and construct validity of scores on the self-developed questionnaire revealed that this HBM-based questionnaire with 40 items was a well-developed instrument. A total of 542 participants were recruited and the valid participants were 535 (99%) between the ages of 20 and 86. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, two-way contingency table analysis, Pearson’s correlation, and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used in this study. The main results were that only 32 participants (6%) had already undergone genetic testing; moreover, their attitude towards genetic testing was more positive than those who did not have the experience. Compared with people who never underwent genetic tests, those who had gone for genetic testing had higher self-efficacy, greater intention to pursue genetic testing, had academic majors in health-related fields, had chronic and genetic diseases, possessed Catastrophic Illness Cards, and all of them had heard about genetic testing. The variables that best predicted people’s intention to pursue genetic testing were cues to action, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits (the three variables all correlated with one another positively at high magnitudes). To sum up, the HBM could be effective in designing and identifying the needs and priorities of the target population to pursue genetic testing.

Keywords: genetic testing, knowledge of GT, people in Taiwan, the health belief model

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1277 Circle of Learning Using High-Fidelity Simulators Promoting a Better Understanding of Resident Physicians on Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Emergency Medicine

Authors: Takamitsu Kodama, Eiji Kawamoto

Abstract:

Introduction: Ultrasound in emergency room has advantages of safer, faster, repeatable and noninvasive. Especially focused Point-Of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) is used daily for prompt and accurate diagnoses, for quickly identifying critical and life-threatening conditions. That is why ultrasound has demonstrated its usefulness in emergency medicine. The true value of ultrasound has been once again recognized in recent years. It is thought that all resident physicians working at emergency room should perform an ultrasound scan to interpret signs and symptoms of deteriorating patients in the emergency room. However, a practical education on ultrasound is still in development. To resolve this issue, we established a new educational program using high-fidelity simulators and evaluated the efficacy of this course. Methods: Educational program includes didactic lectures and skill stations in half-day course. Instructor gives a lecture on POCUS such as Rapid Ultrasound in Shock (RUSH) and/or Focused Assessment Transthoracic Echo (FATE) protocol at the beginning of the course. Then, attendees are provided for training of scanning with cooperation of normal simulated patients. In the end, attendees learn how to apply focused POCUS skills at clinical situation using high-fidelity simulators such as SonoSim® (SonoSim, Inc) and SimMan® 3G (Laerdal Medical). Evaluation was conducted through surveillance questionnaires to 19 attendees after two pilot courses. The questionnaires were focused on understanding course concept and satisfaction. Results: All attendees answered the questionnaires. With respect to the degree of understanding, 12 attendees (number of valid responses: 13) scored four or more points out of five points. High-fidelity simulators, especially SonoSim® was highly appreciated to enhance learning how to handle ultrasound at an actual practice site by 11 attendees (number of valid responses: 12). All attendees encouraged colleagues to take this course because the high level of satisfaction was achieved. Discussion: Newly introduced educational course using high-fidelity simulators realizes the circle of learning to deepen the understanding on focused POCUS by gradual stages. SonoSim® can faithfully reproduce scan images with pathologic findings of ultrasound and provide experimental learning for a growth number of beginners such as resident physicians. In addition, valuable education can be provided if it is used combined with SimMan® 3G. Conclusions: Newly introduced educational course using high-fidelity simulators is supposed to be effective and helps in providing better education compared with conventional courses for emergency physicians.

Keywords: point-of-care ultrasound, high-fidelity simulators, education, circle of learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1276 An Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Li Dan, Zhao Junsuo, Zhang Wenjun

Abstract:

Aiming at the shortcomings of the Quantum Genetic Algorithm such as the multimodal function optimization problems easily falling into the local optimum, and vulnerable to premature convergence due to no closely relationship between individuals, the paper presents an Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm (IMWQGA). The paper using the concept of Many Worlds; using the derivative way of parallel worlds’ parallel evolution; putting forward the thought which updating the population according to the main body; adopting the transition methods such as parallel transition, backtracking, travel forth. In addition, the algorithm in the paper also proposes the quantum training operator and the combinatorial optimization operator as new operators of quantum genetic algorithm.

Keywords: quantum genetic algorithm, many worlds, quantum training operator, combinatorial optimization operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 585
1275 Genetic Diversity Based Population Study of Freshwater Mud Eel (Monopterus cuchia) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, K. M. A. Zinnah, M. J. Raihan, H. Ali, M. N. Naser

Abstract:

As genetic diversity is most important for existing, breeding and production of any fish; this study was undertaken for investigating genetic diversity of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia at population level where three ecological populations such as flooded area of Sylhet (P1), open water of Moulvibazar (P2) and open water of Sunamganj (P3) districts of Bangladesh were considered. Four arbitrary RAPD primers (OPB-12, C0-4, B-03 and OPB-08) were screened and RAPD banding patterns were analyzed among the populations considering 15 individuals of each population. In total 174, 138 and 149 bands were detected in the populations of P1, P2 and P3 respectively; however, each primer revealed less number of bands in each population. 100% polymorphic loci were recorded in P2 and P3 whereas only one monomorphic locus was observed in P1, recorded 97.5% polymorphism. Different genetic parameters such as inter-individual pairwise similarity, genetic distance, Nei genetic similarity, linkage distances, cluster analysis and allelic information, etc. were considered for measuring genetic diversity. The average inter-individual pairwise similarity was recorded 2.98, 1.47 and 1.35 in P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Considering genetic distance analysis, the highest distance 1 was recorded in P2 and P3 and the lowest genetic distance 0.444 was found in P2. The average Nei genetic similarity was observed 0.19, 0.16 and 0.13 in P1, P2 and P3, respectively; however, the average linkage distance was recorded 24.92, 17.14 and 15.28 in P1, P3 and P2 respectively. Based on linkage distance, genetic clusters were generated in three populations where 6 clades and 7 clusters were found in P1, 3 clades and 5 clusters were observed in P2 and 4 clades and 7 clusters were detected in P3. In addition, allelic information was observed where the frequency of p and q alleles were observed 0.093 and 0.907 in P1, 0.076 and 0.924 in P2, 0.074 and 0.926 in P3 respectively. The average gene diversity was observed highest in P2 (0.132) followed by P3 (0.131) and P1 (0.121) respectively.

Keywords: genetic diversity, Monopterus cuchia, population, RAPD, Bangladesh

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1274 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Through RAPD Markers Among Melia azedarach L (Chinabery)

Authors: Nadir Ali Rind, Özlem Aksoy, Muhammad Umar Dahot, Salih Dikilitaş, Muhammad Rafiq, Burçak Tütünoğlu

Abstract:

Melia azedarach L. is freshly fruited small to medium sized tree native to China and North western India. It is growing in Pakistan and Turkey in various areas facing great environmental changes to maintain its survival. The species is valued for its high quality wood, medicinal, ornamental and shade purposes. The present work was aimed to estimate the genetic variation among the populations of Melia azedarach L. leaf samples that were collected from five different locations of Turkey and three different areas of Pakistan. These populations were chosen on the random bases by applying RAPD primers in order to construct a dendogram using UPGMA method to show genetic diversity. After that appropriate conservation strategies were suggested. 14 primers producing polymorphic and monomorphic bands were analyzed. Genetic distances were calculated for all the species studied by RAPD-PCR methods. According to the results the lowest genetic identity values and the highest genetic polymorphic values were determined. It is observed that there was a clear split among populations from different areas in Turkey and Pakistan. These differences may be due to eco-geographical association with genetic variation and should be conserved to retain the genetic variation of the species.

Keywords: melia azedarach L., genetic diversity, conservation, RAPD-PCR, medicinal plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
1273 Task Scheduling on Parallel System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jasbir Singh Gill, Baljit Singh

Abstract:

Scheduling and mapping the application task graph on multiprocessor parallel systems is considered as the most crucial and critical NP-complete problem. Many genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve such problems. In this paper, two genetic approach based algorithms have been designed and developed with or without task duplication. The proposed algorithms work on two fitness functions. The first fitness i.e. task fitness is used to minimize the total finish time of the schedule (schedule length) while the second fitness function i.e. process fitness is concerned with allocating the tasks to the available highly efficient processor from the list of available processors (load balance). Proposed genetic-based algorithms have been experimentally implemented and evaluated with other state-of-art popular and widely used algorithms.

Keywords: parallel computing, task scheduling, task duplication, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1272 Robotic Arm Control with Neural Networks Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization Approach

Authors: Arbnor Pajaziti, Hasan Cana

Abstract:

In this paper, the structural genetic algorithm is used to optimize the neural network to control the joint movements of robotic arm. The robotic arm has also been modeled in 3D and simulated in real-time in MATLAB. It is found that Neural Networks provide a simple and effective way to control the robot tasks. Computer simulation examples are given to illustrate the significance of this method. By combining Genetic Algorithm optimization method and Neural Networks for the given robotic arm with 5 D.O.F. the obtained the results shown that the base joint movements overshooting time without controller was about 0.5 seconds, while with Neural Network controller (optimized with Genetic Algorithm) was about 0.2 seconds, and the population size of 150 gave best results.

Keywords: robotic arm, neural network, genetic algorithm, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
1271 Understanding the Genetic Basis of SUDEP

Authors: Kumar Ashwini, Nayak C. Vinod

Abstract:

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a rarity. Each year, about one in 150 epileptics, whose seizures are not controlled, may die of SUDEP. It is a leading cause of death in young adults with uncontrolled seizures. Understanding the genetic basis for SUDEP, is crucial given that the rate of sudden death in epilepsy patients is 20 fold that of the general population. We encountered one such case of a young male, a known epileptic, who was brought dead after a sudden collapse. We hereby present a poster discussing the autopsy findings of this case and also highlighting the importance of understanding the genetic basis of SUDEP.

Keywords: sudden death, epilepsy, genetic, autopsy

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1270 Genetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Genotypes as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Pangirayi Tongoona

Abstract:

Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown for food, feed and bioenergy. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for conservation of genetic resources and improvement of crop plants through breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among sorghum genotypes using microsatellite markers. A total of 103 accessions of sorghum genotypes obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the African Centre for Crop Improvement and Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute collections in South Africa were estimated using 30 microsatellite markers. For all the loci analysed, 306 polymorphic alleles were detected with a mean value of 6.4 per locus. The polymorphic information content had an average value of 0.50 with heterozygosity mean value of 0.55 suggesting an important genetic diversity within the sorghum genotypes used. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on Euclidian coefficients revealed two major distinct groups without allocating genotypes based on the source of collection or origin. The genotypes 4154.1.1.1, 2055.1.1.1, 4441.1.1.1, 4442.1.1.1, 4722.1.1.1, and 4606.1.1.1 were the most diverse. The sorghum genotypes with high genetic diversity could serve as important sources of novel alleles for breeding and strategic genetic conservation.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Genotypes, Microsatellites, Sorghum

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1269 Genetic Algorithm to Construct and Enumerate 4×4 Pan-Magic Squares

Authors: Younis R. Elhaddad, Mohamed A. Alshaari

Abstract:

Since 2700 B.C the problem of constructing magic squares attracts many researchers. Magic squares one of most difficult challenges for mathematicians. In this work, we describe how to construct and enumerate Pan- magic squares using genetic algorithm, using new chromosome encoding technique. The results were promising within reasonable time.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, magic square, pan-magic square, computational intelligence

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1268 Reproductive Traits for Holstein Cattle

Authors: Ashraf M. Ward, Ruban S. Yu

Abstract:

Data consisting of 2757 records from tow Holstein herds made between 2000 and 2010 were used to examine environmental factors affecting age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI) and consequently estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends. The overall means and standard errors for AFC and CI were 39.4 ± 7.2 months and 487.5 ± 151.6 days respectively. The respective heritability estimates were 0.091 ± 0.05 and 0.044 ± 0.032, while the repeatability estimate for CI was 0.096 ± 0.001. The genetic trends for CI and AFC were -0.6 d/yr and -0.01 mo/yr respectively and were both significant (P < 0.001), indicating a decrease in mean breeding value over the study period. Phenotypic trends were -0.31 mo/yr and -0.35 d/yr for AFC and CI respectively though non-significant (P > 0.05). The low heritability for CI and AFC indicated that temporary environmental influences were much greater than genetic influences or permanent environmental influences on these traits.

Keywords: Holstein, reproductive, genetic parameters, heritability

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1267 Using Genetic Algorithms and Rough Set Based Fuzzy K-Modes to Improve Centroid Model Clustering Performance on Categorical Data

Authors: Rishabh Srivastav, Divyam Sharma

Abstract:

We propose an algorithm to cluster categorical data named as ‘Genetic algorithm initialized rough set based fuzzy K-Modes for categorical data’. We propose an amalgamation of the simple K-modes algorithm, the Rough and Fuzzy set based K-modes and the Genetic Algorithm to form a new algorithm,which we hypothesise, will provide better Centroid Model clustering results, than existing standard algorithms. In the proposed algorithm, the initialization and updation of modes is done by the use of genetic algorithms while the membership values are calculated using the rough set and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: categorical data, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, K modes clustering, rough sets

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1266 Biodiversity and Biotechnology: Some Considerations about the International Regulation of Agriculture and the International Legal System on Access to Genetic Resources

Authors: Leandro Moura da Silva

Abstract:

The international community has strived to create legal mechanisms to protect their biodiversity, but this can represent, sometimes, particularly in the case of regulatory regime on access to genetic resources, an excessive nationalism which transforms itself into a significant obstacle to scientific progress causing damages to the country and to local farmers. Although it has been poorly publicized in the media, the international legal system was marked, in 2014, by the entry into force of the Nagoya Protocol, which regulates the access and benefit sharing of genetic resources of the States Party to that legal instrument. However, it’s not reasonable to think of regulating access to genetic resources without reflecting on the links of this important subject with other related issues, such as family farming and agribusiness, food safety, food security, intellectual property rights (on seeds, genetic material, new plant varieties, etc.), environmental sustainability, biodiversity, and biosafety.

Keywords: international law, regulation on agriculture, agronomy techniques, sustainability, genetic resources and new crop varieties, CBD, Nagoya Protocol, ITPGRFA

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
1265 Modeling of Tool Flank Wear in Finish Hard Turning of AISI D2 Using Genetic Programming

Authors: V. Pourmostaghimi, M. Zadshakoyan

Abstract:

Efficiency and productivity of the finish hard turning can be enhanced impressively by utilizing accurate predictive models for cutting tool wear. However, the ability of genetic programming in presenting an accurate analytical model is a notable characteristic which makes it more applicable than other predictive modeling methods. In this paper, the genetic equation for modeling of tool flank wear is developed with the use of the experimentally measured flank wear values and genetic programming during finish turning of hardened AISI D2. Series of tests were conducted over a range of cutting parameters and the values of tool flank wear were measured. On the basis of obtained results, genetic model presenting connection between cutting parameters and tool flank wear were extracted. The accuracy of the genetically obtained model was assessed by using two statistical measures, which were root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R²). Evaluation results revealed that presented genetic model predicted flank wear over the study area accurately (R² = 0.9902 and RMSE = 0.0102). These results allow concluding that the proposed genetic equation corresponds well with experimental data and can be implemented in real industrial applications.

Keywords: cutting parameters, flank wear, genetic programming, hard turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 75