Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5234

Search results for: scavenging activity

5234 Antioxidant Activity and Correlation of Free Phenolic Content with the DPPH Radical Scavenging and Reducing Power Activity of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) from Algeria

Authors: Cheyma Bensaci, Mokhtar Saidi, Zineb Ghiaba

Abstract:

The first objective of this study is to determine the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of three different varieties of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit (DPF) from Algeria were using three different solvents. As for the second objective is to find the correlation of phenolic contents with the both DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activity. These results showed that date had strongly scavenging activity on DPPH .The IC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging activity was 0.15 mg/ml in acetone/H2O extract from Gh. And also, acetone/H2O extract from Gh showed the best AEAC value for reducing power was 8,48 mM. The results also showed that there are a positive correlation, so confined values between 0.153 and 0.972.

Keywords: phoenix dactylifera, antioxidant activity, correlation, reducing power

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5233 Chemical and Biological Examination of De-Oiled Indian Propolis

Authors: Harshada Vaidya-Kannur, Dattatraya Naik

Abstract:

Propolis, one of the beehive products also referred as bee-glue is sticky dark coloured complex mixture of compounds. The volatile oil can be isolated from the propolis by hydrodistillation. The mark that is left behind after the removal of volatile oil is referred as the de-oiled propolis. Antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties of total ethanolic extract of de-oiled propolis (TEEDP) was investigated. Another lot of deoiled propolis was successively exacted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. Activities of these fractions were also determined. Antioxidant activity was determined by studying ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging. Determination of anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by topical TPA induced mouse ear oedema model. It is noteworthy that ethyl acetate fraction of deoiled propolis (EAFDP) exhibited 49.45 % TEAC activity at the concentration 0.2 mg/ml which is equivalent to the activity of trolox at the concentration 0.2 mg/ml. Its DPPH scavenging activity (72.56%) was closely comparable to that of trolox (75%). However its NO scavenging activity was comparatively low. From IC50 values it could be concluded that the efficiency of scavenging ABTS radicals by the de-oiled propolis was more pronounced as compared to scavenging of other radicals. Studies by TPA induced mouse ear inflammation model indicated that the de-oiled propolis of Indian origin had significant topical anti-inflammatory activity. The EAFDP was found to be the most active fraction for this activity also. The purification of EAFP yielded six pure crystalline compounds. These compounds were identified by their physical data and spectral data.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, anti-oxidant activity, column chromatography, de-oiled propolis

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5232 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Spilanthes acmella Murr.

Authors: Wanthani Paengsri, Thanyarat Chuesaard, Napapha Promsawan

Abstract:

Spilanthes acmella Murr. was extracted with methanol, yielding methanol crude extract 5.86 %w/w. This study aimed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of methanolic crude extract. The chemical composition of methanolic crude extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The predominant components were found to be palmitic acid (40.08%), 2-hexadecanoyl glycerol (6.96%) and octadecanoic acid (4.06%). Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, for evaluating free radicle scavenging activity. The methanolic extract at 150 µg/mL showed an antioxidant activity with high of radical scavenging activity (75.23%).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, GC-MS analysis, Spilanthes, Phak-Kratt Hauwaen

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5231 The Correlation of Total Phenol Content with Free Radicals Scavenging Activity and Effect of Ethanol Concentration in Extraction Process of Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia mangostana)

Authors: Ririn Lestari Sri Rahayu, Mustofa Ahda

Abstract:

The use of synthetic antioxidants often causes a negative effect on health and increases the incidence of carcinogenesis. Development of the natural antioxidants should be investigated. However, natural antioxidants have a low toxicity and are safe for human consumption. Ethanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana) contains natural antioxidant compounds that have various pharmacological activities. Antioxidants from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind have free radicals scavenging activities. The scavenging activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen rind was determined by DPPH method. The phenolic compound from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind is determined with Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results showed that the absolute ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has IC50 of 40.072 ug/mL. The correlation of total phenols content with free radical scavenging activity has an equation y: 5.207x + 205.51 and determination value (R2) of 0.9329. Total phenols content from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has a good correlation with free radicals scavenging activity of DPPH.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Garcinia mangostana, Inhibition concentration 50%, Phenolic.

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5230 Free Raducal Scavenging Activity of Fractionated Extract and Structural Elucidation of Isolated Compounds from Hydrocotyl Bonariensis Comm. Ex Lam Leaves

Authors: Emmanuel O Ajani, Sabiu S, Mariam Zakari, Fisayo A Bamisaye

Abstract:

Hydrocotyl bonariensis is a plant which anticataractogenic potentials have been reported. In the present study an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the fractionates of the leaves extract and also characterize some of its chemical constituents. DPPH, H₂O₂, OH and NO free radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the crude extract fractionates. Fresh leaves of Hydrocotyl bonariensis leaves were extracted in 70% methanol. The extract was partitioned with different solvent system of increasing polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate methanol and water). Compounds were isolated from the aqueous practitionate using accelerated gradient chromatography, vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC and conventional column chromatography. The presence of the chemical groups was established with HPLC and Fourier Transform Infra Red. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic study and chemical shifts. Data from the study indicates that all the fractionates contain compounds with free radical scavenging activity. This activity was more pronounced in the aqueous fractionate (DPPH IC₅₀, 0025 ± 0.011 mg/ml, metal chelating capacity 27.5%, OH- scavenging IC₅₀, 0.846 ± 0.037 mg/ml, H₂O₂ scavenging IC₅₀ 0.521 ± 0.015 mg/ml, reducing power IC₅₀ 0.248 ± 0.025 mg/ml and NO scavenging IC₅₀ 0.537 ± 0.038 mg/ml). Two compounds were isolated and when compared with data from the literature; the structures were suggestive of polyphenolic flavonoid, quercetin and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol. The result indicates that H. bonariensis leaves contain bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant, cataract, free radical, flavonoids, hydrocotyl bonariensis

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5229 In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Caesalpinia sappan Extract

Authors: Monthon Tangjitmungman

Abstract:

Numerous diseases have been linked to oxidative stress, in which a disproportion of free radicals in the body leads to tissue or cell damage. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants found in plants, and they are highly effective at scavenging oxidative free radicals. Due to the presence of phenolic compounds in Caesalpinia sappan has been discovered to have antioxidant activity. It has several health benefits, the most important of which is preventing cardiovascular and cancer diseases. This study aimed to determine the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract using a variety of antioxidant assays. The extract of C. sappan was made using a mixture of solvents (ethyl alcohol: water in ratio 8:2). The total phenolic content of C. sappan extract was determined and expressed as gallic acid equivalents using the Folin-Cioucalteu method (GAE). The antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract was assessed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. An association was found between antioxidant activity and total phenol content. The antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract was also determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. The IC50 values for C. sappan extract from DPPH and ABTS assays were 54.48 μg/mL ± 0.545 and 25.46 μg/mL ± 0.790, respectively, in the DPPH assay. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In conclusion, C. sappan extract contains a high level of total phenolics and exhibits significant antioxidant activity. Nevertheless, more research should be done on the antioxidant activity, such as SOD and ROS scavenging assays and in vivo experiments, to determine whether the compound has antioxidant activity.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Caesalpinia sappan, DPPH assays, total phenolic content

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5228 Antioxidative Potential of Aqueous Extract of Ocimum americanum L. Leaves: An in vitro and in vivo Evaluation

Authors: Bukola Tola Aluko, Omotade Ibidun Oloyede

Abstract:

Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is native to tropical Africa. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract was carefully investigated by assessing the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. The reducing power, total phenol, total flavonoids and flavonols content of the extract were also evaluated. The data obtained revealed that the extract is rich in polyphenolic compounds and scavenged the radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. This was done in comparison with the standard antioxidants such as BHT and Vitamin C. Also, the induction of oxidative damage with paracetamol (2000 mg/kg) resulted in the elevation of lipid peroxides and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in the liver and kidney of rats. However, the pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of O. americanum leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg), and silymarin (100 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of lipid peroxides and restored the levels of antioxidant parameters in these organs. These findings suggest that the leaves of O. americanum have potent antioxidant properties which may be responsible for its acclaimed folkloric uses.

Keywords: antioxidants, free radicals, ocimum americanum, scavenging activity

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5227 Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic, Alkaloids Contents and Inhibited Properties against α-Amylase and Invertase Enzymes of Stem Bark Extracts Coula edulis B

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: It is clearly that phytochemical constituents of plants in relation exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and glycosylation properties. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging, inhibited activities against α-amylase and invertase enzymes of stem bark extracts C. edulis (Olacaceae). Methods: Four extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and aqueous) from the barks of C. edulis were used in this study. Colorimetric in vitro methods were using for evaluate free radical scavenging activity DPPH, ABTS, NO, OH, antioxidant capacity, glycosylation activity, inhibition of α-amylase and invertase activities, phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents. Results: C. edulis extracts (CEE) had a higher scavenging potential on the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitrite oxide (NO), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and glucose scavenging with the IC50 varied between 41.95 and 36694.43 µg/ml depending on the solvent of extraction. The ethanol extract of C. edulis stem bark (CE EtOH) showed the highest polyphenolic (289.10 + 30.32), flavonoid (1.12 + 0.09) and alkaloids (18.47 + 0.16) content. All the tested extracts demonstrated a relative high inhibition potential against α-amylase and invertase digestive enzymes activities. Conclusion: This study suggests that CEE exhibited higher antioxidant potential and significant inhibition potential against digestive enzymes.

Keywords: Coula edulis, antioxidant, scavenging activity, amylase, invertase

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5226 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum

Abstract:

At present, it is widely-known that free radicals are the causes of illness such as cancers, coronary heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and aging. One method of protection from free radical is the consumption of antioxidant-containing foods or herbs. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from cabbage (Brassicca oleracea L. var. capitata L.) measured by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results show that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 7.316 ± 0.715 and 4.66 ± 1.029 as determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays, respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 15.141 ± 2.092 and 4.955 ± 1.975 as determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.

Keywords: free radical, antioxidant, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

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5225 Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activity in in vivo and in vitro Samples of Purple Greater Yam (Dioscorea alata L).

Authors: Sakinah Abdullah, Rosna Mat Taha

Abstract:

Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite which result in oxidative stress leading to cellular damage. Natural antioxidant are in high demand because of their potential in health promotion and disease prevention and their improved safety and consumer acceptability. Plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant. Dioscorea alata L. known as 'ubi badak' in Malaysia were well known for their antioxidant content, but this plant was seasonal. Thus, tissue culture technique was used to mass propagate this plant. In the present work, a comparative study between in vitro (from tissue culture) and in vivo (from intact plant) samples of Dioscorea alata L. for their antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenil -1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were carried out. All samples had better radical scavenging activity but in vivo samples had the strongest radical scavenging activity compared to in vitro samples. Furthermore, tubers from in vivo samples showed the greatest free radical scavenging effect and comparatively greater phenolic content than in vitro samples.

Keywords: Dioscorea alata, tissue culture, antioxidant, in vivo, in vitro, DPPH

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5224 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj

Abstract:

Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant, raw milk

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5223 The Increase in Functionalities of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Mycelia Depending on the Increase in Nutritional Components

Authors: Hye-Sung Park, Eun-Ji Lee, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong

Abstract:

This study was conducted to research king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) mycelia with reinforced functionalities. 0 to 4% of saccharide components, such as glucose (glu), lactose (lac), mannitol (man), xylose (xyl), and fructose (fru) and 0 to 0.04% of amino acid components, such as aspartic acid (asp). Cysteine (cys), threonine (thr), glutamine (gln), and serine (ser) were added to liquid media, and antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents of the cultured mycelia were measured. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had high antioxidant activities when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 73.9%, which was the highest value. In the amino acid-added group, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 66.3% that was the highest value when 0.2% of ser was added. But all the 5 strains had lower antioxidant activities than the saccharide-added group overall. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had higher nitrite scavenging activities than other group when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the nitrite scavenging activity of ASI 2824 was 57.8% that was the highest value. It was revealed that the saccharide-added group and the amino acid-added group had a similar efficiency of nitrite scavenging activity. Although the same component-added group did not show a certain increase or decrease in total polyphenol contents, ASI 2839 with the highest antioxidant activity had 6.8mg/g, which was the highest content when 1% of xyl was added. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when 1% of xyl was added, functionalities of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia, including antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents improved.

Keywords: king oyster mushroom, saccharide, amino acid, mycelia

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5222 Antioxidant Activity of Launaea nudicaulis Growing in Southwest of Algeria

Authors: Abdelkrim Cheriti, Mebarka Belboukhari, Nasser Belboukhari

Abstract:

Launaea Cass. is a small genus of the family Asteraceae (tribe Lactuceae, subtribe Sonchinae), consisting of 54 species, of which 9 are presented in the flora of Algeria and is mainly distributed in the South Mediterranean, Africa and SW Asia. Plants in the Launaea genus have been used ethnobotanically as bitter stomachic, for treating diarrhea, gastrointestinal tracts, as anti-inflammatory, for skin diseases, treatment of infected wounds, hepatic pains, children fever, as soporific, lactagogue, diuretic and as insecticidal. Antioxidants are vital substances, which possess the ability to protect the body from damages caused by free radical induced oxidative stress. A variety of free radical scavenging antioxidants is found in a number of dietary sources. The main objective of this study focused on the screening of antioxidant activity of Launaea nudicaulis (Asteraceae) extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated with DPPH radical scavenging assay. The quantitative evaluation of DPPH scavenging activity showed that n-BuOH and EtOAc extracts are the most active extracts with a percentage of antiradical activity of 89,62% and 71,57% respectively.

Keywords: Launaea, phytochemical, South Algeria, Sahara, endemic specie

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5221 Evaluation of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Amaranth Seeds Grown in Latvia

Authors: Alla Mariseva, Ilze Beitane

Abstract:

Daily intake of products rich in antioxidants that scavenge free radicals in cell membranes is an effective way to combat oxidative stress. Last year there was noticed higher interest towards the identification and utilization of plants rich in antioxidant compounds as they may behave as preventive medicine. Amaranth seeds due to polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and tocopherols are characterized by high antioxidant activity. The study aimed to evaluate the total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of amaranth seeds cultivated in 2020 in two farms in Latvia. One sample of amaranth seeds came from an organic farm, the other – from a conventional farm. The total phenol content of amaranth seed extracts was measured with the Folin-Ciocalte spectrophotometric method. The total phenols were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 g dry weight (DW) of the samples. The antioxidant activity of amaranth seed extracts was calculated based on scavenging activities of the stable 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical, the radical scavenging capacity (ABTS) was demonstrated as Trolox mM equivalents (TE) per 100 g-1 dry weight. Three parallel measurements were performed on all samples. There were significant differences between organic and conventional amaranth seeds in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Organic amaranth seeds showed higher total phenolic content compared to conventional amaranth seeds, 65.4±6.0 mg GAE 100 g⁻¹ DW and 43.4±7.8 mg GAE 100 g⁻¹ DW respectively. Organic amaranth seeds were also characterized by higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (7.9±0.4 mM TE 100 g⁻¹ of dry matter) and ABTS radical scavenging capacity (13.2±1.5 mM TE 100 g⁻¹ of dry matter). The results obtained on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of amaranth seeds grown in Latvia confirmed that the samples have a high biological value; therefore, it would be necessary to promote their consumption by including them in various food products, including vegan products, increasing their nutritional value.

Keywords: ABTS, amaranth seeds, antioxidant activity, DPPH, total phenolic content

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5220 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Rice Paddy Herb (Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.)

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum

Abstract:

Free radicals are atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons. Many diseases are caused by free radicals. Normally, free radical formation is controlled naturally by various beneficial compounds known as antioxidants. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants, and each has its own specificity. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from the rice paddy herb (Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.) measured by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results showed that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 67.09± 4.99 and 15.55±4.82 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays, respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 21.08±1.25 and 10.14±3.94 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.

Keywords: free radical, antioxidant, rice paddy herb, Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.

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5219 In Vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Phyllanthus Emblica L. Extract

Authors: Benyapa Suksuwan

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Introduction: Oxidative stress is identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases as the disproportion of free radicals in the body leads to tissue or cell damage. Polyphenols are the most common antioxidant found in plants and are efficient in capturing oxidative free radicals. Aim of the Study: This study focused on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from Phyllanthus Emblica L. as oxidative stress plays a vital role in developing and progressing many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Materials and Methods: The plant was extracted using a mixture solvent (ethyl alcohol: water in ratio 8:2). The total phenolic content of P. Emblica extract was determined using the Folin-Cioucalteu method and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and various antioxidant assays DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assays. Results and Discussion: The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, the IC₅₀ of P. Emblica extract via DPPH and ABTS assays were 68.10 μg/mL ± 0.455, and 49.24 μg/mL ± 0.716, respectively. Furthermore, P. Emblica extract showed antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Vitamin C was used as a positive control in the DPPH assay, while Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. Conclusions: In conclusion, P. Emblica extract consisted of a high amount of total phenolic content, which possesses potent antioxidant activity. However, further antioxidant activity assays using human cell lines such as SOD, ROS, and RNS scavenging assays and in vitro antioxidant experiments should be performed in order.

Keywords: antioxidant, ABTS scavenging, DPPH scavenging assay, total phenol contents assay, Phyllanthus Emblica L

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5218 Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Indigenous Vegetables in Northern Mindanao, Philippines

Authors: Renee P. Baang, Romeo M. del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

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The crude methanol extracts of five indigenous vegetables namely, Amarathus tricolor, Basella rubra L, Chochurus olitorius L., Ipomea batatas, and Momordica chuchinensis L., were examined for their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 7.6-89.53% with B. rubra and I. batatas having the lowest and highest values, respectively. The total flavonoid content of all five indigenous vegetables ranged from 74.65-277.3 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dried vegetable material while the total phenolic content ranged from 1.93-6.15 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dried material. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and reducing sugars, which may also be associated with the antioxidant activity shown by these indigenous vegetables.

Keywords: antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Philippine İndigenous vegetables, phytochemical screening

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5217 In vitro Antioxidant and DNA Protectant Activity of Different Skin Colored Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Authors: K. M. Somawathie, V. Rizliya, H. A. M. Wickrmasinghe, Terrence Madhujith

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The main objective of our study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant and DNA protectant activity of aqueous extract of S. melongena with different skin colors; dark purple (DP), moderately purple (MP), light purple (LP) and purple and green (PG). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and the egg yolk model. The effectiveness of eggplant extracts against radical induced DNA damage was also determined. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the skin color and antioxidant activity. TPC and FRAP values of eggplant extracts ranged from 48.67±0.27-61.11±0.26 (mg GAE/100 g fresh weight) and 4.19±0.11-7.46±0.26 (mmol of FeS04/g of fresh weight) respectively. MP displayed the highest percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity while, DP demonstrated the strongest total antioxidant capacity. In the FTC and egg yolk model, DP and MP showed better antioxidant activity than PG and LP. All eggplant extracts showed potent antioxidant activity in retaining DNA against AAPH mediated radical damage. DP and MP demonstrated better antioxidant activity which may be attributed to the higher phenolic content since a positive correlation was observed between the TPC and the antioxidant parameters.

Keywords: Solanum melongena, skin color, antioxidant, DNA protection, lipid peroxidation

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5216 Radical Scavenging Activity of Protein Extracts from Pulse and Oleaginous Seeds

Authors: Silvia Gastaldello, Maria Grillo, Luca Tassoni, Claudio Maran, Stefano Balbo

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Antioxidants are nowadays attractive not only for the countless benefits to the human and animal health, but also for the perspective of use as food preservative instead of synthetic chemical molecules. In this study, the radical scavenging activity of six protein extracts from pulse and oleaginous seeds was evaluated. The selected matrices are Pisum sativum (yellow pea from two different origins), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lupinus luteus cv Mister (lupin) and Glycine max (soybean), since they are economically interesting for both human and animal nutrition. The seeds were grinded and proteins extracted from 20mg powder with a specific vegetal-extraction kit. Proteins have been quantified through Bradford protocol and scavenging activity was revealed using DPPH assay, based on radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) absorbance decrease in the presence of antioxidants molecules. Different concentrations of the protein extract (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µg/ml) were mixed with DPPH solution (DPPH 0,004% in ethanol 70% v/v). Ascorbic acid was used as a scavenging activity standard reference, at the same six concentrations of protein extracts, while DPPH solution was used as control. Samples and standard were prepared in triplicate and incubated for 30 minutes in dark at room temperature, the absorbance was read at 517nm (ABS30). Average and standard deviation of absorbance values were calculated for each concentration of samples and standard. Statistical analysis using t-students and p-value were performed to assess the statistical significance of the scavenging activity difference between the samples (or standard) and control (ABSctrl). The percentage of antioxidant activity has been calculated using the formula [(ABSctrl-ABS30)/ABSctrl]*100. The obtained results demonstrate that all matrices showed antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid, used as standard, exhibits a 96% scavenging activity at the concentration of 500 µg/ml. At the same conditions, sunflower, safflower and yellow peas revealed the highest antioxidant performance among the matrices analyzed, with an activity of 74%, 68% and 70% respectively (p < 0.005). Although lupin and soybean exhibit a lower antioxidant activity compared to the other matrices, they showed a percentage of 46 and 36 respectively. All these data suggest the possibility to use undervalued edible matrices as antioxidants source. However, further studies are necessary to investigate a possible synergic effect of several matrices as well as the impact of industrial processes for a large-scale approach.

Keywords: antioxidants, DPPH assay, natural matrices, vegetal proteins

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5215 In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata, Commonly Used Fruits in Assamese Cuisine

Authors: M. Das, B. P. Sarma, G. Ahmed

Abstract:

Human diet can be a major source of antioxidants. Poly¬phenols, which are organic compounds present in the regular human diet, have good antioxidant property. Most of the diseases are detected too late and that cause irre¬versible damage to the body. Therefore food that forms the natural source of antioxidants can prevent free radi¬cals from damaging our body tissues. Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata are two major fruits, easily available in Assam, North eastern Indian state. In the present study, the in vitro antioxi¬dant properties of the fruits of these plants are compared as the decoction of these fruits form a major part of Assamese cuisine. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of G. penducalata and D. indica fruits were carried out by the methods of Cotelle A et al. (1996). Different concentrations ranging from 10–110 ug/ml of the extracts were added to 100 uM of DPPH (2,2, Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and the absor¬bance was read at 517 nm after incubation. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. Different concentrations of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of G. penducalata and D. indica fruits were mixed with sodium nitroprusside and incubated. Griess reagent was added to the mixtures and their optical density was read at 546 nm following the method of Marcocci et al. (1994). Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. In order to find the scavenging activity of the extracts against hydroxyl radicals, the method of Kunchandy & Ohkawa (1990) was followed.The superoxide scavenging activity of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the fruits was deter¬mined by the method of Robak & Gryglewski (1998).Six replicates were maintained in each of the experiments and their SEM was evaluated based on which, non linear regres¬sion (curve fit), exponential growth were derived to calculate the IC50 values of the SAWE and standard compounds. All the statistical analyses were done by using paired t test. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the various extracts of D. indica exhibited IC50 values < 110 ug/ml concentration, the scavenging activity of the extracts of G. penducalata was surprisingly>110 ug/ml.Similarly the oxygen free radical scavenging activity of the different extracts of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value of <110 ug/ml but the methanolic extract of the same exhib¬ited a better free radical scavenging activity compared to that of vitamin C. The methanolic extract of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value better than that of vitamin C. The DPPH scavenging activities of the various extracts of D. indica and G. penducalata were <110 ug/ml but the methanolic extract of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value bet¬ter than that of vitaminc C.The higher amounts of phenolic content in the methanolic extract of D. indica might be one of the major causes for its enhanced in vitro antioxidant activity.The present study concludes that Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata both possesses anti oxidant activi¬ties. The anti oxidant activity of Dillenia indica is superior to that of Garcinia penducalata due to its higher phenolic content

Keywords: antioxidants, free radicals, phenolic, scavenging

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5214 Biological Activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract

Authors: Chanasit Chaocharoenphat

Abstract:

Hibiscus sabdariffa is a herbal plant that is commonly used for home remedies in Thailand. This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of polyphenols, as oxidative stress plays a vital role in the development of cancer, and H. sabdariffa was used in this study. The total flavonoids content was determined using the aluminium chloride colourimetric method and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g and the antioxidant capacity of the flavonoids using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The IC50 values of H. sabdariffa extract were 167.14 μg/mL ± 0.843 and 77.59 μg/mL ± 0.798, respectively. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. To summarise, H. sabdariffa extract contains a high concentration of total flavonoids and exhibits potent antioxidant activity. However, additional antioxidant activity assays such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging assays and in vitro antioxidant experiments should be carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism of the compound.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Gracilaria fisheri, DPPH assays, total flavonoid content

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5213 In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Derris scandens Extract

Authors: Nattawit Thiapairat

Abstract:

Multiple diseases have been linked to excessive levels of free radicals, which cause tissue or cell damage as a result of oxidative stress. Many plants are sources of high antioxidant activity. Derris scandens has a high amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents which demonstrated good biological activities. This study focused on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from D. scandens. This study performs total flavonoids content and various antioxidant assays, which were 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The total flavonoid content of D. scandens extract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The antioxidant activity of D. scandens extract was also determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for D. scandens extract from DPPH and ABTS assays were 41.79 μg/mL ± 0.783 and 29.42 μg/mL ± 0.890, respectively, in the DPPH assay. To conclude, D. scandens extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibits a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity such as SOD, ROS, and RNS scavenging assays and in vivo experiments should be performed.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Derris scandens, DPPH assays, total flavonoid content

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5212 Determination of in vitro Antioxidative Activity of Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Min Jung Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho

Abstract:

Oxidative stress that results from overproduction of free radicals can lead to pathogenesis of human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (A. yomena) belonging to Compositae family is a perennial plant, and it has anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effect of A. yomena by measuring 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (˙OH) and superoxide radical (O₂⁻) scavenging activities in vitro. A. yomena was extracted with ethanol and then partitioned with n-hexane, methylene chloride (CH₂Cl₂), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the concentration of A. yomena from 10 to 100μg/mL dose-dependently raised the inhibition of DPPH oxidation. Especially, EtOAc fraction of A. yomena showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity among other fractions. The ˙OH radical scavenging activities of the extract and four fractions of A. yomena were increased by over 80% at a concentration of 50μg/mL. Especially, the IC50 value of EtOAc fraction was 0.03 μg/mL that is the lowest value compared with the values of other fractions. In addition, we found that the EtOAc fraction of A. yomena was showed to be better at O₂⁻ radical scavenging than other fractions. Taken together these results, we suggested that A. yomena, especially EtOAc fraction, can be used as a natural antioxidant against free radicals. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2016R1D1A1B03931593).

Keywords: Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (A. yomena), free radicals, antioxidant, EtOAc fraction

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5211 Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Used for Cancer Patients Treatment

Authors: Jitpisute Chunthorng-Orn, Thana Juckmeta, Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Inflammation and oxidative stress work together to produce symptoms in cancer patients. The whole part of it is used as a preparation to treat cancer patients in Khampramong temple which has been a place of treatment and palliative care for cancer patients since 2005. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Heliotropium indicum extracts. Dried plant materials were extracted in a similar manner to those practiced by the Khampramong Temple i.e. maceration in 95% ethanol and boiling in water. For anti-inflammation activity, both extracts were tested for suppression of nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. They were also tested for antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay. This study found that the ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicum exhibited higher inhibitory activity of NO release than Indomethacin as a positive control (IC50 value of 24.17±2.12 and 34.67±6.23 μg/mL, respectively). For DPPH radical scavenging assay, the ethanolic extract also exhibited antioxidant activity but less than BHT as a antioxidant compound (EC50 values = 28.91±4.26 and 13.08±0.29 μg/mL, respectively). In contrast, its water extract had no inhibitory activity on NO release (IC50 > 100 μg/mL) and no inhibitory activity on DPPH radicals (EC50 values > 100 μg/mL). The results showed correlation between anti-inflammation and antioxidant activity and these results also support using this plant to treat cancer patients.

Keywords: Heliotropium indicum, RAW 264.7, DPPH, Khampramong Temple

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5210 Optimation of Ethanol Extract of Gotu Kola and Majapahit Composition as Natural Antioxidant Source

Authors: Mustofa Ahda, Fiqri Rozi, Gina Noor Habibah, Mas Ulfah Lestari, Tomy Hardianto, Yuni Andriani

Abstract:

The development of natural antioxidants in the Centella asiatica and Majapahit is a great potential. This research has been optimizing the composition of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit as an antioxidants source using measure the free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The results of the research showed that both the ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit has a total content of phenol. It is shown with the ability to reduce reagent Folin Ciocalteu become blue colour. The composition optimization of extract Centella asiatica leaves Majapahit = 30:70 has free radical scavenging activity of DPPH most well compared ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit. IC50 values for the composition of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica : leaves Majapahit = 30:70 is 0,103 mg/mL.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Centella asiatica, Cresentia cujete, composition extract

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5209 Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content of Aqueous Acetone and Ethanol Extract of Edible Parts of Moringa oleifera and Sesbania grandiflora

Authors: Perumal Siddhuraju, Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani, Marimuthu Sangeethapriya

Abstract:

Aqueous ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts of Moringa oleifera (outer pericarp of immature fruit and flower) and Sesbania grandiflora white variety (flower and leaf) were examined for radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. Ethanol extract of S. grandiflora (flower and leaf) and acetone extract of M. oleifera (outer pericarp of immature fruit and flower) contained relatively higher levels of total dietary phenolics than the other extracts. The antioxidant potential of the extracts were assessed by employing different in vitro assays such as reducing power assay, DPPH˙, ABTS˙+ and ˙OH radical scavenging capacities, antihemolytic assay by hydrogen peroxide induced method and metal chelating ability. Though all the extracts exhibited dose dependent reducing power activity, acetone extract of all the samples were found to have more hydrogen donating ability in DPPH˙ (2.3% - 65.03%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging systems (21.6% - 77.4%) than the ethanol extracts. The potential of multiple antioxidant activity was evident as it possessed antihemolytic activity (43.2 % to 68.0 %) and metal ion chelating potency (45.16 - 104.26 mg EDTA/g sample). The result indicate that acetone extract of M. oleifera (OPIF and flower) and S. grandiflora (flower and leaf) endowed with polyphenols, could be utilized as natural antioxidants/nutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Moringa oleifera, polyphenolics, Sesbania grandiflora, underutilized vegetables

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5208 Antioxidant Activity Of Gracilaria Fisheri Extract

Authors: Paam Bidaya

Abstract:

The red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri, widely distributed along Thailand's southern coastlines, has been discovered to be edible. Sulfated polysaccharides from G. fisheri were extracted in low-temperature (25 °C) water. Seaweed polysaccharides (SPs) have been shown to have various advantageous biological effects. This study aims to investigate total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of G. fisheri extract. The total phenolic content of G. fisheri extract was determined using Folin-Cioucalteu method and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant activity of G. fisheri extract was performed via 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, DPPH and ABTS assays showed that G. fisheri extract showed antioxidant activities as a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values of G. fisheri extract were 902.19 μg/mL ± 0.785 and 727.98 μg/mL ± 0.822 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Vitamin C was used as a positive control in DPPH assay, while Trolox was used as a positive control in ABTS assay. To conclude, G. fisheri extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibit a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity should be performed in order to identify the mechanism of Gracilaria fisheri action.

Keywords: ABTS assay, DPPH assay, sulfated polysaccharides, total phenolic content

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5207 In vitro Antioxidant Scavenging of Root Fraction of Bryonia dioica

Authors: Yamani Amal, Lazaae Jamila, Elachouri Mostafa

Abstract:

Plants and their active agents – especially polyphenols – may have a principal role in the treatment of diseases that result from the defect of physiological antioxidant mechanisms. Bryonia dioica is well known in Moroccan traditional medicine for alleviatin pain and traiting many diseases. We have focused on plant belonging to Cucurbitaceae Family from around the world to understand their therapeutic uses and their potential antioxidant activities Although several biological activities and Chemical composition of Bryonia dioica are well characterized, no direct, in vitro study, of this natural product examined the antioxydant effect of the extract from the roots of Bryonia dioica. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro antioxidant activity of the B.dioica root, using antioxidant analysis methods based on determination of Hydroxyradical Scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging, Hydrogenperoxide Scavenging and Nitric Oxide Scavenging. In this study, it was demonstrated, that, B. dioica root extract showed excellent antioxidant properties. This investigation showed that the roots of this plant contain potent natural scavengers R. It may represent an interesting source of antioxidant phenolics that may favour the extension of their cultivation as new source of natural antioxidants in addition to containing high quality proteins for human or animal nutrition. Therefore, there is need for all stakeholders on the Morocco to strive towards taking advantage of our enormous biodiversity resources to free our people from diseases, abject poverty and stagnation.

Keywords: Morocco, bryoniadioica, in vitro, antioxydant

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5206 Hypotensive, Free Radical Scavenging and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Crataegus azarolus L. Leaves Extracts Growing in Algeria

Authors: Amel Bouaziz, Seddik Khennouf, Mussa Abu Zarga, Shtayway Abdalla, Saliha Djidel, Assia Bentahar, Saliha Dahamna, Smain Amira

Abstract:

The present study aimed to evaluate the hypotensive and the in vitro antioxidant activities of Crataegus azarolus L. (Rosaceae), a plant widely used as natural remedy for hypertension in folk medicine. The antioxidant potential of methanolic extract (ME)and its three fractions of Chloroform (CHE), ethyl acetate (EAE)and water (AqE) have been investigated using several assays, including the DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was performed by the β-carotene bleaching assay, ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarburic acid method. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using Folin-Chiocalteu reagent and AlCl3, respectively. EAE extract showed the highest polyphenolic and flavonoids contents (396,04±1.20 mg GAE/g of dry extract and 32,73 ± 0.03mg QE/g of dry extract) respectively. Similarly, this extract possessed the highest scavenging activity for DPPH radical (IC 50 = 0,006±0,0001mg /ml), ABTS radical (IC50=0.0035±0,0007 mg/ml) and hydroxyl radical(IC 50=0,283± 0.01 mg/ml). In addition, the EAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in the inhibition of linoleic acid/ß-carotene coupled oxidation (89,21%), lipid peroxidation in the ferric thiocyanate(FTC) method (90.13%), and thio-barbituric acid (TBA) method (74.23%). Intravenous administration of Me and EAE decreased mean arterial blood pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in anesthetized rats dose-dependently, at the dose range of 0.4 to 12 mg/kg. The mean arterial blood pressure dropped by 27.58 and 39.37% for ME and EAE, respectively. In conclusion, The present study supported the significant potential to use C. azarolus by-products as a source of natural antioxidants and provides scientific justification for its traditional uses as cardio-protective and anti-hypertensive remedy.

Keywords: Crataegus azarolus, polyphenols, flavonoids, hypertension, antioxidant activity, free radicals, peroxidation

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5205 Effects of Drying Temperatures on the Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemicals of Aqueous Extracts If the Calyces of Hibiscus Sabdariffa

Authors: John O. Efosa, S. Egielewa, M. A. Azeke

Abstract:

Hibiscus sabdariffa (Hs) is known for its delicacy and also for medicinal properties. The flower calyces are usually sun- or oven-dried after harvesting. There are unverified claims that calyces dried at lower temperatures have better medicinal potentials than those dried at higher temperatures. The present work, therefore, aimed to study the effects of drying temperatures on the photochemical composition and antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts of the calyces of Hs. The calyces were dried at different temperatures (freeze-drying at -580C, drying at 300C, 400C, and 500 C.) respectively to constant weight. Samples (25 g) of dried calyces from each drying temperatures were weighed and placed in clean conical flasks and extracted; each was used for the analysis. Validated analytical assays were used for the determination of the different Phytochemicals. From the results obtained, it was observed that drying at 30°C resulted in the highest retention of total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Using the Inhibition Concentration values (IC50), some antioxidant parameters were found to follow the same trend as the earlier mentioned phytochemicals. Drying at 30°C resulted in the highest retention of DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Nitrite radical scavenging Activity, 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity There were, however, significant reductions in vitamin C and oxalate contents as the drying temperature increased (P < 0.05). From the results, it recommended that the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa be dried at 30°C in order to optimally elicit its medicinal potentials.

Keywords: antioxidant, drying temperature, hibiscus sabdariffa, phytochemicals, quantitative

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