Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: fingerprints

45 Visualization of Latent Sweat Fingerprints Deposit on Paper by Infrared Radiation and Blue Light

Authors: Xiaochun Huang, Xuejun Zhao, Yun Zou, Feiyu Yang, Wenbin Liu, Nan Deng, Ming Zhang, Nengbin Cai


A simple device termed infrared radiation (IR) was developed for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints deposit on paper with blue light (450 nm, 11 W). In this approach, IR serves as the pretreatment device before the sweat fingerprints was illuminated by blue light. An annular blue light source was adopted for visualizing latent sweat fingerprints. Sample fingerprints were examined under various conditions after deposition, and experimental results indicate that the recovery rate of the latent sweat fingerprints is in the range of 50%-100% without chemical treatments. A mechanism for the observed visibility is proposed based on transportation and re-impregnation of fluorescer in paper at the region of water. And further exploratory experimental results gave the full support to the visible mechanism. Therefore, such a method as IR-pretreated in detecting latent fingerprints may be better for examination in the case where biological information of samples is needed for consequent testing.

Keywords: forensic science, visualization, infrared radiation, blue light, latent sweat fingerprints, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
44 Detection of Latent Fingerprints Recovered from Arson Simulation by a Novel Fluorescent Method

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Samaneh Nabavi, Shirin Jalili, Afshin Khara


Fingerprints are area source of ubiquitous evidence and consequential for establishing identity. The detection and subsequent development of fingerprints are thus inevitable in criminal investigations. This becomes a difficult task in the case of certain extreme conditions like fire. A fire scene may be accidental or arson. The evidence subjected to fire is generally overlooked as there is a misconception that they are damaged. There are several scientific approaches to determine whether the fire was deliberate or not. In such as scenario, fingerprints may be most critical to link the perpetrator to the crime. The reason for this may be the destructive nature of fire. Fingerprints subjected to fire are exposed to high temperatures, soot deposition, electromagnetic radiation, and subsequent water force. It is believed that these phenomena damage the fingerprint. A novel fluorescent and a pre existing small particle reagent were investigated for the same. Zinc carbonates based fluorescent small particle reagent was capable of developing latent fingerprints exposed to a maximum temperature of 800 ̊C. Fluorescent SPR may prove very useful in such cases. Fluorescent SPR reagent based on zinc carbonate is a potential method for developing fingerprints from arson sites. The method is cost effective and non hazardous. This formulation is suitable for developing fingerprints exposed to fire/ arson.

Keywords: fingerprint, small particle reagent (SPR), arson, novel fluorescent

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43 Fingerprint on Ballistic after Shooting

Authors: Narong Kulnides


This research involved fingerprints on ballistics after shooting. Two objectives of research were as follows; (1) to study the duration of the existence of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm and .223 cartridge case after shooting, and (2) to compare the effectiveness of the detection of latent fingerprints by Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing. The latent fingerprint appearance were studied on .38, .45, 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases before and after shooting with Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing. The detection times were 3 minute, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60, 66, 72, 78 and 84 hours respectively. As a result of the study, it can be conclude that: (1) Before shooting, the detection of latent fingerprints on 38, .45, and 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases with Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing can detect the fingerprints at all detection times. (2) After shooting, the detection of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases with Black Powder, Super Glue did not appear. The detection of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm. cartridge cases with Perma Blue and Gun Bluing were found 100% of the time and the detection of latent fingerprints on .223 cartridge cases with Perma Blue and Gun Bluing were found 40% and 46.67% of the time, respectively.

Keywords: ballistic, fingerprint, shooting, detection times

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42 HPTLC Based Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Uraria picta Desv: A Dashmool Species

Authors: Hari O. Saxena, Ganesh


In the present investigation, chemical fingerprints of methanolic extracts of roots, stem and leaves of Uraria picta were developed using HPTLC technique. These fingerprints will be useful for authentication as well as in differentiating the species from adulterants. These will also serve as a biochemical marker for this valuable species in pharmaceutical industries and plant systemic studies. Roots, stem and leaves of Uraria picta were further evaluated for quantification of an active ingredient lupeol to find out alternatives to roots. Results showed more content of lupeol in stem (0.048%, dry wt.) as compare to roots (0.017%, dry wt.) suggesting the utilization of stem in place of roots. It will avoid uprooting of this prestigious plant which ultimately will promote its conservation.

Keywords: chemical fingerprints, lupeol, quantification, Uraria picta

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
41 Generative Adversarial Network Based Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing Limitations

Authors: Yehjune Heo


Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing approaches have been actively developed and applied in real-world applications. One of the main problems for Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing is not robust to unseen samples, especially in real-world scenarios. A possible solution will be to generate artificial, but realistic fingerprint samples and use them for training in order to achieve good generalization. This paper contains experimental and comparative results with currently popular GAN based methods and uses realistic synthesis of fingerprints in training in order to increase the performance. Among various GAN models, the most popular StyleGAN is used for the experiments. The CNN models were first trained with the dataset that did not contain generated fake images and the accuracy along with the mean average error rate were recorded. Then, the fake generated images (fake images of live fingerprints and fake images of spoof fingerprints) were each combined with the original images (real images of live fingerprints and real images of spoof fingerprints), and various CNN models were trained. The best performances for each CNN model, trained with the dataset of generated fake images and each time the accuracy and the mean average error rate, were recorded. We observe that current GAN based approaches need significant improvements for the Anti-Spoofing performance, although the overall quality of the synthesized fingerprints seems to be reasonable. We include the analysis of this performance degradation, especially with a small number of samples. In addition, we suggest several approaches towards improved generalization with a small number of samples, by focusing on what GAN based approaches should learn and should not learn.

Keywords: anti-spoofing, CNN, fingerprint recognition, GAN

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40 Uniqueness of Fingerprint Biometrics to Human Dynasty: A Review

Authors: Siddharatha Sharma


With the advent of technology and machines, the role of biometrics in society is taking an important place for secured living. Security issues are the major concern in today’s world and continue to grow in intensity and complexity. Biometrics based recognition, which involves precise measurement of the characteristics of living beings, is not a new method. Fingerprints are being used for several years by law enforcement and forensic agencies to identify the culprits and apprehend them. Biometrics is based on four basic principles i.e. (i) uniqueness, (ii) accuracy, (iii) permanency and (iv) peculiarity. In today’s world fingerprints are the most popular and unique biometrics method claiming a social benefit in the government sponsored programs. A remarkable example of the same is UIDAI (Unique Identification Authority of India) in India. In case of fingerprint biometrics the matching accuracy is very high. It has been observed empirically that even the identical twins also do not have similar prints. With the passage of time there has been an immense progress in the techniques of sensing computational speed, operating environment and the storage capabilities and it has become more user convenient. Only a small fraction of the population may be unsuitable for automatic identification because of genetic factors, aging, environmental or occupational reasons for example workers who have cuts and bruises on their hands which keep fingerprints changing. Fingerprints are limited to human beings only because of the presence of volar skin with corrugated ridges which are unique to this species. Fingerprint biometrics has proved to be a high level authentication system for identification of the human beings. Though it has limitations, for example it may be inefficient and ineffective if ridges of finger(s) or palm are moist authentication becomes difficult. This paper would focus on uniqueness of fingerprints to the human beings in comparison to other living beings and review the advancement in emerging technologies and their limitations.

Keywords: fingerprinting, biometrics, human beings, authentication

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
39 Cheiloscopy and Dactylography in Relation to ABO Blood Groups: Egyptian vs. Malay Populations

Authors: Manal Hassan Abdel Aziz, Fatma Mohamed Magdy Badr El Dine, Nourhan Mohamed Mohamed Saeed


Establishing association between lip print patterns and those of fingerprints as well as blood groups is of fundamental importance in the forensic identification domain. The first aim of the current study was to determine the prevalent types of ABO blood groups, lip prints and fingerprints patterns in both studied populations. Secondly, to analyze any relation found between the different print patterns and the blood groups, which would be valuable in identification purposes. The present study was conducted on 60 healthy volunteers, (30 males and 30 females) from each of the studied population. Lip prints and fingerprints were obtained and classified according to Tsuchihashi's classification and Michael Kuchen’s classification, respectively. The results show that the ulnar loop was the most frequent among both populations. Blood group A was the most frequent among Egyptians, while blood groups O and B were the predominant among Malaysians. Significant relations were observed between lip print patterns and fingerprint (in the second quadrant for Egyptian males and the first one for Malaysian). For Malaysian females, a statistically significant association was proved in the fourth quadrant. Regarding the blood groups, 89.5% of ulnar loops were significantly related to blood group A among Egyptian males. The results proved an association between the fingerprint pattern and the lip prints, as well as between the ABO blood group and the pattern of fingerprints. However, further researches with larger sample sizes need to be directed to approve the current results.

Keywords: ABO, cheiloscopy, dactylography, Egyptians, Malaysians

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
38 Development of Latent Fingerprints on Non-Porous Surfaces Recovered from Fresh and Sea Water

Authors: A. Somaya Madkour, B. Abeer sheta, C. Fatma Badr El Dine, D. Yasser Elwakeel, E. Nermine AbdAllah


Criminal offenders have a fundamental goal not to leave any traces at the crime scene. Some may suppose that items recovered underwater will have no forensic value, therefore, they try to destroy the traces by throwing items in water. These traces are subjected to the destructive environmental effects. This can represent a challenge for Forensic experts investigating finger marks. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to determine the optimal method for latent fingerprints development on non-porous surfaces submerged in aquatic environments at different time interval. The two factors analyzed in this study were the nature of aquatic environment and length of submerged time. In addition, the quality of developed finger marks depending on the used method was also assessed. Therefore, latent fingerprints were deposited on metallic, plastic and glass objects and submerged in fresh or sea water for one, two, and ten days. After recovery, the items were subjected to cyanoacrylate fuming, black powder and small particle reagent processing and the prints were examined. Each print was evaluated according to fingerprint quality assessment scale. The present study demonstrated that the duration of submersion affects the quality of finger marks; the longer the duration, the worse the quality.The best results of visualization were achieved using cyanoacrylate either in fresh or sea water. This study has also revealed that the exposure to sea water had more destructive influence on the quality of detected finger marks.

Keywords: fingerprints, fresh water, sea, non-porous

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
37 Age and Sex Identification among Egyptian Population Using Fingerprint Ridge Density

Authors: Nazih Ramadan, Manal Mohy-Eldine, Amani Hanoon, Alaa Shehab


Background and Aims: The study of fingerprints is widely used in providing a clue regarding identity. Age and gender identification from fingerprints is an important step in forensic anthropology in order to minimize the list of suspects search. The aim of this study was to determine finger ridge density and patterns among Egyptians, and to estimate age and gender using ridge densities. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 177 randomly-selected healthy Egyptian subjects (90 males and 87 females). They were divided into three age groups; Group (a): from 6-< 12 years, group (b) from 12-< 18 years and group (c) ≥ 18 years. Bilateral digital prints, from every subject, were obtained by the inking procedure. Ridge count per 25 mm² was determined together with assessment of ridge pattern type. Statistical analysis was done with references to different age and sex groups. Results: There was a statistical significant difference in ridge density between the different age groups; where younger ages had significantly higher ridge density than older ages. Females proved to have significantly higher ridge density than males. Also, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between age and ridge density. Ulnar loops were the most frequent pattern among Egyptians then whorls then arches then radial loops. Finally, different regression models were constructed to estimate age and gender from fingerprints ridge density. Conclusion: fingerprint ridge density can be used to identify both age and sex of subjects. Further studies are recommended on different populations, larger samples or using different methods of fingerprint recording and finger ridge counting.

Keywords: age, sex identification, Egyptian population, fingerprints, ridge density

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
36 Detection of Some Drugs of Abuse from Fingerprints Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ragaa T. Darwish, Maha A. Demellawy, Haidy M. Megahed, Doreen N. Younan, Wael S. Kholeif


The testing of drug abuse is authentic in order to affirm the misuse of drugs. Several analytical approaches have been developed for the detection of drugs of abuse in pharmaceutical and common biological samples, but few methodologies have been created to identify them from fingerprints. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) plays a major role in this field. The current study aimed at assessing the possibility of detection of some drugs of abuse (tramadol, clonazepam, and phenobarbital) from fingerprints using LC-MS in drug abusers. The aim was extended in order to assess the possibility of detection of the above-mentioned drugs in fingerprints of drug handlers till three days of handling the drugs. The study was conducted on randomly selected adult individuals who were either drug abusers seeking treatment at centers of drug dependence in Alexandria, Egypt or normal volunteers who were asked to handle the different studied drugs (drug handlers). An informed consent was obtained from all individuals. Participants were classified into 3 groups; control group that consisted of 50 normal individuals (neither abusing nor handling drugs), drug abuser group that consisted of 30 individuals who abused tramadol, clonazepam or phenobarbital (10 individuals for each drug) and drug handler group that consisted of 50 individuals who were touching either the powder of drugs of abuse: tramadol, clonazepam or phenobarbital (10 individuals for each drug) or the powder of the control substances which were of similar appearance (white powder) and that might be used in the adulteration of drugs of abuse: acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (10 individuals for each drug). Samples were taken from the handler individuals for three consecutive days for the same individual. The diagnosis of drug abusers was based on the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-V) and urine screening tests using immunoassay technique. Preliminary drug screening tests of urine samples were also done for drug handlers and the control groups to indicate the presence or absence of the studied drugs of abuse. Fingerprints of all participants were then taken on a filter paper previously soaked with methanol to be analyzed by LC-MS using SCIEX Triple Quad or QTRAP 5500 System. The concentration of drugs in each sample was calculated using the regression equations between concentration in ng/ml and peak area of each reference standard. All fingerprint samples from drug abusers showed positive results with LC-MS for the tested drugs, while all samples from the control individuals showed negative results. A significant difference was noted between the concentration of the drugs and the duration of abuse. Tramadol, clonazepam, and phenobarbital were also successfully detected from fingerprints of drug handlers till 3 days of handling the drugs. The mean concentration of the chosen drugs of abuse among the handlers group decreased when the days of samples intake increased.

Keywords: drugs of abuse, fingerprints, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, tramadol

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
35 Primary-Color Emitting Photon Energy Storage Nanophosphors for Developing High Contrast Latent Fingerprints

Authors: G. Swati, D. Haranath


Commercially available long afterglow /persistent phosphors are proprietary materials and hence the exact composition and phase responsible for their luminescent characteristics such as initial intensity and afterglow luminescence time are not known. Further to generate various emission colors, commercially available persistence phosphors are physically blended with fluorescent organic dyes such as rodhamine, kiton and methylene blue etc. Blending phosphors with organic dyes results into complete color coverage in visible spectra, however with time, such phosphors undergo thermal and photo-bleaching. This results in the loss of their true emission color. Hence, the current work is dedicated studies on inorganic based thermally and chemically stable primary color emitting nanophosphors namely SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+, (CaZn)TiO3:Pr3+, and Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, Dy3+. SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor exhibits a strong excitation in UV and visible region (280-470 nm) with a broad emission peak centered at 514 nm is the characteristic emission of parity allowed 4f65d1→4f7 transitions of Eu2+ (8S7/2→2D5/2). Sunlight excitable Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+,Dy3+ nanophosphors emits blue color (464 nm) with Commercial international de I’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates to be (0.15, 0.13) with a color purity of 74 % with afterglow time of > 5 hours for dark adapted human eyes. (CaZn)TiO3:Pr3+ phosphor system possess high color purity (98%) which emits intense, stable and narrow red emission at 612 nm due intra 4f transitions (1D2 → 3H4) with afterglow time of 0.5 hour. Unusual property of persistence luminescence of these nanophoshphors supersedes background effects without losing sensitive information these nanophosphors offer several advantages of visible light excitation, negligible substrate interference, high contrast bifurcation of ridge pattern, non-toxic nature revealing finger ridge details of the fingerprints. Both level 1 and level 2 features from a fingerprint can be studied which are useful for used classification, indexing, comparison and personal identification. facile methodology to extract high contrast fingerprints on non-porous and porous substrates using a chemically inert, visible light excitable, and nanosized phosphorescent label in the dark has been presented. The chemistry of non-covalent physisorption interaction between the long afterglow phosphor powder and sweat residue in fingerprints has been discussed in detail. Real-time fingerprint development on porous and non-porous substrates has also been performed. To conclude, apart from conventional dark vision applications, as prepared primary color emitting afterglow phosphors are potentional candidate for developing high contrast latent fingerprints.

Keywords: fingerprints, luminescence, persistent phosphors, rare earth

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34 2D Fingerprint Performance for PubChem Chemical Database

Authors: Fatimah Zawani Abdullah, Shereena Mohd Arif, Nurul Malim


The study of molecular similarity search in chemical database is increasingly widespread, especially in the area of drug discovery. Similarity search is an application in the field of Chemoinformatics to measure the similarity between the molecular structure which is known as the query and the structure of chemical compounds in the database. Similarity search is also one of the approaches in virtual screening which involves computational techniques and scoring the probabilities of activity. The main objective of this work is to determine the best fingerprint when compared to the other five fingerprints selected in this study using PubChem chemical dataset. This paper will discuss the similarity searching process conducted using 6 types of descriptors, which are ECFP4, ECFC4, FCFP4, FCFC4, SRECFC4 and SRFCFC4 on 15 activity classes of PubChem dataset using Tanimoto coefficient to calculate the similarity between the query structures and each of the database structure. The results suggest that ECFP4 performs the best to be used with Tanimoto coefficient in the PubChem dataset.

Keywords: 2D fingerprints, Tanimoto, PubChem, similarity searching, chemoinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
33 Influence of the Refractory Period on Neural Networks Based on the Recognition of Neural Signatures

Authors: José Luis Carrillo-Medina, Roberto Latorre


Experimental evidence has revealed that different living neural systems can sign their output signals with some specific neural signature. Although experimental and modeling results suggest that neural signatures can have an important role in the activity of neural networks in order to identify the source of the information or to contextualize a message, the functional meaning of these neural fingerprints is still unclear. The existence of cellular mechanisms to identify the origin of individual neural signals can be a powerful information processing strategy for the nervous system. We have recently built different models to study the ability of a neural network to process information based on the emission and recognition of specific neural fingerprints. In this paper we further analyze the features that can influence on the information processing ability of this kind of networks. In particular, we focus on the role that the duration of a refractory period in each neuron after emitting a signed message can play in the network collective dynamics.

Keywords: neural signature, neural fingerprint, processing based on signal identification, self-organizing neural network

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32 Herbal Based Fingerprint Powder Formulation for Latent Fingermark Visualization: Catechu (Kattha)

Authors: Pallavi Thakur, Rakesh K. Garg


Latent fingerprints are commonly encountered evidence at the scene of the crime. It is very important to decipher these fingerprints in order to explore their identity and a lot of research has been made on the visualization of latent fingermarks on various substrates by numerous researchers. During the past few years large number of powder formulations has been evolved for the development of latent fingermarks on different surfaces. This paper reports a new and simple fingerprint powder which is non-toxic and has been employed on different substrates successfully for the development and visualization of latent fingermarks upto the time period of twelve days in varying temperature conditions. In this study, a less expensive, simple and easily available catechu (kattha) powder has been used to decipher the latent fingermarks on different substrates namely glass, plastic, metal, aluminium foil, white paper, wall tile and wooden sheet. It is observed that it gives very clear results on all the mentioned substrates and can be successfully used for the development and visualization of twelve days old latent fingermarks in varying temperature conditions on wall tiles.

Keywords: fingermarks, catechu, visualization, aged fingermarks

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31 Ruta graveolens Fingerprints Obtained with Reversed-Phase Gradient Thin-Layer Chromatography with Controlled Solvent Velocity

Authors: Adrian Szczyrba, Aneta Halka-Grysinska, Tomasz Baj, Tadeusz H. Dzido


Since prehistory, plants were constituted as an essential source of biologically active substances in folk medicine. One of the examples of medicinal plants is Ruta graveolens L. For a long time, Ruta g. herb has been famous for its spasmolytic, diuretic, or anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. The wide spectrum of secondary metabolites produced by Ruta g. includes flavonoids (eg. rutin, quercetin), coumarins (eg. bergapten, umbelliferone) phenolic acids (eg. rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid), and limonoids. Unfortunately, the presence of produced substances is highly dependent on environmental factors like temperature, humidity, or soil acidity; therefore standardization is necessary. There were many attempts of characterization of various phytochemical groups (eg. coumarins) of Ruta graveolens using the normal – phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC). However, due to the so-called general elution problem, usually, some components remained unseparated near the start or finish line. Therefore Ruta graveolens is a very good model plant. Methanol and petroleum ether extract from its aerial parts were used to demonstrate the capabilities of the new device for gradient thin-layer chromatogram development. The development of gradient thin-layer chromatograms in the reversed-phase system in conventional horizontal chambers can be disrupted by problems associated with an excessive flux of the mobile phase to the surface of the adsorbent layer. This phenomenon is most likely caused by significant differences between the surface tension of the subsequent fractions of the mobile phase. An excessive flux of the mobile phase onto the surface of the adsorbent layer distorts the flow of the mobile phase. The described effect produces unreliable, and unrepeatable results, causing blurring and deformation of the substance zones. In the prototype device, the mobile phase solution is delivered onto the surface of the adsorbent layer with controlled velocity (by moving pipette driven by 3D machine). The delivery of the solvent to the adsorbent layer is equal to or lower than that of conventional development. Therefore chromatograms can be developed with optimal linear mobile phase velocity. Furthermore, under such conditions, there is no excess of eluent solution on the surface of the adsorbent layer so the higher performance of the chromatographic system can be obtained. Directly feeding the adsorbent layer with eluent also enables to perform convenient continuous gradient elution practically without the so-called gradient delay. In the study, unique fingerprints of methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Ruta graveolens aerial parts were obtained with stepwise gradient reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. Obtained fingerprints under different chromatographic conditions will be compared. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach to chromatogram development with controlled solvent velocity will be discussed.

Keywords: fingerprints, gradient thin-layer chromatography, reversed-phase TLC, Ruta graveolens

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
30 Interpersonal Variation of Salivary Microbiota Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

Authors: Manjula Weerasekera, Chris Sissons, Lisa Wong, Sally Anderson, Ann Holmes, Richard Cannon


The aim of this study was to characterize bacterial population and yeasts in saliva by Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and measure yeast levels by culture. PCR-DGGE was performed to identify oral bacteria and yeasts in 24 saliva samples. DNA was extracted and used to generate DNA amplicons of the V2–V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene using PCR. Further universal primers targeting the large subunit rDNA gene (25S-28S) of fungi were used to amplify yeasts present in human saliva. Resulting PCR products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Universal mutation detection system. DGGE bands were extracted and sequenced using Sanger method. A potential relationship was evaluated between groups of bacteria identified by cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprints with the yeast levels and with their diversity. Significant interpersonal variation of salivary microbiome was observed. Cluster and principal component analysis of the bacterial DGGE patterns yielded three significant major clusters, and outliers. Seventeen of the 24 (71%) saliva samples were yeast positive going up to 10³ cfu/mL. Predominately, C. albicans, and six other species of yeast were detected. The presence, amount and species of yeast showed no clear relationship to the bacterial clusters. Microbial community in saliva showed a significant variation between individuals. A lack of association between yeasts and the bacterial fingerprints in saliva suggests the significant ecological person-specific independence in highly complex oral biofilm systems under normal oral conditions.

Keywords: bacteria, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, oral biofilm, yeasts

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29 Minimum Data of a Speech Signal as Special Indicators of Identification in Phonoscopy

Authors: Nazaket Gazieva


Voice biometric data associated with physiological, psychological and other factors are widely used in forensic phonoscopy. There are various methods for identifying and verifying a person by voice. This article explores the minimum speech signal data as individual parameters of a speech signal. Monozygotic twins are believed to be genetically identical. Using the minimum data of the speech signal, we came to the conclusion that the voice imprint of monozygotic twins is individual. According to the conclusion of the experiment, we can conclude that the minimum indicators of the speech signal are more stable and reliable for phonoscopic examinations.

Keywords: phonogram, speech signal, temporal characteristics, fundamental frequency, biometric fingerprints

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28 Effect of Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Inhalation on Voice Resonances

Authors: Pallavi Marathe


Voice is considered to be a unique biometric property of human beings. Unlike other biometric evidence, for example, fingerprints and retina scans, etc., voice can be easily changed or mimicked. The present paper talks about how the inhalation of helium and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas affects the voice formant frequencies that are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract. Helium gas is low-density gas; hence, the voice travels with a higher speed than that of air. On the other side in SF6 gas voice travels with lower speed than that of air due to its higher density. These results in decreasing the resonant frequencies of voice in helium and increasing in SF6. Results are presented with the help of Praat software, which is used for voice analysis.

Keywords: voice formants, helium, sulfur hexafluoride, gas inhalation

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27 To Study the New Invocation of Biometric Authentication Technique

Authors: Aparna Gulhane


Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data form the basis of research in biological measuring techniques for the purpose of people identification and recognition. In information technology, biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements. Biometric systems are used to authenticate the person's identity. The idea is to use the special characteristics of a person to identify him. These papers present a biometric authentication techniques and actual deployment of potential by overall invocation of biometrics recognition, with an independent testing of various biometric authentication products and technology.

Keywords: types of biometrics, importance of biometric, review for biometrics and getting a new implementation, biometric authentication technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
26 Fingerprint Image Encryption Using a 2D Chaotic Map and Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Authors: D. M. S. Bandara, Yunqi Lei, Ye Luo


Fingerprints are suitable as long-term markers of human identity since they provide detailed and unique individual features which are difficult to alter and durable over life time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt fingerprint images by using a specially designed Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) procedure based on block ciphers. In addition, to increase the confusing effect of fingerprint encryption, we also utilize a chaotic-behaved method called Arnold Cat Map (ACM) for a 2D scrambling of pixel locations in our method. Experimental results are carried out with various types of efficiency and security analyses. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed fingerprint encryption/decryption algorithm is advantageous in several different aspects including efficiency, security and flexibility. In particular, using this algorithm, we achieve a margin of about 0.1% in the test of Number of Pixel Changing Rate (NPCR) values comparing to the-state-of-the-art performances.

Keywords: arnold cat map, biometric encryption, block cipher, elliptic curve cryptography, fingerprint encryption, Koblitz’s encoding

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
25 Student Records Management System Using Smart Cards and Biometric Technology for Educational Institutions

Authors: Patrick O. Bobbie, Prince S. Attrams


In recent times, the rapid change in new technologies has spurred up the way and manner records are handled in educational institutions. Also, there is a need for reliable access and ease-of use to these records, resulting in increased productivity in organizations. In academic institutions, such benefits help in quality assessments, institutional performance, and assessments of teaching and evaluation methods. Students in educational institutions benefit the most when advanced technologies are deployed in accessing records. This research paper discusses the use of biometric technologies coupled with smartcard technologies to provide a unique way of identifying students and matching their data to financial records to grant them access to restricted areas such as examination halls. The system developed in this paper, has an identity verification component as part of its main functionalities. A systematic software development cycle of analysis, design, coding, testing and support was used. The system provides a secured way of verifying student’s identity and real time verification of financial records. An advanced prototype version of the system has been developed for testing purposes.

Keywords: biometrics, smartcards, identity-verification, fingerprints

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
24 Public Wi-Fi Security Threat Evil Twin Attack Detection Based on Signal Variant and Hop Count

Authors: Said Abdul Ahad Ahadi, Elyas Baray, Nitin Rakesh, Sudeep Varshney


Wi-Fi is a widely used internet source that is used to provide internet access in many areas such as Stores, Cafes, University campuses, Restaurants and so on. This technology brought more facilities in communication and networking. On the other hand, due to the transmission of data over the air, which makes the network vulnerable, so it becomes prone to various threats such as Evil Twin and etc. The Evil Twin is a kind of adversary which impersonates a legitimate access point (LAP) as it can happen by spoofing the name (SSID) and MAC address (BSSID) of a legitimate access point (LAP). And this attack can cause many threats such as MITM, Service Interruption, Access point service blocking. Various Evil Twin Attack Detection Techniques are proposed, but they require additional hardware, or they require protocol modification. In this paper, we proposed a new technique based on Access Point’s two fingerprints, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Hop Count, that is hard to copy by an adversary. And we implemented the technique in a system called “ETDetector,” which can detect and prevent the attack.

Keywords: evil twin, LAP, SSID, Wi-Fi security, signal variation, ETAD, kali linux, scapy, python

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23 Development of DNA Fingerprints in Selected Medicinal Plants of India

Authors: V. Verma, Hazi Raja


Conventionally, morphological descriptors are routinely used for establishing the identity of varieties. But these morphological descriptors suffer from many drawbacks such as influence of environment on trait expression, epistatic interactions, pleiotrophic effects etc. Furthermore, the paucity of a sufficient number of these descriptors for unequivocal identification of increasing number of reference collection varieties enforces to look for alternatives. Therefore, DNA based finger-print based techniques were selected to define the systematic position of the selected medicinal plants like Plumbago zeylanica, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta. DNA fingerprinting of herbal plants can be useful in authenticating the various claims of medical uses related to the plants, in germplasm characterization and conservation. In plants it has not only helped in identifying species but also in defining a new realm in plant genomics, plant breeding and in conserving the biodiversity. With world paving way for developments in biotechnology, DNA fingerprinting promises a very powerful tool in our future endeavors. Data will be presented on the development of microsatellite markers (SSR) used to fingerprint, characterize, and assess genetic diversity among 12 accessions of both Plumbago zeylanica, 4 accessions of Desmodium gengaticum, 4 accessions of Uraria Picta.

Keywords: Plumbago zeylanica, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta, microsaetllite markers

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22 A Biometric Template Security Approach to Fingerprints Based on Polynomial Transformations

Authors: Ramon Santana


The use of biometric identifiers in the field of information security, access control to resources, authentication in ATMs and banking among others, are of great concern because of the safety of biometric data. In the general architecture of a biometric system have been detected eight vulnerabilities, six of them allow obtaining minutiae template in plain text. The main consequence of obtaining minutia templates is the loss of biometric identifier for life. To mitigate these vulnerabilities several models to protect minutiae templates have been proposed. Several vulnerabilities in the cryptographic security of these models allow to obtain biometric data in plain text. In order to increase the cryptographic security and ease of reversibility, a minutiae templates protection model is proposed. The model aims to make the cryptographic protection and facilitate the reversibility of data using two levels of security. The first level of security is the data transformation level. In this level generates invariant data to rotation and translation, further transformation is irreversible. The second level of security is the evaluation level, where the encryption key is generated and data is evaluated using a defined evaluation function. The model is aimed at mitigating known vulnerabilities of the proposed models, basing its security on the impossibility of the polynomial reconstruction.

Keywords: fingerprint, template protection, bio-cryptography, minutiae protection

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21 Gait Biometric for Person Re-Identification

Authors: Lavanya Srinivasan


Biometric identification is to identify unique features in a person like fingerprints, iris, ear, and voice recognition that need the subject's permission and physical contact. Gait biometric is used to identify the unique gait of the person by extracting moving features. The main advantage of gait biometric to identify the gait of a person at a distance, without any physical contact. In this work, the gait biometric is used for person re-identification. The person walking naturally compared with the same person walking with bag, coat, and case recorded using longwave infrared, short wave infrared, medium wave infrared, and visible cameras. The videos are recorded in rural and in urban environments. The pre-processing technique includes human identified using YOLO, background subtraction, silhouettes extraction, and synthesis Gait Entropy Image by averaging the silhouettes. The moving features are extracted from the Gait Entropy Energy Image. The extracted features are dimensionality reduced by the principal component analysis and recognised using different classifiers. The comparative results with the different classifier show that linear discriminant analysis outperforms other classifiers with 95.8% for visible in the rural dataset and 94.8% for longwave infrared in the urban dataset.

Keywords: biometric, gait, silhouettes, YOLO

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20 Simulation of Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Silicon Germanium Photonic Waveguides for Gas Spectroscopy

Authors: Proficiency Munsaka, Peter Baricholo, Erich Rohwer


Pulse evolutions along the 5 cm long, 6.0 ×4.2 μm² cross-section silicon germanium (SiGe) photonic waveguides were simulated and compared with experiments. Simulations were carried out by solving a generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation (GNLSE) for an optical pulse evolution along the length of the SiGe photonic waveguides by the split-step Fourier method (SSFM). The solution obtained from the SSFM gave the pulse envelope in both time and spectral domain calculated at each distance step along the propagation direction. The SiGe photonic waveguides were pumped in an anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime using a 4.7 μm, 210 fs femtosecond laser to produce a significant supercontinuum (SC). The simulated propagation of ultrafast pulse along the SiGe photonic waveguides produced an SC covering the atmospheric window (2.5-8.5 μm) containing the molecular fingerprints for important gases. Thus, the mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in SiGe photonic waveguides system can be commercialized for gas spectroscopy for detecting gases that include CO₂, CH₄, H₂O, SO₂, SO₃, NO₂, H₂S, CO, and NO at trace level using absorption spectroscopy technique. The simulated profile evolutions are spectrally and temporally similar to those obtained by other researchers. Obtained evolution profiles are characterized by pulse compression, Soliton fission, dispersive wave generation, stimulated Raman Scattering, and Four Wave mixing.

Keywords: silicon germanium photonic waveguide, supercontinuum generation, spectroscopy, mid infrared

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19 Implementation of a Multimodal Biometrics Recognition System with Combined Palm Print and Iris Features

Authors: Rabab M. Ramadan, Elaraby A. Elgallad


With extensive application, the performance of unimodal biometrics systems has to face a diversity of problems such as signal and background noise, distortion, and environment differences. Therefore, multimodal biometric systems are proposed to solve the above stated problems. This paper introduces a bimodal biometric recognition system based on the extracted features of the human palm print and iris. Palm print biometric is fairly a new evolving technology that is used to identify people by their palm features. The iris is a strong competitor together with face and fingerprints for presence in multimodal recognition systems. In this research, we introduced an algorithm to the combination of the palm and iris-extracted features using a texture-based descriptor, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). Since the feature sets are non-homogeneous as features of different biometric modalities are used, these features will be concatenated to form a single feature vector. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used as a feature selection technique to reduce the dimensionality of the feature. The proposed algorithm will be applied to the Institute of Technology of Delhi (IITD) database and its performance will be compared with various iris recognition algorithms found in the literature.

Keywords: iris recognition, particle swarm optimization, feature extraction, feature selection, palm print, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)

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18 A Palmprint Identification System Based Multi-Layer Perceptron

Authors: David P. Tantua, Abdulkader Helwan


Biometrics has been recently used for the human identification systems using the biological traits such as the fingerprints and iris scanning. Identification systems based biometrics show great efficiency and accuracy in such human identification applications. However, these types of systems are so far based on some image processing techniques only, which may decrease the efficiency of such applications. Thus, this paper aims to develop a human palmprint identification system using multi-layer perceptron neural network which has the capability to learn using a backpropagation learning algorithms. The developed system uses images obtained from a public database available on the internet (CASIA). The processing system is as follows: image filtering using median filter, image adjustment, image skeletonizing, edge detection using canny operator to extract features, clear unwanted components of the image. The second phase is to feed those processed images into a neural network classifier which will adaptively learn and create a class for each different image. 100 different images are used for training the system. Since this is an identification system, it should be tested with the same images. Therefore, the same 100 images are used for testing it, and any image out of the training set should be unrecognized. The experimental results shows that this developed system has a great accuracy 100% and it can be implemented in real life applications.

Keywords: biometrics, biological traits, multi-layer perceptron neural network, image skeletonizing, edge detection using canny operator

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17 Pedagogical Practices of a Teacher in Students' Experience Tellings: A Conversation Analytic Study

Authors: Derya Duran, Christine Jacknick


This study explores post-task reflections in an English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) setting, and it specifically focuses on how a teacher performs pedagogical practices such as reformulating, extending and evaluating following students’ spontaneous experience tellings in EMI classrooms. The data consist of 30 hours of video recordings from two EMI content classes, which were recorded for an academic term at a university in Turkey. The course, Guidance, is offered to fourth year undergraduate students as a compulsory course in the Department of Educational Sciences. The participants (n=78) study at the Faculty of Education, majoring in different educational departments (i.e., Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Elementary Education, Foreign Language Education). Using conversation analysis, we demonstrate that the teacher employs a variety of interactional resources to elicit (i.e., asking specific questions) and also provides (i.e., giving scientific information) as much content as possible, which also sheds light on the institutional fingerprints of the current research context. The study contributes to the existing research by unpacking articulation of personal experiences and cultivation of collaborativeness in classroom interaction. Moreover, describing the dialogic nature of these specific occasions, the study demonstrates how teacher and students address learning tasks together (collectivity), how they orient to each other turns interactionally (reciprocity), and how they keep the pedagogical focus in mind (purposefulness).

Keywords: conversation analysis, English as a medium of instruction, higher education, post-task reflections

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16 Application of Biosensors in Forensic Analysis

Authors: Shirin jalili, Hadi Shirzad, Samaneh Nabavi, Somayeh Khanjani


Biosensors in forensic analysis are ideal biological tools that can be used for rapid and sensitive initial screening and testing to detect of suspicious components like biological and chemical agent in crime scenes. The wide use of different biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, microorganisms, antibodies and enzymes makes it possible. These biosensors have great advantages such as rapidity, little sample manipulation and high sensitivity, also Because of their stability, specificity and low cost they have become a very important tool to Forensic analysis and detection of crime. In crime scenes different substances such as rape samples, Semen, saliva fingerprints and blood samples, act as a detecting elements for biosensors. On the other hand, successful fluid recovery via biosensor has the propensity to yield a highly valuable source of genetic material, which is important in finding the suspect. Although current biological fluid testing techniques are impaired for identification of body fluids. But these methods have disadvantages. For example if they are to be used simultaneously, Often give false positive result. These limitations can negatively result the output of a case through missed or misinterpreted evidence. The use of biosensor enable criminal researchers the highly sensitive and non-destructive detection of biological fluid through interaction with several fluid-endogenous and other biological and chemical contamination at the crime scene. For this reason, using of the biosensors for detecting the biological fluid found at the crime scenes which play an important role in identifying the suspect and solving the criminal.

Keywords: biosensors, forensic analysis, biological fluid, crime detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 543