Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 233

Search results for: temporary tattooing

233 A Review of Current Practices in Tattooing of Colonic Lesion at Endoscopy

Authors: Dhanashree Moghe, Roberta Bullingham, Rizwan Ahmed, Tarun Singhal


Aim: The NHS Bowel Screening Programme recommends the use of endoscopic tattooing for suspected malignant lesions that later require surgical or endoscopic localisation, using local protocols as guidance. This is in accordance with guidance from the BSG (The British Society of Gastroenterologists). We used a well-recognised local protocol as a standard to audit current tattooing practice in a large district general hospital with no current local guidelines. Method: A retrospective quantitative analysis of 50 patients who underwent segmental colonic resection for cancer over a 6-month period in 2021. We reviewed historic electronic endoscopy reports recording relevant data on tattoo indication and placement. Secondly, we carried out an anonymous survey of 16 independent lower GI endoscopists on self-reported details of their practice. Results: In our study, 28 patients (56%) had a tattoo placed at the time of their colonoscopy. Of these, only 53% (n=15) had the tattoo distal to the lesion, with the measured distance of the tattoo from the lesion only being documented in 8 reports. Only seven patients (25%) had a circumferential (4 quadrant) placement of the tattoo. 13 patients had lesions either in the caecum or rectum, locations deemed unnecessary as per BSG guidelines. Of the survey responses collected, there were four different protocols being used to guide practice. Only 50% of respondents placed tattoos at the correct distance from the lesion, and 83% placed the correct number of tattoos. Conclusion: There is a lack of standardisation of practices in colonic tattooing demonstrated in our study with incomplete compliance to our standard. The inadequate documentation of tattoo location can contribute to confusion and inaccuracy in the intraoperative localisation of lesions. This has the potential to increase operation length and morbidity. There is a need to standardise both technique and documentation in colonoscopic tattooing practice.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, endoscopic tattooing, colonoscopy, NHS BSCP

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232 Quantification of Lawsone and Adulterants in Commercial Henna Products

Authors: Ruchi B. Semwal, Deepak K. Semwal, Thobile A. N. Nkosi, Alvaro M. Viljoen


The use of Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraeae), commonly known as henna, has many medicinal benefits and is used as a remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, cancer, inflammation, headache, jaundice and skin diseases in folk medicine. Although widely used for hair dyeing and temporary tattooing, henna body art has popularized over the last 15 years and changed from being a traditional bridal and festival adornment to an exotic fashion accessory. The naphthoquinone, lawsone, is one of the main constituents of the plant and responsible for its dyeing property. Henna leaves typically contain 1.8–1.9% lawsone, which is used as a marker compound for the quality control of henna products. Adulteration of henna with various toxic chemicals such as p-phenylenediamine, p-methylaminophenol, p-aminobenzene and p-toluenodiamine to produce a variety of colours, is very common and has resulted in serious health problems, including allergic reactions. This study aims to assess the quality of henna products collected from different parts of the world by determining the lawsone content, as well as the concentrations of any adulterants present. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used to determine the lawsone concentrations in 172 henna products. Separation of the chemical constituents was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using gradient elution (0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile). The results from UPLC-MS revealed that of 172 henna products, 11 contained 1.0-1.8% lawsone, 110 contained 0.1-0.9% lawsone, whereas 51 samples did not contain detectable levels of lawsone. High performance thin layer chromatography was investigated as a cheaper, more rapid technique for the quality control of henna in relation to the lawsone content. The samples were applied using an automatic TLC Sampler 4 (CAMAG) to pre-coated silica plates, which were subsequently developed with acetic acid, acetone and toluene (0.5: 1.0: 8.5 v/v). A Reprostar 3 digital system allowed the images to be captured. The results obtained corresponded to those from UPLC-MS analysis. Vibrational spectroscopy analysis (MIR or NIR) of the powdered henna, followed by chemometric modelling of the data, indicates that this technique shows promise as an alternative quality control method. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the data by observing clustering and identifying outliers. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models were constructed for the quantification of lawsone. In conclusion, only a few of the samples analysed contain lawsone in high concentrations, indicating that they are of poor quality. Currently, the presence of adulterants that may have been added to enhance the dyeing properties of the products, is being investigated.

Keywords: Lawsonia inermis, paraphenylenediamine, temporary tattooing, lawsone

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231 Basic Research on Applying Temporary Work Engineering at the Design Phase

Authors: Jin Woong Lee, Kyuman Cho, Taehoon Kim


The application of constructability is increasingly required not only in the construction phase but also in the whole project stage. In particular, the proper application of construction experience and knowledge during the design phase enables the minimization of inefficiencies such as design changes and improvements in constructability during the construction phase. In order to apply knowledge effectively, engineering technology efforts should be implemented with design progress. Among many engineering technologies, engineering for temporary works, including facilities, equipment, and other related construction methods, is important to improve constructability. Therefore, as basic research, this study investigates the applicability of temporary work engineering during the design phase in the building construction industry. As a result, application of temporary work engineering has a greater impact on construction cost reduction and constructability improvement. In contrast to the existing design-bid-build method, the turn-key and CM (construct management) procurement methods currently being implemented in Korea are expected to have a significant impact on the direction of temporary work engineering. To introduce temporary work engineering, expert/professional organization training is first required, and a lack of client awareness should be preferentially improved. The results of this study are expected to be useful as reference material for the development of more effective temporary work engineering tasks and work processes in the future.

Keywords: Temporary Work Engineering, Design Phase, Constructability, Building Construction

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230 Sustainable Strategies for Post-Disaster Shelters: Case Study-Based Review and Future Prospects

Authors: Fangwen Ni, Hongpeng Xu


When disasters occur, it is important to provide temporary shelters to protect victims from their environment and to comfort them with privacy and dignity. However, the commonly used shelters like tents and shanties can not ensure a comfortable condition. Furthermore, the demand for more energy and less pollution has become a major challenge. Focusing on the sustainable of temporary shelters, this study intends to clarify the essential role of temporary shelters before the reconstruction work is done. The paper also identifies the main problems from three aspects including spatial layout, thermal comfort and utilization of passive technology. Moreover, it expounds the passive strategies of ecological design by case study and simulation. It is found that the living condition of shelters can be improved from the perspective of architectural space, ventilation theory and construction techniques. Regardless of being temporary, these shelters are crucial elements in emergency situations and should be taken more seriously.

Keywords: architectural space, construction technique, sustainable strategy, temporary shelter

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
229 Assessing Suitability of Earthbag Technology for Temporary Housing: Sustainability Challenge

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Ana Blanco, Albert De La Fuente, Sergio Cavalaro


In emergency situations, it is fundamental to provide with a safe shelter to the population affected. However, the lack of resources and short time often represent a barrier difficult to overcome. A sustainable, rapid and low-cost construction technique is earthbag construction. This technique has spread as an alternative to the construction of emergency shelter, social housing, and even ecovillages. The earthbag construction consists of introducing soil in degradable bags that are stacked to form adobe structures. The present study aims to assess characteristics of the earthbag construction technique based on sustainability requirements and features of other methods used for temporary housing. In this case, after defining the sustainability criteria and emergency situation necessities, this study compares earthbag construction with other types of prefabricated temporary housing. Finally, the most suitable conditions for applying this technique based on the particular local properties and second life scenarios of superadobe temporary housing. The results of the study contribute to promote the earthbag and superadobe techniques as sustainable alternatives for temporary housing. However, the sustainability index of this technology highly depends on affected local conditions and characteristics. Consequently, in order to achieve a high sustainability index, emergency managers need to decide about this technology based on the highlighted results of this study, attention to the importance of specific local conditions and next functions of temporary housing.

Keywords: temporary housing, temporary shelter, earthbag, superadobe, sustainability, emergency

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
228 Optimal Site Selection for Temporary Housing regarding Disaster Management Case Study: Tehran Municipality (No.6)

Authors: Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani, Zhamak Monazami Tehrani, Raziyeh Hadavand


Optimal site selection for temporary housing is one of the most important issues in crisis management. In this research, district six of Tehran city with high frequency and geographical distribution of earthquakes has been selected as a case study for positioning temporary housing after a probable earthquake. For achieving this goal this study tries to identify and evaluate distribution of location according to some standards such as compatible and incompatible urban land uses with utility of GIS and AHP. The results of this study show the most susceptible parts of this region in the center. According to the maps, north eastern part of Kordestan, Shaheed Gomnam intersection possesses the highest pixels value in terms of areal extent, therefore these places are recommended as an optimum site location for construction of emergency evacuation base.

Keywords: optimal site selection, temporary housing , crisis management, AHP, GIS

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227 The Role of Temporary Migration as Coping Mechanism of Weather Shock: Evidence from Selected Semi-Arid Tropic Villages in India

Authors: Kalandi Charan Pradhan


In this study, we investigate does weather variation determine temporary labour migration using 210 sample households from six Semi-Arid Tropic (SAT) villages for the period of 2005-2014 in India. The study has made an attempt to examine how households use temporary labour migration as a coping mechanism to minimise the risk rather than maximize the utility of the households. The study employs panel Logit regression model to predict the probability of household having at least one temporary labour migrant. As per as econometrics result, it is found that along with demographic and socioeconomic factors; weather variation plays an important role to determine the decision of migration at household level. In order to capture the weather variation, the study uses mean crop yield deviation over the study periods. Based on the random effect logit regression result, the study found that there is a concave relationship between weather variation and decision of temporary labour migration. This argument supports the theory of New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM), which highlights the decision of labour migration not only maximise the households’ utility but it helps to minimise the risks.

Keywords: temporary migration, socioeconomic factors, weather variation, crop yield, logit estimation

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226 Finding Out the Best Place for Resettling of Victims after the Earthquake: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi, Nima Ghasemloo


Iran is a capable zone for earthquake that follows loss of lives and financial damages. To have sheltering for earthquake victims is one of the basic requirements although it is hard to select suitable places for temporary resettling after an earthquake happens. Before these kinds of disasters happen, the best places for resettling the victims must be designated. This matter is an important issue in disaster management and planning. Geospatial Information System (GIS) has a determining role in disaster management; it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this paper the best criteria have been determined associated with their weights and buffers by use of research and questionnaire for locating the best places. In this paper, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling is done based on the selected criteria. Also in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Finally there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in QGIS software.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
225 Finding out the Best Criteria for Locating the Best Place Resettling of Victims after the Earthquake: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi


Iran is a capable zone for the earthquake that follows the loss of lives and financial damages. To have sheltering for earthquake victims is one of the basic requirements although it is hard to select suitable places for temporary resettling after an earthquake happens. Before these kinds of disasters happen, the best places for resettling the victims must be designated. This matter is an important issue in disaster management and planning. Geospatial Information System(GIS) has a determining role in disaster management, it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this paper, the best criteria have been determined associated with their weights and buffers by use of research and questionnaire for locating the best places. In this paper, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling is done based on the selected criteria. Also, in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Finally, there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in ArcGIS software.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
224 Design and Performance of a Large Diameter Shaft in Old Alluvium

Authors: Tamilmani Thiruvengadam, Ramasthanan Arulampalam


This project comprises laying approximately 1.8km of 400mm, 1200mm and 2400mm diameter sewer pipes using pipe jacking machines along Mugliston Park, Buangkok Drive, and Buangkok Link. The works include an estimated 14 circular shafts with depth ranging from 10.0 meters to 29.0 meters. Cast in-situ circular shaft will be used for the temporary shaft excavation. The geology is predominantly Backfill and old alluvium with weak material encountered in between. Where there is a very soft clay, F1 material or weak soil is expected, ground improvement will be carried out outside of the shaft followed by cast in-situ concrete ring wall within the improved soil zone. This paper presents the design methodology, analysis and results of temporary shafts for micro TBM launching and constructing permanent manholes. There is also a comparison of instrumentation readings with the analysis predicted values.

Keywords: circular shaft, ground improvement, old alluvium, temporary shaft

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223 Temporality in Architecture and Related Knowledge

Authors: Gonca Z. Tuncbilek


Architectural research tends to define architecture in terms of its permanence. In this study, the term ‘temporality’ and its use in architectural discourse is re-visited. The definition, proposition, and efficacy of the temporality occur both in architecture and in its related knowledge. The temporary architecture not only fulfills the requirement of the architectural programs, but also plays a significant role in generating an environment of architectural discourse. In recent decades, there is a great interest on the temporary architectural practices regarding to the installations, exhibition spaces, pavilions, and expositions; inviting the architects to experience and think about architecture. The temporary architecture has a significant role among the architecture, the architect, and the architectural discourse. Experiencing the contemporary materials, methods and technique; they have proposed the possibilities of the future architecture. These structures give opportunities to the architects to a wide-ranging variety of freedoms to experience the ‘new’ in architecture. In addition to this experimentation, they can be considered as an agent to redefine and reform the boundaries of the architectural discipline itself. Although the definition of architecture is re-analyzed in terms of its temporality rather than its permanence; architecture, in reality, still relies on historically codified types and principles of the formation. The concept of type can be considered for several different sciences, and there is a tendency to organize and understand the world in terms of classification in many different cultures and places. ‘Type’ is used as a classification tool with/without the scope of the critical invention. This study considers theories of type, putting forward epistemological and discursive arguments related to the form of architecture, being related to historical and formal disciplinary knowledge in architecture. This study has been to emphasize the importance of the temporality in architecture as a creative tool to reveal the position within the architectural discourse. The temporary architecture offers ‘new’ opportunities in the architectural field to be analyzed. In brief, temporary structures allow the architect freedoms to the experimentation in architecture. While redefining the architecture in terms of temporality, architecture still relies on historically codified types (pavilions, exhibitions, expositions, and installations). The notion of architectural types and its varying interpretations are analyzed based on the texts of architectural theorists since the Age of Enlightenment. Investigating the classification of type in architecture particularly temporary architecture, it is necessary to return to the discussion of the origin of the knowledge and its classification.

Keywords: classification of architecture, exhibition design, pavilion design, temporary architecture

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222 Research on Container Housing: A New Form of Informal Housing on Urban Temporary Land

Authors: Lufei Mao, Hongwei Chen, Zijiao Chai


Informal housing is a widespread phenomenon in developing countries. In many newly-emerging cities in China, rapid urbanization leads to an influx of population as well as a shortage of housing. Under this background, container housing, a new form of informal housing, gradually appears on a small scale on urban temporary land in recent years. Container housing, just as its name implies, transforms containers into small houses that allow migrant workers group to live in it. Scholars in other countries have established sound theoretical frameworks for informal housing study, but the research fruits seem rather limited on this small scale housing form. Unlike the cases in developed countries, these houses, which are outside urban planning, bring about various environmental, economic, social and governance issues. Aiming to figure out this new-born housing form, a survey mainly on two container housing settlements in Hangzhou, China was carried out to gather the information of them. Based on this thorough survey, the paper concludes the features and problems of infrastructure, environment and social communication of container housing settlements. The result shows that these containers were lacking of basic facilities and were restricted in a small mess temporary land. Moreover, because of the deficiency in management, the rental rights of these containers might not be guaranteed. Then the paper analyzes the factors affecting the formation and evolution of container housing settlements. It turns out that institutional and policy factors, market factors and social factors were the main three factors that affect the formation. At last, the paper proposes some suggestions for the governance of container housing and the utility pattern of urban temporary land.

Keywords: container housing, informal housing, urban temporary land, urban governance

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221 Prioritizing Temporary Shelter Areas for Disaster Affected People Using Hybrid Decision Support Model

Authors: Ashish Trivedi, Amol Singh


In the recent years, the magnitude and frequency of disasters have increased at an alarming rate. Every year, more than 400 natural disasters affect global population. A large-scale disaster leads to destruction or damage to houses, thereby rendering a notable number of residents homeless. Since humanitarian response and recovery process takes considerable time, temporary establishments are arranged in order to provide shelter to affected population. These shelter areas are vital for an effective humanitarian relief; therefore, they must be strategically planned. Choosing the locations of temporary shelter areas for accommodating homeless people is critical to the quality of humanitarian assistance provided after a large-scale emergency. There has been extensive research on the facility location problem both in theory and in application. In order to deliver sufficient relief aid within a relatively short timeframe, humanitarian relief organisations pre-position warehouses at strategic locations. However, such approaches have received limited attention from the perspective of providing shelters to disaster-affected people. In present research work, this aspect of humanitarian logistics is considered. The present work proposes a hybrid decision support model to determine relative preference of potential shelter locations by assessing them based on key subjective criteria. Initially, the factors that are kept in mind while locating potential areas for establishing temporary shelters are identified by reviewing extant literature and through consultation from a panel of disaster management experts. In order to determine relative importance of individual criteria by taking into account subjectivity of judgements, a hybrid approach of fuzzy sets and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted. Further, Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) was applied on an illustrative data set to evaluate potential locations for establishing temporary shelter areas for homeless people in a disaster scenario. The contribution of this work is to propose a range of possible shelter locations for a humanitarian relief organization, using a robust multi criteria decision support framework.

Keywords: AHP, disaster preparedness, fuzzy set theory, humanitarian logistics, TOPSIS, temporary shelters

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220 Fatigue Tests of New Assembly Bolt Connections for Perspective Temporary Steel Railway Bridges

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Michal Štrba, Miln Pilgr


The paper deals with the problems of the actual behavior, failure mechanism and load-carrying capacity of the special bolt connection developed and intended for the assembly connections of truss main girders of perspective railway temporary steel bridges. Within the framework of this problem solution, several types of structural details of assembly joints have been considered as the conceptual structural design. Based on the preliminary evaluation of advantages or disadvantages of these ones, in principle two basic structural configurations so-called “tooth” and “splice-plate” connections have been selected for the subsequent detailed investigation. This investigation is mainly based on the experimental verification of the actual behavior, strain and failure mechanism and corresponding strength of the connection, and on its numerical modeling using FEM. This paper is focused only on the cyclic loading (fatigue) tests results of “splice-plate” connections and their evaluation, which have already been finished. Simultaneously with the fatigue tests, the static loading tests have been realized too, but these ones, as well as FEM numerical modeling, are not the subject of this paper.

Keywords: Bolt assembly connection, cyclic loading, failure mechanisms, fatigue strength, steel structure, structural detail category, temporary railway bridge

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
219 Locating the Best Place for Earthquake Refugee Camps by OpenSource Software: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi


Iran is one of the regions which are most prone for earthquakes annually having a large number of financial and mortality and financial losses. Every year around the world, a large number of people lose their home and life due to natural disasters such as earthquakes. It is necessary to provide and specify some suitable places for settling the homeless people before the occurrence of the earthquake, one of the most important factors in crisis planning and management. Some of the natural disasters can be Modeling and shown by Geospatial Information System (GIS). By using GIS, it would be possible to manage the spatial data and reach several goals by making use of the analyses existing in it. GIS has a determining role in disaster management because it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this research QuantumGIS software is used that It is an OpenSource software so that easy to access codes and It is also free. In this system, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling, is done based on the related organizations criteria with their weights and buffers. Also in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Eventually, there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in QuantumGIS platform.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, QuantumGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
218 Temporary Ureteric Catheterization after Ureteropyeloscopy: Experience from Regional Australia

Authors: Jake Tempo, Jack Crozier, Huay Ann Chia, Philip Tan


Purpose: A prospective study was performed to determine whether temporary ureteric catheterization should be eliminated as a prophylactic method for preventing ureteric obstruction after uncomplicated ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy. Material and Methods: From 2010 to 2014, 227 patients underwent uncomplicated ureteroscopic and/or pyeloscopic lithotripsy. Three patient-groups based on postoperative drainage method were analysed: temporary uretericcatheter (TUC), -ureteric JJ stent, and no-stent groups. Exclusion criteria included urosepsis, ureteric injury, and non-surgical complications delaying hospital-discharge. Outcome measures included parenteral analgesic requirements, prolonged hospitalization ≥2 days due to postoperative-pain, and readmissions rate. Results: Delayed discharge was reported in 14.5%(9 of 62) patients in the TUC group compared to 3.4%(4 of 119) in theureteric JJ stent group and 8.7%(4 of 46) in the no-drainage-group (p=0.02). Odds ratio for delayed-discharge between catheter- versus-ureteric JJ stent is 4.9 (95% CI = 1.6-15.0; p < 0.01). Parenteral analgesic requirements in the TUC group (12.9%) was also significantly higher than theureteric JJ stent group (1.7%; p=0.003). Readmissions were negligible between groups. Conclusions: Patients with ureteric catheters after uncomplicated ureteroscopy have a prolonged hospital stay with increased pain and parenteral analgesic requirements. There is a 7.6-fold increased requirement for parenteral analgesia and a 4.2-fold increased risk of delayed-discharge compared to a patient with a ureteric JJ stent.

Keywords: ureteric catheter, ureteric stent, ureteroscopy, pyeloscopy

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217 Sustainable Building Technologies for Post-Disaster Temporary Housing: Integrated Sustainability Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Oriol Pons, Albert de la Fuente


After natural disasters, displaced people (DP) require important numbers of housing units, which have to be erected quickly due to emergency pressures. These tight timeframes can cause the multiplication of the environmental construction impacts. These negative impacts worsen the already high energy consumption and pollution caused by the building sector. Indeed, post-disaster housing, which is often carried out without pre-planning, usually causes high negative environmental impacts, besides other economic and social impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a suitable strategy to deal with this problem which also takes into account the instability of its causes, like changing ratio between rural and urban population. To this end, this study aims to present a model that assists decision-makers to choose the most suitable building technology for post-disaster housing units. This model focuses on the alternatives sustainability and fulfillment of the stakeholders’ satisfactions. Four building technologies have been analyzed to determine the most sustainability technology and to validate the presented model. In 2003, Bam earthquake DP had their temporary housing units (THUs) built using these four technologies: autoclaved aerated concrete blocks (AAC), concrete masonry unit (CMU), pressed reeds panel (PR), and 3D sandwich panel (3D). The results of this analysis confirm that PR and CMU obtain the highest sustainability indexes. However, the second life scenario of THUs could have considerable impacts on the results.

Keywords: sustainability, post-disaster temporary housing, integrated value model for sustainability assessment, life cycle assessment

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216 Performing the Landscape: Temporary and Performative Practices in Landscape Production

Authors: Miguel Costa


Despite the "time" element being an intrinsic characteristic of the work with the landscape, its execution and completion are also often dependent on external factors, i.e., the slow bureaucratic procedures required for the implementation of a project. In the urban areas of the city, these conditions are even more present — some landscape projects are articulated with the architectural/urban design, transporting itself long, expensive and inflexible processes related with the constant transformations of contemporary urban culture, where the needs and expectations could change before the project is finished. However, despite the renewed interest and growing concern for issues related to the landscapes (particularly since the European Landscape Convention, its scope and fields of action, extended to all the landscapes and not just the selected ones), still lacks the need for a greater inclusion of citizens in its protection and construction processes as well as a greater transparency and clarity of the consequences and results of their active participation. This article aims to reflect on the production processes of urban landscapes, on its completion runtime and its relationship with the citizens by introducing temporary projects as a fieldwork methodology, as well as using the contribution of different professional practices and knowledge for its monitoring, execution, and implementation. These strategies address a more interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary and performative approach, not only from the ephemeral experience of objects and actions but also from the processes and the dynamic events that are organized from these objects and actions over the landscape. The goal is to discuss the results of these approaches on its different dimensions: critical dimension; experimental and strategic dimension; pedagogical dimension; political dimension; cultural.

Keywords: landscape fieldwork, interdisciplinarity, public inclusion, public participation, temporary projects, transdisciplinarity

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215 Religious Tattoos Symbols amongst Underground Communities in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia: Their Functions and Significances

Authors: Constantius Tri Handoko


Tattoos on the body of Christian youths seemed interesting as the majority of Christian look at tattoo and tattooing activity are prohibited. This research besides to understand the motivation behind why Christian youth in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia being tattooed also focus on the regard to what functions and meanings of the tattoos are. By using visual discourse analysis, the tattoos had relation to the informants’ social lives dimension, such as the Christian symbol tattoos expressed their spiritual life journey, a faith symbol to God, as personal symbols (identity), art expression, as well as fashion. On the other hands, tattoos also became a hatred symbol to Jesus and the Christian faith, since the tattoo wearers who were a former Christians felt disappointed to God as they thought God never help them to survive in their lives.

Keywords: tattoo, representation, identity, belief, Christian

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214 Dual Set Point Governor Control Structure with Common Optimum Temporary Droop Settings for both Islanded and Grid Connected Modes

Authors: Deepen Sharma, Eugene F. Hill


For nearly 100 years, hydro-turbine governors have operated with only a frequency set point. This natural governor action means that the governor responds with changing megawatt output to disturbances in system frequency. More and more, power system managers are demanding that governors operate with constant megawatt output. One way of doing this is to introduce a second set point in the control structure called a power set point. The control structure investigated and analyzed in this paper is unique in the way that it utilizes a power reference set point in addition to the conventional frequency reference set point. An optimum set of temporary droop parameters derived based on the turbine-generator inertia constant and the penstock water start time for stable islanded operation are shown to be also equally applicable for a satisfactory rate of generator loading during its grid connected mode. A theoretical development shows why this is the case. The performance of the control structure has been investigated and established based on the simulation study made in MATLAB/Simulink as well as through testing the real time controller performance on a 15 MW Kaplan Turbine and generator. Recordings have been made using the labVIEW data acquisition platform. The hydro-turbine governor control structure and its performance investigated in this paper thus eliminates the need to have a separate set of temporary droop parameters, one valid for islanded mode and the other for interconnected operations mode.

Keywords: frequency set point, hydro governor, interconnected operation, isolated operation, power set point

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213 Satisfaction of Work Efficiency of the Supporting Staff at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Luedech Girdwichai, Witthaya Mekhum, Namthip Kleebbuaban


This research is aimed at studying work efficiency of the supporting staff at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University by different categories. Supporting staff of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University consists of government officers, permanent employees, permanent university staff, temporary university staff, and staff of the temporary university employees and government employees, totaling 242. The tools used in this research were questionnaires and data were analyzed by using computer software packages. Statistics includes frequency distribution, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The results showed that the work efficiency of the supporting staff at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University is high in all areas: flexibility in operation, ability to work with others, productivity and work efficiency, human relations with colleagues and commanders, understanding of the work, and communication with others, the university, colleagues, and commanders.

Keywords: satisfaction, work efficiency, supporting staff, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

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212 Mobile Number Portability

Authors: R. Geetha, J. Arunkumar, P. Gopal, D. Loganathan, K. Pavithra, C. Vikashini


Mobile Number Portability is an attempt to switch over from one network to another network facility for mobile based on applications. This facility is currently not available for mobile handsets. This application is intended to assist the mobile network and its service customers in understanding the criteria; this will serve as a universal set of requirements which must be met by the customers. This application helps the user's network portability. Accessing permission from the network provider to enable services to the user and utilizing the available network signals. It is enabling the user to make a temporary switch over to other network. The main aim of this research work is to adapt multiple networks at the time of no network coverage. It can be accessed at rural and geographical areas. This can be achieved by this mobile application. The application is capable of temporary switch over between various networks. With this application both the service provider and the network user are benefited. The service provider is benefited by charging a minimum cost for utilizing other network. It provides security in terms of password that is unique to avoid unauthorized users and to prevent loss of balance. The goal intended to be attained is a complete utilization of available network at significant situations and to provide feature that satisfy the customer needs. The temporary switch over is done to manage emergency calls when user is in rural or geographical area, where there will be a very low network coverage. Since people find it trend in using Android mobile, this application is designed as an Android applications, which can be freely downloaded and installed from Play store. In the current scenario, the service provider enables the user to change their network without shifting their mobile network. This application affords a clarification for users while they are jammed in a critical situation. This application is designed by using Android 4.2 and SQLite Version3.

Keywords: mobile number, random number, alarm, imei number, call

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211 Provisional Settlements and Urban Resilience: The Transformation of Refugee Camps into Cities

Authors: Hind Alshoubaki


The world is now confronting a widespread urban phenomenon: refugee camps, which have mostly been established in ‘rushing mode,’ pointing toward affording temporary settlements for refugees that provide them with minimum levels of safety, security and protection from harsh weather conditions within a very short time period. In fact, those emergency settlements are transforming into permanent ones since time is a decisive factor in terms of construction and camps’ age. These play an essential role in transforming their temporary character into a permanent one that generates deep modifications to the city’s territorial structure, shaping a new identity and creating a contentious change in the city’s form and history. To achieve a better understanding for the transformation of refugee camps, this study is based on a mixed-methods approach: the qualitative approach explores different refugee camps and analyzes their transformation process in terms of population density and the changes to the city’s territorial structure and urban features. The quantitative approach employs a statistical regression analysis as a reliable prediction of refugees’ satisfaction within the Zaatari camp in order to predict its future transformation. Obviously, refugees’ perceptions of their current conditions will affect their satisfaction, which plays an essential role in transforming emergency settlements into permanent cities over time. The test basically discusses five main themes: the access and readiness of schools, the dispersion of clinics and shopping centers; the camp infrastructure, the construction materials, and the street networks. The statistical analysis showed that Syrian refugees were not satisfied with their current conditions inside the Zaatari refugee camp and that they had started implementing changes according to their needs, desires, and aspirations because they are conscious about the fact of their prolonged stay in this settlement. Also, the case study analyses showed that neglecting the fact that construction takes time leads settlements being created with below-minimum standards that are deteriorating and creating ‘slums,’ which lead to increased crime rates, suicide, drug use and diseases and deeply affect cities’ urban tissues. For this reason, recognizing the ‘temporary-eternal’ character of those settlements is the fundamental concept to consider refugee camps from the beginning as definite permanent cities. This is the key factor to minimize the trauma of displacement on both refugees and the hosting countries. Since providing emergency settlements within a short time period does not mean using temporary materials, having a provisional character or creating ‘makeshift cities.’

Keywords: refugee, refugee camp, temporary, Zaatari

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210 Finding a Redefinition of the Relationship between Rural and Urban Knowledge

Authors: Bianca Maria Rulli, Lenny Valentino Schiaretti


The considerable recent urbanization has increasingly sharpened environmental and social problems all over the world. During the recent years, many answers to the alarming attitudes in modern cities have emerged: a drastic reduction in the rate of growth is becoming essential for future generations and small scale economies are considered more adaptive and sustainable. According to the concept of degrowth, cities should consider surpassing the centralization of urban living by redefining the relationship between rural and urban knowledge; growing food in cities fundamentally contributes to the increase of social and ecological resilience. Through an innovative approach, this research combines the benefits of urban agriculture (increase of biological diversity, shorter and thus more efficient supply chains, food security) and temporary land use. They stimulate collaborative practices to satisfy the changing needs of communities and stakeholders. The concept proposes a coherent strategy to create a sustainable development of urban spaces, introducing a productive green-network to link specific areas in the city. By shifting the current relationship between architecture and landscape, the former process of ground consumption is deeply revised. Temporary modules can be used as concrete tools to create temporal areas of innovation, transforming vacant or marginal spaces into potential laboratories for the development of the city. The only permanent ground traces, such as foundations, are minimized in order to allow future land re-use. The aim is to describe a new mindset regarding the quality of space in the metropolis which allows, in a completely flexible way, to bring back the green and the urban farming into the cities. The wide possibilities of the research are analyzed in two different case-studies. The first is a regeneration/connection project designated for social housing, the second concerns the use of temporary modules to answer to the potential needs of social structures. The intention of the productive green-network is to link the different vacant spaces to each other as well as to the entire urban fabric. This also generates a potential improvement of the current situation of underprivileged and disadvantaged persons.

Keywords: degrowth, green network, land use, temporary building, urban farming

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209 Identifying Temporary Housing Main Vertexes through Assessing Post-Disaster Recovery Programs

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Oriol Pons, Carmen Mendoza Arroyo, Albert de la Fuente


In the aftermath of a natural disaster, the major challenge most cities and societies face, regardless of their diverse level of prosperity, is to provide temporary housing (TH) for the displaced population (DP). However, the features of TH, which have been applied in previous recovery programs, greatly varied from case to case. This situation demonstrates that providing temporary accommodation for DP in a short period time and usually in great numbers is complicated in terms of satisfying all the beneficiaries’ needs, regardless of the societies’ welfare levels. Furthermore, when previously used strategies are applied to different areas, the chosen strategies are most likely destined to fail, unless the strategies are context and culturally based. Therefore, as the population of disaster-prone cities are increasing, decision-makers need a platform to help to determine all the factors, which caused the outcomes of the prior programs. To this end, this paper aims to assess the problems, requirements, limitations, potential responses, chosen strategies, and their outcomes, in order to determine the main elements that have influenced the TH process. In this regard, and in order to determine a customizable strategy, this study analyses the TH programs of five different cases as: Marmara earthquake, 1999; Bam earthquake, 2003; Aceh earthquake and tsunami, 2004; Hurricane Katrina, 2005; and, L’Aquila earthquake, 2009. The research results demonstrate that the main vertexes of TH are: (1) local characteristics, including local potential and affected population features, (2) TH properties, which needs to be considered in four phases: planning, provision/construction, operation, and second life, and (3) natural hazards impacts, which embraces intensity and type. Accordingly, this study offers decision-makers the opportunity to discover the main vertexes, their subsets, interactions, and the relation between strategies and outcomes based on the local conditions of each case. Consequently, authorities may acquire the capability to design a customizable method in the face of complicated post-disaster housing in the wake of future natural disasters.

Keywords: post-disaster temporary accommodation, urban resilience, natural disaster, local characteristic

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208 Strategies to Mitigate Disasters at the Hajj Religious Festival Using GIS and Agent Based Modelling

Authors: Muteb Alotaibi, Graham Clarke, Nick Malleson


The Hajj religious festival at Mina in Saudi Arabia has always presented the opportunity for injuries or deaths. For example, in 1990, a stampede killed 1426 pilgrims, whilst in 1997, 343 people were killed and 1500 injured due to a fire fuelled by high winds sweeping through the tent city in Mina.Many more minor incidents have occurred since then. It is predicted that 5 million pilgrims will soon perform the ritual at Mina (which is, in effect, a temporary city built each year in the desert), which might lead in the future to severe congestion and accidents unless the research is conducted on actions that contribute positively to improving the management of the crowd and facilitating the flow of pilgrims safely and securely. To help prevent further disasters, it is important to first plan better, more accessible locations for emergency services across Mina to ensure a good service for pilgrims. In this paper, we first use a Location Allocation Model (LAM) within a network GIS to examine the optimal locations for key services in the temporary city of Mina. This has been undertaken in relation to the location and movement of the pilgrims during the six day religious festival. The results of various what-if scenarios have been compared against the current location of services. A major argument is that planners should be flexible and locate facilities at different locations throughout the day and night. The use of location-allocation models in this type of comparative static mode has rarely been operationalised in the literature. Second, we model pilgrim movements and behaviours along with the most crowded parts of the network. This has been modelled using an agent-based model. This model allows planners to understand the key bottlenecks in the network and at what usage levels the paths become critically congested. Thus the paper has important implications and recommendations for future disaster planning strategies. This will enable planners to see at what stage in the movements of pilgrims problems occur in terms of potential crushes and trampling incidents. The main application of this research was only customised for pedestrians as the concentration only for pedestrians who move to Jamarat via foot. Further, the network in the middle of Mina was only dedicated for pedestrians for safety, so no Buses, trains and private cars were allowed in this area to prevent the congestion within this network. Initially, this research focus on Mina city as ‘temporary city’ and also about service provision in temporary cities, which is not highlighted in literature so far. Further, it is the first study which use the dynamic demand to optimise the services in the case of day and night time. Moreover, it is the first study which link the location allocation model for optimising services with ABM to find out whether or not the service location is located in the proper location in which it’s not affecting on crowd movement in mainstream flow where some pilgrims need to have health services.

Keywords: ABM, crowd management, hajj, temporary city

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207 Strength of the Basement Wall Combined with a Temporary Retaining Wall for Excavation

Authors: Soo-yeon Seo, Su-jin Jung


In recent years, the need for remodeling of many apartments built 30 years ago is increasing. Therefore, researches on the structural reinforcement technology of existing apartments have been conducted. On the other hand, there is a growing need for research on the existing underground space expansion technology to expand the parking space required for remodeling. When expanding an existing underground space, for earthworks, an earth retaining wall must be installed between the existing apartment building and it. In order to maximize the possible underground space, it is necessary to minimize the thickness of the portion of earth retaining wall and underground basement wall. In this manner, the calculation procedure is studied for the evaluation of shear strength of the composite basement wall corresponding to shear span-to-depth ratio in this study. As a result, it was shown that the proposed calculation procedure can be used to evaluate the shear strength of the composite basement wall as safe. On the other hand, when shear span-to-depth ratio is small, shear strength is very underestimated.

Keywords: underground space expansion, combined structure, temporary retaining wall, basement wall, shear connectors

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206 The Shape Memory Recovery Properties under Load of a Polymer Composite

Authors: Abdul Basit, Gildas Lhostis, Bernard Durand


Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are replacing shape memory alloys (SMAs) in many applications as SMPs have certain superior properties than SMAs. However, SMAs possess some properties like recovery under stress that SMPs lack. SMPs cannot give complete recovery even under a small load. SMPs are initially heated close to their transition temperature (glass transition temperature or the melting temperature). Then force is applied to deform the heated SMP to a specific position. Subsequently, SMP is allowed to cool keeping it deformed. After cooling, SMP gets the temporary shape. This temporary shape can be recovered by heating it again at the same temperature that was given it while heating it initially. As a result, it will recover its original position. SMP can perform unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, however; under the load, it only recovers partially. In this work, the recovery under the load of an asymmetrical shape memory composite called as CBCM-SMPC has been investigated. It is found that it has the ability to recover under different loads. Under different loads, it shows powerful complete recovery in reference to initial position. This property can be utilized in many applications.

Keywords: shape memory, polymer composite, thermo-mechanical testing, recovery under load

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205 A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Lung Impact on Ballistic Thoracic Trauma

Authors: Amy Pullen, Samantha Rodrigues, David Kieser, Brian Shaw


The aim of the study was to determine if a projectile interacting with the lungs increases the severity of injury in comparison to a projectile interacting with the ribs or intercostal muscle. This comparative study employed a 10% gelatine based model with either porcine ribs or balloons embedded to represent a lung. Four sample groups containing five samples were evaluated; these were control (plain gel), intercostal impact, rib impact, and lung impact. Two ammunition natures were evaluated at a range of 10m; these were 5.56x45mm and 7.62x51mm. Aspects of projectile behavior were quantified including exiting projectile weight, location of yawing, projectile fragmentation and distribution, location and area of the temporary cavity, permanent cavity formation, and overall energy deposition. Major findings included the cavity showing a higher percentage of the projectile weight exit the block than the intercostal and ribs, but similar to the control for the 5.56mm ammunition. However, for the 7.62mm ammunition, the lung was shown to have a higher percentage of the projectile weight exit the block than the control, intercostal and ribs. The total weight of projectile fragments as a function of penetration depth revealed large fluctuations and significant intra-group variation for both ammunition natures. Despite the lack of a clear trend, both plots show that the lung leads to greater projectile fragments exiting the model. The lung was shown to have a later center of the temporary cavity than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. It was also shown to have a similar temporary cavity volume to the control, intercostal and ribs for the 5.56mm ammunition and a similar temporary cavity to the intercostal for the 7.62mm ammunition The lung was shown to leave a similar projectile tract than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. It was also shown to have larger shear planes than the control and the intercostal, but similar to the ribs for the 5.56mm ammunition, whereas it was shown to have smaller shear planes than the control but similar shear planes to the intercostal and ribs for the 7.62mm ammunition. The lung was shown to have less energy deposited than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. This comparative study provides insights into the influence of the lungs on thoracic gunshot trauma. It indicates that the lungs limits projectile deformation and causes a later onset of yawing and subsequently limits the energy deposited along the wound tract creating a deeper and smaller cavity. This suggests that lung impact creates an altered pattern of local energy deposition within the target which will affect the severity of trauma.

Keywords: ballistics, lung, trauma, wounding

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204 Temporary Autonomous Areas in Time and Space: Psytrance Rave Parties as an Expression Area of Altered States of Consciousness in Turkey

Authors: Ugur Cihat Sakarya


This research focuses on psychedelic trance music events in Turkey in the context of altered states of consciousness (ASC). The fieldwork that was conducted from 2018 to 2019 is the main source of the research. Participant observation method was followed in 15 selected events. To direct the musical experiences of participants, performances were also presented as a Dj. Ten of these events are open-air festivals. Five of them are indoor parties. The observations made during fieldwork and suitable answers for inference from the interviews with participants, artists, DJs, and volunteers were selected, compiled, and presented. In the result, findings showed that these activities are perceived as temporary autonomous areas by the participants both in time and space and that these activities are suitable areas for expressing themselves as a group (psyfamily) against mainstream culture. It has been observed that the elements that complement the altered states of consciousness in these events are music, visual arts, drug use, and desire to experience spiritual experiences. It is thought that this first academic study -about this topic in Turkey- will open a door for future researches.

Keywords: consciousness, psychedelic, psytrance, rave, Turkey

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