Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: tramadol

14 Comparison of Analgesic Efficacy of Paracetamol and Tramadol for Pain Relief in Active Labor

Authors: Krishna Dahiya


Introduction: Labour pain has been described as the most severe pain experienced by women in their lives. Pain management in labour is one of the most important challenges faced by the obstetrician. The opioids are the primary treatment for patients with moderate and severe pain but these drugs are not always tolerated and are associated with dose-dependent side effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, too, are associated with variable adverse effects. Considering these factors, our study compared the efficacy and side effect of intravenous tramadol and paracetamol. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of an intravenous infusion of 1000 mg of paracetamol as compared with an intravenous injection of 50mg of tramadol for intrapartum analgesia. Methods: In a randomized prospective study at Pt. BDS PGIMS, 200 women in active labor were allocated to received either paracetamol (n=100) or tramadol (n=100). The primary outcome was the efficacy of the drug to supply adequate analgesia as measured by a change in the visual analog scale (VAS) pain intensity score at various times after drug administration. The secondary outcomes included the need for additional rescue analgesia and the presence of adverse maternal or fetal events. Results: The mean age of cases were 25.55 ± 3.849 years and 25.60 ± 3.655 years respectively As recorded by the VAS score, there was significant pain reduction at 30 minutes, and at 1 and 2 hours in both groups (P<0.01). In comparison, between group I and II, a significantly higher rate of nausea and vomiting in tramadol group (14% vs 8%; P < 0.03) patients. Similarly, drowsiness (0% vs 11%; P<0.01), dry mouth (0% vs 8%; P<0.04) and dizziness (0% vs 9%; P<0.02) was also significant in group II. Conclusion: Due to difficulty in administering epidural analgesia to all parturients, administration of paracetamol and tramadol infusion for analgesia is simple and less invasive alternative. In the present study, both paracetamol and tramadol were equally effective for labour analgesia but paracetamol has emerged as safe alternative as compared to tramadol due to a low incidence of side effects.

Keywords: paracetamol, tramadol, labor, analgesia

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13 Synthesis and Characterization of PH Sensitive Hydrogel and Its Application in Controlled Drug Release of Tramadol

Authors: Naima Bouslah, Leila Bounabi, Farid Ouazib, Nabila Haddadine


Conventional release dosage forms are known to provide an immediate release of the drug. Controlling the rate of drug release from polymeric matrices is very important for a number of applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical area. Hydrogels are polymers in three-dimensional network arrangement, which can absorb and retain large amounts of water without dissolution. They have been frequently used to develop controlled released formulations for oral administration because they can extend the duration of drug release and thus reduce dose to be administrated improving patient compliance. Tramadol is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. When taken as an immediate-release oral formulation, the onset of pain relief usually occurs within about an hour. In the present work, we synthesized pH-responsive hydrogels of (hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid), (HEMA-AA) for control drug delivery of tramadol in the gastro-intestinal tractus. The hydrogels with different acrylic acid content, were synthesized by free radical polymerization and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR spectroscopy has shown specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the carbonyl groups of the hydrogels and hydroxyl groups of tramadol. Both the XRD and DSC studies revealed that the introduction of tramadol in the hydrogel network induced the amorphization of the drug. The swelling behaviour, absorptive kinetics and the release kinetics of tramadol in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) were also investigated. The hydrogels exhibited pH-responsive behavior in the swelling study. The (HEMA-AA) hydrogel swelling was much higher in pH =7.4 medium. The tramadol release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). Using suitable mathematical models, the apparent diffusional coefficients and the corresponding kinetic parameters have been calculated.

Keywords: biopolymres, drug delivery, hydrogels, tramadol

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12 Effects of Tramadol Administration on the Ovary of Adult Rats and the Possible Recovery after Tramadol Withdrawal: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study

Authors: Heba Kamal Mohamed


Introduction: Tramadol is a weak -opioid receptor agonist with an analgesic effect because of the inhibition of uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin. Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever. Tramadol is recommended for the management of acute and chronic pain of moderate to severe intensity associated with a variety of diseases or problems, including osteoarthritis, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and even perioperative pain in human patients. In obstetrics and gynecology, tramadol is used extensively to treat postoperative pain. Aim of the study: This study was undertaken to investigate the histological (light and electron microscopic) and immunohistochemical effects of long term tramadol treatment on the ovary of adult rats and the possible recovery after tramadol withdrawal. Design: Experimental study. Materials and methods: Thirty adult female albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into three main groups (10 rats each). Group I served as the control group. Group II, rats were subcutaneously injected with tramadol 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. Group III, rats were subcutaneously injected with tramadol 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks then were kept for another 8 weeks without treatment for recovery. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed and bilateral oophorectomy was carried out; the ovaries were processed for histological study (light and electron microscopic) and immunohistochemical reaction for caspase-3 (apoptotic protein). Results: Examination of the ovary of tramadol-treated rats (group II) revealed many atretic ovarian follicles, some follicles showed detachment of the oocyte from surrounding granulosa cells and others showed loss of the oocyte. Many follicles revealed degenerated vacuolated oocytes and vacuolated theca folliculi cells. Granulosa cells appeared shrunken, disrupted and loosely attached with vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei. Some follicles showed separation of granulosa cells from the theca folliculi layer. The ultrastructural study revealed the presence of granulosa cells with electron dense indented nuclei, damaged mitochondria and granular vacuolated cytoplasm. Other cells showed accumulation of large amount of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. Some follicles revealed rarifaction of the cytoplasm of oocytes and absent zona pellucida. Moreover, apoptotic changes were detected by immunohistochemical staining in the form of increased staining intensity to caspase-3 (apoptotic protein). With Masson's Trichrome stain, there was an increased collagen fibre deposition in the ovarian cortical stroma. The wall of blood vessels appeared thickened. In the withdrawal group (group III), there was a little improvement in the histological and immunohistochemical changes. Conclusion: Tramadol had serious deleterious effects on ovarian structure. Thus, it should be used with caution, especially when a long term treatment is indicated. Withdrawal of tramadol led to a little improvement in the structural impairment of the ovary.

Keywords: tramadol, ovary, withdrawal, rats

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11 Efficacy and Safety of Tapentadol Nasal Spray Versus Oral Tramadol for the Treatment of Acute Postoperative Pain Management

Authors: Kamal Tolani, Sandeep Kumar, Rohit Luthra, Ankit Dadhania, Krishnaprasad K., Ram Gupta, Deepa Joshi


Background: Post-operative analgesia remains a clinical challenge, with central and peripheral sensitization playing a pivotal role in treatment related complications and impaired QoL. Centrally acting opioids offer poor risk benefit profile with increased intensity of gastrointestinal or central side effects and slow onset of clinical analgesia. The clinical efficacy and safety of Tapentadol nasal spray (NS) formulation was assessed as compared to Switch therapy with Tramadol for severe or acute post-operative pain in hospitalized cases undergoing major surgeries. Methods: Phase III, randomized, active- controlled, clinical trial was planned at 21 centres in India involving 294 cases who had undergone surgical procedures. These patients were randomized to receive either Tapentadol NS 45 mg (one spray/each nostril) or Tramadol 100mg i.v/oral every 4-6 hours for five days for pain management. The statistical analysis plan was envisaged as a non-inferiority trial involving comparison with Tramadol for Sum of Pain intensity difference (SPID60min) and PGA24 hrs. Results: The per-protocol analyses involved 255 hospitalized cases (Median age: 38 years) undergoing surgical procedures, of which most common were fracture reduction surgeries. The most common concomitant medications were anti-bacterials (98.3%). PID60min and PGA24hrs on NRS showed that Tapentadol NS was non–inferior to Tramadol. However, on further assessment on day 2, 3, and 5, there was clinically greater pain relief with the NS formulation (p <0.05). Secondary efficacy measures, including onset of Clinical analgesia and TOTPAR showed non-inferiority to IV Tramadol formulation. The safety profile and need for rescue medication was also similar in both the groups at the end of 5 days therapy. Conclusion: Tapentadol NS is an effective strategy for the management of moderate to severe post –operative pain with ease of administration and better clinical benefit and may prevent complications related to central sensitization in post-surgical settings.

Keywords: tapentadol nasal spray, acute pain, tramadol, post-operative pain

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10 Prevalence and Pattern of Drug Usage among Youth in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Authors: Samson F. Agberotimi, Rachel B. Asagba, Choja Oduaran


Disturbing rate of use of different substances such as cannabis, alcohol, as well as pharmaceutical drugs among Nigerian youth in recent times has been affirmed in the literature. There is, however, a paucity of literature addressing the pattern of usage of such drugs, especially for clinical relevance and intervention planning. The present study investigated the prevalence and pattern of drug usage among youth in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey involving 92 purposively selected participants comprising of 82 males and 10 females aged between 15 and 24 years was conducted. A measure of drug involvement and demographic characteristics was administered to the participants. Descriptive analysis was done using the SPSS v.21. Cannabis (79.4%), alcohol (77.2%), codeine (70.7%), tobacco (65.2%) and tramadol (47.8%) are the five most frequently used substances. However, the majority of the users of tobacco (68.3%) and alcohol (62.0%) are casual users indicating a mild level of use of the substances among the participants. On the other hand, 49.2% of the codeine users, 27.3% of the tramadol users, and 21.9% of the cannabis users reported harmful/intensive levels of use. Furthermore, the results revealed individuals at the pathological level of use as 28.8% for cannabis, 25.0% for tramadol, and 21.6% for codeine, and thus require clinical/therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, cannabis remains the most frequently used substance among youths. However, there appears to be a shift from the use of conventional psychoactive substances to pharmaceutical/prescription drugs such as codeine and tramadol. The findings of this study raised the need for both preventive and therapeutic interventions addressing the problem of substance use disorder among youth in contemporary society.

Keywords: Ogbomoso, pattern of drug use, prevalence of drug use, youth

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9 Comparative Evaluation of Pentazocine and Tramadol as Pre-Emptive Analgesics for Ovariohysterectomy in Female Dogs

Authors: Venkatgiri, Ranganath, L. Nagaraja, B. N. Sagar Pandav, S. M. Usturge, D. Dilipkumar, B. V. Shivprakash, B. Bhagwanthappa, D. Jahangir


A comparative evaluation of Tramadol and Pentazocine as a pre-emptive analgesic in clinical cases of female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy was undertaken during this study. During the study, the following parameters were assessed viz., Rectal temperature (ᵒF), Respiratory rate (breaths/min) and Heart rate (beats/min). Hematological and biochemical parameters viz., total erythrocyte count (TEC) (millions/cmm), hemoglobin (g %), otal leucocytes count (TLC) (thousands/cmm), differential leucocytes count (DLC) (%), serum creatinine (mg/dl), plasma protein (mg/dl), blood glucose (mg/dl) was estimated before the surgery and after administration of general anaesthesia and immediate postoperative periods of 0, 12 and 24 hr respectively. Mean Total Pain Score (MTPS) includes measurement of parameters like posture, vocalization, activity level, response to palpation and agitation at different intervals was calculated before surgery and after administration of general anesthesia and post-operative periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, 12hrs and 24 hrs respectively. Mean Total Pain Score (MTPS) was given for each parameter (Posture, Vocalization, Activity Level, Response to Palpation and Agitation) like 0,1,2,3. (maximum score will be given was 4.). Results were revealed in all three groups including control group. There were significant minor alterations in physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters. MTPS (mean total pain score) were revealed and found a significant alteration when compared with control group. In conclusion, Tramadol found to be a better analgesic and had up to 8hrs of analgesic effect and Pentazocine is superior in post-operative pain management when compared to Tramadol because this group of dogs experienced less surgical stress, consumed less anesthetic dose, they recovered early, and they had less MTPS score.

Keywords: dog, pentazocine, tramadol, ovariohysterectomy

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8 The Antioxidant and Antinociceptive Effects of Curcumin in Experimentally Induced Pain in Rats

Authors: Valeriu Mihai But, Sorana Daniela Bolboacă, Adriana Elena Bulboacă


The nutraceutical compound Curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) is known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant effects. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative and analgesic effects of Curcumin (CC) compared to Tramadol (T) in chemical-induced nociceptive pain in rats. Thirty-five rats were randomly divided into five groups of seven rats each and were treated as follows: C group (control group): treated with saline solution 0.9%, (1 ml, i.p. administration), ethanoic acid (EA) group: pretreated with saline solution 0.9% - 30 min before EA nociceptive pain induction, (1 ml, i.p. administration), T group: pretreated with Tramadol, 10 mg/kg body weight (bw), i.p. administration - 30 min before EA nociceptive pain induction, CC1-group: pretreated with 1 mg/100g bw Curcumin i.p. administration - 2 days before EA pain induction and CC2-group: pretreated with Curcumin 2 mg/100g bw i.p. administration - 2 days before EA nociceptive pain induction. The following oxidative stress parameters were assessed: malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NOx), total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidative capacity (TAC), and thiol (Th). The antalgic activity was measured by the ethanoic acid writhing test. Treatment with Curcumin, both 1 mg/100g bw, and 2 mg/100g bw, showed significant differences as compared with the control group (p<0.001) regarding malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NOx), and total oxidative status (TOS) oxidative biomarkers. Pretreatment with 2 mg/100g bw of Curcumin presented a significant decrease in MDA values compared with Tramadol (p<0.001). The TAC significantly increased in pretreatment with Curcumin compared with group control. (p<0.001) The nociceptive response to EA was significantly reduced in Curcumin and Tramadol groups. Treatment with Curcumin at a higher concentration was more effective. In an experimental pain model, this study demonstrates an important antioxidant and antinociceptive activity of Curcumin comparable with Tramadol treatment.

Keywords: curcumin, nociception, oxidative stress, pain

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7 Detection of Some Drugs of Abuse from Fingerprints Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ragaa T. Darwish, Maha A. Demellawy, Haidy M. Megahed, Doreen N. Younan, Wael S. Kholeif


The testing of drug abuse is authentic in order to affirm the misuse of drugs. Several analytical approaches have been developed for the detection of drugs of abuse in pharmaceutical and common biological samples, but few methodologies have been created to identify them from fingerprints. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) plays a major role in this field. The current study aimed at assessing the possibility of detection of some drugs of abuse (tramadol, clonazepam, and phenobarbital) from fingerprints using LC-MS in drug abusers. The aim was extended in order to assess the possibility of detection of the above-mentioned drugs in fingerprints of drug handlers till three days of handling the drugs. The study was conducted on randomly selected adult individuals who were either drug abusers seeking treatment at centers of drug dependence in Alexandria, Egypt or normal volunteers who were asked to handle the different studied drugs (drug handlers). An informed consent was obtained from all individuals. Participants were classified into 3 groups; control group that consisted of 50 normal individuals (neither abusing nor handling drugs), drug abuser group that consisted of 30 individuals who abused tramadol, clonazepam or phenobarbital (10 individuals for each drug) and drug handler group that consisted of 50 individuals who were touching either the powder of drugs of abuse: tramadol, clonazepam or phenobarbital (10 individuals for each drug) or the powder of the control substances which were of similar appearance (white powder) and that might be used in the adulteration of drugs of abuse: acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (10 individuals for each drug). Samples were taken from the handler individuals for three consecutive days for the same individual. The diagnosis of drug abusers was based on the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-V) and urine screening tests using immunoassay technique. Preliminary drug screening tests of urine samples were also done for drug handlers and the control groups to indicate the presence or absence of the studied drugs of abuse. Fingerprints of all participants were then taken on a filter paper previously soaked with methanol to be analyzed by LC-MS using SCIEX Triple Quad or QTRAP 5500 System. The concentration of drugs in each sample was calculated using the regression equations between concentration in ng/ml and peak area of each reference standard. All fingerprint samples from drug abusers showed positive results with LC-MS for the tested drugs, while all samples from the control individuals showed negative results. A significant difference was noted between the concentration of the drugs and the duration of abuse. Tramadol, clonazepam, and phenobarbital were also successfully detected from fingerprints of drug handlers till 3 days of handling the drugs. The mean concentration of the chosen drugs of abuse among the handlers group decreased when the days of samples intake increased.

Keywords: drugs of abuse, fingerprints, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, tramadol

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6 Association of Preoperative Pain Catastrophizing with Postoperative Pain after Lower Limb Trauma Surgery

Authors: Asish Subedi, Krishna Pokharel, Birendra Prasad Sah, Pashupati Chaudhary


Objectives: To evaluate an association between preoperative Nepali pain catastrophizing scale (N-PCS) scores and postoperative pain intensity and total opioid consumption. Methods: In this prospective cohort study we enrolled 135 patients with an American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged between 18 and 65 years, and scheduled for surgery for lower-extremity fracture under spinal anaesthesia. Maximum postoperative pain reported during the 24 h was classified into two groups, no-mild pain group (Numeric rating scale [NRS] scores 1 to 3) and a moderate-severe pain group (NRS 4-10). The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to compare the association between the baseline N-PCS scores and outcome variables, i.e., the maximum NRS pain score and the total tramadol consumption within the first 24 h after surgery. Logistic regression models were used to identify the predictors for the intensity of postoperative pain. Results: As four patients violated the protocol, the data of 131 patients were analysed. Mean N-PCS scores reported by the moderate-severe pain group was 27.39 ±9.50 compared to 18.64 ±10 mean N-PCS scores by the no-mild pain group (p<0.001). Preoperative PCS scores correlated positively with postoperative pain intensity (r =0.39, [95% CI 0.23-0.52], p<0.001) and total tramadol consumption (r =0.32, [95% CI 0.16-0.47], p<0.001). An increase in catastrophizing scores was associated with postoperative moderate-severe pain (odds ratio, 1.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.15], p=0.006) after adjusting for gender, ethnicity and preoperative anxiety. Conclusion: Patients who reported higher pain catastrophizing preoperatively were at increased risk of experiencing moderate-severe postoperative pain.

Keywords: nepali, pain catastrophizing, postoperative pain, trauma

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5 Raw Japanese Quail Egg Produces Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastro-Protective Effects in Rats

Authors: Sani Ismaila, Shafiu Yau, Abubakar Salisu, Buhari Salisu, Sharifat Balogun, Mustapha Abubakar, Biobaku Khalid, Agaie Bello


Over the years, Japanese quail egg has been in use in the management of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of raw Quail egg (yolk + albumin) in rats. Pain was assessed in rats by recording the latent period and writing reflex, anti-inflammatory effect was determined using both motility and compression test, while the gastro-protective effects were assessed by observing the histology of the stomach after diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers and subsequent treatment with the quail egg, Rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups; Groups I: were the control non-treated (NT), Group II were treated with Tramadol 50 mg/kg/Os (TMD) or Indomethacin (IND) 5mg/kg/Os (positive control for the writhing reflex determination), while group III and IV were treated with 3 and 6g/kg of raw quail egg respectively). Groups treated with quail egg in both doses showed a significant increase in the latent period (p <0 .05) when compared to the control NT, but lower than the group treated with tramadol at 20mins interval (p<0.05). Writing reflexes decrease in groups II, III, and IV compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). While motility increases significantly (p < 0.05) in groups II, compared to I (p<0.05). Control non-treated rats showed a quicker and extensive response to compression using the Vanier calliper on the inflamed paw compared to groups II-IV (p < 0.05). Histological studies of the stomach revealed sloughing of the epithelia, cellular infiltration with micro abscesses in the non-treated, while groups treated concurrently with quail egg showed proliferation of the glandular epithelia and goblet cells, and those treated 30 minutes before diclofenac administration showed proliferation of glands and thickening of the squamous epithelia. This study showed that quail egg has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective potentials and can be used as adjuvant treatment whenever COX-2 enzymes inhibitors are indicated.

Keywords: analgesia, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective effect, japanese quail egg

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4 Management of Pain in Patients under Vitamin K Antagonists: Experience of the Unit of Clinical Pharmacology of EHU Oran, Algeria

Authors: Amina Bayazid, Habiba Fetati, Houari Toumi


Introduction: The clinical value of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) has been widely demonstrated in numerous indications. Unfortunately, VKA are not devoid of drawbacks and risk of serious bleeding. The iatrogenic induced by these drugs is a major public health problem. Patients & Methods: We conducted a retrospective study period extending from February 2012 to August 2013 in the pharmacovigilance service of EHUO (clinical pharmacology unit). The prescription of painkillers was analyzed in patients on VKA followed at our level. The influence of these analgesics on the evolution of the INR is an important component in our work. Results: We counted a total of 195 patients, of whom 32 (or 16.41% of the total population) had received analgesic treatment. The frequencies of different categories of analgesics administered were: • Analgesics opioids: 0% • Analgesics weak opioids: Tramadol: 21.87% • The non-opioid analgesics: -AINS: 71.87% (indomethacin: 68.75% ibuprofen: 3.12%) - Paracetamol: 6.25% -Salicyles (Acetylsalicylic acid): 0%. Conclusion: The management of pain in patients under vitamin K antagonists has special features, given their many drug interactions with analgesics and their influence on the evolution of the INR which can have dramatic consequences. As such, special attention must be paid to the use of analgesics in this type of patient.

Keywords: vitamin K antagonists, pain killers, interactions, INR

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3 Effectiveness of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Jellyfish Stings Treatment at the Emergency Room of Songkhla Hospital Thailand

Authors: Prataksitorn Chonlakan, Tiparat Wongsilarat


The traditional clinical practice guideline used at the emergency room at Songkhla Hospital in caring for patients who come in contact with jellyfish venom took a long time for the pain to reduce to the level that patients can cope with. To investigate the effectiveness of clinical practice guidelines by comparing the effectiveness of a newly developed clinical practice guideline with the traditional clinical practice guideline in the following aspects: 1) pain reduction, 2) length of pain, 3) the rate of patient’s re-visit, 4) the rate of severe complications such as anaphylactic shock, and cardiac arrest, and death, and 5) patient satisfaction. This study employed a quasi-experimental research design. Thirty subjects were selected with purposive sampling from jellyfish-sting patients who came for treatment at the Emergency Room of Songkhla Hospital. The subjects were divided using random assignment into two groups of 15 each: an experimental group, and the control group. The control group was treated using the traditional clinical practice guideline consisting of rinsing the affected area with 0.9% normal saline, using a cloth soaked with vinegar to press against the affected area, and controlling pain using tramadol or diclofenac intramuscular injection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test at the significance level p < 0.05. The results of the study revealed the following. The pain level in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (the average pain score of the experimental group was 3.46 while that of the control group was 6.33) (p < 0.05).The length of pain in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (the average length of pain in the experimental group was 48.67 minutes while that of the control group was 105.35 minutes) (p < 0.05). The rate of re-visit within 12 hours in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (the rate of re-visit within 12 hours of the experimental group was 0.07 while that of the control group was 0.00) (p < 0.05).No severe complications such as anaphylactic shock, and cardiac arrest were found in the two groups of subjects.The rate of satisfaction among the subjects in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (the rate of satisfaction among the subjects of the experimental group was 90.00 percent while that among the control group was 66.33 percent) (p < 0.05). The newly develop clinical practice guideline could reduce pain and increase satisfaction among jellyfish-sting patients better than the traditional clinical practice guideline.

Keywords: effectiveness, clinical practice guideline, jellyfish-sting patients, cardiac arrest

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2 First Documented Anesthesia with Use of Low Doses of Tiletamine-Zolazepam Combination in Ovoviparous Amazon Tree Boa Undergoing Emergency Coeliotomy-Case Report

Authors: Krzysztof Buczak, Sonia Lachowska, Pawel Kucharski, Agnieszka Antonczyk


Tiletamine - zolazepam combination is increasingly used in veterinary anaesthesiology in wild animals, including snakes. The available literature shows a lack of information about anesthesia in this mixture in ovoviviparous snakes. The studies show the possibility of using the combination at a dose of 20 mg/kg or more for snake immobilization. This paper presents an anesthetic protocol with the use of a combination of tiletamine - zolazepam at the dose of 10 mg/kg intramuscularly and maintenance with inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane in pure oxygen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the anesthetic protocol to proceed with coeliotomy in Amazon Tree Boa. The patient was a five years old bicolor female Amazon Tree Boa (Corallus hortulanus) with dystocia. The clinical examination reveals significant emaciation (bodyweight 520g), high degree of dehydration, heart rate (HR = 60 / min), pale mucous membranes and poor reactivity. Meloxicam (1 mg/kg) and tramadol (10 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously and the patient was placed in an incubator with access to fresh oxygen. Four hours later, the combination of tiletamine - zolazepam (10 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for induction of anesthesia. The snake was intubated and connected to inhalant anesthesia equipment. For maintenance, the anesthesia isoflurane in pure oxygen was used due to apnea, which occurs 30 minutes after the induction semi-closed system was attached and the ventilator was turned on (PCV system, four breaths per minute, 8 cm of H2O). Cardiopulmonary parameters (HR, RR, SPO2, ETCO2, ETISO) were assessed throughout the procedure. During the entire procedure, the operating room was heated to a temperature of 26 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the hose was placed on a heating mat, which maintained a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius. For 15 minutes after induction, the loss of muscle tone was observed from the head to the tail. Induction of general anesthesia was scored as good because of the possibility of intubation. During the whole procedure, the heart rate was at the rate of 58 beats per minute (bpm). Ventilation parameters were stable throughout the procedure. The recovery period lasts for about 4 hours after the end of general anesthesia. The muscle tension returned from tail to head. The snake started to breathe spontaneously within 1,5 hours after the end of general anesthesia. The protocol of general anesthesia with the combination of tiletamine- zolazepam with a dose of 10 mg/kg is useful for proceeding with the emergency coeliotomy in maintenance with isoflurane in oxygen. Further study about the impact of the combination of tiletamine- zolazepam for the recovery period is needed.

Keywords: anesthesia, corallus hortulanus, ovoviparous, snake, tiletamine, zolazepam

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1 Utilization of Informatics to Transform Clinical Data into a Simplified Reporting System to Examine the Analgesic Prescribing Practices of a Single Urban Hospital’s Emergency Department

Authors: Rubaiat S. Ahmed, Jemer Garrido, Sergey M. Motov


Clinical informatics (CI) enables the transformation of data into a systematic organization that improves the quality of care and the generation of positive health outcomes.Innovative technology through informatics that compiles accurate data on analgesic utilization in the emergency department can enhance pain management in this important clinical setting. We aim to establish a simplified reporting system through CI to examine and assess the analgesic prescribing practices in the EDthrough executing a U.S. federal grant project on opioid reduction initiatives. Queried data points of interest from a level-one trauma ED’s electronic medical records were used to create data sets and develop informational/visual reporting dashboards (on Microsoft Excel and Google Sheets) concerning analgesic usage across several pre-defined parameters and performance metrics using CI. The data was then qualitatively analyzed to evaluate ED analgesic prescribing trends by departmental clinicians and leadership. During a 12-month reporting period (Dec. 1, 2020 – Nov. 30, 2021) for the ongoing project, about 41% of all ED patient visits (N = 91,747) were for pain conditions, of which 81.6% received analgesics in the ED and at discharge (D/C). Of those treated with analgesics, 24.3% received opioids compared to 75.7% receiving opioid alternatives in the ED and at D/C, including non-pharmacological modalities. Demographics showed among patients receiving analgesics, 56.7% were aged between 18-64, 51.8% were male, 51.7% were white, and 66.2% had government funded health insurance. Ninety-one percent of all opioids prescribed were in the ED, with intravenous (IV) morphine, IV fentanyl, and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) tablets accounting for 88.0% of ED dispensed opioids. With 9.3% of all opioids prescribed at D/C, MSIR was dispensed 72.1% of the time. Hydrocodone, oxycodone, and tramadol usage to only 10-15% of the time, and hydromorphone at 0%. Of opioid alternatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were utilized 60.3% of the time, 23.5% with local anesthetics and ultrasound-guided nerve blocks, and 7.9% with acetaminophen as the primary non-opioid drug categories prescribed by ED providers. Non-pharmacological analgesia included virtual reality and other modalities. An average of 18.5 ED opioid orders and 1.9 opioid D/C prescriptions per 102.4 daily ED patient visits was observed for the period. Compared to other specialties within our institution, 2.0% of opioid D/C prescriptions are given by ED providers, compared to the national average of 4.8%. Opioid alternatives accounted for 69.7% and 30.3% usage, versus 90.7% and 9.3% for opioids in the ED and D/C, respectively.There is a pressing need for concise, relevant, and reliable clinical data on analgesic utilization for ED providers and leadership to evaluate prescribing practices and make data-driven decisions. Basic computer software can be used to create effective visual reporting dashboards with indicators that convey relevant and timely information in an easy-to-digest manner. We accurately examined our ED's analgesic prescribing practices using CI through dashboard reporting. Such reporting tools can quickly identify key performance indicators and prioritize data to enhance pain management and promote safe prescribing practices in the emergency setting.

Keywords: clinical informatics, dashboards, emergency department, health informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, opioids, pain management, technology

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