Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 137

Search results for: Zein Salah

137 Ontology-Based Representation of Islamic Rules to Perform Salah

Authors: Hamza Zafar, Quratulain Rajput

Abstract:

Salah (نماز ) is one of five pillars of Islam and obligatory for every Muslims. However, due to the lack of Islamic knowledge it might be very difficult for a layperson to perform it correctly. This paper presents an ontology based representation of Islamic rules to perform Salah. The Salah ontology has been built under the guidance of domain expert in light of Quran and Hadith. The ontology consists of basic concepts as well as relationship among concepts and constraints on them. The basic concepts include cleanness, body cover, Salah timing and steps to perform Salah. The SWRL rule language has been used to represent rule to determine whether the Salah performed correctly or it should be repeated. Finally, we evaluate the use of the Salat ontology through user’s example queries using SPARQL queries.

Keywords: prayer, salah, ontology, SPARQL queries, reasoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
136 Analysis of the Effect of Food Veils on the Preservation of Button and Oyster Mushrooms, Case Study: Zein Corn Coating

Authors: Mohamad Javad Shakouri, Hamid Tavakkolipour, Mahdis Jamshidi Tehranian

Abstract:

The inclination toward using food coatings is increasing daily, due to containing natural elements and not producing environmental pollution. Food coatings are uniform and thin layers of natural substances that cover the food product and act as a barrier against moisture, oxygen, and substances dissolved in food. Using food coatings on fruits and vegetables can delay water dissipation, losing aroma, decolorization, and improve the appearance of the product, and in general, preserve and protect the quality of fresh produce. When fruits and vegetables grow, they are equipped with a natural shield, called cuticle– a layer of wax. Washing the products, after harvest, the cuticle – this protective coating – is removed. In order to replace the cuticle, we can use an edible protective coating. This coating delays dehydration and deterioration and hence increases the life of the product while keeping its moisture. In this study, it was concluded that using food coatings, such as corn zein, carrageenan, and starch can have a substantial effect on the quantitative and qualitative preservation of food products, such as fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms.

Keywords: food coating, corn zein, button and oyster mushrooms, ascorbic and citric acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
135 Preliminary Proposal to Use Adaptive Computer Games in the Virtual Rehabilitation Therapy

Authors: Mamoun S. Ideis, Zein Salah

Abstract:

Virtual Rehabilitation (VR) refers to using Virtual Reality’s hardware and simulations as means of exercising tools to rehabilitate patients in need. These patients will undergo their treatment exercises while playing different computer games, which helps achieve greater motivation for patients undergoing their therapeutic exercises. Virtual Rehabilitation systems adopt computer games as part of the treatment therapy. In this paper, we present a preliminary proposal to using adaptive computer games in Virtual Rehabilitation therapy. We also present some tips in designing those adaptive computer games by using different machine learning algorithms in order to create a personalized experience for each patient, which in turn, increases the potential benefits of the treatment that each patient receives. Furthermore, we propose a method of comparing the results of treatment using the adaptive computer games with the results of using static and classical computer games.

Keywords: virtual rehabilitation, physiotherapy, adaptive computer games, post-stroke, game design

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
134 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Developed Clinical Pathway: Suggested Protocol

Authors: Maha Salah, Hanaa Hashem, Mahmoud M. Alsagheir, Mohammed Salah

Abstract:

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents a complex clinical syndrome and carries a high risk for mortality. The severity of the clinical course, the uncertainty of the outcome, and the reliance on the full spectrum of critical care resources for treatment mean that the entire health care team is challenged. Researchers and clinicians have investigated the nature of the pathological process and explored treatment options with the goal of improving outcome. Through this application of research to practice, we know that some previous strategies have been ineffective, and innovations in mechanical ventilation, sedation, nutrition, and pharmacological intervention remain important research initiatives. Developed Clinical pathway is multidisciplinary plans of best clinical practice for this specified groups of patients that aid in the coordination and delivery of high quality care. They are a documented sequence of clinical interventions that help a patient to move, progressively through a clinical experience to a desired outcome. Although there is a lot of heterogeneity in patients with ARDS, this suggested developed clinical pathway with alternatives was built depended on a lot of researches and evidence based medicine and nursing practices which may be helping these patients to improve outcomes, quality of life and decrease mortality.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), clinical pathway, clinical syndrome

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133 Prone Positioning and Clinical Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Authors: Maha Salah Abdullah Ismail, Mahmoud M. Alsagheir, Mohammed Salah Abd Allah

Abstract:

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by permeability pulmonary edema and refractory hypoxemia. Lung-protective ventilation is still the key of better outcome in ARDS. Prone position reduces the trans-pulmonary pressure gradient, recruiting collapsed regions of the lung without increasing airway pressure or hyperinflation. Prone ventilation showed improved oxygenation and improved outcomes in severe hypoxemic patients with ARDS. This study evaluates the effect of prone positioning on mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS. A quasi-experimental design was carried out at Critical Care Units, on 60 patients. Two tools were utilized to collect data; Socio demographic, medical and clinical outcomes data sheet. Results of the present study indicated that prone position improves oxygenation in patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome. The study recommended that use prone position in patients with severe ARDS, as early as possible and for long sessions. Also, replication of this study on larger probability sample at the different geographical location is highly recommended.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome, critical care, mechanical ventilation, prone position

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
132 Phosphorous Acid: An Efficient and Recyclable Liquid Catalyst for the Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonates

Authors: Hellal Abdelkader, Chafaa Salah, Touafri Lasnouni

Abstract:

A simple, efficient and general method has been developed for the high diastereoselective synthesis of diethyl α-aminophosphonates in water through “one-pot” three-component reaction of aromatic aldehydes, aminophenols and dialkyl phosphites in the presence of a low catalytic amount (10mol%) of phosphorous acid as highly stable catalyst is described.

Keywords: DFT, HOMO-LUMO, phosphonic acid, aminophenols

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
131 Hyparrhenia hirta: A Potential Protective Agent against DNA Damage and Liver Toxicity of Sodium Nitrate in Adult Rats

Authors: Hanen Bouaziz-Ketata, Ghada Ben Salah, Hichem Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta on nitrate-induced liver damage. Experiments were carried out on adult rats divided into 3 groups, a control group and two treated groups. NaNO3 was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 400 mg/kg bw in treated groups either alone or coadministered with Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract via drinking water at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw for 50 days. Liver toxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by higher serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride and lower serum total protein than those of controls. Transaminases and lactate deshydrogenase activities in serum were elevated indicating hepatic cells’ damage after treatment with NaNO3. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased serum gamma glutamyl transferase activities suggested the presence of cholestasis in NaNO3 exposed rats. In parallel, NaNO3 caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the liver as reflected by the increased lipid peroxidation, the decreased total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Nitrate caused also a significant induction of DNA fragmentation as evidenced by the presence of a smear without ladder formation on agarose gel. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed an improvement of all parameters cited above. We conclude that the present work provides ethnopharmacological relevance of Hyparrhenia hirta against the toxic effect of nitrate, suggesting its role as a potential antioxidant.

Keywords: Hyparrhenia hirta, liver, nitrate toxicity, oxidative stress, rat

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130 Antibacterial Activity of Nisin: Comparison the Role of Free and Encapsulated Nisin to Control Staphylococcus Aureus Inoculated in Minced Beef

Authors: Zh. Ghasemi, S. Nouri Saeedlou, A. Ghasemi, SL. Nasiri, P. Ayremlou, P. Mahasti

Abstract:

The use of nisin is successfully used as antibacterial agent in various food products. Although the conclusions of the previous studies were that nisin is not very effective in meat environments. The reduced antimicrobial efficacy of nisin when applied in food has been frequently observed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of free and encapsulated nisin to inhibit the growth of staphylococcus aureus in minced beef. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin is determined against S. aureus using the agar dilution method. Nisin is encapsulated by spray drying, and encapsulation efficiency, mass yield and total solids content values are 47.79%, 61%, and 96.41 respectively. The study in vitro release kinetics shows highest release of nisin from zein capsules is obtained after 72 hour. This work shows that an appropriate delivery system is necessary to obtain desirable effect of nisin in meat and meat product.

Keywords: nisin, encapsulation, Staphylococcus aureus, minced beef, antibacterial activity

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129 Combined Cervical Headache Snag with Cervical Snag Half Rotation Techniques on Cervicogenic Headache Patients

Authors: Wael Salah Shendy, Moataz Mohamed EL Semary, Hosam Salah Murad, Adham A. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: Cervicogenic headache is a major problem in many people suffering from upper cervical dysfunction with a great conflict in its physical therapy management. Objectives: To determine the effect of C1-C2 Mulligan SNAGs mobilizations on cervicogenic headache and associated dizziness symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients with cervicogenic headache included in the study; from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, and New Cairo outpatient clinics, were randomly assigned into three equal groups; group A ( Headache SNAG), group B (C1-C2 SNAG rotation) and group C (combined). Their mean age was (29.37 ± 2.6), (29.31 ± 2.54) and (29.68 ± 2.65). Neck Disability Index used to examine neck pain intensity and CEH symptoms. 6 Items Headache Impact test '6-HIT' scale used to examine headache severity and its adverse effects on social life and functions. Flexion-Rotation Test 'FRT' also used to assess rotation ROM at the level of C1-C2 by 'CROM' device. Dizziness Handicap Inventory 'DHI' scale was used to evaluate dizziness symptoms. Evaluation is done pre and post treatment, and comparison between groups was quantified. Correlations between the examined parameters were also measured. Headache SNAG and C1-C2 Rotation SNAGs were done separately in group (A- B) and combined in group C as a treatment intervention. Results: Group C has Significant improvement in whole parameters compared to group A and B, positive correlation was found between NDI and 6-HIT scores compared to negative correlation between NDI and DHI scores. Conclusion: SNAGs mobilizations used in the study were effective in reducing cervicogenic headache and dizziness symptoms in all groups with a noticeable improvement in the combined group.

Keywords: cervicogenic headache, cervical headache snag, cervical snag half rotation, cervical dizziness

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
128 Renegotiating International Contract Clauses: The Case of Investment Environment Changes in Egypt

Authors: Marwa Zein

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The long-term of the contract is one of the major features that distinguish international trade and investment contracts from other internal contracts. This is due to the nature of the contract and the huge works required to be performed from one hand or the desire of the parties to achieve stability in their transactions. However, long-term contracts might expose them to certain events and circumstances that impact the capability of the parties to execute their obligations pursuant to these contracts. During the year 2016, the Egyptian government has taken series of economic decisions which greatly impacted the economic and investment environment. Consequently, many contracts have encountered many problems in their execution due to such changes that greatly influence the performance of their obligation, a matter that necessitated the renegotiation of the conditions of these contracts on the basis of the unpredicted changes that could be listed under the Force Majeure Clause. The principle of fair and equitable treatment in investment placed on an obligation on the Egyptian government to consider the renegotiation of contract clauses based on the new conditions. This paper will discuss the idea of renegotiating international trade and investment contracts in Egypt with reference to the changes the economic environment has witnessed lately.

Keywords: change of circumstances, international contracts, investment contracts, renegotiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
127 Functional Beverage to Boosting Immune System in Elderly

Authors: Adineh Tajmousavilangerudi, Ali Zein Alabiden Tlais, Raffaella Di Cagno

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The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has exposed our vulnerability to new illnesses and novel viruses that attack our immune systems, particularly in the elderly. The vaccine is being gradually introduced over the world, but new strains of the virus and COVID-19 will emerge and continue to cause illness. Aging is associated with significant changes in intestinal physiology, which increases the production of inflammatory products, alters the gut microbiota, and consequently establish inadequate immune response to minimize symptoms and disease development. In this context, older people who followed a Mediterranean-style diet, rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber, performed better physically and mentally (1,2). This demonstrates the importance of the human gut microbiome in transforming complex dietary macromolecules into the most biologically available and active nutrients, which in turn help to regulate metabolism and both intestinal and systemic immune function (3,4). The role of lactic acid fermentation is prominent also as a powerful tool for improving the nutritional quality of the human diet by releasing nutrients and boosting the complex bioactive compounds and vitamin content. the PhD project aims to design fermented and functional foods/beverages capable of modulating human immune function via the gut microbiome.

Keywords: functional bevarage, fermented beverage, gut microbiota functionality, immun system

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126 A Novel Parametric Chaos-Based Switching System PCSS for Image Encryption

Authors: Mohamed Salah Azzaz, Camel Tanougast, Tarek Hadjem

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In this paper, a new low-cost image encryption technique is proposed and analyzed. The developed chaos-based key generator provides complex behavior and can change it automatically via a random-like switching rule. The designed encryption scheme is called PCSS (Parametric Chaos-based Switching System). The performances of this technique were evaluated in terms of data security and privacy. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of this technique, and it can thereafter, ready for a hardware implementation.

Keywords: chaos, encryption, security, image

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
125 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cr Doped Ni-Zn Nanoferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Authors: E. Ateia, L. M. Salah, A. H. El-Bassuony

Abstract:

Physical properties of nanocrystalline Ni1-xZnxCryFe2-yO4, (x=0.3, 0.5 and y=0.0, 0.1) with estimated crystallite size of 16.4 nm have been studied. XRD pattern of all prepared systems shows that, the nanosamples without Cr3+ have a cubic spinel structure with the appearance of small peaks designated as a secondary phase. Magnetic constants such as saturation magnetization, (MS) remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) were obtained and reported. The obtained data shows that, the addition of Cr3+ (0.1mol) decreases the saturation magnetization. This is due to the decrease of magnetic moment of Cr3+ ion (3.0 μB) with respect to Fe3+ ion (5.85 μB). The electrical properties of the investigated samples were also investigated.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, ferrites, grain size, sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
124 Improvement of the Numerical Integration's Quality in Meshless Methods

Authors: Ahlem Mougaida, Hedi Bel Hadj Salah

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Several methods are suggested to improve the numerical integration in Galerkin weak form for Meshless methods. In fact, integrating without taking into account the characteristics of the shape functions reproduced by Meshless methods (rational functions, with compact support etc.), causes a large integration error that influences the PDE’s approximate solution. Comparisons between different methods of numerical integration for rational functions are discussed and compared. The algorithms are implemented in Matlab. Finally, numerical results were presented to prove the efficiency of our algorithms in improving results.

Keywords: adaptive methods, meshless, numerical integration, rational quadrature

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123 Simultaneous Determination of Cefazolin and Cefotaxime in Urine by HPLC

Authors: Rafika Bibi, Khaled Khaladi, Hind Mokran, Mohamed Salah Boukhechem

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A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 264nm was developed and validate for quantitative determination and separation of cefazolin and cefotaxime in urine, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH4,2(15 :85) (v/v) pumped through ODB 250× 4,6 mm, 5um column at a flow rate of 1ml/min, loop of 20ul. In this condition, the validation of this technique showed that it is linear in a range of 0,01 to 10ug/ml with a good correlation coefficient ( R>0,9997), retention time of cefotaxime, cefazolin was 9.0, 10.1 respectively, the statistical evaluation of the method was examined by means of within day (n=6) and day to day (n=5) and was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy and precision.

Keywords: cefazolin, cefotaxime, HPLC, bioscience, biochemistry, pharmaceutical

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
122 Comparative Study between Direct Torque Control and Sliding Mode Control of Sensorless Induction Machine

Authors: Fouad Berrabah, Saad Salah, Zaamouche Fares

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In this paper, the Direct Torque Control (DTC) Control and the Sliding Mode Control for induction motor are presented and compared. The performance of the two control schemes is evaluated in terms of torque and current ripple, and transient response to variations of the torque , speed and robustness, trajectory tracking. In order to identify the more suitable solution for any application, both techniques are analyzed mathematically and simulation results are compared which advantages and drawbacks are discussed.

Keywords: induction motor, DTC- MRAS control, sliding mode control, robustness, trajectory tracking

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121 Clustering the Wheat Seeds Using SOM Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Salah Ghamari

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In this study, the ability of self organizing map artificial (SOM) neural networks in clustering the wheat seeds varieties according to morphological properties of them was considered. The SOM is one type of unsupervised competitive learning. Experimentally, five morphological features of 300 seeds (including three varieties: gaskozhen, Md and sardari) were obtained using image processing technique. The results show that the artificial neural network has a good performance (90.33% accuracy) in classification of the wheat varieties despite of high similarity in them. The highest classification accuracy (100%) was achieved for sardari.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, clustering, self organizing map, wheat variety

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120 Bi-Functional Natural Carboxylic Acid Catalysts for the Synthesis of Diethyl α-Aminophosphonates in Aqueous Media

Authors: Hellal Abdelkader, Chafaa Salah, Boudjemaa Fouzia

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A new, convenient, and high yielding procedure for the preparation of diethyl α-aminophosphonates in water via Kabachnik-Fields reaction by one-pot reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ortho-aminophenols, and dialkylphosphites in the presence of a low catalytic amount of citric, malic, tartaric, and oxalic acids as a natural, bi-functional, and highly stable catalyst is described, the obtained products were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, FTIR, Uv-Vis spectral data, NMR-C, NMR-H, and NMR-P analyses.

Keywords: α-aminophosphonates, aminophenols, natural acids, aqueous media, Kabachnik-Fields reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
119 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Daucus Gracilis Extracts

Authors: El Kolli Meriem, Laouer Hocine, Sahli Farida, Akkal Salah, El Kolli Hayet

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The aerial parts of Daucus gracilis (Apiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation by a Clevenger apparatus to obtain the essential oil (EO) which has been analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The antioxidant properties of this EO and D. gracilis methanolic extract were studied by both of the free diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and the reducing power techniques. The dominant constituents of the EO were the elemicin (35.3 %) and the geranyl acetate (26.8 %). Both of EO and methanolic extract showed important antioxidant properties with respectively IC50 of 0,002 mg/ml and 0.06 mg/ml. They showed also a reducing power dose-dependent.

Keywords: daucus gracilis, apiaceae, essential oil, antioxidant activity

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118 The Effect of Probiotics Lactococcus plantarum and Prebiotic Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas sp.) on Performance and Cholesterol Meat of Local Ducks

Authors: Husmaini, Rijal Zein, Zulkarnain, Marlito Latifa, Syahrul E. Rambee

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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotics–fermented purple sweet potato (PPSP) on performance and cholesterol meat of local ducks. One hundred two weeks old male local ducks placed in 4 treatment doses for ten weeks. The treatments were the dosage of PPSP, i.e., 0, 1, 2 and 3 grams of PPSP/bird/week. One gram PPSP contains 1.3 x 108 colony form unit. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS and DMRT. The results showed that PPSP administration in local ducks did not affect intestinal villi height and fed consumption (P > 0.05), but highly significant (P < 0.01) increasing duodenum thickness, body weight, carcass yield and reducing both feed conversion and cholesterol meat content. The difference in PPSP dosage (1.2 and 3 grams) had the same effect on body weight gain. However, it has a different impact on feed conversion and meat cholesterol levels. The higher the PPSP dose given, the lower the feed conversion and meat cholesterol level. This study has shown that administration of PPSP can improve performance and reduce cholesterol levels of local duck meat. Giving PPSP as much as 3 grams per bird every week has provided the best results.

Keywords: cholesterol, local duck, performance, probiotics, purple sweet potato

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117 Production of Ultra-Low Temperature by the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycles with Environment Friendly Working Fluids

Authors: Sameh Frikha, Mohamed Salah Abid

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We investigate the performance of an integrated cascade (IC) refrigeration system which uses environment friendly zeotropic mixtures. Computational calculation has been carried out by varying pressure level at the evaporator and the condenser of the system. Effects of mass flow rate of the refrigerant on the coefficient of performance (COP) are presented. We show that the integrated cascade system produces ultra-low temperatures in the evaporator by using environment friendly zeotropic mixture.

Keywords: coefficient of performance, environment friendly zeotropic mixture, integrated cascade, ultra low temperature, vapor compression refrigeration cycles

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116 MCERTL: Mutation-Based Correction Engine for Register-Transfer Level Designs

Authors: Khaled Salah

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In this paper, we present MCERTL (mutation-based correction engine for RTL designs) as an automatic error correction technique based on mutation analysis. A mutation-based correction methodology is proposed to automatically fix the erroneous RTL designs. The proposed strategy combines the processes of mutation and assertion-based localization. The erroneous statements are mutated to produce possible fixes for the failed RTL code. A concurrent mutation engine is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of running sequential mutants operators. The proposed methodology is evaluated against some benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method enables us to automatically locate and correct multiple bugs at reasonable time.

Keywords: bug localization, error correction, mutation, mutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
115 The Exploitation of Balancing an Inverted Pendulum System Using Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Sheren H. Salah, Ahmed Y. Ben Sasi

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The inverted pendulum system is a classic control problem that is used in universities around the world. It is a suitable process to test prototype controllers due to its high non-linearities and lack of stability. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. This paper presents the possibility of balancing an inverted pendulum system using sliding mode control (SMC). The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum’s angle and cart's position. Therefore, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) is used for comparison. Results have proven SMC control produced better response compared to PID control in both normal and noisy systems.

Keywords: inverted pendulum (IP), proportional-integral derivative (PID), sliding mode control (SMC), systems and control engineering

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114 Biotechnological Recycling of Apple By-Products: A Reservoir Model to Produce a Dietary Supplement Fortified with Biogenic Phenolic Compounds

Authors: Ali Zein Aalabiden Tlais, Alessio Da Ros, Pasquale Filannino, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Gobbetti, Raffaella Di Cagno

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This study is an example of apple by-products (AP) recycling through a designed fermentation by selected autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum AFI5 and Lactobacillus fabifermentans ALI6 used singly or as binary cultures with the selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae AYI7. Compared to Raw-, Unstarted- and Chemically Acidified-AP, Fermented-AP promoted the highest levels of total and insoluble dietary fibers, antioxidant activity, and free phenolics. The binary culture of L. plantarum AFI5 and S. cerevisiae AYI7 had the best effect on the bioavailability phenolic compounds as resulted by the Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated method. The accumulation of phenolic acid derivatives highlighted microbial metabolism during AP fermentation. Bio-converted phenolic compounds were likely responsible for the increased antioxidant activity. The potential health-promoting effects of Fermented-AP were highlighted using Caco-2 cells. With variations among single and binary cultures, fermented-AP counteracted the inflammatory processes and the effects of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells and preserved the integrity of tight junctions. An alternative and suitable model for food by-products recycling to manufacture a dietary supplement fortified with biogenic compounds was proposed. Highlighting the microbial metabolism of several phenolic compounds, undoubted additional value to such downstream wastes was created.

Keywords: apple by-products, antioxidant, fermentation, phenolic compounds

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113 Limits and Barriers of Value Creation and Projects Development: The Case of Tunisian SMEs

Authors: Samira Boussema, Ben Hamed Salah

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Entrepreneurship was always considered to be the most appropriate remedy for various economies’ symptoms. It is presented as a complex process that faces several barriers thereby inhibiting a project’s implementation phase. In fact, after a careful review of the literature, we noticed that empirical researches on reasons behind non-developing entrepreneurial projects are very rare, suggesting a lack in modeling the process in general and the pre-start phase in particular. Therefore, in this study we try to identify the main environmental barriers to developing business projects in Tunisia through the study of a representative sample of undeveloped projects. To this end, we used a quantitative approach which allowed us to examine the various barriers encountered by young entrepreneurs during their projects’ implementation. Indeed, by modeling the phenomenon we found that these managers face barriers of legal, financial, educational and government support dimensions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, environmental barriers, non-implementation of projects, structural modeling

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112 Stimuli Responsives of Crosslinked Poly on 2-HydroxyEthyl MethAcrylate – Optimization of Parameters by Experimental Design

Authors: Tewfik Bouchaour, Salah Hamri, Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Ulrich Maschke

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Stimuli-responsive materials based on UV crosslinked acrylic polymer networks are fabricated. A various kinds of polymeric systems, hydrophilic polymers based on 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate have been widely studied because of their ability to simulate biological tissues, which leads to many applications. The acrylic polymer network PHEMA developed by UV photopolymerization has been used for dye retention. For these so-called smart materials, the properties change in response to an external stimulus. In this contribution, we report the influence of some parameters (initial composition, temperature, and nature of components) in the properties of final materials. Optimization of different parameters is examined by experimental design.

Keywords: UV photo-polymerization, PHEMA, external stimulus, optimization

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111 The Influence of Water Content on the Shear Resistance of Silty Sands

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah

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This work involves an experimental study of the behavior of chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion etc.). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands etc.) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: (The density, the fines content, the water content). The apparatus used for the tests is the shear box casagrande. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: behavior, shear strength, sand, silt, friction angle, cohesion, fines content, moisture content

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110 Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Signal Peptides Targeting for Delivery to Apoplast, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Cytosol Spaces

Authors: Sadegh Lotfieblisofla, Arash Khodabakhshi

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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The production of this drug in plants such as tobacco could reduce its production costs. In this study, expression of tPA gene and protein targeting to different plant cell compartments, using various signal peptides has been investigated. For high level of expression, Kozak sequence was used after CaMV35S in the beginning of the gene. In order to design the final construction, Extensin, KDEL (amino acid sequence including Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) and SP (γ-zein signal peptide coding sequence) were used as leader signals to conduct this protein into apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol spaces, respectively. Cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV (Cauliflower mosaic virus) 35S promoter and NOS (Nopaline Synthase) terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into tobacco explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The presence and copy number of genes in transgenic tobacco was proved by Southern blotting. Enzymatic activity of the rt-PA protein in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants was confirmed by Zymography assay. The presence and amount of rt-PA recombinant protein in plants was estimated by ELISA analysis on crude protein extract of transgenic tobacco using a specific antibody. The yield of recombinant tPA in transgenic tobacco for SP, KDEL, Extensin signals were counted 0.50, 0.68, 0.69 microgram per milligram of total soluble proteins.

Keywords: tPA, recombinant, transgenic, tobacco

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109 Swelling Behavior of Cross-Linked Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

Authors: Salah Hamri, Tewfik Bouchaour, Ulrich Maschke

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The aim of this works is the study of swelling ratio of cross-linked polymer networks poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The system composed of erythrosine and Triethanolamine, in aqueous medium, is used as photo-initiator and 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate as cross-linker. The analysis of UV-visible and infrared spectra, which were taken at different times during polymerization/cross linking, makes it possible to obtain useful information on the reaction mechanism. The swelling behavior was study by changing the nature of solvent, dye sensitizer (erythrosine, rose Bengal and eosin), and pH of the medium. The exploitation of experimental results using Fick diffusion model is also expected and shows a good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: cross-linker, photo-sensitizer, polymer network, swelling ratio

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108 TNF-Kinoid® in Autoimmune Diseases

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Melakhessou Med Akram, Mezahdia Mehdi, Marref Salah Eddine

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Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses. Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death. It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus. The action mode of Kinoid® technology is based on the principle vaccine: The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines (proteins) overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system.

Keywords: cytokines, Kinoid tech, auto-immune diseases, vaccination

Procedia PDF Downloads 239