Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2145

Search results for: wheat variety

2145 Growth Analysis in Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar

Abstract:

The study was carried out on effect of water stress and variety on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), during 2009/10 and 2010/11 dry seasons. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress) and two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kauze/Weaver) laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress was assigned to the main-plot while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed significant (P<0.05) effect of water stress, water stress at tillering significantly (P<0.05) reduced plant height, LAI, CGR, and NAR. Variety had a significant effect on plant height, LAI, CGR and NAR. In conclusion water stress at tillering was observed to be most critical growth stage in wheat, and water stress at this period should be avoided because it results to decrease in growth components in wheat. Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Star II TR 77173/LM is recommended variety for the area.

Keywords: wheat, growth, water stress, variety, Sudan savannah

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2144 Doubled Haploid Production in Wheat Using Imperata cylindrica Mediated Chromosome Elimination Technique

Authors: Madhu Patial, Dharam Pal, Jagdish Kumar, H. K. Chaudhary

Abstract:

Doubled haploid breeding serves as a useful technique in wheat improvement by providing instant and complete homozygosity. Of the various techniques employed for haploid production chromosome elimination has a large scale practical application in wheat improvement. Barclay (1975) initiated the technique in wheat by crossing wheat variety Chinese spring with Hordeum bulbosum, but due to presence of the dominant crossability inhibitor genes Kr7 and Kr2 in many wheat varieties, the technique was however genotypic specific. The discovery of wheat X maize system of haploid production being genotype non-specific is quite successful but still maize needs to be grown in greenhouse to coincide flowering with wheat crop. Recently, wheat X Imperate cylindrica has been identified as a new chromosome mediated DH approach for efficient haploid induction. An experiment to use this technique in wheat was set up by crossing six F1s and two three way F1s with Imperata cylindrica. The data was recorded for the three component traits of haploid induction viz., seed formation, embryo formation and regeneration frequency. Variation among wheat F1s was observed and higher frequency for all the traits were recorded in cross HD 2997/2*FL-8/DONSK-POLL and KLE/BER/2*FL-8/DONSK-POLL.

Keywords: wheat, haploid, imperata cylindrica, chromosome elimination technique

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2143 Yield Parameters of Hulled Wheat Species, Grown in Organic Farming

Authors: Petr Konvalina, Jan Moudry

Abstract:

As organic farmers are searching foregoing crops for horticultural crops, there is possible to choice neglected wheat species and also have a new market and sale opportunities. Concerning wheat, there are landraces so called hulled wheat species (einkorn, emmer wheat, spelt) comprising parts of collections of the world gene banks. The advantage of this wheat species are small demands on growing conditions and also droughtiness in conditions of changing climate. Our paper aims at presenting the results of the study and the assessment of spring wheat forms, four einkorn cultivars, eight emmer wheat cultivars, seven spelt wheat cultivars in particular, as compared to modern bread wheat variety. Small-plot trials were established at two different localities within the Czech Republic and Austria in 2009 and 2012. The results of the trials show that some varieties were inclined to lodging. On the other hand, they were resistant to common wheat diseases (mildew, brown rust). Hulls served as barriers and obstacles against the DON grain contamination. The yield rate was lower. The grains were characterized by a high proportion of protein in grain (up to 18.1 %). However, they may be difficult to use for common baking. Moreover, new food products demonstrating a different technological quality of the hulled wheat species have to be launched on the market. They will be suitable for regional marketing.

Keywords: organic farming, hulled wheat species, einkorn, emmer, spelt

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2142 Off-Line Detection of "Pannon Wheat" Milling Fractions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods

Authors: E. Izsó, M. Bartalné-Berceli, Sz. Gergely, A. Salgó

Abstract:

The aims of this investigation is to elaborate near-infrared methods for testing and recognition of chemical components and quality in “Pannon wheat” allied (i.e. true to variety or variety identified) milling fractions as well as to develop spectroscopic methods following the milling processes and evaluate the stability of the milling technology by different types of milling products and according to sampling times, respectively. This wheat categories produced under industrial conditions where samples were collected versus sampling time and maximum or minimum yields. The changes of the main chemical components (such as starch, protein, lipid) and physical properties of fractions (particle size) were analysed by dispersive spectrophotometers using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) regions of the electromagnetic radiation. Close correlation were obtained between the data of spectroscopic measurement techniques processed by various chemometric methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and operation condition of milling technology. Its obvious that NIR methods are able to detect the deviation of the yield parameters and differences of the sampling times by a wide variety of fractions, respectively. NIR technology can be used in the sensitive monitoring of milling technology.

Keywords: near infrared spectroscopy, wheat categories, milling process, monitoring

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2141 Clustering the Wheat Seeds Using SOM Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Salah Ghamari

Abstract:

In this study, the ability of self organizing map artificial (SOM) neural networks in clustering the wheat seeds varieties according to morphological properties of them was considered. The SOM is one type of unsupervised competitive learning. Experimentally, five morphological features of 300 seeds (including three varieties: gaskozhen, Md and sardari) were obtained using image processing technique. The results show that the artificial neural network has a good performance (90.33% accuracy) in classification of the wheat varieties despite of high similarity in them. The highest classification accuracy (100%) was achieved for sardari.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, clustering, self organizing map, wheat variety

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2140 Appropriate Nutrient Management for Wheat Production in Afghanistan

Authors: Azizurahman Sakhizadah, Tsugiyuki Masunaga

Abstract:

The use of sulfur fertilizer by Afghanistan farmers for wheat production has never been practiced, although sulfur deficiency has been expected for wheat production. A field experiment was conducted at Poza e Ishan Research Station Farm, Baghlan province, Afghanistan to examine the effect of sulfur fertilizer on growth and yield components of wheat. The experiment was laid out in randomize complete block design (RCBD), having three replications and eight treatments. The initial soil of experiment was alkaline (pH8.4), with textural class of sandy clay loam, available sulfur (40.8) mg kg-1, and Olsen-P (28.8) mg kg-1. Wheat variety, Kabul 013 was cultivated from November 2015 to June 2016. The recommended doses of nitrogen and Phosphors (Urea and DAP at 250 and 125 kg ha-1) were applied by broadcasting except control plot. Sulfur was applied by foliar spray (K2 SO4) at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 kg ha-1, split at tillering and flowering stages. The results demonstrated that sulfur application positively influenced on growth and yield of wheat crop with combination of nitrogen. Plant did not respond to sole sulfur application. Plant height, spike length, spikelet's number spike-1, were increased and yield g m-2 was also increased by 1.2, 19.1 and 25.1 % for 10, 20 and 30 kg sulfur ha-1 application.

Keywords: sulfur, nitrogen, wheat, foliar

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2139 Agroecological and Socioeconomic Determinants of Conserving Diversity On-Farm: The Case of Wheat Genetic Resources in Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

Abstract:

Conservation of crop genetic resources presents a challenge of identifying specific determinants driving maintenance of diversity at farm and agroecosystems. The objectives of this study were to identify socioeconomic, market and agroecological determinants of farmers’ maintenance of wheat diversity at the household level and derive implications for policies in designing on-farm conservation programs. We assess wheat diversity at farm level using household survey data. A household decision making model is conceptualized using microeconomic theory to assess and identify factors influencing on-farm rice diversity. The model is then tested econometrically by using various factors affecting farmers’ variety choice and diversity decisions. The findings show that household-specific socioeconomic, agroecological and market factors are important in determining on-farm wheat diversity. The significant variables in explaining richness and evenness of wheat diversity include distance to the nearest market, subsistence ratio, modern variety sold, land types and adult labour working in agriculture. The statistical signs of the factors determining wheat diversity are consistent in explaining the richness, dominance and evenness among rice varieties. Finally, the study implies that the cost-effective means of promoting and sustaining on-farm conservation programmes is to target them in market isolated geographic locations of high crop diversity where farm households have more heterogeneity of agroecological conditions and more active family adult labour working on-farm.

Keywords: diversity indices, dominance, evenness, on-farm conservation, wheat diversity, richness

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2138 Wheat Production and Market in Afghanistan

Authors: Fayiz Saifurahman, Noori Fida Mohammad

Abstract:

Afghanistan produces the highest rate of wheat, it is the first source of food, and food security in Afghanistan is dependent on the availability of wheat. Although Afghanistan is the main producer of wheat, on the other hand, Afghanistan is the largest importers of flour. The objective of this study is to assess the structure and dynamics of the wheat market in Afghanistan, can compute with foreign markets, and increase the level of production. To complete this, a broad series of secondary data was complied with, group discussions and interviews with farmers, agricultural and market experts. The research findings propose that; the government should adopt different policies to support the local market. The government should distribute the seed, support financially and technically to increase wheat production.

Keywords: Afghanistan, wheat, production , import

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2137 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality, polymorphism

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2136 Influence of Laser Treatment on the Growth of Sprouts of Different Wheat Varieties

Authors: N. Bakradze, T. Dumbadze, N. Gagelidze, L. Amiranashvili, A. D. L. Batako

Abstract:

Cereals are considered as a strategic product in human life and it demand is increasing with the growth of world population. There is always shortage of cereals in various areas of the globe. For example, Georgia own production meets only 15-20% of the demand for grain, despite the fact that the country is considered one of the main centers of wheat origin. In Georgia, there are 14 types of wheat and more than 150 subspecies, and 40 subspecies of common wheat. Increasing wheat production is important for the country. One of the ways to solve the problem is to develop and implement new, environmentally and economically acceptable technologies. Such technologies include pre-sowing treatment of seed with a laser and associative nitrogen-fixing of the Azospirillum brasilensse bacteria. In the region there are Dika and Lomtagora which are among the most common in Georgia. Dika is a frost-resistant wheat, with a high ability to adapt to the environment, resistant to falling and it is sown in highlands. Dicka excellent properties are due to its strong immunity to fungal diseases; Dicka grains are rich in protein and lysine. Lomtagora 126 differs with its winter and drought resistance, and, it has a great ability to germinate. Lomtagora is characterized by a strong root system and a high budding capacity. It is an early variety, fall-resistant, easy to thresh and suitable for mechanized harvesting with large and red grains. The plant is moderately resistant to fungal diseases. This paper presents some preliminary experimental results where, a continuous CO2 laser at a power of 25-40 W/cm2 was used to radiate grains at a flow rate of 10-15 cm/sec. The treatment was carried out on grains of the Triticum aestivum L. var. of Lutescens (local variety name - Lomtagora 126), and Triticum carthlicum Nevski (local variety name - Dika). Here the grains were treated with Azospirillum brasilensse isolate (108-109 CFU / ml), which was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat. It was observed that the germination of the wheat was not significantly influenced by either laser or bacteria treatment. In the case of the variety Lomtagora 126, when irradiated at an angle of 90°, it slightly improved the growth within 38 days of sawing, and in the case of irradiation at an angle of 90°+1, by 23%. The treatment of seeds with Azospirillum brazilense in both irradiated and non-irradiated variants led to an improvement in the growth of ssprouts. However, in the case of treatment with azospiril alone - by 22%, and with joint treatment of seeds with azospiril and irradiation - by 29%. In the case of the Dika wheat, the irradiation only led to an increase in growth by 8-9%, and the combine treatment of seeds with azospiril and irradiation - by 10-15%, in comparison with the control. Thus, the combine treatment of wheat of different varieties provided the best effect on the growth. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG) (Grant number CARYS 19-573)

Keywords: laser treatment, Azospirillum brasilensse, seeds, wheat varieties, Lomtagora, Dika

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2135 Effect of Seed Treatment on Seed Quality and Storability in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) in Northwestern Himalayas

Authors: Anubhav Thakur, Karam Chand Dhiman

Abstract:

Storage experiment was conducted to study the effect of polymer, fungicides and insecticide on seed quality parameters and storability in wheat. The experimental material consisted of carry over wheat seeds (variety HPW- 155) of rabi 2017 - 18. The observations were recorded bimonthly on parameters viz; germination (%), seedling length (cm), dry weight (g), vigour index - I, vigour - II, speed of germination, field emergence (%), 100 seed weight (g) for 12 months of storage. All parameters declined with the advancement in storage period. The results showed that seeds treated with polymer + vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed recorded higher germination percentage (95.00 %), seedling length (17.58 cm), seedling dry weight (0.0138 g), vigour index - I (1670) & vigour - II (1.311), speed of germination (19.98), 100 seed weight (5.54 g) and field emergence (87.33 %) which was at par with vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed, over untreated control (T1). So it can be concluded that for maintain seed quality and enhancing storability, seed of wheat can either be treated with polymer @ 3 ml/kg of seed + vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed or vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed.

Keywords: wheat, seed treatment, storability, seed quality

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2134 Evaluation of Wheat Sowing and Fertilizer Application Methods in Wheat Weeds Management

Authors: Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi

Abstract:

In order to investigation the effects of sowing methods, nitrogen and phosphorus application methods in wheat weeds management, an experiment was performed as split plot, based on randomized completely block design with three replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2010. Treatments included, wheat sowing methods (single-row with 30 cm distance and twine row on 50 cm width ridges) as main plots and nitrogen and phosphorus application methods (Broadcast and Band) as sub plots. In this experiment, phosphorus and nitrogen sources for fertilization were super phosphate triple (150 kg ha-1) applied before wheat sowing and incorporated with soil and urea (200 kg ha-1) respectively, applied in 2 phases (pre-plant 50%) and near wheat shooting (50%). Results showed that the effect of fertilizers application methods and wheat sowing methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat yield increasing and reducing weed-wheat competition. Wheat twine row sowing method, reduced weeds biomass for 25% compared wheat single-row sowing method and increased wheat seed yield and biomass for 60% and 30% respectively. Phosphorus and nitrogen band application reduced weeds biomass for 46% and 53% respectively and increased wheat seed yield for 22% and 33% compared to their broadcast application. The effects of wheat sowing method plus phosphorus and nitrogen application methods interactions, showed that the fertilizers band application and wheat twine-row sowing method were the best methods in wheat yield improvement and reducing wheat-weeds interaction. These results shows that modifying of fertilization methods and wheat sowing method can have important role in fertilizers use efficiency and improving of weeds managements.

Keywords: competition, wheat yield, fertilizer management, biomass

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2133 Technological Value of Selected Spring Wheat Cultivars Depending on the Sowing Date

Authors: Marta Wyzińska, Jerzy Grabiński, Alicja Sułek

Abstract:

The grain quality is a decisive factor in its use. In Poland, spring wheat is characterized by more favorable quality parameters in relation to the winter form of this species. In the present study, the effects of three different sowing dates (autumn, delayed autumn, and spring) and cultivar (Tybalt, Cytra, Bombona, Monsun, and Parabola) on the selected technological value parameters of spring wheat over three years were studied. The field trials were carried out in two locations (Bezek, Czesławice) in the Lubelskie Vivodeship, Poland. It was found that the falling number of spring wheat grains from autumn sowing dates was at a similar level to wheat sown in spring. The amount of wet gluten in the grain was variable in years, and its quality was better in wheat sown in spring. Sedimentation index was dependent upon on the cultivar.

Keywords: Sowing term, spring wheat, technological value, quality

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2132 Weeds Density Affects Yield and Quality of Wheat Crop under Different Crop Densities

Authors: Ijaz Ahmad

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Weed competition is one of the major biotic constraints in wheat crop productivity. Avena fatua L. and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. are among the worst weeds of wheat, greatly deteriorating wheat quality subsequently reducing its market value. In this connection, two-year experiments were conducted in 2018 & 2019. Different seeding rate wheat viz; 80, 100, 120 and 140 kg ha-1 and different weeds ratio (A. fatua: S. marianum ) sown at the rate 1:8, 2:7, 3:6, 4:5, 5:4, 6:3, 7:2, 8:1 and 0:0 respectively. The weeds ratio and wheat densities are indirectly proportional. However, the wheat seed at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 has minimal weeds interference. Yield losses were 17.5% at weeds density 1:8 while 7.2% at 8:1. However, in wheat density, the highest percent losses were computed on 80 kg ha-1 while the lowest was recorded on 140 kg ha-1. Since due to the large leaf canopy of S. marianum other species can't sustain their growth. Hence, it has been concluded that S. marianum is the hotspot that causes reduction to the yield-related parameters, followed by A. fatua and the other weeds. Due to the morphological mimicry of A. fatua with wheat crop during the vegetative growth stage, it cannot be easily distinguished. Therefore, managing A. fatua and S. marianum before seed setting is recommended for reducing the future weed problem. Based on current studies, it is suggested that sowing wheat seed at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 is recommended to better compete with all the field weeds.

Keywords: fat content, holly thistle, protein content, weed competition, wheat, wild oat

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2131 Optimal Wheat Straw to Bioethanol Supply Chain Models

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul Razik, Ali Elkamel, Leonardo Simon

Abstract:

Wheat straw is one of the alternative feedstocks that may be utilized for bioethanol production especially when sustainability criteria are the major concerns. To increase market competitiveness, optimal supply chain plays an important role since wheat straw is a seasonal agricultural residue. In designing the supply chain optimization model, economic profitability of the thermochemical and biochemical conversion routes options were considered. It was found that torrefied pelletization with gasification route to be the most profitable option to produce bioethanol from the lignocellulosic source of wheat straw.

Keywords: bio-ethanol, optimization, supply chain, wheat straw

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2130 Evaluation of Symptoms, Laboratory Findings, and Natural History of IgE Mediated Wheat Allergy

Authors: Soudeh Tabashi, Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy, Masood Movahedi, Nasrin Behniafard

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Introduction: Food allergy has increased in three last decades. Since wheat is one of the major constituents of daily meal in many regions throughout the world, wheat allergy is one of the most important allergies ranking among the 8 most common types of food allergies. Our information about epidemiology and etiology of food allergies are limited. Therefore, in this study we sought to evaluate the symptoms and laboratory findings in children with wheat allergy. Materials and methods: There were 23 patients aged up to 18 with the diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy that were included enrolled in this study. Using a questionnaire .we collected their information and organized them into 4 groups categories of: demographic data identification, signs and symptoms, comorbidities, and laboratory data. Then patients were followed up for 6 month and their lab data were compared together. Results: Most of the patients (82%) presented the symptoms of wheat allergy in the first year of their life. The skin and the respiratory system were the most commonly involved organs with an incidence of 86% and 78% respectively. Most of the patients with wheat allergy were also sensitive to the other type of foods and their sensitivity to egg were most common type (47%). in 57% of patients, IgE levels were decreased during the 6 month follow-up period. Conclusion: We do not have enough information about data on epidemiology and response to therapy of wheat allergy and to best of our knowledge no study has addressed this issue in Iran so far. This study is the first source of information about IgE mediated wheat allergy in Iran and It can provide an opening for future studies about wheat allergy and its treatments.

Keywords: wheat allergy, food allergy, IgE, food allergy

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2129 Resistance Evaluation of Common Wheat Varieties/Lines to Leaf Rust and Stripe Rust at Seedling and Adult-Plant Stage in China, Gansu Province

Authors: Shelin Jin, Jin Huang, Shiqin Cao, Qiuzhen Jia, Bo Zhang, Zhenyu Sun

Abstract:

Stripe rust and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici and Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici are two of the most damaging diseases of wheat in China. In recent years, leaf rust has migrated to some wheat growing areas previously suitable for stripe rust, resulting in a mixture of the two diseases occurring in the same area and at the same time, and seriously damage wheat production in China, Gansu Province. The most effective method of prevention those two diseases are through the use of resistant cultivars. However, many studies have only carried out of resistance of wheat varieties for a single disease; resistance to both diseases is unknown. In order to definite the resistance composition of wheat varieties to these two diseases, 715 wheat varieties/lines from 8 breeding units in Gansu province were collected to test for the resistance to stripe rust and leaf rust at seedling stage in greenhouse and at adult plant stage in field in 2016-2018, respectively. Spore suspensions with the fresh mixture races of CYR32, CYR33, and CYR34 of Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici and mixture races of THTP, THTT, TKTT, and THTS of Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici were used for inoculation separately. The result shows that only 4.74% of the varieties/lines show comprehensive resistance to strip rust and leaf rust at all growth stages, and there are 34 wheat varieties/lines including Tianxuan 67, 2006-1-4-1-4-2-7-2-3-10, 03-139-1-2-2-1-2-1, Qingnong 21, Lenghan 5, 04-203-1-1-1 and so on. In seedling stage, the frequencies of resistant varieties/lines to wheat strip rust and leaf rust were 56.64% and 30.23%. While the materials were susceptible to these diseases were 43.36% and 69.77%. 71 varieties/lines were resistant to those two diseases, accounted for 9.93%. 10 varieties/lines, accounted for 1.4%, were highly resistant (including immune/near immune) to those two diseases. In adult-plant stage, the frequencies of resistant varieties/lines to wheat strip rust and leaf rust were 76.53% and 36.11%. While the materials were susceptible to these diseases were 23.47% and 63.89%. 137 varieties/lines were resistant to those two diseases, accounted for 19.16%. 59 varieties/lines, accounted for 8.25%, were highly resistant (including immune/near immune) to those two diseases. Overall, the 715 varieties /lines had high resistance to wheat strip rust, but poor resistance to leaf rust. This study found out some resistant materials which had better comprehensive resistance to leaf rust and strip rust, also pointed out the resistance characteristics of 715 varieties/lines to those two diseases at the seedling stage and adult-plant stage, which will be of great guiding significance in wheat resistance breeding and comprehensive control those two diseases in China, Gansu Province in the future.

Keywords: Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici, resistance of variety, wheat

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2128 Improvement in Drought Stress Tolerance in Wheat by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Seema Sangwan, Ekta Narwal, Kannepalli Annapurna

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on drought stress tolerance in 3 genotypes of wheat subjected to moderate water stress, i.e. HD 3043 (drought tolerant), HD 2987 (drought tolerant), and HD 2967 (drought sensitive). Various growth parameters were studied, e.g. total dry weight, total shoot and root length, root volume, root surface area, grain weight and number, leaf area, chlorophyll content in leaves, relative water content, number of spores and percent colonisation of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Total dry weight, root surface area and chlorophyll content were found to be significantly high in AMF inoculated plants as compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones and also higher in drought-tolerant varieties of wheat as compared to the sensitive variety HD 2967, in moderate water stress treatments. Leakage of electrolytes was lower in case of AMF inoculated stressed plants. Under continuous water stress, leaf water content and leaf area were significantly increased in AMF inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated stressed plants. Overall, the increased colonisation of roots of wheat by AMF in inoculated plants weather drought tolerant or sensitive could have a beneficial effect in alleviating the harmful effects of water stress in wheat and delaying its senescence.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, wheat, drought, stress

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2127 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand

Abstract:

The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: wheat, wild relatives, pre-breeding, genomics, photosynthesis

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2126 Isolated Microspore Culture in Durum Wheat

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

Since its creation in 1964 by Guha and Maheshwari in India on Datura innoxia Mill, in vitro androgenesis has become the method of choice in the production of doubled haploid in many species. However in durum wheat, the Doubled haploid plant breeding programs remained limited due to the low production of androgenetic embryos and converting them into fertile green plants. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of durum wheat.

Keywords: Durum wheat, haploid embryos, on in vitro, pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2125 Screening of Different Exotic Varieties of Potato through Adaptability Trial for Local Cultivation

Authors: Arslan Shehroz, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Amjad Abbas, Imran Ramzan, Muhammad Zunair Latif

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the 4th most important food crop of the world after wheat, rice and maize. It is the staple food in many European countries. Being rich in starch (one of the main three food ingredients) and having the highest productivity per unit area, has great potential to address the challenge of the food security. Processed potato is also used as chips and crisps etc as ‘fast food’. There are many biotic and abiotic factors which check the production of potato and become hurdle in achievement production potential of potato. 20 new varieties along with two checks were evaluated. Plant to plant and row to row distances were maintained as 20 cm and 75 cm, respectively. The trial was conducted according to the randomized complete block design with three replications. Normal agronomic and plant protection measures were carried out in the crop. It is revealed from the experiment that exotic variety 171 gave the highest yield of 35.5 t/ha followed by Masai with 31.0 t/ha tuber yield. The check variety Simply Red 24.2 t/ha yield, while the lowest tuber yield (1.5 t/ha) was produced by the exotic variety KWS-06-125. The maximum emergence was shown by the Variety Red Sun (89.7 %). The lowest emergence was shown by the variety Camel (71.7%). Regarding tuber grades, it was noted that the maximum Ration size tubers were produced by the exotic variety Compass (3.7%), whereas 11 varieties did not produce ration size tubers at all. The variety Red Sun produced lowest percentage of small size tubers (12.7%) whereas maximum small size tubers (93.0%) were produced by the variety Jitka. Regarding disease infestation, it was noted that the maximum scab incidence (4.0%) was recorded on the variety Masai, maximum rhizoctonia attack (60.0%) was recorded on the variety Camel and maximum tuber cracking (0.7%) was noted on the variety Vendulla.

Keywords: check variety, potato, potential and yield, trial

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2124 How Much the Role of Fertilizers Management and Wheat Planting Methods on Its Yield Improvement?

Authors: Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi, Masoud Azad, Masumeh Dehghan

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of nitrogen and phosphoruse management and wheat sowing method on wheat yield, two experiments was performed as factorial, based on completely randomized design with three replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009. In the first experiment nitrogen application rates (100kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1, 300 kg ha-1), phosphorus application rates (100 kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1) and two levels of their application methods (Broadcast and Band) were studied. The second experiment treatments included of wheat sowing methods (single-row with 30 cm distance and twine row on 60 cm width ridges), as main plots and nitrogen and phosphorus application methods (Broadcast and Band) as sub plots (150 kg ha-1). Phosphorus and nitrogen sources for fertilization at both experiment were respectively super phosphate, applied before wheat sowing and incorporated with soil and urea, applied in two phases (50% pre plant) and (50%) near wheat shooting. Results from first experiment showed that the effect of fertilizers application methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat yield increasing. Band application of phosphorus and nitrogen were increased biomass and seed yield of wheat with nine and 15% respectively compared to their broadcast application. The interaction between the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus application rate with phosphorus and nitrogen application methods, showed that band application of fertilizers and the rate of application of 200kg/ha phosphorus and 300kg/ha nitrogen were the best methods in wheat yield improvement. The second experiment also showed that the effect of wheat sowing method and fertilizers application methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat seed and biomass yield improvement. Wheat twine row on 60 cm width ridges sowing method, increased its biomass and seed yield for 22% and 30% respectively compared to single-row with 30 cm. Wheat sowing method and fertilizers application methods interaction indicated that band application of fertilizers and wheat twine row on 60 cm width ridges sowing method was the best treatment on winter wheat yield improvement. In conclusion these results indicated that nitrogen and phosphorus management in wheat and modifying wheat sowing method have important role in increasing fertilizers use efficiency.

Keywords: band application, broadcast application, rate of fertilizer application, wheat seed yield, wheat biomass yield

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2123 On In vitro Durum Wheat Isolated Microspore Culture

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

Since its creation in 1964 by Guha and Maheshwari in India on Datura innoxia Mill, in vitro androgenesis has become the method of choice in the production of doubled haploid in many species. However, in durum wheat, the Doubled haploid plant breeding programs remained limited due to the low production of androgenetic embryos and converting them into fertile green plants. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of durum wheat.

Keywords: durum wheat, haploid embryos, on in vitro, pretreatment

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2122 An Evaluation of Different Weed Management Techniques in Organic Arable Systems

Authors: Nicola D. Cannon

Abstract:

A range of field experiments have been conducted since 1991 to 2017 on organic land at the Royal Agricultural University’s Harnhill Manor Farm near Cirencester, UK to explore the impact of different management practices on weed infestation in organic winter and spring wheat. The experiments were designed using randomised complete block and some with split plot arrangements. Sowing date, variety choice, crop height and crop establishment technique have all shown a significant impact on weed infestations. Other techniques have also been investigated but with less clear, but, still often significant effects on weed control including grazing with sheep, undersowing with different legumes and mechanical weeding techniques. Tillage treatments included traditional plough based systems, minimum tillage and direct drilling. Direct drilling had significantly higher weed dry matter than the other two techniques. Taller wheat varieties which do not contain Rht1 or Rht2 had higher weed populations than the wheat without dwarfing genes. Early sown winter wheat had greater weed dry matter than later sown wheat. Grazing with sheep interacted strongly with sowing date, with shorter varieties and also late sowing dates providing much less forage but, grazing did reduce weed biomass in June. Undersowing had mixed impacts which were related to the success of establishment of the undersown legume crop. Weeds are most successfully controlled when a range of techniques are implemented to give the wheat crop the greatest chance of competing with weeds.

Keywords: crop establishment, drilling date, grazing, undersowing, varieties, weeds

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2121 Investigation in Gassy Ozone Influence on Flaxes Made from Biologically Activated Whole Wheat Grains Quality Parameters

Authors: Tatjana Rakcejeva, Jelena Zagorska, Elina Zvezdina

Abstract:

The aim of the current research was to investigate the gassy ozone effect on quality parameters of flaxes made form whole biologically activated wheat grains. The research was accomplished on in year 2012 harvested wheat grains variety ′Zentos′. Grains were washed, wetted; grain biological activation was performed in the climatic chamber up to 24 hours. After biological activation grains was compressed; than flaxes was dried in convective drier till constant moisture content 9±1%. For grain treatment gassy ozone concentration as 0.0002% and treatment time – 6 min was used. In the processed flaxes the content of A and G tocopherol decrease by 23% and by 9%; content of B2 and B6 vitamins – by 11% and by 10%; elaidic acid – by 46%, oleic acid – by 29%; arginine (by 80%), glutamine (by 74%), asparagine and serine (by 68%), valine (by 62%), cysteine (by 54%) and tyrosine (by 47%).

Keywords: gassy ozone, flaxes, biologically activated grains, quality parameters, treatment

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2120 Bayesian Networks Scoping the Climate Change Impact on Winter Wheat Freezing Injury Disasters in Hebei Province, China

Authors: Xiping Wang,Shuran Yao, Liqin Dai

Abstract:

Many studies report the winter is getting warmer and the minimum air temperature is obviously rising as the important climate warming evidences. The exacerbated air temperature fluctuation tending to bring more severe weather variation is another important consequence of recent climate change which induced more disasters to crop growth in quite a certain regions. Hebei Province is an important winter wheat growing province in North of China that recently endures more winter freezing injury influencing the local winter wheat crop management. A winter wheat freezing injury assessment Bayesian Network framework was established for the objectives of estimating, assessing and predicting winter wheat freezing disasters in Hebei Province. In this framework, the freezing disasters was classified as three severity degrees (SI) among all the three types of freezing, i.e., freezing caused by severe cold in anytime in the winter, long extremely cold duration in the winter and freeze-after-thaw in early season after winter. The factors influencing winter wheat freezing SI include time of freezing occurrence, growth status of seedlings, soil moisture, winter wheat variety, the longitude of target region and, the most variable climate factors. The climate factors included in this framework are daily mean and range of air temperature, extreme minimum temperature and number of days during a severe cold weather process, the number of days with the temperature lower than the critical temperature values, accumulated negative temperature in a potential freezing event. The Bayesian Network model was evaluated using actual weather data and crop records at selected sites in Hebei Province using real data. With the multi-stage influences from the various factors, the forecast and assessment of the event-based target variables, freezing injury occurrence and its damage to winter wheat production, were shown better scoped by Bayesian Network model.

Keywords: bayesian networks, climatic change, freezing Injury, winter wheat

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2119 Effect of Drying Condition on the Wheat Germ Stability Using Fluidized-Bed Dryer

Authors: J. M. Hung, J. S. Chan, M. I. Kuo, D. S. Chan, C. P. Lu

Abstract:

Wheat germ is a by-product obtained from wheat milling and it contains highly concentrated nutrients. Due to highly lipase and lipoxygenase activities, wheat germ products can easily turn into rancid flavor and cause a short life. The objective of this study is to control moisture content and retard lipid hydrolysis by fluidized-bed drying. The raw wheat germ of 2 kg was dried with a vertical batch fluidized bed with the following varying conditions, inlet air temperature of 50, 80 and 120°C, inlet air velocity of 3.62 m/s. The experiment was designed to obtain a final product at around 40°C with water activity of 0.3 ± 0.1. Changes in the moisture content, water activity, enzyme activity of dried wheat germ during storage were measured. Results showed the fluidized-bed drying was found to reduce moisture content, water activity and lipase activity of raw wheat germ. After drying wheat germ, moisture content and water activity were between 5.8% to 7.2% and 0.28 to 0.40 respectively during 12 weeks of storage. The variation range of water activity indicated to retard lipid oxidation. All drying treatments displayed inactivation of lipase, except for drying condition of 50°C which showed relative high enzyme activity. During storage, lipase activity increased slowly during the first 6 weeks of storage and reached a plateau for another 6 weeks. As a result, using a fluidized-bed dryer was found to be effective drying technique in improving storage stability of wheat germ.

Keywords: wheat germ, fluidized-bed dryer, storage, lipase, stability

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2118 Enzymatic Activities of Two Iranian Wheat Cultivars Infected with Fusarium Culmorum

Authors: Parastoo Motallebi, Vahid Niknam, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, Majid Hashemi

Abstract:

Wheat, the most strategically important worldwide crop, is widely grown in various countries. Based on international wheat production statistics (FAOSTAT database), the total production of wheat in 2012 was 13.8 in Iran. Fusarium culmorum is one of the principal causative agents of Fusarium crown rot (FCR), an overwhelming disease of wheat and barley which is in the early stages causing yield losses, stand reductions and rotting of root and lower stem tissues. In this study inoculation of two wheat seedlings of the susceptible cultivar Falat and the partially field-resistant cultivar Pishtaz were carried out in greenhouse conditions and root samples were taken for 6 days. The activity of peroxidase (POX) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzymes were analyzed to identify possible relations between resistance and enzymatic activities. Although the POX and PPO activities in both geno types increased, this significant increase was more dominant in Pishtaz. The results showed an earlier elevation in the activity of these defense related enzymes in semi-resistant cv. Pishtaz after inoculation, suggested that the activities of POX and PPO in wheat geno types play an important role in the induction of resistance to this disease.

Keywords: Defense responses, Fusarium culmorum, Wheat

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2117 Climate Change Impacts on Future Wheat Growing Areas

Authors: Rasha Aljaryian, Lalit Kumar

Abstract:

Climate is undergoing continuous change and this trend will affect the cultivation areas ofmost crops, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in the future. The current suitable cultivation areas may become unsuitable climatically. Countries that depend on wheat cultivation and export may suffer an economic loss because of production decline. On the other hand, some regions of the world could gain economically by increasing cultivation areas. This study models the potential future climatic suitability of wheat by using CLIMEX software. Two different global climate models (GCMs) were used, CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR), with two emission scenarios (A2, A1B). The results of this research indicate that the suitable climatic areas for wheat in the southern hemisphere, such as Australia, are expected to contract by the end of this century. However, some unsuitable or marginal areas will become climatically suitable under future climate scenarios. In North America and Europe further expansion inland could occur. Also, the results illustrate that heat and dry stresses as abiotic climatic factors will play an important role in wheat distribution in the future. Providing sufficient information about future wheat distribution will be useful for agricultural ministries and organizations to manage the shift in production areas in the future. They can minimize the expected harmful economic consequences by preparing strategic plans and identifying new areas for wheat cultivation.

Keywords: Climate change, Climate modelling, CLIMEX, Triticum aestivum, Wheat

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2116 Iron Influx, Its Root-Shoot Relations and Utilization Efficiency in Wheat

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani

Abstract:

Plant cultivars of the same species differ in their Fe efficiency. This paper studied the Fe influx and root-shoot relations of Fe at different growth stages in wheat. The four wheat cultivars (HD 2967, PDW 233, PBW 550 and PDW 291) were grown in pots in Badam Bagh agricultural researching farm, Kabul under two Fe treatments: (i) 0 mg Fe kg⁻¹ soil (soil with 2.7 mg kg⁻¹ of DTPA-extractable Fe) and (ii) 50 mg Fe kg⁻¹ soil. Root length (RL), shoot dry matter (SDM), Fe uptake, and soil parameters were measured at tillering and anthesis. Application of Fe significantly increased RL, root surface area, SDM, and Fe uptake in all wheat cultivars. Under Fe deficiency, wheat cv. HD 2967 produced 90% of its maximum RL and 75% of its maximum SDM. However, PDW 233 produced only 69% and 60%, respectively. Wheat cultivars HD 2967, and PDW 233 exhibited the highest and lowest value of root surface area and Fe uptake, respectively. The concentration difference in soil solution Fe between bulk soil and root surface (ΔCL) was maximum in wheat cultivar HD 2967, followed by PBW 550, PDW 291, and PDW 233. More depletion at the root surface causes steeper concentration gradients, which result in a high influx and transport of Fe towards root. Fe influx in all the wheat cultivars increased with the Fe application, but the increase was maximum, i.e., 4 times in HD 2967 and minimum, i.e., 2.8 times in PDW 233. It can be concluded that wheat cultivars HD 2967 and PBW 550 efficiently utilized Fe as compared to other cultivars. Additionally, iron efficiency of wheat cultivars depends upon uptake of each root segment, i.e., the influx, which in turn depends on depletion of Fe in the rhizosphere during vegetative phase and higher utilization efficiency of acquired Fe during reproductive phase that governs the ultimate grain yield.

Keywords: Fe efficiency, Fe influx, Fe uptake, Rhizosphere

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