Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 304

Search results for: proportional-integral derivative (PID)

304 On a Univalent Function and the Integral Means of Its Derivative

Authors: Shatha S. Alhily


The purpose of this research paper is to show all the possible values of the pth power of the integrable function which make the integral means of the derivative of univalent function existing and finite.

Keywords: derivative, integral means, self conformal maps, univalent function

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
303 A Comparative Study on a Tilt-Integral-Derivative Controller with Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller for a Pacemaker

Authors: Aysan Esgandanian, Sabalan Daneshvar


The study is done to determine the comparison between proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) and tilt-integral-derivative (TID controller) for cardiac pacemaker systems, which can automatically control the heart rate to accurately track a desired preset profile. The controller offers good adaption of heart to the physiological needs of the patient. The parameters of the both controllers are tuned by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm which uses the integral of time square error as a fitness function to be minimized. Simulation results are performed on the developed cardiovascular system of humans and results demonstrate that the TID controller produces superior control performance than PID controllers. In this paper, all simulations were performed in Matlab.

Keywords: integral of time square error, pacemaker systems, proportional-integral-derivative controller, PSO algorithm, tilt-integral-derivative controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
302 Certain Results of a New Class of Meromorphic Multivalent Functions Involving Ruscheweyh Derivative

Authors: Kassim A. Jassim


In the present paper, we introduce and discuss a new class Kp(λ,α) of meromorphic multivalent functions in the punctured unit disk U*={z∈¢:0<|z|<1} defined by Ruscheweyh derivative. We obtain some sufficient conditions for the functions belonging to the class Kp(λ,α).

Keywords: meromorphic multivalent function, Ruscheweyh derivative, hadamard product

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
301 A New Approach for Generalized First Derivative of Nonsmooth Functions Using Optimization

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazarei, Ali Asghar Behroozpoor


In this paper, we define an optimization problem corresponding to smooth and nonsmooth functions which its optimal solution is the first derivative of these functions in a domain. For this purpose, a linear programming problem corresponding to optimization problem is obtained. The optimal solution of this linear programming problem is the approximate generalized first derivative. In fact, we approximate generalized first derivative of nonsmooth functions as tailor series. We show the efficiency of our approach by some smooth and nonsmooth functions in some examples.

Keywords: general derivative, linear programming, optimization problem, smooth and nonsmooth functions

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300 Fractional Euler Method and Finite Difference Formula Using Conformable Fractional Derivative

Authors: Ramzi B. Albadarneh


In this paper, we use the new definition of fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative to derive some finite difference formulas and its error terms which are used to solve fractional differential equations and fractional partial differential equations, also to derive fractional Euler method and its error terms which can be applied to solve fractional differential equations. To provide the contribution of our work some applications on finite difference formulas and Euler Method are given.

Keywords: conformable fractional derivative, finite difference formula, fractional derivative, finite difference formula

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
299 Using Derivative Free Method to Improve the Error Estimation of Numerical Quadrature

Authors: Chin-Yun Chen


Numerical integration is an essential tool for deriving different physical quantities in engineering and science. The effectiveness of a numerical integrator depends on different factors, where the crucial one is the error estimation. This work presents an error estimator that combines a derivative free method to improve the performance of verified numerical quadrature.

Keywords: numerical quadrature, error estimation, derivative free method, interval computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
298 Derivative Usage, Ownership Structure, and Bank Value in European Countries

Authors: Chuang-Chang Chang, Keng-Yu Ho, Yu-Jen Hsiao, Hsin-Ni Yang


Using a sample of detailed ownership data of 1,032 listed commercial bank observations in 30 European countries from 2004 to 2010, we explore what categories of shareholder are more likely to use derivatives and how different types of owners affect the bank value. We find that a shift in equity from bank investors to either non-financial companies or institutional investors have increase incentives to use derivatives. Moreover, we have significant evidence that a shift in equity from bank investors to either family or manager shareholders who attend derivative activities will decrease bank value. However, a shift in equity from bank investors to non-financial companies who use derivative instrument will increase the bank value. Our results are also robustness to address for the potential endogeneity problems.

Keywords: derivative usage, ownership structure, bank value

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
297 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

Authors: Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Yiming Weng


The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental restorative, compressive strength, S. mutans viability

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296 Assessment of Pre-Processing Influence on Near-Infrared Spectra for Predicting the Mechanical Properties of Wood

Authors: Aasheesh Raturi, Vimal Kothiyal, P. D. Semalty


We studied mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis using FT-NIR spectroscopy. Firstly, spectra were pre-processed to eliminate useless information. Then, prediction model was constructed by partial least squares regression. To study the influence of pre-processing on prediction of mechanical properties for NIR analysis of wood samples, we applied various pretreatment methods like straight line subtraction, constant offset elimination, vector-normalization, min-max normalization, multiple scattering. Correction, first derivative, second derivatives and their combination with other treatment such as First derivative + straight line subtraction, First derivative+ vector normalization and First derivative+ multiplicative scattering correction. The data processing methods in combination of preprocessing with different NIR regions, RMSECV, RMSEP and optimum factors/rank were obtained by optimization process of model development. More than 350 combinations were obtained during optimization process. More than one pre-processing method gave good calibration/cross-validation and prediction/test models, but only the best calibration/cross-validation and prediction/test models are reported here. The results show that one can safely use NIR region between 4000 to 7500 cm-1 with straight line subtraction, constant offset elimination, first derivative and second derivative preprocessing method which were found to be most appropriate for models development.

Keywords: FT-NIR, mechanical properties, pre-processing, PLS

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
295 A Class of Third Derivative Four-Step Exponential Fitting Numerical Integrator for Stiff Differential Equations

Authors: Cletus Abhulimen, L. A. Ukpebor


In this paper, we construct a class of four-step third derivative exponential fitting integrator of order six for the numerical integration of stiff initial-value problems of the type: y’= f(x,y); y(x₀) =y₀. The implicit method has free parameters which allow it to be fitted automatically to exponential functions. For the purpose of effective implementation of the proposed method, we adopted the techniques of splitting the method into predictor and corrector schemes. The numerical analysis of the stability of the new method was discussed; the results show that the method is A-stable. Finally, numerical examples are presented, to show the efficiency and accuracy of the new method.

Keywords: third derivative four-step, exponentially fitted, a-stable, stiff differential equations

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294 Extent of Derivative Usage, Firm Value and Risk: An Empirical Study on Pakistan Non-Financial Firms

Authors: Atia Alam


Growing liberalisation and intense market competition increase firm’s risk exposure and induce corporations to use derivatives extensively as a risk management instrument, which results in decrease in firm’s risk, and increase in value. Present study contributes towards existing literature by providing an in-depth analysis regarding the effect of extent of derivative usage on firm’s risk and value by using panel data models and seemingly unrelated regression technique. New evidence is established in current literature by dividing the sample data based on firm’s Exchange Rate (ER) and Interest Rate (IR) exposure. Analysis is performed for the effect of extent of derivative usage on firm’s risk and value and its variation with respect to the ER and IR exposure. Sample data consists of 166 Pakistani firms listed on Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2004-2010. Results show that extensive usage of derivative instruments significantly increases firm value and reduces firm’s risk. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis depicts that Pakistani corporations having higher exchange rate exposure, with respect to foreign sales, and higher interest rate exposure, on the basis of industry adjusted leverage, have higher firm value and lower risk. Findings from seemingly unrelated regression also provide robustness to results obtained through panel data analysis. Study also highlights the role of derivative usage as a risk management instrument in high and low ER and IR risk and helps practitioners in understanding how value increasing effect of extent of derivative usage varies with the intensity of firm’s risk exposure.

Keywords: extent of derivative usage, firm value, risk, Pakistan, non-financial firms

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
293 A Family of Second Derivative Methods for Numerical Integration of Stiff Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Luke Ukpebor, C. E. Abhulimen


Stiff initial value problems in ordinary differential equations are problems for which a typical solution is rapidly decaying exponentially, and their numerical investigations are very tedious. Conventional numerical integration solvers cannot cope effectively with stiff problems as they lack adequate stability characteristics. In this article, we developed a new family of four-step second derivative exponentially fitted method of order six for the numerical integration of stiff initial value problem of general first order differential equations. In deriving our method, we employed the idea of breaking down the general multi-derivative multistep method into predator and corrector schemes which possess free parameters that allow for automatic fitting into exponential functions. The stability analysis of the method was discussed and the method was implemented with numerical examples. The result shows that the method is A-stable and competes favorably with existing methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy.

Keywords: A-stable, exponentially fitted, four step, predator-corrector, second derivative, stiff initial value problems

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292 A Comparative Analysis on QRS Peak Detection Using BIOPAC and MATLAB Software

Authors: Chandra Mukherjee


The present paper is a representation of the work done in the field of ECG signal analysis using MATLAB 7.1 Platform. An accurate and simple ECG feature extraction algorithm is presented in this paper and developed algorithm is validated using BIOPAC software. To detect the QRS peak, ECG signal is processed by following mentioned stages- First Derivative, Second Derivative and then squaring of that second derivative. Efficiency of developed algorithm is tested on ECG samples from different database and real time ECG signals acquired using BIOPAC system. Firstly we have lead wise specified threshold value the samples above that value is marked and in the original signal, where these marked samples face change of slope are spotted as R-peak. On the left and right side of the R-peak, faces change of slope identified as Q and S peak, respectively. Now the inbuilt Detection algorithm of BIOPAC software is performed on same output sample and both outputs are compared. ECG baseline modulation correction is done after detecting characteristics points. The efficiency of the algorithm is tested using some validation parameters like Sensitivity, Positive Predictivity and we got satisfied value of these parameters.

Keywords: first derivative, variable threshold, slope reversal, baseline modulation correction

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291 Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge on the Definition of Limit and Derivative

Authors: Reyhan Tekin Sitrava


Teachers should have robust and comprehensive content knowledge for effective mathematics teaching. It was explained that content knowledge includes knowing the facts, truths, and concepts; explaining the reasons behind these facts, truths and concepts, and making relationship between the concepts and other disciplines. By virtue of its importance, it will be significant to explore teachers and prospective teachers’ content knowledge related to variety of topics in mathematics. From this point of view, the purpose of this study was to investigate prospective mathematics teachers’ content knowledge. Particularly, it was aimed to reveal the prospective teachers’ knowledge regarding the definition of limit and derivate. To achieve the purpose and to get in-depth understanding, a qualitative case study method was used. The data was collected from 34 prospective mathematics teachers through a questionnaire containing 2 questions. The first question required the prospective teachers to define the limit and the second one required to define the derivative. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Based on the analysis of the data, although half of the prospective teachers (50%) could write the definition of the limit, nine prospective teachers (26.5%) could not define limit. However, eight prospective teachers’ definition was regarded as partially correct. On the other hand, twenty-seven prospective teachers (79.5%) could define derivative, but seven of them (20.5%) defined it partially. According to the findings, most of the prospective teachers have robust content knowledge on limit and derivative. This result is important because definitions have a virtual role in learning and teaching of mathematics. More specifically, definition is starting point to understand the meaning of a concept. From this point of view, prospective teachers should know the definitions of the concepts to be able to teach them correctly to the students. In addition, they should have knowledge about the relationship between limit and derivative so that they can explain these concepts conceptually. Otherwise, students may memorize the rules of calculating the derivative and the limit. In conclusion, the present study showed that most of the prospective mathematics teachers had enough knowledge about the definition of derivative and limit. However, the rest of them should learn their definition conceptually. The examples of correct, partially correct, and incorrect definition of both concepts will be presented and discussed based on participants’ statements. This study has some implications for instructors. Instructors should be careful about whether students learn the definition of these concepts or not. In order to this, the instructors may give prospective teachers opportunities to discuss the definition of these concepts and the relationship between the concepts.

Keywords: content knowledge, derivative, limit, prospective mathematics teachers

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290 A Derivative of L-allo Threonine Alleviates Asthmatic Symptoms in vitro and in vivo

Authors: Kun Chun, Jin-Chun Heo, Sang-Han Lee


Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells and tissue remodeling. In this study, we examined the anti-asthmatic activity of a derivative of L-allo threonine by in vitro and in vivo anti-asthmatic assays. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced C57BL/6 mice were used to analyze lung inflammation and cytokine expressions for exhibiting anti-atopic activity of the derivative. LX519290, a derivative of L-allo threonine, induced an increased IFN-γ and a decreased IL-10 mRNA level. This compound exhibited potent anti-asthmatic activity by decreasing immune cell infiltration in the lung, and IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine levels in the serum of OVA-induced mice. These results indicated that chronic airway injury was decreased by LX519290. We also assessed that LX519290 inhibits infiltration of immune cell, mucus release and cytokine expression in an in vivo model. Our results collectively suggest that the L-allo threonine is effective in alleviating asthmatic symptoms by treating inflammatory factors in the lung.

Keywords: asthma, L -allo threonine, LX519290, mice

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289 Solutions of Fractional Reaction-Diffusion Equations Used to Model the Growth and Spreading of Biological Species

Authors: Kamel Al-Khaled


Reaction-diffusion equations are commonly used in population biology to model the spread of biological species. In this paper, we propose a fractional reaction-diffusion equation, where the classical second derivative diffusion term is replaced by a fractional derivative of order less than two. Based on the symbolic computation system Mathematica, Adomian decomposition method, developed for fractional differential equations, is directly extended to derive explicit and numerical solutions of space fractional reaction-diffusion equations. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Finally, the recent appearance of fractional reaction-diffusion equations as models in some fields such as cell biology, chemistry, physics, and finance, makes it necessary to apply the results reported here to some numerical examples.

Keywords: fractional partial differential equations, reaction-diffusion equations, adomian decomposition, biological species

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288 H∞ Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy State-Derivative Feedback Control Design for Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

Authors: N. Kaewpraek, W. Assawinchaichote


This paper considers an H TS fuzzy state-derivative feedback controller for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. A Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model is used to approximate a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. Then, based on a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we design an HTS fuzzy state-derivative feedback control law which guarantees L2-gain of the mapping from the exogenous input noise to the regulated output to be less or equal to a prescribed value. We derive a sufficient condition such that the system with the fuzzy controller is asymptotically stable and H performance is satisfied. Finally, we provide and simulate a numerical example is provided to illustrate the stability and the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

Keywords: h-infinity fuzzy control, an LMI approach, Takagi-Sugano (TS) fuzzy system, the photovoltaic systems

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287 Pali-Sanskrit Terms and Their Uses in Reflecting Political Society of Thailand

Authors: Kowit Pimpuang


Through analysis of the Pali-Sanskrit (PL-SKT) terms and their uses in reflecting political society of Thailand, the objectives of this study were to explore PL-SKT word formation and its semantic changes employed in the political society of Thailand and to explore the political reflection of Thai society through their uses. Conceptual framework of this study consists of (1) use of PL-SKT word formation namely, primary derivative (Kitaka), secondary derivative (Tathita), compound (Samasa) and prefix (Upasagga), (2) semantic changes namely; widening, narrowing and transferring of meaning, and (3) political reflection of Thai society. Qualitative method was employed in this study and data were collected from Thai Newspapers. It was found that there were uses of the four kinds of word formation in formatting the new political terms concerned namely, primary derivative, secondary derivative, compound and prefix leading by compound through the following three semantic changes; widening, narrowing and transferring, in order to make clear in understanding. Furthermore, PL-SKT terms were employed in reflecting Thai politics caused by democratic conflicts through the bureaucracy, plutocracy, businessocracy and juristocracy respectively. Later, there have been political business groups and their corruption problems in political society of Thailand.

Keywords: Pali, Sanskrit, reflection, politics, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
286 Modeling the Compound Interest Dynamics Using Fractional Differential Equations

Authors: Muath Awadalla, Maen Awadallah


Banking sector covers different activities including lending money to customers. However, it is commonly known that customers pay money they have borrowed including an added amount called interest. Compound interest rate is an approach used in determining the interest to be paid. The instant compounded amount to be paid by a debtor is obtained through a differential equation whose main parameters are the rate and the time. The rate used by banks in a country is often defined by the government of the said country. In Switzerland, for instance, a negative rate was once applied. In this work, a new approach of modeling the compound interest is proposed using Hadamard fractional derivative. As a result, it appears that depending on the fraction value used in derivative the amount to be paid by a debtor might either be higher or lesser than the amount determined using the classical approach.

Keywords: compound interest, fractional differential equation, hadamard fractional derivative, optimization

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285 Optimization of Coefficients of Fractional Order Proportional-Integrator-Derivative Controller on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Ali Motalebi Saraji, Reza Zarei Lamuki


Speed control and behavior improvement of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) that have reliable performance, low loss, and high power density, especially in industrial drives, are of great importance for researchers. Because of its importance in this paper, coefficients optimization of proportional-integrator-derivative fractional order controller is presented using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to improve the behavior of PMSM in its speed control loop. This improvement is simulated in MATLAB software for the proposed optimized proportional-integrator-derivative fractional order controller with a Genetic algorithm and compared with a full order controller with a classic optimization method. Simulation results show the performance improvement of the proposed controller with respect to two other controllers in terms of rising time, overshoot, and settling time.

Keywords: speed control loop of permanent magnet synchronous motor, fractional and full order proportional-integrator-derivative controller, coefficients optimization, particle swarm optimization, improvement of behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
284 Simultaneous Determination of Methotrexate and Aspirin Using Fourier Transform Convolution Emission Data under Non-Parametric Linear Regression Method

Authors: Marwa A. A. Ragab, Hadir M. Maher, Eman I. El-Kimary


Co-administration of methotrexate (MTX) and aspirin (ASP) can cause a pharmacokinetic interaction and a subsequent increase in blood MTX concentrations which may increase the risk of MTX toxicity. Therefore, it is important to develop a sensitive, selective, accurate and precise method for their simultaneous determination in urine. A new hybrid chemometric method has been applied to the emission response data of the two drugs. Spectrofluorimetric method for determination of MTX through measurement of its acid-degradation product, 4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroic acid (4-AMP), was developed. Moreover, the acid-catalyzed degradation reaction enables the spectrofluorimetric determination of ASP through the formation of its active metabolite salicylic acid (SA). The proposed chemometric method deals with convolution of emission data using 8-points sin xi polynomials (discrete Fourier functions) after the derivative treatment of these emission data. The first and second derivative curves (D1 & D2) were obtained first then convolution of these curves was done to obtain first and second derivative under Fourier functions curves (D1/FF) and (D2/FF). This new application was used for the resolution of the overlapped emission bands of the degradation products of both drugs to allow their simultaneous indirect determination in human urine. Not only this chemometric approach was applied to the emission data but also the obtained data were subjected to non-parametric linear regression analysis (Theil’s method). The proposed method was fully validated according to the ICH guidelines and it yielded linearity ranges as follows: 0.05-0.75 and 0.5-2.5 µg mL-1 for MTX and ASP respectively. It was found that the non-parametric method was superior over the parametric one in the simultaneous determination of MTX and ASP after the chemometric treatment of the emission spectra of their degradation products. The work combines the advantages of derivative and convolution using discrete Fourier function together with the reliability and efficacy of the non-parametric analysis of data. The achieved sensitivity along with the low values of LOD (0.01 and 0.06 µg mL-1) and LOQ (0.04 and 0.2 µg mL-1) for MTX and ASP respectively, by the second derivative under Fourier functions (D2/FF) were promising and guarantee its application for monitoring the two drugs in patients’ urine samples.

Keywords: chemometrics, emission curves, derivative, convolution, Fourier transform, human urine, non-parametric regression, Theil’s method

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283 A Hybrid Derivative-Free Optimization Method for Pass Schedule Calculation in Cold Rolling Mill

Authors: Mohammadhadi Mirmohammadi, Reza Safian, Hossein Haddad


This paper presents an innovative solution for complex multi-objective optimization problem which is a part of efforts toward maximizing rolling mill throughput and minimizing processing costs in tandem cold rolling. This computational intelligence based optimization has been applied to the rolling schedules of tandem cold rolling mill. This method involves the combination of two derivative-free optimization procedures in the form of nested loops. The first optimization loop is based on Improving Hit and Run method which focus on balance of power, force and reduction distribution in rolling schedules. The second loop is a real-coded genetic algorithm based optimization procedure which optimizes energy consumption and productivity. An experimental result of application to five stand tandem cold rolling mill is presented.

Keywords: derivative-free optimization, Improving Hit and Run method, real-coded genetic algorithm, rolling schedules of tandem cold rolling mill

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282 Using the M-Learning to Support Learning of the Concept of the Derivative

Authors: Elena F. Ruiz, Marina Vicario, Chadwick Carreto, Rubén Peredo


One of the main obstacles in Mexico’s engineering programs is math comprehension, especially in the Derivative concept. Due to this, we present a study case that relates Mobile Computing and Classroom Learning in the “Escuela Superior de Cómputo”, based on the Educational model of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (competence based work and problem solutions) in which we propose apps and activities to teach the concept of the Derivative. M- Learning is emphasized as one of its lines, as the objective is the use of mobile devices running an app that uses its components such as sensors, screen, camera and processing power in classroom work. In this paper, we employed Augmented Reality (ARRoC), based on the good results this technology has had in the field of learning. This proposal was developed using a qualitative research methodology supported by quantitative research. The methodological instruments used on this proposal are: observation, questionnaires, interviews and evaluations. We obtained positive results with a 40% increase using M-Learning, from the 20% increase using traditional means.

Keywords: augmented reality, classroom learning, educational research, mobile computing

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281 Semilocal Convergence of a Three Step Fifth Order Iterative Method under Hölder Continuity Condition in Banach Spaces

Authors: Ramandeep Behl, Prashanth Maroju, S. S. Motsa


In this paper, we study the semilocal convergence of a fifth order iterative method using recurrence relation under the assumption that first order Fréchet derivative satisfies the Hölder condition. Also, we calculate the R-order of convergence and provide some a priori error bounds. Based on this, we give existence and uniqueness region of the solution for a nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation of the second kind.

Keywords: Holder continuity condition, Frechet derivative, fifth order convergence, recurrence relations

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280 Hosoya Polynomials of Zero-Divisor Graphs

Authors: Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf, Esraa M. Kadhim


The Hosoya polynomial of a graph G is a graphical invariant polynomial that its first derivative at x= 1 is equal to the Wiener index and second derivative at x=1 is equal to the Hyper-Wiener index. In this paper we study the Hosoya polynomial of zero-divisor graphs.

Keywords: Hosoya polynomial, wiener index, Hyper-Wiener index, zero-divisor graphs

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279 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung


A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, stress response, swelling response

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278 A Dynamical Study of Fractional Order Obesity Model by a Combined Legendre Wavelet Method

Authors: Hakiki Kheira, Belhamiti Omar


In this paper, we propose a new compartmental fractional order model for the simulation of epidemic obesity dynamics. Using the Legendre wavelet method combined with the decoupling and quasi-linearization technique, we demonstrate the validity and applicability of our model. We also present some fractional differential illustrative examples to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the method. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense.

Keywords: Caputo derivative, epidemiology, Legendre wavelet method, obesity

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277 Surface Geodesic Derivative Pattern for Deformable Textured 3D Object Comparison: Application to Expression and Pose Invariant 3D Face Recognition

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Ali Cheraghian, Yongsheng Gao


This paper presents a new Surface Geodesic Derivative Pattern (SGDP) for matching textured deformable 3D surfaces. SGDP encodes micro-pattern features based on local surface higher-order derivative variation. It extracts local information by encoding various distinctive textural relationships contained in a geodesic neighborhood, hence fusing texture and range information of a surface at the data level. Geodesic texture rings are encoded into local patterns for similarity measurement between non-rigid 3D surfaces. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Bosphorus and FRGC v2 face databases. Compared to existing benchmarks, experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of combining the texture and 3D shape data at the earliest level in recognizing typical deformable faces under expression, illumination, and pose variations.

Keywords: 3D face recognition, pose, expression, surface matching, texture

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276 Applying Cationic Porphyrin Derivative 5, 10-Dihexyl-15, 20bis Porphyrin, as Transfection Reagent for Gene Delivery into Mammalian Cells

Authors: Hajar Hosseini Khorami


Porphyrins are organic, aromatic compounds found in heme, cytochrome, cobalamin, chlorophyll , and many other natural products with essential roles in biological processes that their cationic forms have been used as groups of favorable non-viral vectors recently. Cationic porphyrins are self-chromogenic reagents with a high capacity for modifications, great interaction with DNA and protection of DNA from nuclease during delivery of it into a cell with low toxicity. In order to have high efficient gene transfection into the cell while causing low toxicity, genetically manipulations of the non-viral vector, cationic porphyrin, would be useful. In this study newly modified cationic porphyrin derivative, 5, 10-dihexyl-15, 20bis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin was applied. Cytotoxicity of synthesized cationic porphyrin on Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cells was evaluated by using MTT assay. This cationic derivative is dose-dependent, with low cytotoxicity at the ranges from 100 μM to 0.01μM. It was uptake by cells at high concentration. Using direct non-viral gene transfection method and different concentration of cationic porphyrin were tested on transfection of CHO cells by applying derived transfection reagent with X-tremeGENE HP DNA as a positive control. However, no transfection observed by porphyrin derivative and the parameters tested except for positive control. Results of this study suggested that applying different protocol, and also trying other concentration of cationic porphyrins and DNA for forming a strong complex would increase the possibility of efficient gene transfection by using cationic porphyrins.

Keywords: cationic porphyrins, gene delivery, non-viral vectors, transfection reagents

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275 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Class of Pyridine and Purine Thioglycoside Analogs

Authors: Mamdouh Abu-Zaied, K. Mohamed, Galal A. Nawwar


Microwave-assisted synthesis of a new class of pyridine or purine thioglycoside analogs from readily available starting materials has been described. The key step of this protocol is the formation of sodium pyridine 4-thiolate 4 and pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-thiolate 5 derivatives via condensation of 1 with cyanoacetanilide derivative 2 or 5-aminopyrazole derivative 3 respectively under microwave irradiation, followed by coupling with halo sugars to give the corresponding pyridine and purine thioglycoside analogs. The obtained compounds were evaluated in vitro against lung (A549), colon (HCT116), liver (HEPG2), and MCF-7(breast) cancer cell lines. Some of them recorded promising activities.

Keywords: antitumor, cyclic sugars, pyrazoles, pyridines, pyrimidines, purines, thioglycosides

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