Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8852

Search results for: environment friendly zeotropic mixture

8852 Production of Ultra-Low Temperature by the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycles with Environment Friendly Working Fluids

Authors: Sameh Frikha, Mohamed Salah Abid

Abstract:

We investigate the performance of an integrated cascade (IC) refrigeration system which uses environment friendly zeotropic mixtures. Computational calculation has been carried out by varying pressure level at the evaporator and the condenser of the system. Effects of mass flow rate of the refrigerant on the coefficient of performance (COP) are presented. We show that the integrated cascade system produces ultra-low temperatures in the evaporator by using environment friendly zeotropic mixture.

Keywords: coefficient of performance, environment friendly zeotropic mixture, integrated cascade, ultra low temperature, vapor compression refrigeration cycles

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
8851 Thermodynamic Analysis of Zeotropic Mixture Used in Low Temperature Solar Rankine Cycle with Ejector for Power Generation

Authors: Basma Hamdi, Lakdar Kairouani, Ezzedine Nahdi

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to present a thermodynamic analysis of low temperature solar Rankine cycle with ejector for power generation using zeotropic mixtures. Based on theoretical calculation, effects of zeotropic mixtures compositions on the performance of solar Rankine cycle with ejector are discussed and compared with corresponding pure fluids. Variations of net power output, thermal efficiency were calculating with changing evaporation temperature. The ejector coefficient had analyzed as independent variable. The result show that (R245fa/R152a) has a higher thermal efficiency than using pure fluids.

Keywords: zeotropic mixture, thermodynamic analysis, ejector, low-temperature solar rankine cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
8850 Valorization of Local Materials in the Waterproofing Technique of Landfills Site "TLS"

Authors: M. Debieche, F. Kaoua

Abstract:

This paper deals with the use two locals materials abundant in our country, with the view to use a mixture in the waterproofing the landfills. Our interest comes from the necessity to the environment protection, which has recently considerably grown. The site's waterproofing technique, in the landfills sites, is nowadays a very necessary condition to protect the environment, which requires the use of appropriate materials. To this end, an optimal mixture ensuring good performance in terms of hydraulic conductivity, durability and shear strength, mixtures based of sand at different concentrations of sodium bentonite, at compact state are prepared and studied. This study showed that a low permeability of mixture (sand / bentonite) can be achieved 6% of sodium bentonite. This mixture confers also good mechanical behavior, expressed by the recorded, reduction of friction (φ) and the increase of the cohesion (C). Thus, the selected formulation represents an optimal mixture for waterproofing systems. It guarantees an economical and ecological advantages.

Keywords: hydraulic conductivity, sand, sodium bentonite, sustainability

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8849 A Learning-Based EM Mixture Regression Algorithm

Authors: Yi-Cheng Tian, Miin-Shen Yang

Abstract:

The mixture likelihood approach to clustering is a popular clustering method where the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm is the most used mixture likelihood method. In the literature, the EM algorithm had been used for mixture regression models. However, these EM mixture regression algorithms are sensitive to initial values with a priori number of clusters. In this paper, to resolve these drawbacks, we construct a learning-based schema for the EM mixture regression algorithm such that it is free of initializations and can automatically obtain an approximately optimal number of clusters. Some numerical examples and comparisons demonstrate the superiority and usefulness of the proposed learning-based EM mixture regression algorithm.

Keywords: clustering, EM algorithm, Gaussian mixture model, mixture regression model

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
8848 Performance Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization of a Kalina Cycle for Low-Temperature Applications

Authors: Sadegh Sadeghi, Negar Shabani

Abstract:

From a thermal point of view, zeotropic mixtures are likely to be more efficient than azeotropic fluids in low-temperature thermodynamic cycles due to their suitable boiling characteristics. In this study, performance of a low-temperature Kalina cycle with R717/water working fluid used in different existing power plants is mathematically investigated. To analyze the behavior of the cycle, mass conservation, energy conservation, and exergy balance equations are presented. With regard to the similarity in molar mass of R717 (17.03 gr/mol) and water (18.01 gr/mol), there is no need to alter the size of Kalina system components such as turbine and pump. To optimize the cycle energy and exergy efficiencies simultaneously, a constrained multi-objective optimization is carried out applying an Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. The main motivation behind using this algorithm lies on its robustness, reliability, remarkable precision and high–speed convergence rate in dealing with complicated constrained multi-objective problems. Convergence rates of the algorithm for calculating the optimal energy and exergy efficiencies are presented. Subsequently, due to the importance of exergy concept in Kalina cycles, exergy destructions occurring in the components are computed. Finally, the impacts of pressure, temperature, mass fraction and mass flow rate on the energy and exergy efficiencies are elaborately studied.

Keywords: artificial bee colony algorithm, binary zeotropic mixture, constrained multi-objective optimization, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, Kalina cycle

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8847 The Planning and Development of Green Public Places in Urban South Africa: A Child-Friendly Approach

Authors: E. J. Cilliers, Z. Goosen

Abstract:

The impact that urban green spaces have on sustainability and quality of life is phenomenal. This is also true for the local South African environment. However, in reality green spaces in urban environments are decreasing due to growing populations, increasing urbanization and development pressure. This further impacts on the provision of child-friendly spaces, a concept that is already limited in local context. Child-friendly spaces are described as environments in which people (children) feel intimately connected to, influencing the physical, social, emotional, and ecological health of individuals and communities. The benefits of providing such spaces for the youth are well documented in literature. This research therefore aimed to investigate the concept of child-friendly spaces and its applicability to the South African planning context, in order to guide the planning of such spaces for future communities and use. Child-friendly spaces in the urban environment of the city of Durban, was used as local case study, along with two international case studies namely Mullerpier public playground in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and Kadidjiny Park in Melville, Australia. The aim was to determine how these spaces were planned and developed and to identify tools that were used to accomplish the goal of providing successful child-friendly green spaces within urban areas. The need and significance of planning for such spaces was portrayed within the international case studies. It is confirmed that minimal provision is made for green space planning within the South African context, when there is reflected on the international examples. As a result international examples and disciples of providing child-friendly green spaces should direct planning guidelines within local context. The research concluded that child-friendly green spaces have a positive impact on the urban environment and assist in a child’s development and interaction with the natural environment. Regrettably, the planning of these child-friendly spaces is not given priority within current spatial plans, despite the proven benefits of such.

Keywords: built environment, child-friendly spaces, green spaces, public places, urban area

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8846 Green Initiative and Marketing Approach: Developing a Better Marketing Approach of Green Initiatives by an Apparel Brand

Authors: Vaishali Joshi, Pallav Joshi

Abstract:

Environment concern has become an important topic and continues to acquire more popularity in the coming scenario. We all are exposed to messages daily, which encourage us to involve in green behavior. Factors such as Global Warming, Climate change are creating a big buzz amongst the people. Realizing this, many firms/companies are adopting the bright way of making profit along with creating a brand image, by going green. These firms/companies persuade consumers to use purchase eco-friendly products for the benefit of the environment and the society. In such scenario, it becomes very essential for such firms/companies to approach the customers in a better way. In other words, we can say that marketing approach plays a crucial role for such firm/companies. Hence in this research study, we have tried to create a marketing approach for the firms/companies for selling the eco-friendly apparels. We have studied the hypothetical apparel brand who has taken a green initiative of making their products eco-friendly. We have named this hypothetical brand as “Go-Green”. By taking this hypothetical brand we have studied about how this brand can achieve better marketing approach. In particular, we have studied the four types of print advertisements of this brand as follows :(i) print advertisement showing only eco-friendly apparel (ii) print advertisement showing eco-friendly apparel labeled with eco-label (iii) print advertisement showing eco-friendly apparel along with information about the benefit of the featured apparel and (iv) print advertisement showing eco-friendly apparel with both eco-label and information about the benefit of the featured apparel. The conclusion of this research suggest that respondents more positively evaluate the print advertisement of eco-friendly apparel labeled with eco-labels and information about the benefit of the featured apparel, compared by other three print advertisement. Moreover, in this research study, we have studied environment knowledge, as the moderating factor affecting the consumer green purchase behavior.

Keywords: eco-friendly apparel, print advertisement, eco-label, environment knowledge

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8845 Investigation of Effect of Mixture Ratio and Compaction Pressure of Reinforced with Miscanthus Fibre Brake Pad Samples

Authors: M. Unaldi, R. Kus

Abstract:

Brake pads are important parts of the braking system and they are made of different materials. Use of asbestos fibre can cause health risks. The goal of this study is to determine the effect of ecological brake pad samples which are produced under different compaction pressure values and mixture ratios by using miscanthus as reinforcement component on the density, hardness, wear rate and compression strength properties, and friction coefficients changes of ecological brake pad samples. Miscanthus powder, cashew powder, alumina powder, phenolic resin powder, and calcite powder mixtures were used to produce ecological brake pad samples. The physical properties of the brake pad samples produced under different mixture ratios and compaction pressures values were determined to assign their effects on them by using Taguchi experimental design. Mixture ratios and compaction pressures values were chosen as the factors with three-levels. Experiments are conducted to L₉(3⁴) Taguchi orthogonal array design. The results showed that hardness value is very much affected both compaction pressure values and mixture ratios than the other physical properties. When reinforcing component ratio within the mixture and compaction pressure value is increased, hardness and compression strength values of the all samples are also increased. All test results taking into account, the ideal compaction value for used components and mixture ratios were determined as 200 MPa.

Keywords: brake pad, eco-friendly materials, hardness, Miscanthus, Taguchi method

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8844 Permanent Deformation Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures with Red Mud as a Filler

Authors: Liseane Padilha Thives, Mayara S. S. Lima, João Victor Staub De Melo, Glicério Trichês

Abstract:

Red mud is a waste resulting from the processing of bauxite to alumina, the raw material of the production of aluminum. The large quantity of red mud generated and inadequately disposed in the environment has motivated researchers to develop methods for reinsertion of this waste into the productive cycle. This work aims to evaluate the resistance to permanent deformation of dense asphalt mixtures with red mud filler. The red mud was characterized by tests of X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, specific mass, laser granulometry, pH and scanning electron microscopy. For the analysis of the influence of the quantity of red mud in the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures, a total filler content of 7% was established. Asphalt mixtures with 3%, 5% and 7% red mud were produced. A conventional mixture with 7% stone powder filler was used as reference. The asphalt mixtures were evaluated for performance to permanent deformation in the French Rutting Tester (FRT) traffic simulator. The mixture with 5% red mud presented greater resistance to permanent deformation with rutting depth at 30,000 cycles of 3.50%. The asphalt mixtures with red mud presented better performance, with reduction of the rutting of 12.63 to 42.62% in relation to the reference mixture. This study confirmed the viability of reinserting the red mud in the production chain and possible usage in the construction industry. The red mud as filler in asphalt mixtures is a reuse option of this waste and mitigation of the disposal problems, as well as being an environmentally friendly alternative.

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, permanent deformation, red mud, pavements

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8843 Creating a Child Friendly Environment as a Curriculum Model for Early Years Teaching

Authors: Undiyaundeye Florence Atube, Ugar Innocent A.

Abstract:

Young children are active learners who use all their senses to build concepts and ideas from their experiences. The process of learning, the content and the outcomes, is vital for young children. They need time to explore whether they are satisfied with what is learnt. Of all levels of education, early childhood education is considered to be most critical for the social, emotional, cognitive and physical development. For this reason, the teachers for early years need to play a significant role in the teaching and learning process through the provision of a friendly environment in the school. A case study approach was used in this study. The information was gathered through various methods like class observation, field notes, documents analysis, group processes, and semi structured interviews. The group processes participants and interviewees were taken from some stakeholders such as parents, students, teachers, and head teachers from public schools, to have a broad and comprehensive analysis, informal interaction with different stakeholders and self-reflection was used to clarify aspects of varying issues and findings. The teachers’ roles in developing a child friendly environment in personal capacity to learning were found to improve a pupils learning ability. Prior to early child development education, learning experiences and pedagogical content knowledge played a vital role in engaging teachers in developing their thinking and teaching practice. Children can be helped to develop independent self-control and self-reliance with careful planning and development of the child’s experience with sensitive and appropriate interaction by the educator to propel eagerness to learn through the provision of a friendly environment.

Keywords: child friendly environment, early childhood, education and development, teaching, learning and the curriculum

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8842 Thermodynamic Analysis of Ammonia-Water Based Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Partial Evaporation

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

A thermodynamic analysis of a partial evaporating Rankine cycle with regeneration using zeotropic ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid is presented in this paper. The thermodynamic laws were applied to evaluate the system performance. Based on the thermodynamic model, the effects of the vapor quality and the ammonia mass fraction on the system performance were extensively investigated. The results showed that thermal efficiency has a peak value with respect to the vapor quality as well as the ammonia mass fraction. The partial evaporating ammonia based Rankine cycle has a potential to improve recovery of low-grade finite heat source.

Keywords: ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, partial evaporating, thermodynamic performance

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8841 Noise Reduction by Energising the Boundary Layer

Authors: Kiran P. Kumar, H. M. Nayana, R. Rakshitha, S. Sushmitha

Abstract:

Aircraft noise is a highly concerned problem in the field of the aviation industry. It is necessary to reduce the noise in order to be environment-friendly. Air-frame noise is caused because of the quick separation of the boundary layer over an aircraft body. So, we have to delay the boundary layer separation of an air-frame and engine nacelle. By following a certain procedure boundary layer separation can be reduced by converting laminar into turbulent and hence early separation can be prevented that leads to the noise reduction. This method has a tendency to reduce the noise of the aircraft hence it can prove efficient and environment-friendly than the present Aircraft.

Keywords: airframe, boundary layer, noise, reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
8840 Effective Microorganisms as a Sustainable Environment Product and Their Application: A Study in Pakistan

Authors: Jaffar Hussain, Farman Ali Shah

Abstract:

As we know that Pakistan is the developing country so it adopts new technologies for progress. In last three decays, some new technologies were introduced in the world in which Effective Microorganism was one of them. Microorganisms are one of the most power full living forces on earth. Originally, EM was developed as an odor control, farm, and animal health, human health many industrial treatments. Effective Microorganism is an organic fertilizer that contains a mixture of co-existing valuable microorganism composed from the environment. There are vast application of the EM in the world in which the researchers are explained in literature .In Pakistan work on EM technologies are under process, researcher are doing work to make them most valuable. At that time the application of EM are in agriculture, water treatment, to increase Cement strength, improving saline soil etc. Effective microorganisms are environmentally friendly , not-naturally organized, not chemically synthesized, not dangerous and not pathogenic.

Keywords: developing country, technologies, effective microorganism, researchers, Pakistan, agriculture

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8839 Shear Strength Characteristics of Sand Mixed with Particulate Rubber

Authors: Firas Daghistani, Hossam Abuel Naga

Abstract:

Waste tyres is a global problem that has a negative effect on the environment, where there are approximately one billion waste tyres discarded worldwide yearly. Waste tyres are discarded in stockpiles, where they provide harm to the environment in many ways. Finding applications to these materials can help in reducing this global problem. One of these applications is recycling these waste materials and using them in geotechnical engineering. Recycled waste tyre particulates can be mixed with sand to form a lightweight material with varying shear strength characteristics. Contradicting results were found in the literature on the inclusion of particulate rubber to sand, where some experiments found that the inclusion of particulate rubber can increase the shear strength of the mixture, while other experiments stated that the addition of particulate rubber decreases the shear strength of the mixture. This research further investigates the inclusion of particulate rubber to sand and whether it can increase or decrease the shear strength characteristics of the mixture. For the experiment, a series of direct shear tests were performed on a poorly graded sand with a mean particle size of 0.32 mm mixed with recycled poorly graded particulate rubber with a mean particle size of 0.51 mm. The shear tests were performedon four normal stresses 30, 55, 105, 200 kPa at a shear rate of 1 mm/minute. Different percentages ofparticulate rubber content were used in the mixture i.e., 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% of sand dry weight at three density states, namely loose, slight dense, and dense state. The size ratio of the mixture,which is the mean particle size of the particulate rubber divided by the mean particle size of the sand, was 1.59. The results identified multiple parameters that can influence the shear strength of the mixture. The parameters were: normal stress, particulate rubber content, mixture gradation, mixture size ratio, and the mixture’s density. The inclusion of particulate rubber tosand showed a decrease to the internal friction angle and an increase to the apparent cohesion. Overall, the inclusion of particulate rubber did not have a significant influenceon the shear strength of the mixture. For all the dense states at the low normal stresses 33 and 55 kPa, the inclusion of particulate rubber showed aslight increase in the shear strength where the peak was at 20% rubber content of the sand’s dry weight. On the other hand, at the high normal stresses 105, and 200 kPa, there was a slight decrease in the shear strength.

Keywords: shear strength, direct shear, sand-rubber mixture, waste material, granular material

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8838 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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8837 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

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8836 Revolution Biopolibag System Based on Water Hyacinth's Fiber as a Solution for Environmental Friendly Seeding and Seedling

Authors: Supriady R. P. Siregar, Rizki Barkah Aulia, Dhiya Fadilla Dewi

Abstract:

Polybag is a plastic that is used to seed plants. The common type that used for polybag is a synthetic that made from petroleum such as polyethylene. Beside the character of the raw material that are non-renewable and limited, synthetic polybag ability to disintegrate in the environment is very low. According to that situation, we need a solution to overcome these problems by creating an environmentally friendly polybag. In this research, using the water hyacinth plant fibers (Eichornia crassipes) as a major component in manufacturing the environmentally friendly polybag, the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) contains approximately 60% cellulose. The research method used is an experiment by testing the mechanical characters and biodegradability bio-polybag water hyacinth fibers (Eichornia crassipes) on three medium that is dissolved in water, river water and buried in soil. The research shows bio-polybag of hyacinth fibers can rapidly degraded. This study is expected to be the beginning of the creation bio-polybag of water hyacinth fiber (Eichornia crassipes) and can be applied in agriculture.

Keywords: revolution, biopolybag, renewable, environment

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8835 Potential of Dredged Material for CSEB in Building Structure

Authors: BoSheng Liu

Abstract:

The research goal is to re-image a locally-sourced waste product as abuilding material. The author aims to contribute to the compressed stabilized earth block (CSEB) by investigating the promising role of dredged material as an alternative building ingredient in the production of bricks and tiles. Dredged material comes from the sediment deposited near the shore or downstream, where the water current velocity decreases. This sediment needs to be dredged to provide water transportation; thus, there are mounds of the dredged material stored at bay. It is the interest of this research to reduce the filtered un-organic soil in the production of CSEB and replace it with locally dredged material from the Atchafalaya River in Morgan City, Louisiana. Technology and mechanical innovations have evolved the traditional adobe production method, which mixes the soil and natural fiber into molded bricks, into chemically stabilized CSEB made by compressing the clay mixture and stabilizer in a compression chamber with particular loads. In the case of dredged material CSEB (DM-CSEB), cement plays an essential role as the bending agent contributing to the unit strength while sustaining the filtered un-organic soil. Each DM-CSEB unit is made in a compression chamber with 580 PSI (i.e., 4 MPa) force. The research studied the cement content from 5% to 10% along with the range of dredged material mixtures, which differed from 20% to 80%. The material mixture content affected the DM-CSEB's strength and workability during and after its compression. Results indicated two optimal workabilities of the mixture: 27% fine clay content and 63% dredged material with 10% cement, or 28% fine clay content, and 67% dredged material with 5% cement. The final product of DM-CSEB emitted between 10 to 13 times fewer carbon emissions compared to the conventional fired masonry structure. DM-CSEB satisfied the strength requirement given by the ASTM C62 and ASTM C34 standards for construction material. One of the final evaluations tested and validated the material performance by designing and constructing an architectural, conical tile-vault prototype that was 28" by 40" by 24." The vault utilized a computational form-finding approach to generate the form's geometry, which optimized the correlation between the vault geometry and structural load distribution. A series of scaffolding was deployed to create the framework for the tile-vault construction. The final tile-vault structure was made from 2 layers of DM-CSEB tiles jointed by mortar, and the construction of the structure used over 110 tiles. The tile-vault prototype was capable of carrying over 400 lbs of live loads, which further demonstrated the dredged material feasibility as a construction material. The presented case study of Dredged Material Compressed Stabilized Earth Block (DM-CSEB) provides the first impression of dredged material in the clayey mixture process, structural performance, and construction practice. Overall, the approach of integrating dredged material in building material can be feasible, regionally sourced, cost-effective, and environment-friendly.

Keywords: dredged material, compressed stabilized earth block, tile-vault, regionally sourced, environment-friendly

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8834 Measurement of Asphalt Pavement Temperature to Find out the Proper Asphalt Binder Performance Grade to the Asphalt Mixtures in Southern Desert of Libya

Authors: Khlifa El Atrash, Gabriel Assaf

Abstract:

Most developing countries use volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. The overall intent of the work reported in this study is to test different asphalt mixtures while taking into consideration the environment, type and source of material, tools, equipment, and the construction method. In this study, several tests were conducted on many samples that were carefully prepared under the expected traffic loads and temperatures in a dry hot climate. Several asphalt concrete mixtures were designed using two different binders. These mixtures were analyzed under two types of tests - Complex Modulus and Rutting test - to evaluate the hot mix asphalt properties under the represented temperatures and traffic load in Libya. These factors play an important role to improve the pavement performances in a hot climate weather based on the properties of the asphalt mixture, climate, and traffic load. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance. Therefore, this study is aimed to develop a method for designing an asphalt mixture that takes into account field loading, various stresses, and temperature spectrums.

Keywords: volumetric analysis, pavement performances, hot climate, asphalt mixture, traffic load

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8833 Architecture and Students with Autism: Exploring Strategies for Their Inclusion in Society Mainstream

Authors: Safaa Mahmoud Issa

Abstract:

Architecture, as an art and science of designing, has always been the medium to create environments that fulfill their users’ needs. It could create an inclusive environment that would not isolate any individual regardless of his /her disabilities. It could help, hopefully, in setting the strategies that provide a supportive, educational environment that would allow the inclusion of students with autism. Architects could help in the battle against this neuro-developmental disorder by providing the accommodating environment, at home and at school, in order to prevent institutionalizing these children. Through a theoretical approach and a review of literature, this study will explore and analyze best practices in autism-friendly, supportive, teaching environments. Additionally, it would provide the range of measures, and set the strategies to deal with the students with autism sensory peculiarities, and that, in order to allow them to concentrate in the school environment, and be able to succeed, and to be integrated as an important addition to society and the social mainstream. Architects should take into consideration the general guidelines for an autism-friendly built environment, and apply them to specific buildings systems. And that, as certain design elements have great effect on children’s behavior, by appropriating architecture to provide inclusive accommodating environments, the basis for equalization of opportunities is set allowing these individuals a better, normal, non-institutional life, as the discussion presented in this study would reveal.

Keywords: architecture, inclusion, students with autism, society mainstream

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8832 The Application of Dynamic Network Process to Environment Planning Support Systems

Authors: Wann-Ming Wey

Abstract:

In recent years, in addition to face the external threats such as energy shortages and climate change, traffic congestion and environmental pollution have become anxious problems for many cities. Considering private automobile-oriented urban development had produced many negative environmental and social impacts, the transit-oriented development (TOD) has been considered as a sustainable urban model. TOD encourages public transport combined with friendly walking and cycling environment designs, however, non-motorized modes help improving human health, energy saving, and reducing carbon emissions. Due to environmental changes often affect the planners’ decision-making; this research applies dynamic network process (DNP) which includes the time dependent concept to promoting friendly walking and cycling environmental designs as an advanced planning support system for environment improvements. This research aims to discuss what kinds of design strategies can improve a friendly walking and cycling environment under TOD. First of all, we collate and analyze environment designing factors by reviewing the relevant literatures as well as divide into three aspects of “safety”, “convenience”, and “amenity” from fifteen environment designing factors. Furthermore, we utilize fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDT) expert questionnaire to filter out the more important designing criteria for the study case. Finally, we utilized DNP expert questionnaire to obtain the weights changes at different time points for each design criterion. Based on the changing trends of each criterion weight, we are able to develop appropriate designing strategies as the reference for planners to allocate resources in a dynamic environment. In order to illustrate the approach we propose in this research, Taipei city as one example has been used as an empirical study, and the results are in depth analyzed to explain the application of our proposed approach.

Keywords: environment planning support systems, walking and cycling, transit-oriented development (TOD), dynamic network process (DNP)

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8831 A Research for Determining Consumers' Tendency to Prefer Eco-Friendly Products within the Scope of Green Marketing Activities

Authors: Haci Halil Baser, Nurullah Ekmekci, Muammer Zerenler

Abstract:

In the age of environmental concerns increasingly becoming more important, consumer attitudes towards environmentally sensitive products attract attention. Threats to the health and the environment are important factors for consumers to tend to eco-friendly practices and products. In this regard, it is seen positive increases in the tendency to consume organic food and recyclable products. Choosing products, selecting manufacturers and sellers have gained more importance because of increasing consumers' environmental concerns. In this case, it is very important for businesses to act eco-friendly approach in marketing. Green marketing has gained importance and became a concept that manufacturers' agenda by environmental understanding. Although the green marketing activities are common worldwide, studies on consumer perceptions and preferences are unsatisfactory in the literature. In this regard, this study aims to investigate the tendency of consumers to prefer eco-friendly products under the green marketing activities. In the frame of this information and the purpose of the study described above, the survey method has been used in the study. The obtained data have been analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software package, hypothesizes have been tested and suggestions have been made.

Keywords: eco-friendly product, environmental concerns, green consumption, green marketing

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8830 Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, heterogeneous reaction, plug flow reactor, surface reaction rate

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8829 [Keynote Talk]: Photocatalytic Cleaning Performance of Air Filters for a Binary Mixture

Authors: Lexuan Zhong, Chang-Seo Lee, Fariborz Haghighat, Stuart Batterman, John C. Little

Abstract:

Ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UV-PCO) technology has been recommended as a green approach to health indoor environment when it is integrated into mechanical ventilation systems for inorganic and organic compounds removal as well as energy saving due to less outdoor air intakes. Although much research has been devoted to UV-PCO, limited information is available on the UV-PCO behavior tested by the mixtures in literature. This project investigated UV-PCO performance and by-product generation using a single and a mixture of acetone and MEK at 100 ppb each in a single-pass duct system in an effort to obtain knowledge associated with competitive photochemical reactions involved in. The experiments were performed at 20 % RH, 22 °C, and a gas flow rate of 128 m3/h (75 cfm). Results show that acetone and MEK mutually reduced each other’s PCO removal efficiency, particularly negative removal efficiency for acetone. These findings were different from previous observation of facilitatory effects on the adsorption of acetone and MEK on photocatalyst surfaces.

Keywords: by-products, inhibitory effect, mixture, photocatalytic oxidation

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8828 Effect of Using a Mixture of Al2O3 Nanoparticles and 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the Sensing Membrane for Polysilicon Wire on pH Sensing

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Zong-Xian Wu, Jing-Jenn Lin, Shih-Hung Lin

Abstract:

In this work, a polysilicon wire (PSW) coated with a mixture of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (r-APTES) and Al2O3 nanoparticles as the sensing membrane prepared with various Al2O3/r-APTES and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratios for pH sensing is studied. The r-APTES and dispersed Al2O3 nanoparticles mixture was directly transferred to PSW surface by solution phase deposition (SPD). It is found that using a mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES as the sensing membrane help in improving the pH sensing of the PSW sensor and a 5 min SPD deposition time is the best. Dispersing agent is found to be necessary for better pH sensing when preparing the mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES. The optimum condition for preparing the mixture is found to be Al2O3/r-APTES ratio of 2% and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratio of 0.3%.

Keywords: al2o3 nanoparticles, ph sensing, polysilicon wire sensor, r-aptes

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8827 Exploring Tourist’s Attitude towards Environmentally Friendly Practices

Authors: René Haarhoff

Abstract:

Consumers are constantly reminded of their responsibility towards the environment in a world where words such as global warming, carbon footprint, recycling or ‘green’’ everything has become common language. What was previously considered to be ordinary practices are in many instances frowned upon today and consumers are expected to individually contribute towards a greener mother earth. However unused recycle bins, single travelers in luxury cars, busy airports and vast deforested areas for new developments tell another story. The question arises whether the everyday man in the street really takes the responsibility to balance the three pillars of sustainability: the planet, its people and profit. Undeniably our activities impact on the environment where a healthy economy is needed in a fast paced global environment. The situation is further gloomed in instances where the consumer has paid for inclusive services which directly impacts on the environment. A prime example of this is the tourism industry: accommodation establishments or resorts include clean, daily washed towels and bedding, large bath tubs, inclusive use of electricity and water to name a few. This research evaluates environmentally friendly practices consumers follow at home and also when on holiday. Respondents at Bloemfontein airport, often using tourism products were included in the study. Results reveal that the majority of respondents state that they are concerned about the environment yet when questioned on donation towards endangered species, switching off lights in hotel rooms or using water sparingly a significant difference in results are evident. From the research results it is evident that consumers do not practice what they preach towards a greener environment.

Keywords: green, environment, consumer, tourism, sustainable practices

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8826 Particle Size Distribution Estimation of a Mixture of Regular and Irregular Sized Particles Using Acoustic Emissions

Authors: Ejay Nsugbe, Andrew Starr, Ian Jennions, Cristobal Ruiz-Carcel

Abstract:

This works investigates the possibility of using Acoustic Emissions (AE) to estimate the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of a mixture of particles that comprise of particles of different densities and geometry. The experiments carried out involved the mixture of a set of glass and polyethylene particles that ranged from 150-212 microns and 150-250 microns respectively and an experimental rig that allowed the free fall of a continuous stream of particles on a target plate which the AE sensor was placed. By using a time domain based multiple threshold method, it was observed that the PSD of the particles in the mixture could be estimated.

Keywords: acoustic emissions, particle sizing, process monitoring, signal processing

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8825 Apparent Ageing Mechanism of Polyurethane Coating in Typical Atmospheric Environment

Authors: Jin Gao, Jin Zhang, Xiaogang Li

Abstract:

Outdoor exposure experiments were conducted in three extreme environments, namely the Chinese plateau mountain environment (Lhasa), the cold–temperate environment (Mohe), and the marine atmospheric environment (Wanning), to track a new long-life environment-friendly polyurethane coating. The relationship between apparent properties, namely gloss and microstructural changes, was analyzed, and the influence of typical climatic environment on the aging mechanism of polyurethane coatings was discussed. Results show that the UV radiation in the Lhasa area causes photoaging degradation, micropores are formed on the coating surface, and the powdering phenomenon is obvious. Photodegradation occurs in the Wanning area, and a hydrolysis reaction is observed. The hydrolysis reaction catalyzes the photoaging, the coating surface becomes yellow, and the powdering becomes serious. Photoaging is also present in the Mohe area, but it is mainly due to temperature changes that in turn change the internal stress of the coating. Microcracks and bumps form on the coating surface.

Keywords: aging, atmospheric environment, outdoor exposure, polyurethane coating

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8824 Children’s Experience of the Built Environment in the Initial Stages of a Settlement Formation: Case Study of Shahid-Keshvari New Settlement, Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Hassan Sheikh, Mehdi Nilipour, Amiraslan Fila

Abstract:

Many conventional town planning processes do little to give children and young people a voice on what is important about the urban environment. As a result of paying little attention to the children, their physical, social and mental needs are hardly met in urban environments. Therefore, urban spaces are impotent to attract children, while their recreational space has been confined to home or virtual spaces. Since children are just taking the first steps to learn the world beyond house borders, their living environment will profoundly influence almost all aspects of their lives. This puts a great deal of responsibility on the shoulders of planners, who need to balance a number of different issues in urban design to make places more child-friendly. The main purpose of present research is to analyze and plan a child-friendly environment in an on-going urban settlement development for the benefit of all residents. Assessing children’s needs and regard them in development strategies and policies will help to “plan for children”. Following this purpose, based on child-friendly environment studies, indicators of child-friendly environments were collected. Then three distinct characteristics of case study, which are being under-construction, lack of social ties between dwellers and high-rise building, determined seven indicators included basic services, Urban and environmental qualities, Family, kin, peers and community, Sense of belonging and continuity, participation, Safety, security and freedom of movement and human scale. With the survey, Informal observation and participation in small communities, essential data has been collected and analyzed by SPSS software. The field study is Shahid-Keshvari town in Isfahan, Iran. Eighty-six middle childhood, children (ages 8-13) participated. The results show Children's satisfaction is correlated with basic services and the quality of the environment, social environment and the safety and security. The considerable number of children and youth (55%) like to live somewhere other than the town. Satisfaction and sense of belonging and continuity have a strong inverse correlation with age. In other words, as age increases, satisfaction and consequently a sense of belonging will be reduced; thus children and youth consider their future somewhere out of the town. The main reason for dissatisfaction was the basic services and social environment. More than half of children (55%) expressed their wish to develop basic services in terms of availability, hierarchy, and quality. Among all recreational places, children showed more interest to the parks. About three-quarters (76%) considered building a park as a crucial item for residents. The significant number of children (54%) want to have a relationship with more friends. This could be due to the serious shortage of the leisure spaces such as parks or playgrounds. Also, the space around the house or space between the apartments has not been designed for play or children’s activities. Moreover, the presence of strangers and construction workers have a negative impact on children's sense of peace and security; 60% of children are afraid of theft and 36% of children found strangers as a menace. The analysis of children’s issues and suggestions provides an insight to plan and design of child-friendly environment in new towns.

Keywords: child-friendly city (CFC), child-friendly environment, child participation, under-construction environment, Isfahan Shahid-Keshvari Town

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8823 An Environmentally Friendly Approach towards the Conservation of Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Maria Philokyprou, Aimilios Michael

Abstract:

Contemporary theories of sustainability, concerning the natural and built environment, have recently introduced an environmental attitude towards the architectural design that, in turn, affects the practice of conservation and reuse of the existing building stock. This paper presents an environmentally friendly approach towards the conservation of vernacular architecture and it is based on the results of a research program which involved the investigation of sustainable design elements of traditional buildings in Cyprus. The research in question showed that Cypriot vernacular architecture gave more emphasis on cooling rather than heating strategies. Another notable finding of the investigation was the great importance given to courtyards as they enhance considerably, and in various ways, the microclimatic conditions of the immediate environment with favorable results throughout the year. Moreover, it was shown that the reduction in temperature fluctuation observed in the closed and semi-open spaces, compared to the respective temperature fluctuation of the external environment - due to the thermal inertia of the building envelope - helps towards the achievement of more comfortable living conditions within traditional dwellings. This paper concludes with a proposal of a sustainable approach towards the conservation of the existing environment and the introduction of new environmental criteria for the conservation of traditional buildings, beyond the aesthetic, morphological and structural ones that are generally applied.

Keywords: bioclimatic, conservation, environmental, traditional dwellings, vernacular architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 410