Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: SPARQL queries

90 Ontology-Based Representation of Islamic Rules to Perform Salah

Authors: Hamza Zafar, Quratulain Rajput


Salah (نماز ) is one of five pillars of Islam and obligatory for every Muslims. However, due to the lack of Islamic knowledge it might be very difficult for a layperson to perform it correctly. This paper presents an ontology based representation of Islamic rules to perform Salah. The Salah ontology has been built under the guidance of domain expert in light of Quran and Hadith. The ontology consists of basic concepts as well as relationship among concepts and constraints on them. The basic concepts include cleanness, body cover, Salah timing and steps to perform Salah. The SWRL rule language has been used to represent rule to determine whether the Salah performed correctly or it should be repeated. Finally, we evaluate the use of the Salat ontology through user’s example queries using SPARQL queries.

Keywords: prayer, salah, ontology, SPARQL queries, reasoning

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89 Validation of Mapping Historical Linked Data to International Committee for Documentation (CIDOC) Conceptual Reference Model Using Shapes Constraint Language

Authors: Ghazal Faraj, András Micsik


Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL), a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) language, provides well-defined shapes and RDF graphs, named "shape graphs". These shape graphs validate other resource description framework (RDF) graphs which are called "data graphs". The structural features of SHACL permit generating a variety of conditions to evaluate string matching patterns, value type, and other constraints. Moreover, the framework of SHACL supports high-level validation by expressing more complex conditions in languages such as SPARQL protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). SHACL includes two parts: SHACL Core and SHACL-SPARQL. SHACL Core includes all shapes that cover the most frequent constraint components. While SHACL-SPARQL is an extension that allows SHACL to express more complex customized constraints. Validating the efficacy of dataset mapping is an essential component of reconciled data mechanisms, as the enhancement of different datasets linking is a sustainable process. The conventional validation methods are the semantic reasoner and SPARQL queries. The former checks formalization errors and data type inconsistency, while the latter validates the data contradiction. After executing SPARQL queries, the retrieved information needs to be checked manually by an expert. However, this methodology is time-consuming and inaccurate as it does not test the mapping model comprehensively. Therefore, there is a serious need to expose a new methodology that covers the entire validation aspects for linking and mapping diverse datasets. Our goal is to conduct a new approach to achieve optimal validation outcomes. The first step towards this goal is implementing SHACL to validate the mapping between the International Committee for Documentation (CIDOC) conceptual reference model (CRM) and one of its ontologies. To initiate this project successfully, a thorough understanding of both source and target ontologies was required. Subsequently, the proper environment to run SHACL and its shape graphs were determined. As a case study, we performed SHACL over a CIDOC-CRM dataset after running a Pellet reasoner via the Protégé program. The applied validation falls under multiple categories: a) data type validation which constrains whether the source data is mapped to the correct data type. For instance, checking whether a birthdate is assigned to xsd:datetime and linked to Person entity via crm:P82a_begin_of_the_begin property. b) Data integrity validation which detects inconsistent data. For instance, inspecting whether a person's birthdate occurred before any of the linked event creation dates. The expected results of our work are: 1) highlighting validation techniques and categories, 2) selecting the most suitable techniques for those various categories of validation tasks. The next plan is to establish a comprehensive validation model and generate SHACL shapes automatically.

Keywords: SHACL, CIDOC-CRM, SPARQL, validation of ontology mapping

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88 Enhancing Cultural Heritage Data Retrieval by Mapping COURAGE to CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model

Authors: Ghazal Faraj, Andras Micsik


The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) is an extensible ontology that provides integrated access to heterogeneous and digital datasets. The CIDOC-CRM offers a “semantic glue” intended to promote accessibility to several diverse and dispersed sources of cultural heritage data. That is achieved by providing a formal structure for the implicit and explicit concepts and their relationships in the cultural heritage field. The COURAGE (“Cultural Opposition – Understanding the CultuRal HeritAGE of Dissent in the Former Socialist Countries”) project aimed to explore methods about socialist-era cultural resistance during 1950-1990 and planned to serve as a basis for further narratives and digital humanities (DH) research. This project highlights the diversity of flourished alternative cultural scenes in Eastern Europe before 1989. Moreover, the dataset of COURAGE is an online RDF-based registry that consists of historical people, organizations, collections, and featured items. For increasing the inter-links between different datasets and retrieving more relevant data from various data silos, a shared federated ontology for reconciled data is needed. As a first step towards these goals, a full understanding of the CIDOC CRM ontology (target ontology), as well as the COURAGE dataset, was required to start the work. Subsequently, the queries toward the ontology were determined, and a table of equivalent properties from COURAGE and CIDOC CRM was created. The structural diagrams that clarify the mapping process and construct queries are on progress to map person, organization, and collection entities to the ontology. Through mapping the COURAGE dataset to CIDOC-CRM ontology, the dataset will have a common ontological foundation with several other datasets. Therefore, the expected results are: 1) retrieving more detailed data about existing entities, 2) retrieving new entities’ data, 3) aligning COURAGE dataset to a standard vocabulary, 4) running distributed SPARQL queries over several CIDOC-CRM datasets and testing the potentials of distributed query answering using SPARQL. The next plan is to map CIDOC-CRM to other upper-level ontologies or large datasets (e.g., DBpedia, Wikidata), and address similar questions on a wide variety of knowledge bases.

Keywords: CIDOC CRM, cultural heritage data, COURAGE dataset, ontology alignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
87 Parallel Querying of Distributed Ontologies with Shared Vocabulary

Authors: Sharjeel Aslam, Vassil Vassilev, Karim Ouazzane


Ontologies and various semantic repositories became a convenient approach for implementing model-driven architectures of distributed systems on the Web. SPARQL is the standard query language for querying such. However, although SPARQL is well-established standard for querying semantic repositories in RDF and OWL format and there are commonly used APIs which supports it, like Jena for Java, its parallel option is not incorporated in them. This article presents a complete framework consisting of an object algebra for parallel RDF and an index-based implementation of the parallel query engine capable of dealing with the distributed RDF ontologies which share common vocabulary. It has been implemented in Java, and for validation of the algorithms has been applied to the problem of organizing virtual exhibitions on the Web.

Keywords: distributed ontologies, parallel querying, semantic indexing, shared vocabulary, SPARQL

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
86 Computing Continuous Skyline Queries without Discriminating between Static and Dynamic Attributes

Authors: Ibrahim Gomaa, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar


Although most of the existing skyline queries algorithms focused basically on querying static points through static databases; with the expanding number of sensors, wireless communications and mobile applications, the demand for continuous skyline queries has increased. Unlike traditional skyline queries which only consider static attributes, continuous skyline queries include dynamic attributes, as well as the static ones. However, as skyline queries computation is based on checking the domination of skyline points over all dimensions, considering both the static and dynamic attributes without separation is required. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for computing continuous skyline queries without discriminating between static and dynamic attributes. Our algorithm in brief proceeds as follows: First, it excludes the points which will not be in the initial skyline result; this pruning phase reduces the required number of comparisons. Second, the association between the spatial positions of data points is examined; this phase gives an idea of where changes in the result might occur and consequently enables us to efficiently update the skyline result (continuous update) rather than computing the skyline from scratch. Finally, experimental evaluation is provided which demonstrates the accuracy, performance and efficiency of our algorithm over other existing approaches.

Keywords: continuous query processing, dynamic database, moving object, skyline queries

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85 A Novel Framework for User-Friendly Ontology-Mediated Access to Relational Databases

Authors: Efthymios Chondrogiannis, Vassiliki Andronikou, Efstathios Karanastasis, Theodora Varvarigou


A large amount of data is typically stored in relational databases (DB). The latter can efficiently handle user queries which intend to elicit the appropriate information from data sources. However, direct access and use of this data requires the end users to have an adequate technical background, while they should also cope with the internal data structure and values presented. Consequently the information retrieval is a quite difficult process even for IT or DB experts, taking into account the limited contributions of relational databases from the conceptual point of view. Ontologies enable users to formally describe a domain of knowledge in terms of concepts and relations among them and hence they can be used for unambiguously specifying the information captured by the relational database. However, accessing information residing in a database using ontologies is feasible, provided that the users are keen on using semantic web technologies. For enabling users form different disciplines to retrieve the appropriate data, the design of a Graphical User Interface is necessary. In this work, we will present an interactive, ontology-based, semantically enable web tool that can be used for information retrieval purposes. The tool is totally based on the ontological representation of underlying database schema while it provides a user friendly environment through which the users can graphically form and execute their queries.

Keywords: ontologies, relational databases, SPARQL, web interface

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84 Graph-Oriented Summary for Optimized Resource Description Framework Graphs Streams Processing

Authors: Amadou Fall Dia, Maurras Ulbricht Togbe, Aliou Boly, Zakia Kazi Aoul, Elisabeth Metais


Existing RDF (Resource Description Framework) Stream Processing (RSP) systems allow continuous processing of RDF data issued from different application domains such as weather station measuring phenomena, geolocation, IoT applications, drinking water distribution management, and so on. However, processing window phase often expires before finishing the entire session and RSP systems immediately delete data streams after each processed window. Such mechanism does not allow optimized exploitation of the RDF data streams as the most relevant and pertinent information of the data is often not used in a due time and almost impossible to be exploited for further analyzes. It should be better to keep the most informative part of data within streams while minimizing the memory storage space. In this work, we propose an RDF graph summarization system based on an explicit and implicit expressed needs through three main approaches: (1) an approach for user queries (SPARQL) in order to extract their needs and group them into a more global query, (2) an extension of the closeness centrality measure issued from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to determine the most informative parts of the graph and (3) an RDF graph summarization technique combining extracted user query needs and the extended centrality measure. Experiments and evaluations show efficient results in terms of memory space storage and the most expected approximate query results on summarized graphs compared to the source ones.

Keywords: centrality measures, RDF graphs summary, RDF graphs stream, SPARQL query

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83 Emotional Analysis for Text Search Queries on Internet

Authors: Gemma García López


The goal of this study is to analyze if search queries carried out in search engines such as Google, can offer emotional information about the user that performs them. Knowing the emotional state in which the Internet user is located can be a key to achieve the maximum personalization of content and the detection of worrying behaviors. For this, two studies were carried out using tools with advanced natural language processing techniques. The first study determines if a query can be classified as positive, negative or neutral, while the second study extracts emotional content from words and applies the categorical and dimensional models for the representation of emotions. In addition, we use search queries in Spanish and English to establish similarities and differences between two languages. The results revealed that text search queries performed by users on the Internet can be classified emotionally. This allows us to better understand the emotional state of the user at the time of the search, which could involve adapting the technology and personalizing the responses to different emotional states.

Keywords: emotion classification, text search queries, emotional analysis, sentiment analysis in text, natural language processing

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82 Multiple Query Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Data Correlation

Authors: Elaheh Vaezpour


Data sensing in wireless sensor networks is done by query deceleration the network by the users. In many applications of the wireless sensor networks, many users send queries to the network simultaneously. If the queries are processed separately, the network’s energy consumption will increase significantly. Therefore, it is very important to aggregate the queries before sending them to the network. In this paper, we propose a multiple query optimization framework based on sensors physical and temporal correlation. In the proposed method, queries are merged and sent to network by considering correlation among the sensors in order to reduce the communication cost between the sensors and the base station.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, multiple query optimization, data correlation, reducing energy consumption

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81 Ontology based Fault Detection and Diagnosis system Querying and Reasoning examples

Authors: Marko Batic, Nikola Tomasevic, Sanja Vranes


One of the strongholds in the ubiquitous efforts related to the energy conservation and energy efficiency improvement is represented by the retrofit of high energy consumers in buildings. In general, HVAC systems represent the highest energy consumers in buildings. However they usually suffer from mal-operation and/or malfunction, causing even higher energy consumption than necessary. Various Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) systems can be successfully employed for this purpose, especially when it comes to the application at a single device/unit level. In the case of more complex systems, where multiple devices are operating in the context of the same building, significant energy efficiency improvements can only be achieved through application of comprehensive FDD systems relying on additional higher level knowledge, such as their geographical location, served area, their intra- and inter- system dependencies etc. This paper presents a comprehensive FDD system that relies on the utilization of common knowledge repository that stores all critical information. The discussed system is deployed as a test-bed platform at the two at Fiumicino and Malpensa airports in Italy. This paper aims at presenting advantages of implementation of the knowledge base through the utilization of ontology and offers improved functionalities of such system through examples of typical queries and reasoning that enable derivation of high level energy conservation measures (ECM). Therefore, key SPARQL queries and SWRL rules, based on the two instantiated airport ontologies, are elaborated. The detection of high level irregularities in the operation of airport heating/cooling plants is discussed and estimation of energy savings is reported.

Keywords: airport ontology, knowledge management, ontology modeling, reasoning

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80 Improve B-Tree Index’s Performance Using Lock-Free Hash Table

Authors: Zhanfeng Ma, Zhiping Xiong, Hu Yin, Zhengwei She, Aditya P. Gurajada, Tianlun Chen, Ying Li


Many RDBMS vendors use B-tree index to achieve high performance for point queries and range queries, and some of them also employ hash index to further enhance the performance as hash table is more efficient for point queries. However, there are extra overheads to maintain a separate hash index, for example, hash mapping for all data records must always be maintained, which results in more memory space consumption; locking, logging and other mechanisms are needed to guarantee ACID, which affects the concurrency and scalability of the system. To relieve the overheads, Hash Cached B-tree (HCB) index is proposed in this paper, which consists of a standard disk-based B-tree index and an additional in-memory lock-free hash table. Initially, only the B-tree index is constructed for all data records, the hash table is built on the fly based on runtime workload, only data records accessed by point queries are indexed using hash table, this helps reduce the memory footprint. Changes to hash table are done using compare-and-swap (CAS) without performing locking and logging, this helps improve the concurrency and avoid contention. The hash table is also optimized to be cache conscious. HCB index is implemented in SAP ASE database, compared with the standard B-tree index, early experiments and customer adoptions show significant performance improvement. This paper provides an overview of the design of HCB index and reports the experimental results.

Keywords: B-tree, compare-and-swap, lock-free hash table, point queries, range queries, SAP ASE database

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79 Functional and Efficient Query Interpreters: Principle, Application and Performances’ Comparison

Authors: Laurent Thiry, Michel Hassenforder


This paper presents a general approach to implement efficient queries’ interpreters in a functional programming language. Indeed, most of the standard tools actually available use an imperative and/or object-oriented language for the implementation (e.g. Java for Jena-Fuseki) but other paradigms are possible with, maybe, better performances. To proceed, the paper first explains how to model data structures and queries in a functional point of view. Then, it proposes a general methodology to get performances (i.e. number of computation steps to answer a query) then it explains how to integrate some optimization techniques (short-cut fusion and, more important, data transformations). It then compares the functional server proposed to a standard tool (Fuseki) demonstrating that the first one can be twice to ten times faster to answer queries.

Keywords: data transformation, functional programming, information server, optimization

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78 Distributed Real-Time Range Query Approximation in a Streaming Environment

Authors: Simon Keller, Rainer Mueller


Continuous range queries are a common means to handle mobile clients in high-density areas. Most existing approaches focus on settings in which the range queries for location-based services are more or less static, whereas the mobile clients in the ranges move. We focus on a category called dynamic real-time range queries (DRRQ), assuming that both, clients requested by the query and the inquirers, are mobile. In consequence, the query parameters and the query results continuously change. This leads to two requirements: the ability to deal with an arbitrarily high number of mobile nodes (scalability) and the real-time delivery of range query results. In this paper, we present the highly decentralized solution adaptive quad streaming (AQS) for the requirements of DRRQs. AQS approximates the query results in favor of a controlled real-time delivery and guaranteed scalability. While prior works commonly optimize data structures on the involved servers, we use AQS to focus on a highly distributed cell structure without data structures automatically adapting to changing client distributions. Instead of the commonly used request-response approach, we apply a lightweight streaming method in which no bidirectional communication and no storage or maintenance of queries are required at all.

Keywords: approximation of client distributions, continuous spatial range queries, mobile objects, streaming-based decentralization in spatial mobile environments

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77 Use of Interpretable Evolved Search Query Classifiers for Sinhala Documents

Authors: Prasanna Haddela


Document analysis is a well matured yet still active research field, partly as a result of the intricate nature of building computational tools but also due to the inherent problems arising from the variety and complexity of human languages. Breaking down language barriers is vital in enabling access to a number of recent technologies. This paper investigates the application of document classification methods to new Sinhalese datasets. This language is geographically isolated and rich with many of its own unique features. We will examine the interpretability of the classification models with a particular focus on the use of evolved Lucene search queries generated using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) as a method of document classification. We will compare the accuracy and interpretability of these search queries with other popular classifiers. The results are promising and are roughly in line with previous work on English language datasets.

Keywords: evolved search queries, Sinhala document classification, Lucene Sinhala analyzer, interpretable text classification, genetic algorithm

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76 General Time-Dependent Sequenced Route Queries in Road Networks

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi, Vahid Haghighatdoost


Spatial databases have been an active area of research over years. In this paper, we study how to answer the General Time-Dependent Sequenced Route queries. Given the origin and destination of a user over a time-dependent road network graph, an ordered list of categories of interests and a departure time interval, our goal is to find the minimum travel time path along with the best departure time that minimizes the total travel time from the source location to the given destination passing through a sequence of points of interests belonging to each of the specified categories of interest. The challenge of this problem is the added complexity to the optimal sequenced route queries, where we assume that first the road network is time dependent, and secondly the user defines a departure time interval instead of one single departure time instance. For processing general time-dependent sequenced route queries, we propose two solutions as Discrete-Time and Continuous-Time Sequenced Route approaches, finding approximate and exact solutions, respectively. Our proposed approaches traverse the road network based on A*-search paradigm equipped with an efficient heuristic function, for shrinking the search space. Extensive experiments are conducted to verify the efficiency of our proposed approaches.

Keywords: trip planning, time dependent, sequenced route query, road networks

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75 Trading off Accuracy for Speed in Powerdrill

Authors: Filip Buruiana, Alexander Hall, Reimar Hofmann, Thomas Hofmann, Silviu Ganceanu, Alexandru Tudorica


In-memory column-stores make interactive analysis feasible for many big data scenarios. PowerDrill is a system used internally at Google for exploration in logs data. Even though it is a highly parallelized column-store and uses in memory caching, interactive response times cannot be achieved for all datasets (note that it is common to analyze data with 50 billion records in PowerDrill). In this paper, we investigate two orthogonal approaches to optimize performance at the expense of an acceptable loss of accuracy. Both approaches can be implemented as outer wrappers around existing database engines and so they should be easily applicable to other systems. For the first optimization we show that memory is the limiting factor in executing queries at speed and therefore explore possibilities to improve memory efficiency. We adapt some of the theory behind data sketches to reduce the size of particularly expensive fields in our largest tables by a factor of 4.5 when compared to a standard compression algorithm. This saves 37% of the overall memory in PowerDrill and introduces a 0.4% relative error in the 90th percentile for results of queries with the expensive fields. We additionally evaluate the effects of using sampling on accuracy and propose a simple heuristic for annotating individual result-values as accurate (or not). Based on measurements of user behavior in our real production system, we show that these estimates are essential for interpreting intermediate results before final results are available. For a large set of queries this effectively brings down the 95th latency percentile from 30 to 4 seconds.

Keywords: big data, in-memory column-store, high-performance SQL queries, approximate SQL queries

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74 Structuring Paraphrases: The Impact Sentence Complexity Has on Key Leader Engagements

Authors: Meaghan Bowman


Soldiers are taught about the importance of effective communication with repetition of the phrase, “Communication is key.” They receive training in preparing for, and carrying out, interactions between foreign and domestic leaders to gain crucial information about a mission. These interactions are known as Key Leader Engagements (KLEs). For the training of KLEs, doctrine mandates the skills needed to conduct these “engagements” such as how to: behave appropriately, identify key leaders, and employ effective strategies. Army officers in training learn how to confront leaders, what information to gain, and how to ask questions respectfully. Unfortunately, soldiers rarely learn how to formulate questions optimally. Since less complex questions are easier to understand, we hypothesize that semantic complexity affects content understanding, and that age and education levels may have an effect on one’s ability to form paraphrases and judge their quality. In this study, we looked at paraphrases of queries as well as judgments of both the paraphrases’ naturalness and their semantic similarity to the query. Queries were divided into three complexity categories based on the number of relations (the first number) and the number of knowledge graph edges (the second number). Two crowd-sourced tasks were completed by Amazon volunteer participants, also known as turkers, to answer the research questions: (i) Are more complex queries harder to paraphrase and judge and (ii) Do age and education level affect the ability to understand complex queries. We ran statistical tests as follows: MANOVA for query understanding and two-way ANOVA to understand the relationship between query complexity and education and age. A probe of the number of given-level queries selected for paraphrasing by crowd-sourced workers in seven age ranges yielded promising results. We found significant evidence that age plays a role and marginally significant evidence that education level plays a role. These preliminary tests, with output p-values of 0.0002 and 0.068, respectively, suggest the importance of content understanding in a communication skill set. This basic ability to communicate, which may differ by age and education, permits reproduction and quality assessment and is crucial in training soldiers for effective participation in KLEs.

Keywords: engagement, key leader, paraphrasing, query complexity, understanding

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73 Resources-Based Ontology Matching to Access Learning Resources

Authors: A. Elbyed


Nowadays, ontologies are used for achieving a common understanding within a user community and for sharing domain knowledge. However, the de-centralized nature of the web makes indeed inevitable that small communities will use their own ontologies to describe their data and to index their own resources. Certainly, accessing to resources from various ontologies created independently is an important challenge for answering end user queries. Ontology mapping is thus required for combining ontologies. However, mapping complete ontologies at run time is a computationally expensive task. This paper proposes a system in which mappings between concepts may be generated dynamically as the concepts are encountered during user queries. In this way, the interaction itself defines the context in which small and relevant portions of ontologies are mapped. We illustrate application of the proposed system in the context of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) where learners need to access to learning resources covering specific concepts.

Keywords: resources query, ontologies, ontology mapping, similarity measures, semantic web, e-learning

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72 Comparison of Crossover Types to Obtain Optimal Queries Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Wafa’ Alma'Aitah, Khaled Almakadmeh


this study presents an information retrieval system of using genetic algorithm to increase information retrieval efficiency. Using vector space model, information retrieval is based on the similarity measurement between query and documents. Documents with high similarity to query are judge more relevant to the query and should be retrieved first. Using genetic algorithms, each query is represented by a chromosome; these chromosomes are fed into genetic operator process: selection, crossover, and mutation until an optimized query chromosome is obtained for document retrieval. Results show that information retrieval with adaptive crossover probability and single point type crossover and roulette wheel as selection type give the highest recall. The proposed approach is verified using (242) proceedings abstracts collected from the Saudi Arabian national conference.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, information retrieval, optimal queries, crossover

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71 Enterprise Information Portal Features: Results of Content Analysis Literature Review

Authors: Michal Krčál


Since their introduction in 1990’s, Enterprise Information Portals (EIPs) were investigated from different perspectives (e.g. project management, technology acceptance, IS success). However, no systematic literature review was produced to systematize both the research efforts and the technology itself. This paper reports first results of an extent systematic literature review study focused on research of EIPs and its categorization, specifically it reports a conceptual model of EIP features. The previous attempt to categorize EIP features was published in 2002. For the purpose of the literature review, content of 89 articles was analyzed in order to identify and categorize features of EIPs. The methodology of the literature review was as follows. Firstly, search queries in major indexing databases (Web of Science and SCOPUS) were used. The results of queries were analyzed according to their usability for the goal of the study. Then, full-texts were coded in Atlas.ti according to previously established coding scheme. The codes were categorized and the conceptual model of EIP features was created.

Keywords: enterprise information portal, content analysis, features, systematic literature review

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70 Challenges over Two Semantic Repositories - OWLIM and AllegroGraph

Authors: Paria Tajabor, Azin Azarbani


The purpose of this research study is exploring two kind of semantic repositories with regards to various factors to find the best approaches that an artificial manager can use to produce ontology in a system based on their interaction, association and research. To this end, as the best way to evaluate each system and comparing with others is analysis, several benchmarking over these two repositories were examined. These two semantic repositories: OWLIM and AllegroGraph will be the main core of this study. The general objective of this study is to be able to create an efficient and cost-effective manner reports which is required to support decision making in any large enterprise.

Keywords: OWLIM, allegrograph, RDF, reasoning, semantic repository, semantic-web, SPARQL, ontology, query

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69 A Cloud Computing System Using Virtual Hyperbolic Coordinates for Services Distribution

Authors: Telesphore Tiendrebeogo, Oumarou Sié


Cloud computing technologies have attracted considerable interest in recent years. Thus, these latters have become more important for many existing database applications. It provides a new mode of use and of offer of IT resources in general. Such resources can be used “on demand” by anybody who has access to the internet. Particularly, the Cloud platform provides an ease to use interface between providers and users, allow providers to develop and provide software and databases for users over locations. Currently, there are many Cloud platform providers support large scale database services. However, most of these only support simple keyword-based queries and can’t response complex query efficiently due to lack of efficient in multi-attribute index techniques. Existing Cloud platform providers seek to improve performance of indexing techniques for complex queries. In this paper, we define a new cloud computing architecture based on a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) and design a prototype system. Next, we perform and evaluate our cloud computing indexing structure based on a hyperbolic tree using virtual coordinates taken in the hyperbolic plane. We show through our experimental results that we compare with others clouds systems to show our solution ensures consistence and scalability for Cloud platform.

Keywords: virtual coordinates, cloud, hyperbolic plane, storage, scalability, consistency

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68 Real-Time Data Stream Partitioning over a Sliding Window in Real-Time Spatial Big Data

Authors: Sana Hamdi, Emna Bouazizi, Sami Faiz


In recent years, real-time spatial applications, like location-aware services and traffic monitoring, have become more and more important. Such applications result dynamic environments where data as well as queries are continuously moving. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of real-time spatial data generated every day. The growth of the data volume seems to outspeed the advance of our computing infrastructure. For instance, in real-time spatial Big Data, users expect to receive the results of each query within a short time period without holding in account the load of the system. But with a huge amount of real-time spatial data generated, the system performance degrades rapidly especially in overload situations. To solve this problem, we propose the use of data partitioning as an optimization technique. Traditional horizontal and vertical partitioning can increase the performance of the system and simplify data management. But they remain insufficient for real-time spatial Big data; they can’t deal with real-time and stream queries efficiently. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel data partitioning approach for real-time spatial Big data named VPA-RTSBD (Vertical Partitioning Approach for Real-Time Spatial Big data). This contribution is an implementation of the Matching algorithm for traditional vertical partitioning. We find, firstly, the optimal attribute sequence by the use of Matching algorithm. Then, we propose a new cost model used for database partitioning, for keeping the data amount of each partition more balanced limit and for providing a parallel execution guarantees for the most frequent queries. VPA-RTSBD aims to obtain a real-time partitioning scheme and deals with stream data. It improves the performance of query execution by maximizing the degree of parallel execution. This affects QoS (Quality Of Service) improvement in real-time spatial Big Data especially with a huge volume of stream data. The performance of our contribution is evaluated via simulation experiments. The results show that the proposed algorithm is both efficient and scalable, and that it outperforms comparable algorithms.

Keywords: real-time spatial big data, quality of service, vertical partitioning, horizontal partitioning, matching algorithm, hamming distance, stream query

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67 Assessing of Social Comfort of the Russian Population with Big Data

Authors: Marina Shakleina, Konstantin Shaklein, Stanislav Yakiro


The digitalization of modern human life over the last decade has facilitated the acquisition, storage, and processing of data, which are used to detect changes in consumer preferences and to improve the internal efficiency of the production process. This emerging trend has attracted academic interest in the use of big data in research. The study focuses on modeling the social comfort of the Russian population for the period 2010-2021 using big data. Big data provides enormous opportunities for understanding human interactions at the scale of society with plenty of space and time dynamics. One of the most popular big data sources is Google Trends. The methodology for assessing social comfort using big data involves several steps: 1. 574 words were selected based on the Harvard IV-4 Dictionary adjusted to fit the reality of everyday Russian life. The set of keywords was further cleansed by excluding queries consisting of verbs and words with several lexical meanings. 2. Search queries were processed to ensure comparability of results: the transformation of data to a 10-point scale, elimination of popularity peaks, detrending, and deseasoning. The proposed methodology for keyword search and Google Trends processing was implemented in the form of a script in the Python programming language. 3. Block and summary integral indicators of social comfort were constructed using the first modified principal component resulting in weighting coefficients values of block components. According to the study, social comfort is described by 12 blocks: ‘health’, ‘education’, ‘social support’, ‘financial situation’, ‘employment’, ‘housing’, ‘ethical norms’, ‘security’, ‘political stability’, ‘leisure’, ‘environment’, ‘infrastructure’. According to the model, the summary integral indicator increased by 54% and was 4.631 points; the average annual rate was 3.6%, which is higher than the rate of economic growth by 2.7 p.p. The value of the indicator describing social comfort in Russia is determined by 26% by ‘social support’, 24% by ‘education’, 12% by ‘infrastructure’, 10% by ‘leisure’, and the remaining 28% by others. Among 25% of the most popular searches, 85% are of negative nature and are mainly related to the blocks ‘security’, ‘political stability’, ‘health’, for example, ‘crime rate’, ‘vulnerability’. Among the 25% most unpopular queries, 99% of the queries were positive and mostly related to the blocks ‘ethical norms’, ‘education’, ‘employment’, for example, ‘social package’, ‘recycling’. In conclusion, the introduction of the latent category ‘social comfort’ into the scientific vocabulary deepens the theory of the quality of life of the population in terms of the study of the involvement of an individual in the society and expanding the subjective aspect of the measurements of various indicators. Integral assessment of social comfort demonstrates the overall picture of the development of the phenomenon over time and space and quantitatively evaluates ongoing socio-economic policy. The application of big data in the assessment of latent categories gives stable results, which opens up possibilities for their practical implementation.

Keywords: big data, Google trends, integral indicator, social comfort

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66 An Ontology for Semantic Enrichment of RFID Systems

Authors: Haitham S. Hamza, Mohamed Maher, Shourok Alaa, Aya Khattab, Hadeal Ismail, Kamilia Hosny


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has become a key technology in the margining concept of Internet of Things (IoT). Naturally, business applications would require the deployment of various RFID systems that are developed by different vendors and use various data formats. This heterogeneity poses a real challenge in developing large-scale IoT systems with RFID as integration is becoming very complex and challenging. Semantic integration is a key approach to deal with this challenge. To do so, ontology for RFID systems need to be developed in order to annotated semantically RFID systems, and hence, facilitate their integration. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose ontology for RFID systems. The proposed ontology can be used to semantically enrich RFID systems, and hence, improve their usage and reasoning. The usage of the proposed ontology is explained through a simple scenario in the health care domain.

Keywords: RFID, semantic technology, ontology, sparql query language, heterogeneity

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65 Knowledge Graph Development to Connect Earth Metadata and Standard English Queries

Authors: Gabriel Montague, Max Vilgalys, Catherine H. Crawford, Jorge Ortiz, Dava Newman


There has never been so much publicly accessible atmospheric and environmental data. The possibilities of these data are exciting, but the sheer volume of available datasets represents a new challenge for researchers. The task of identifying and working with a new dataset has become more difficult with the amount and variety of available data. Datasets are often documented in ways that differ substantially from the common English used to describe the same topics. This presents a barrier not only for new scientists, but for researchers looking to find comparisons across multiple datasets or specialists from other disciplines hoping to collaborate. This paper proposes a method for addressing this obstacle: creating a knowledge graph to bridge the gap between everyday English language and the technical language surrounding these datasets. Knowledge graph generation is already a well-established field, although there are some unique challenges posed by working with Earth data. One is the sheer size of the databases – it would be infeasible to replicate or analyze all the data stored by an organization like The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) or the European Space Agency. Instead, this approach identifies topics from metadata available for datasets in NASA’s Earthdata database, which can then be used to directly request and access the raw data from NASA. By starting with a single metadata standard, this paper establishes an approach that can be generalized to different databases, but leaves the challenge of metadata harmonization for future work. Topics generated from the metadata are then linked to topics from a collection of English queries through a variety of standard and custom natural language processing (NLP) methods. The results from this method are then compared to a baseline of elastic search applied to the metadata. This comparison shows the benefits of the proposed knowledge graph system over existing methods, particularly in interpreting natural language queries and interpreting topics in metadata. For the research community, this work introduces an application of NLP to the ecological and environmental sciences, expanding the possibilities of how machine learning can be applied in this discipline. But perhaps more importantly, it establishes the foundation for a platform that can enable common English to access knowledge that previously required considerable effort and experience. By making this public data accessible to the full public, this work has the potential to transform environmental understanding, engagement, and action.

Keywords: earth metadata, knowledge graphs, natural language processing, question-answer systems

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64 Code Switching and Language Attitudes of Two 10-11 Years Old Bilingual Child

Authors: Kristiina Teiss


Estonians and children having Estonian as a one of their languages have lately become the fastest growing minority or bilingual group in Finland which underlines the importance of studying this target group. The acquisition of bilingualism by an infant is affected by many different issues like the child’s personal traits, language differences, and different environmental factors such as people´s attitudes towards languages and bilingualism. In the early years the most important factor is the children’s interaction with their parents and siblings. This poster gives an overview to the material and some preliminary findings of ongoing PhD study concerning code-mixing, code-switching and language attitudes of two bilingual 10-11 year old children. Data was collected from two different bilingual families, one of them living in Tampere, Finland and one of them moved during the study to Tallinn, Estonia. The data includes audio recordings of the families’ interactions with their children when they were aged 2-3 years old and then when they were 10-11 years old. The data also includes recorded semi-structured queries of the parents, as well as recorded semi-structured queries of the children when they were in the age of 10-11 years. The features of code-mixing can vary depending on norms or models in the families, or even according to its use by two parents in same family. The practices studied in the ongoing longitudinal case study, based on a framework of ethnography, contain parental conversational strategies and family attitudes as well as CS (code-switching and code-mixing) cases occurring both in children and adult language. The aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a connection between children’s attitudes and their daily language use. It would be also interesting to find some evidence, as to whether living in different countries has different impacts on using two languages. The results of dissertation maid give some directional suggestions on how language maintenance of Estonian-Finnish bilinguals could be supported, although generalizations on the base of case study could not be done.

Keywords: code switching, Estonian, Finnish, language attitudes

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63 Semantic Search Engine Based on Query Expansion with Google Ranking and Similarity Measures

Authors: Ahmad Shahin, Fadi Chakik, Walid Moudani


Our study is about elaborating a potential solution for a search engine that involves semantic technology to retrieve information and display it significantly. Semantic search engines are not used widely over the web as the majorities are still in Beta stage or under construction. Many problems face the current applications in semantic search, the major problem is to analyze and calculate the meaning of query in order to retrieve relevant information. Another problem is the ontology based index and its updates. Ranking results according to concept meaning and its relation with query is another challenge. In this paper, we are offering a light meta-engine (QESM) which uses Google search, and therefore Google’s index, with some adaptations to its returned results by adding multi-query expansion. The mission was to find a reliable ranking algorithm that involves semantics and uses concepts and meanings to rank results. At the beginning, the engine finds synonyms of each query term entered by the user based on a lexical database. Then, query expansion is applied to generate different semantically analogous sentences. These are generated randomly by combining the found synonyms and the original query terms. Our model suggests the use of semantic similarity measures between two sentences. Practically, we used this method to calculate semantic similarity between each query and the description of each page’s content generated by Google. The generated sentences are sent to Google engine one by one, and ranked again all together with the adapted ranking method (QESM). Finally, our system will place Google pages with higher similarities on the top of the results. We have conducted experimentations with 6 different queries. We have observed that most ranked results with QESM were altered with Google’s original generated pages. With our experimented queries, QESM generates frequently better accuracy than Google. In some worst cases, it behaves like Google.

Keywords: semantic search engine, Google indexing, query expansion, similarity measures

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62 Personalization of Context Information Retrieval Model via User Search Behaviours for Ranking Document Relevance

Authors: Kehinde Agbele, Longe Olumide, Daniel Ekong, Dele Seluwa, Akintoye Onamade


One major problem of most existing information retrieval systems (IRS) is that they provide even access and retrieval results to individual users specially based on the query terms user issued to the system. When using IRS, users often present search queries made of ad-hoc keywords. It is then up to IRS to obtain a precise representation of user’s information need, and the context of the information. In effect, the volume and range of the Internet documents is growing exponentially and consequently causes difficulties for a user to obtain information that precisely matches the user interest. Diverse combination techniques are used to achieve the specific goal. This is due, firstly, to the fact that users often do not present queries to IRS that optimally represent the information they want, and secondly, the measure of a document's relevance is highly subjective between diverse users. In this paper, we address the problem by investigating the optimization of IRS to individual information needs in order of relevance. The paper addressed the development of algorithms that optimize the ranking of documents retrieved from IRS. This paper addresses this problem with a two-fold approach in order to retrieve domain-specific documents. Firstly, the design of context of information. The context of a query determines retrieved information relevance using personalization and context-awareness. Thus, executing the same query in diverse contexts often leads to diverse result rankings based on the user preferences. Secondly, the relevant context aspects should be incorporated in a way that supports the knowledge domain representing users’ interests. In this paper, the use of evolutionary algorithms is incorporated to improve the effectiveness of IRS. A context-based information retrieval system that learns individual needs from user-provided relevance feedback is developed whose retrieval effectiveness is evaluated using precision and recall metrics. The results demonstrate how to use attributes from user interaction behavior to improve the IR effectiveness.

Keywords: context, document relevance, information retrieval, personalization, user search behaviors

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61 A Study on Pattern of Acute Poisoning in Patients Admitted to Emergency Wards in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Sathvika Reddy, Devi Revathi


Background: In India, deliberate self-harm (DSH) with poisoning agents carries a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Changes in the patterns of poisoning vary across various geographical locations. It is important to know the patterns in a given region in order to facilitate rapid clinical diagnosis, appropriate treatment to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Aim and Objective: To study the patterns, treatment outcomes of acute poisoning in patients admitted to emergency wards in a tertiary care hospital and to provide poison information services. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at M.S Ramaiah Memorial and Teaching Hospital from November 2016 to March 2017. The patient’s data was obtained from patient case sheet, interaction with health care professionals, interviewing patients and their caretakers (if possible), and were documented in a suitably designed form. Results: The study involved 131 patients with a mean age of 27.76 ± 15.5 years. Majority of the patients were in the age group 21-30 years, literates (n=53) dwelling in urban (n=113) areas belonging to upper middle class (n=50). Analgesics and antipyretics were commonly utilized in intentional drug overdosage (n=49). Envenomation constituted n=21(16.03%). Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between marital status and self-poisoning (n=64) (P < 0.001) which commonly occurred through oral ingestion. The outcomes were correlated with the GCS and PSS system and n=85 recovered, n=17 were discharged against medical advice, and n=4 died, and n=4 were lost to follow up respectively. The poison information queries include drug overdose (n=29) and management related queries (n=22) provided majorly by residents (n=45) to update knowledge (n=11) and for better patient care (n=40). Conclusion: The trend in poisoning is dynamic. Medications were identified as the main cause of poisoning in urban areas of India. Educational programs with more emphasis on preventive measures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.

Keywords: poisoning, suicides, clinical pharmacist, envenomation, poison information services

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