Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3000

Search results for: adaptive computer games

3000 Preliminary Proposal to Use Adaptive Computer Games in the Virtual Rehabilitation Therapy

Authors: Mamoun S. Ideis, Zein Salah

Abstract:

Virtual Rehabilitation (VR) refers to using Virtual Reality’s hardware and simulations as means of exercising tools to rehabilitate patients in need. These patients will undergo their treatment exercises while playing different computer games, which helps achieve greater motivation for patients undergoing their therapeutic exercises. Virtual Rehabilitation systems adopt computer games as part of the treatment therapy. In this paper, we present a preliminary proposal to using adaptive computer games in Virtual Rehabilitation therapy. We also present some tips in designing those adaptive computer games by using different machine learning algorithms in order to create a personalized experience for each patient, which in turn, increases the potential benefits of the treatment that each patient receives. Furthermore, we propose a method of comparing the results of treatment using the adaptive computer games with the results of using static and classical computer games.

Keywords: virtual rehabilitation, physiotherapy, adaptive computer games, post-stroke, game design

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2999 Approach-Avoidance and Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation of Adolescent Computer Games Players

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska

Abstract:

The period of adolescence is a time when young people are becoming more and more active and conscious users of the digital world. One of the most frequently undertaken activities by them is computer games. Young players can choose from a wide range of games, including action, adventure, strategy, and logic games. The main aim of this study is to answer the question about the motivation of teenage players. The basic question is what motivates young players to play computer games and what motivates them to play a particular game. Fifty adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire in which they determined what motivates them to play, how often they play computer games, and what type of computer games they play most often. It was found that entertainment and learning English are among the most important motives. The most important specific features related to a given game are the knowledge of its previous parts and the ability to play for free. The motives chosen by the players will be described in relation to the concepts of internal and external as well as approach and avoidance motivation. An additional purpose of this study is to present data concerning preferences regarding the type of games and the amount of time they spend playing.

Keywords: computer games, motivation, game preferences, adolescence

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2998 Prevalence and the Results of the Czech Nationwide Survey and Personality Traits of Adolescence Playing Computer Games

Authors: Jaroslava Sucha, Martin Dolejs, Helena Pipova, Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

Abstract:

The paper introduces the research project which is focused on evaluating the level of pathological relation towards computer or video games playing (including any games played by using a screen such as a mobile or a tablet). The study involves representative sample of the Czech adolescents between ages 11 and 19. This poster presents the psychometric indicators of the new psychologic assessment method (mean, standard deviation, reliability, validity) which will be able to detect an acceptable level of games’ playing and at the same time will detect and describe the level of gaming which might be potentially risky. The prevalence of risky computer game playing at Czech adolescents in age 11 to 19 will be mentioned. The research study also aims to describe the personality profile of the problematic players with respect to the digital games. The research area will encompass risky behaviour, aggression, the level of self-esteem, impulsivity, anxiety and depression. The contribution will introduce a new test method for the assessment of pathological playing computer games. The research will give the first screening information of playing computer games in the Czech Republic by adolescents between 11-19 years. The results clarify what relationship exists between playing computer games and selected personality characteristics (it will describe personality of the gamer, who is in the category of ‘pathological playing computer games’).

Keywords: adolescence, computer games, personality traits, risk behaviour

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2997 On the Analysis of Strategies of Buechi Games

Authors: Ahmad Termimi Ab Ghani, Kojiro Higuchi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present some results of simultaneous infinite games. We mainly work with generalized reachability games and Buechi games. These games are two-player concurrent games where each player chooses simultaneously their moves at each step. Our goal is to give simple expressions of values for each game. Moreover, we are interested in the question of what type of optimal (ε-optimal) strategy exists for both players depending on the type of games. We first show the determinacy (optimal value) and optimal (ε-optimal) strategies in generalized reachability games. We provide a simple expressions of value of this game and prove the existence of memoryless randomized ε-optimal strategy for Player I in any generalized reachability games. We then observe games with more complex objectives, games with Buechi objectives. We present how to compute an ε-optimal strategies and approximate a value of game in some way. Specifically, the results of generalized reachability games are used to show the value of Buechi games can be approximated as values of some generalized reachability games.

Keywords: optimal Strategies, generalized reachability games, Buechi games

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2996 Personality Based Adaptive E-Learning 3D Game

Authors: Yasith Nayana, Janani Manamperuma, Lalindi Amarasinghe, Sasanka Kodithuwakku

Abstract:

Educational games are popular among current e-learning systems. The approach to education through interactive media is expected to motivate students and encourage participation and engagement. ‘Kalayathra’ is an adaptive, player centered e-learning 3D game. The game identifies the player’s personality and adapt the gaming environment according to the player’s preference. Our platform measures the student’s performance and support learning through player assessment. Player experience is a good measure of the level of fun and education presented to players. To assess the level of playability we introduce an educational playability model. ‘Kalayathra’ is developed according to the GCE O/L syllabus and teaching guide in Sri Lankan education system. The game is capable of guiding players into the environment and aid them in tasks and activities depending on how much the player requires help.

Keywords: e-learning, games, adaptive, personality, gamification, player experience

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2995 The Interrelationship between Aggression and Frustration Brought about by Computer Games with Incentives among LPU Male Students

Authors: Dior Grita F. De Torres, Edielyn Gonzalvo, Jovielyn Manibo

Abstract:

The experimental study aims to measure the level of aggression and frustration brought about by computer games with incentives and the interrelationship of the said variables. With 50 participants for each four groups, a total of 200 males who are avid of playing computer games participated in the study. The results and analyses presented in the study concluded that incentives differentially affect the level of aggression and frustration of the players with tobt = 7.18 and 6.521 > tcrit = 2.021 using t-test for dependent groups and Fobt = 4.527 and 8.340 > Fcrit = 3.89 using ANOVA with alpha level of 0.05, two tailed. At the same time, computer game’s level of difficulty also affects the level of aggression and frustration of the players with tobt = 7.53 and 4.783 > tcrit = 2.021 respectively and Fobt = 6.524 and 10.167 > Fcrit = 3.89. Moreover, there is also an interaction between incentive and the level of difficulty of computer game with tobt = 9.68 for aggression and tobt = 7.356 > 2.021 for frustration. Computer games and /with incentives has a large effect on the among male students of LPU.

Keywords: aggression, frustration, computer game, incentive

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2994 Freedom and the Value of Games: How to Overcome the Challenges in the Gamification of Necessary Learning Tasks

Authors: Jonathan May

Abstract:

This paper argues that the value of games relates to the sensation of freedom they create, and this in turn results from their nature as voluntary, non-necessary tasks. Attempts to gamify necessary learning tasks are therefore challenged to create this sensation of freedom and so they often fail to create the pleasure and value found in traditional games. It then demonstrates a route to creating this sensation of freedom through the maximization of varied and creative solutions to such problems.

Keywords: gamification, games, philosophy of games, freedom, voluntary action, necessity, motivation, value of games

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2993 Metaphorical Perceptions of Middle School Students regarding Computer Games

Authors: Ismail Celik, Ismail Sahin, Fetah Eren

Abstract:

The computer, among the most important inventions of the twentieth century, has become an increasingly important component in our everyday lives. Computer games also have become increasingly popular among people day-by-day, owing to their features based on realistic virtual environments, audio and visual features, and the roles they offer players. In the present study, the metaphors students have for computer games are investigated, as well as an effort to fill the gap in the literature. Students were asked to complete the sentence—‘Computer game is like/similar to….because….’— to determine the middle school students’ metaphorical images of the concept for ‘computer game’. The metaphors created by the students were grouped in six categories, based on the source of the metaphor. These categories were ordered as ‘computer game as a means of entertainment’, ‘computer game as a beneficial means’, ‘computer game as a basic need’, ‘computer game as a source of evil’, ‘computer game as a means of withdrawal’, and ‘computer game as a source of addiction’, according to the number of metaphors they included.

Keywords: computer game, metaphor, middle school students, virtual environments

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2992 A Comprehensive Study on Quality Assurance in Game Development

Authors: Maria Komal, Zaineb Khalil, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

Due to the recent technological advancements, Games have become one of the most demanding applications. Gaming industry is rapidly growing and the key to success in this industry is the development of good quality games, which is a highly competitive issue. The ultimate goal of game developers is to provide player’s satisfaction by developing high-quality games. This research is the comprehensive survey of techniques followed by game industries to ensure games quality. After analysis of various techniques, it has been found that quality simulation according to ISO standards and play test methods are used to ensure games quality. Because game development requires cross-disciplined team, an increasing trend towards distributed game development has been observed. This paper evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies used in game industry and draws a conclusion. We have also proposed quality parameters which can be used as a heuristic framework to identify those attributes which have high testing priorities.

Keywords: game development, computer games, video games, gaming industry, quality assurance, playability, user experience

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2991 A Review of Applying Serious Games on Learning

Authors: Carlos Oliveira, Ulrick Pimentel

Abstract:

Digital games have conquered a growing space in the lives of children, adolescents and adults. In this perspective, the use of this resource has shown to be an important strategy that facilitates the learning process. This research is a literature review on the use of serious games in teaching, which shows the characteristics of these games, the benefits and possible harms that this resource can produce, in addition to the possible methods of evaluating the effectiveness of this resource in teaching. The results point out that Serious Games have significant potential as a tool for instruction. However, their effectiveness in terms of learning outcomes is still poorly studied, mainly due to the complexity involved in evaluating intangible measures.

Keywords: serious games, learning, application, literature review

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2990 People Abandoning Mobile Social Games: Using Candy Crush Saga as an Example

Authors: Pei-Shan Wei, Szu-Ying Lee, Hsi-Peng Lu, Jen-Chuen Tzou, Chien-I Weng

Abstract:

Mobile social games recently become extremely popular, spawning a whole new entertainment culture. However, mobile game players are fickle, quickly and easily picking up and abandoning games. This pilot study seeks to identify factors that influence users to discontinue playing mobile social games. We identified three sacrifices which can prompt users to abandon games: monetary sacrifice, time sacrifice and privacy sacrifice. The results showed that monetary sacrifice has a greater impact than the other two factors in causing players to discontinue usage intention.

Keywords: abandon, mobile devices, mobile social games, perceived sacrifice

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2989 Adolescent Gamers: The Relationship between Berzonsky’s Style of Identity and Immersion: Pilot Study

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska

Abstract:

Adolescence is a developmental period, covering the period from 10 to 20 years of age, in which young people face many challenges. One of the most important tasks of the adolescence period is getting a structured identity. The development of identity is possible by undertaking various activities. Nowadays, virtual activities are very common among young people. One of the main adolescents’ activities in the online environment is playing computer games. The main aim of this work is to answer the question about the relationship between the identity style of adolescents and immersion, -a phenomenon often observed while playing computer games. The concept of identity created by Berzonsky is considered as one of the best-defined concepts of identity. He defines identity as both a structure and a process and distinguishes three styles of identity: informational, normative, and diffuse/avoidant. Immersion is a concept that can be applied in a broad context, but in the game environment, it is a specific psychological experience of being involved in a computer game. It refers to the relocation of the attention resources to the game world, with a limited or impossible perception of stimuli from reality. Considering how much time adolescents spend playing computer games, the question about the relationship between their identity and the immersion in the game seems to be extremely interesting. Fifty adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They played a computer game and completed the Identity Style Inventory and the Immersion Questionaire.

Keywords: identity, immersion, computer games, adolescence

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2988 Great Art for Little Children - Games in School Education as Integration of Polish-Language, Eurhythmics, Artistic and Mathematical Subject Matter

Authors: Małgorzata Anna Karczmarzyk

Abstract:

Who is the contemporary child? What are his/her distinctive features making him/her different from earlier generations? And how to teach in the dissimilar social reality? These questions will constitute the key to my reflections on contemporary early school education. For, to my mind, games have become highly significant for the modern model of education. There arise publications and research employing games to increase competence both in business, tutoring, or coaching, as well as in academic education . Thanks to games students and subordinates can be taught such abilities as problem thinking, creativity, consistent fulfillment of goals, resourcefulness and skills of communication.

Keywords: games, art, children, school education, integration

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2987 The Subcategories of Folklore Dance for Children as Didactic Games for Developing Musical Ability in the Preschool Period

Authors: Eudjen Cinc, Mircea Maran, Jasmina Stolic

Abstract:

Viewed through the prism of folkloristics – ethnomusicology, the majority of didactic musical games belong to the category of folklore creative work of children, such games can be extremely useful for the development of musical ability in the preschool age. The paper gives a number of examples from the Romanian children folklore which were used in practice.

Keywords: musical games, children folklore, rhythmical system, melodica

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2986 Item Response Calibration/Estimation: An Approach to Adaptive E-Learning System Development

Authors: Adeniran Adetunji, Babalola M. Florence, Akande Ademola

Abstract:

In this paper, we made an overview on the concept of adaptive e-Learning system, enumerates the elements of adaptive learning concepts e.g. A pedagogical framework, multiple learning strategies and pathways, continuous monitoring and feedback on student performance, statistical inference to reach final learning strategy that works for an individual learner by “mass-customization”. Briefly highlights the motivation of this new system proposed for effective learning teaching. E-Review literature on the concept of adaptive e-learning system and emphasises on the Item Response Calibration, which is an important approach to developing an adaptive e-Learning system. This paper write-up is concluded on the justification of item response calibration/estimation towards designing a successful and effective adaptive e-Learning system.

Keywords: adaptive e-learning system, pedagogical framework, item response, computer applications

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2985 Cities Simulation and Representation in Locative Games from the Perspective of Cultural Studies

Authors: B. A. A. Paixão, J. V. B. Gomide

Abstract:

This work aims to analyze the locative structure used by the locative games of the company Niantic. To fulfill this objective, a literature review on the representation and simulation of cities was developed; interviews with Ingress players and playing Ingress. Relating these data, it was possible to deepen the relationship between the virtual and the real to create the simulation of cities and their cultural objects in locative games. Cities representation associates geo-location provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), with augmented reality and digital image, and provides a new paradigm in the city interaction with its parts and real and virtual world elements, homeomorphic to real world. Bibliographic review of papers related to the representation and simulation study and their application in locative games was carried out and is presented in the present paper. The cities representation and simulation concepts in locative games, and how this setting enables the flow and immersion in urban space, are analyzed. Some examples of games are discussed for this new setting development, which is a mix of real and virtual world. Finally, it was proposed a Locative Structure for electronic games using the concepts of heterotrophic representations and isotropic representations conjoined with immediacy and hypermediacy.

Keywords: cities representation, cities simulation, games simulation, immersion, locative games

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2984 Developing a Customizable Serious Game and Its Applicability in the Classroom

Authors: Anita Kéri

Abstract:

Recent developments in the field of education have led to a renewed interest in teaching methodologies and practices. Gamification is fast becoming a key instrument in the education of new generations and besides other methods, serious games have become the center of attention. Ready-built serious games are available for most higher education institutions to buy and implement. However, monetary restraints and the unalterable nature of the games might deter most higher education institutions from the application of these serious games. Therefore, there is a continuously growing need for a customizable serious game that has been developed based on a concrete need analysis and experts’ opinion. There has been little evidence so far of serious games that have been created based on relevant and current need analysis from higher education institution teachers, professional practitioners and students themselves. Therefore, the aim of this current paper is to analyze the needs of higher education institution educators with special emphasis on their needs, the applicability of serious games in their classrooms, and exploring options for the development of a customizable serious game framework. The paper undertakes to analyze workshop discussions on implementing serious games in education and propose a customizable serious game framework applicable in the education of the new generation. Research results show that the most important feature of a serious game is its customizability. The fact that practitioners are able to manage different scenarios and upload their own content to a game seems to be a key to the increasingly widespread application of serious games in the classroom.

Keywords: education, gamification, game-based learning, serious games

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2983 Investigating Software Engineering Challenges in Game Development

Authors: Fawad Zaidi

Abstract:

This paper discusses a variety of challenges and solutions involved with creating computer games and the issues faced by the software engineers working in this field. This review further investigates the articles coverage of project scope and the problem of feature creep that appears to be inherent with game development. The paper tries to answer the following question: Is this a problem caused by a shortage, or bad software engineering practices, or is this outside the control of the software engineering component of the game production process?

Keywords: software engineering, computer games, software applications, development

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2982 Improving Young Learners' Vocabulary Acquisition: A Pilot Program in a Game-Based Environment

Authors: Vasiliki Stratidou

Abstract:

Modern simulation mobile games have the potential to enhance students’ interest, motivation and creativity. Research conducted on the effectiveness of digital games for educational purposes has shown that such games are also ideal at providing an appropriate environment for language learning. The paper examines the issue of simulation mobile games in regard to the potential positive impacts on L2 vocabulary learning. Sixteen intermediate level students, aged 10-14, participated in the experimental study for four weeks. The participants were divided into experimental (8 participants) and control group (8 participants). The experimental group was planned to learn some new vocabulary words via digital games while the control group used a reading passage to learn the same vocabulary words. The study investigated the effect of mobile games as well as the traditional learning methods on Greek EFL learners’ vocabulary learning in a pre-test, an immediate post-test, and a two-week delayed retention test. A teacher’s diary and learners’ interviews were also used as tools to estimate the effectiveness of the implementation. The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in acquiring new words through mobile games. Therefore, digital games proved to be an effective tool in learning English vocabulary.

Keywords: control group, digital games, experimental group, second language vocabulary learning, simulation games

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2981 Identifying the Gap Between Adaptive Clothing Consumers and Brands

Authors: Lucky Farha, Martha L. Hall

Abstract:

The current adaptive clothing brands are limited to numbers and specific to categories. However, a few companies are focusing on consumers having Down syndrome, especially in children’s wear. This study explores clothing challenges for children with Down syndrome and factors that influence their perception of adaptive clothing brands. Another aim of this study was to explore brands challenges in the adaptive business and factors that influence their perceptions towards the adaptive market. In order to determine the market barriers affecting adaptive target market needs, researcher applied Technology Acceptance Model. After interviewing and surveying parents/caregivers having children with Down syndrome and current adaptive brands, the results found education as the significant gap in the adaptive clothing market yet to be overcome. Based on the finding, several recommendations were suggested to improve the current barriers in the adaptive clothing market.

Keywords: adaptive fashion, disability, functional clothing, clothing needs assessment, down syndrome, clothing challenge

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2980 A Taxonomy of the Informational Content of Virtual Heritage Serious Games

Authors: Laurence C. Hanes, Robert J. Stone

Abstract:

Video games have reached a point of huge commercial success as well as wide familiarity with audiences both young and old. Much attention and research have also been directed towards serious games and their potential learning affordances. It is little surprise that the field of virtual heritage has taken a keen interest in using serious games to present cultural heritage information to users, with applications ranging from museums and cultural heritage institutions, to academia and research, to schools and education. Many researchers have already documented their efforts to develop and distribute virtual heritage serious games. Although attempts have been made to create classifications of the different types of virtual heritage games (somewhat akin to the idea of game genres), no formal taxonomy has yet been produced to define the different types of cultural heritage and historical information that can be presented through these games at a content level, and how the information can be manifested within the game. This study proposes such a taxonomy. First the informational content is categorized as heritage or historical, then further divided into tangible, intangible, natural, and analytical. Next, the characteristics of the manifestation within the game are covered. The means of manifestation, level of demonstration, tone, and focus are all defined and explained. Finally, the potential learning outcomes of the content are discussed. A demonstration of the taxonomy is then given by describing the informational content and corresponding manifestations within several examples of virtual heritage serious games as well as commercial games. It is anticipated that this taxonomy will help designers of virtual heritage serious games to think about and clearly define the information they are presenting through their games, and how they are presenting it. Another result of the taxonomy is that it will enable us to frame cultural heritage and historical information presented in commercial games with a critical lens, especially where there may not be explicit learning objectives. Finally, the results will also enable us to identify shared informational content and learning objectives between any virtual heritage serious and/or commercial games.

Keywords: informational content, serious games, taxonomy, virtual heritage

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2979 Evaluating Key Attributes of Effective Digital Games in Tertiary Education

Authors: Roopali Kulkarni, Yuliya Khrypko

Abstract:

A major problem in educational digital game design is that game developers are often focused on maintaining the fun and playability of an educational game, whereas educators are more concerned with the learning aspect of the game rather than its entertaining characteristics. There is a clear need to understand what key aspects of digital learning games make them an effective learning medium in tertiary education. Through a systematic literature review and content analysis, this paper identifies, evaluates, and summarizes twenty-threekey attributes of digital games used in tertiary education and presents a summary digital game-based learning (DGBL) modelfor designing and evaluating an educational digital game of any genre that promotes effective learning in tertiary education. The proposed solution overcomes limitations of previously designed models for digital games evaluation, such as a small number of game attributes considered or applicability to a specific genre of digital games. Proposed DGBL modelcan be used to assist game designers and educators with creating effective and engaging educational digital games for the tertiary education curriculum.

Keywords: DGBL model, digital games, educational games, game-based learning, tertiary education

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2978 The Awareness of Computer Science Students Regarding the Security of Location Based Games

Authors: Jacques Barnard, Magda Huisman, Gunther R. Drevin

Abstract:

Rapid expansion and development in die mobile technology market has created an opportunity for users to participate in location based games. As a consequence of this fast expanding market and new technology, it is important to be aware of the implications this has on security. This paper measures the impact on the security awareness of games’ participants, as well as on that of students at university level with regards to their various stages of input in years of studying and gamer classification. This serves to provide insight into the matter as to discernible differences in the awareness of the security implications concerning these technologies. The data was accumulated via a web questionnaire that was to be completed yearly by students from respective year groups. Results signify a meaningful disparity in security awareness among students completing the varying study years and research. This awareness, however, does not always impact on gamers.

Keywords: gamer classifications, location based games, location based data, security awareness

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2977 Study of Education Learning Techniques and Game Genres

Authors: Khadija Al Farei, Prakash Kumar, Vikas Rao Naidu

Abstract:

Games are being developed with different genres for different age groups, for many decades. In many places, educational games are playing a vital role for active classroom environment and better learning among students. Currently, the educational games have assumed an important place in children and teenagers lives. The role of educational games is important for improving the learning capability among the students especially of this generation, who really live among electronic gadgets. Hence, it is now important to make sure that in our educational system, we are updated with all such advancement in technologies. Already much research is going on in this area of edutainment. This research paper will review around ten different research papers to find the relation between the education learning techniques and games. The result of this review provides guidelines for enhanced teaching and learning solutions in education. In-house developed educational games proved to be more effective, compared to the one which is readily available in the market.

Keywords: education, education game, educational technology, edutainment, game genres, gaming in education

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2976 Multiplayer Game System for Therapeutic Exercise in Which Players with Different Athletic Abilities Can Participate on an Even Competitive Footing

Authors: Kazumoto Tanaka, Takayuki Fujino

Abstract:

Sports games conducted as a group are a form of therapeutic exercise for aged people with decreased strength and for people suffering from permanent damage of stroke and other conditions. However, it is difficult for patients with different athletic abilities to play a game on an equal footing. This study specifically examines a computer video game designed for therapeutic exercise, and a game system with support given depending on athletic ability. Thereby, anyone playing the game can participate equally. This video-game, to be specific, is a popular variant of balloon volleyball, in which players hit a balloon by hand before it falls to the floor. In this game system, each player plays the game watching a monitor on which the system displays tailor-made video-game images adjusted to the person’s athletic ability, providing players with player-adaptive assist support. We have developed a multiplayer game system with an image generation technique for the tailor-made video-game and conducted tests to evaluate it.

Keywords: therapeutic exercise, computer video game, disability-adaptive assist, tailor-made video-game image

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2975 Overview of Adaptive Spline interpolation

Authors: Rongli Gai, Zhiyuan Chang

Abstract:

At this stage, in view of various situations in the interpolation process, most researchers use self-adaptation to adjust the interpolation process, which is also one of the current and future research hotspots in the field of CNC machining. In the interpolation process, according to the overview of the spline curve interpolation algorithm, the adaptive analysis is carried out from the factors affecting the interpolation process. The adaptive operation is reflected in various aspects, such as speed, parameters, errors, nodes, feed rates, random Period, sensitive point, step size, curvature, adaptive segmentation, adaptive optimization, etc. This paper will analyze and summarize the research of adaptive imputation in the direction of the above factors affecting imputation.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, CNC machining, interpolation constraints, spline curve interpolation

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2974 Playing Light Switching Games with Langton's Turmite

Authors: Crista Arangala

Abstract:

Light switching games are both popular and well studied. This paper introduces a cellular automata called Langton’s turmite to several different light switching scenarios and discusses when Langton’s turmite can solve these games.

Keywords: cellular automata, lights out, alien tiles, chaos, Langton's Turmite

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2973 Effectiveness of Computer Video Games on the Levels of Anxiety of Children Scheduled for Tooth Extraction

Authors: Marji Umil, Miane Karyle Urolaza, Ian Winston Dale Uy, John Charle Magne Valdez, Karen Elizabeth Valdez, Ervin Charles Valencia, Cheryleen Tan-Chua

Abstract:

Objective: Distraction techniques can be successful in reducing the anxiety of children during medical procedures. Dental procedures, in particular, are associated with dental anxiety which has been identified as a significant and common problem in children, however, only limited studies were conducted to address such problem. Thus, this study determined the effectiveness of computer video games on the levels of anxiety of children between 5-12 years old scheduled for tooth extraction. Methods: A pre-test post-test quasi-experimental study was conducted involving 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental and 15 in the control. Subjects in the experimental group played computer video games for a maximum of 15 minutes, however, no intervention was done on the control. The modified Yale Pre-operative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS) with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.9 was used to assess anxiety at two different points: upon arrival in the clinic (pre-test anxiety) and 15 minutes after the first measurement (post-test anxiety). Paired t-test and ANCOVA were used to analyze the gathered data. Results: Results showed that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test anxiety scores of the control group (p=0.0002) which indicates an increased anxiety. A significant difference was also noted between the pre-test and post-test anxiety scores of the experimental group (p=0.0002) which indicates decreased anxiety. Comparatively, the experimental group showed lower anxiety score (p=<0.0001) than the control. Conclusion: The use of computer video games is effective in reducing the pre-operative anxiety among children and can be an alternative non-pharmacological management in giving pre-operative care.

Keywords: play therapy, preoperative anxiety, tooth extraction, video games

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2972 The Intensity of Load Experienced by Female Basketball Players during Competitive Games

Authors: Tomas Vencurik, Jiri Nykodym

Abstract:

This study compares the intensity of game load among player positions and between the 1st and the 2nd half of the games. Two guards, three forwards, and three centers (female basketball players) participated in this study. The heart rate (HR) and its development were monitored during two competitive games. Statistically insignificant differences in the intensity of game load were recorded between guards, forwards, and centers below and above 85% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) and in the mean HR as % of HRmax (87.81±3.79%, 87.02±4.37%, and 88.76±3.54%, respectively). Moreover, when the 1st and the 2nd half of the games were compared in the mean HR (87.89±4.18% vs. 88.14±3.63% of HRmax), no statistical significance was recorded. This information can be useful for coaching staff, to manage and to precisely plan the training process.

Keywords: game load, heart rate, player positions, the 1st, the 2nd half of the games

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2971 A Process to Support Multidisciplinary Teams to Design Serious Games

Authors: Naza Djafarova, Tony Bates, Margaret Verkuyl, Leonora Zefi, Ozgur Turetken, Alex Ferworn, Mastrilli Paula, Daria Romaniuk, Kosha Bramesfeld, Anastasia Dimitriadou, Cheryl To

Abstract:

Designing serious games for education is a challenging and resource-intensive effort. If a well-designed process that balances pedagogical principles with game mechanics is in place, it can help to simplify the design process of serious games and increase efficiency. Multidisciplinary teams involved in designing serious games can benefit tremendously from such a process in their endeavours to develop and implement these games at undergraduate and graduate levels. This paper presentation will outline research results on identified gaps within existing processes and frameworks and present an adapted process that emerged from the research. The research methodology was based on a survey, semi-structured interviews and workshops for testing the adapted process for game design. Based on the findings, the authors propose a simple process for the pre-production stage of serious game design that may help guide multidisciplinary teams in their work. This process was used to facilitate team brainstorming, and is currently being tested to assess if multidisciplinary teams find value in using it in their process of designing serious games.

Keywords: serious game-design, multidisciplinary team, game design framework, learning games, multidisciplinary game design process

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