Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1826

Search results for: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

1826 Prescribing Pattern of Drugs in Patients with ARDS: An Observational Study

Authors: Rahul Magazine, Shobitha Rao


The aim of this study was to study the prescribing pattern of drugs in patients with ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) managed at a tertiary care hospital. This observational study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Karnataka, India. Data of patients admitted from January 2010 to December 2012 was collected. A total of 150 patients of ARDS were included. Data included patients’ age, gender, clinical disorders precipitating ARDS, and prescribing pattern of drugs. The mean age of the study population was 42.92±13.91 years. 48% of patients were less than 40 years of age. Infection was the cause of ARDS in 81.3% of subjects. Antibiotics were prescribed in all the subjects and beta-lactams were prescribed in 97.3%. 41.3% were prescribed corticosteroids, 39.3% diuretics and 89.3% intravenous fluids. Infection was the commonest etiology for ARDS, and beta-lactams were the commonest antibiotics prescribed. Corticosteroids and diuretics were prescribed in a significant number of patients. Most of the patients received intravenous fluids.

Keywords: acute respiratory syndrome, beta lactams, corticosteroids, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

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1825 Prone Positioning and Clinical Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Authors: Maha Salah Abdullah Ismail, Mahmoud M. Alsagheir, Mohammed Salah Abd Allah


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by permeability pulmonary edema and refractory hypoxemia. Lung-protective ventilation is still the key of better outcome in ARDS. Prone position reduces the trans-pulmonary pressure gradient, recruiting collapsed regions of the lung without increasing airway pressure or hyperinflation. Prone ventilation showed improved oxygenation and improved outcomes in severe hypoxemic patients with ARDS. This study evaluates the effect of prone positioning on mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS. A quasi-experimental design was carried out at Critical Care Units, on 60 patients. Two tools were utilized to collect data; Socio demographic, medical and clinical outcomes data sheet. Results of the present study indicated that prone position improves oxygenation in patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome. The study recommended that use prone position in patients with severe ARDS, as early as possible and for long sessions. Also, replication of this study on larger probability sample at the different geographical location is highly recommended.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome, critical care, mechanical ventilation, prone position

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1824 The Relationship between Human Neutrophil Elastase Levels and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Patients with Thoracic Trauma

Authors: Wahyu Purnama Putra, Artono Isharanto


Thoracic trauma is trauma that hits the thoracic wall or intrathoracic organs, either due to blunt trauma or sharp trauma. Thoracic trauma often causes impaired ventilation-perfusion due to damage to the lung parenchyma. This results in impaired tissue oxygenation, which is one of the causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). These changes are caused by the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, plasmatic proteins, and proteases into the alveolar space associated with ongoing edema, as well as oxidative products that ultimately result in severe inhibition of the surfactant system. This study aims to predict the incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) through human neutrophil elastase levels. This study examines the relationship between plasma elastase levels as a predictor of the incidence of ARDS in thoracic trauma patients in Malang. This study is an observational cohort study. Data analysis uses the Pearson correlation test and ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve). It can be concluded that there is a significant (p= 0.000, r= -0.988) relationship between elastase levels and BGA-3. If the value of elastase levels is limited to 23.79 ± 3.95, the patient will experience mild ARDS. While if the value of elastase levels is limited to 57.68 ± 18.55, in the future, the patient will experience moderate ARDS. Meanwhile, if the elastase level is between 107.85 ± 5.04, the patient will likely experience severe ARDS. Neutrophil elastase levels correlate with the degree of severity of ARDS incidence.

Keywords: ARDS, human neutrophil elastase, severity, thoracic trauma

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1823 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Developed Clinical Pathway: Suggested Protocol

Authors: Maha Salah, Hanaa Hashem, Mahmoud M. Alsagheir, Mohammed Salah


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents a complex clinical syndrome and carries a high risk for mortality. The severity of the clinical course, the uncertainty of the outcome, and the reliance on the full spectrum of critical care resources for treatment mean that the entire health care team is challenged. Researchers and clinicians have investigated the nature of the pathological process and explored treatment options with the goal of improving outcome. Through this application of research to practice, we know that some previous strategies have been ineffective, and innovations in mechanical ventilation, sedation, nutrition, and pharmacological intervention remain important research initiatives. Developed Clinical pathway is multidisciplinary plans of best clinical practice for this specified groups of patients that aid in the coordination and delivery of high quality care. They are a documented sequence of clinical interventions that help a patient to move, progressively through a clinical experience to a desired outcome. Although there is a lot of heterogeneity in patients with ARDS, this suggested developed clinical pathway with alternatives was built depended on a lot of researches and evidence based medicine and nursing practices which may be helping these patients to improve outcomes, quality of life and decrease mortality.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), clinical pathway, clinical syndrome

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1822 Effects of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Lung Remodeling

Authors: Diana Islam, Juan Fang, Vito Fanelli, Bing Han, Julie Khang, Jianfeng Wu, Arthur S. Slutsky, Haibo Zhang


Introduction: MSC delivery in preclinical models of ARDS has demonstrated significant improvements in lung function and recovery from acute injury. However, the role of MSC delivery in ARDS associated pulmonary fibrosis is not well understood. Some animal studies using bleomycin, asbestos, and silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis show that MSC delivery can suppress fibrosis. While other animal studies using radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis, liver, and kidney fibrosis models show that MSC delivery can contribute to fibrosis. Hypothesis: The beneficial and deleterious effects of MSC in ARDS are modulated by the lung microenvironment at the time of MSC delivery. Methods: To induce ARDS a two-hit mouse model of Hydrochloric acid (HCl) aspiration (day 0) and mechanical ventilation (MV) (day 2) was used. HCl and injurious MV generated fibrosis within 14-28 days. 0.5x106 mouse MSCs were delivered (via both intratracheal and intravenous routes) either in the active inflammatory phase (day 2) or during the remodeling phase (day 14) of ARDS (mouse fibroblasts or PBS used as a control). Lung injury accessed using inflammation score and elastance measurement. Pulmonary fibrosis was accessed using histological score, tissue collagen level, and collagen expression. In addition alveolar epithelial (E) and mesenchymal (M) marker expression profile was also measured. All measurements were taken at day 2, 14, and 28. Results: MSC delivery 2 days after HCl exacerbated lung injury and fibrosis compared to HCl alone, while the day 14 delivery showed protective effects. However in the absence of HCl, MSC significantly reduced the injurious MV-induced fibrosis. HCl injury suppressed E markers and up-regulated M markers. MSC delivery 2 days after HCl further amplified M marker expression, indicating their role in myofibroblast proliferation/activation. While with 14-day delivery E marker up-regulation was observed indicating their role in epithelial restoration. Conclusions: Early MSC delivery can be protective of injurious MV. Late MSC delivery during repair phase may also aid in recovery. However, early MSC delivery during the exudative inflammatory phase of HCl-induced ARDS can result in pro-fibrotic profiles. It is critical to understand the interaction between MSC and the lung microenvironment before MSC-based therapies are utilized for ARDS.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), hydrochloric acid (HCl), mechanical ventilation (MV)

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1821 Pulmonary Complications of Dengue Infection

Authors: Shilpa Avarebeel


Background: India is one of the seven identified countries in South-East Asia region, regularly reporting dengue infection and may soon transform into a major niche for dengue epidemics. Objective: To study the clinical profile of dengue in our setting with special reference to respiratory complication. Study design: Descriptive and exploratory study, for one year in 2014. All patients confirmed as dengue infection were followed and their clinical profile, along with outcome was determined. Study proforma was designed based on the objective of the study and it was pretested and used after modification. Data was analyzed using statistical software SPSS-Version 16. Data were expressed as mean ±S .D for parametric variables and actual frequencies or percentage for non-parametric data. Comparison between groups was done using students’ t-test for independent groups, Chie square test, one-way ANOVA test, Karl Pearson’s correlation test. Statistical significance is taken at P < 0.05. Results: Study included 134 dengue positive cases. 81% had dengue fever, 18% had dengue hemorrhagic fever, and one had dengue shock syndrome. Most of the cases reported were during the month of June. Maximum number of cases was in the age group of 26-35 years. Average duration of hospital stay was less than seven days. Fever and myalgia was present in all the 134 patients, 16 had bleeding manifestation. 38 had respiratory symptoms, 24 had breathlessness, and 14 had breathlessness and dry cough. On clinical examination of patients with respiratory symptoms, all twenty-eight had hypoxia features, twenty-four had signs of pleural effusion, and four had ARDS features. Chest x-ray confirmed the same. Among the patients with respiratory symptoms, the mean platelet count was 26,537 c/cmm. There was no statistical significant difference in the platelet count in those with ARDS and other dengue complications. Average four units of platelets were transfused to all those who had ARDS in view of bleeding tendency. Mechanical ventilator support was provided for ARDS patients. Those with pleural effusion and pulmonary oedema were given NIV (non-invasive ventilation) support along with supportive care. However, steroids were given to patients with ARDS and 10 patients with signs of respiratory distress. 100%. Mortality was seen in patients with ARDS. Conclusion: Dengue has to be checked for those presenting with fever and breathlessness. Supportive treatments remain the cornerstone of treatment. Platelet transfusion has to be given only by clinical judgment. Steroids have no role except in early ARDS, which is controversial. Early NIV support helps in speedy recovery of dengue patients with respiratory distress.

Keywords: adult respiratory distress syndrome, dengue fever, non-invasive ventilation, pulmonary complication

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1820 Rice Tablet Poisoning in Iran

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Samaneh Nabavi, Shirin Jalili


Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is an inorganic phosphide used to control insects and is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. In Iran it was known as "rice tablet", for its use to preserve rice. Two kinds of rice tablets one being herbal while other containing 3g aluminum phosphide (AlP) are available for use in Iranian households to protect stored food grains from pests and rodents. The toxicity of Aluminum phosphide is attributed to the liberation of phosphine gas in contact with water or weak acid and is the major cause of poisoning and deaths. Rice tablet (Aluminum Phosphid) poisoning may be associated with serious and sometimes incurable complications. In 61.3% of patients were shown uniform ingestion. Vomiting was the most common symptoms reported by 96.4% patients. Agitation was reported in 36.9% and felling of thirsty in 27.9 %. Although many complications such as Hypotension, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Renal Failure (ARF) AND Multi Organ Failure (MOF) were the common complications observed in these patients, but the most lethal complication was Cardiac Arrhythmias occurred in 36.9% of cases. Abdominal pain in 31.4% of the patients, nausea in 79.4% of the patients and 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning leading to deaths in 18.6% of the patients. Aluminum phosphide can cause either elevation, decrease or no change in electrolytes, bicarbonate and blood glucose level. The possible mechanism for changes in blood glucose levels are complex and depend on the balance of factors which increase its concentration and those which reduce it. AlP poisoning has been postulated to stimulate cortisol which leads to increasing blood level of cortisol, also it may cause stimulation of glucagon, and Adrenaline secretion; in addition, it can inhibit insulin synthesis which may lead to hyperglycemia. Another suggested mechanism of hyperglycemia is rennin activity in some cases, an increase in magnesium level of plasma and that of tissues, and high phosphate level. Although hyperglycemia is most frequent in this poisoning and also is known as a marker of poor prognostic, hypoglycemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning is a rare finding which may be so dangerous. Patients showed sever hypotension and sever acidosis in addition to sever hypoglycemia. The presenting features of AlP intoxication are rapid onset of shock, severe metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Keywords: aluminum phosphide (ALP), rice tablet, poisoning, phosphine gas

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1819 Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (Dress) Syndrome Presenting as Multi-Organ Failure

Authors: Keshari Shrestha, Philip Vatterott


Introduction: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal drug-related syndrome. DRESS classically presents with a diffuse maculopapular rash, fevers, and eosinophilia more than three weeks after drug exposure. DRESS can present with multi-organ involvement, with liver damage being the most common and severe. Pulmonary involvement is a less common manifestation and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Chest imaging is often nonspecific, and symptoms can range from mild cough to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) . This is a case of a 49-year-old female with a history of recent clostridium difficile colitis status post treatment with oral vancomycin who presented with rash, acute liver and kidney failure, as well as diffuse nodular alveolar lung opacities concerning for DRESS syndrome with multi-organ involvement. Clinical Course: This patient initially presented to an outside hospital with clostridium difficile colitis, acute liver injury, and acute kidney injury. She developed a desquamating maculopapular rash in the setting of recent oral vancomycin, meloxicam, and furosemide initiation. She was hospitalized on two additional occasions with worsening altered mental status, liver injury, and acute kidney injury and was initiated on intermittent hemodialysis. Notably, she was found to have systemic eosinophilia (4100 cells/microliter) several weeks prior. She was transferred to this institution for further management where she was found to have encephalopathy, jaundice, lower extremity edema, and diffuse bilateral rhonchorous breath sounds on pulmonary examination. The patient was started on methylprednisolone for suspected DRESS syndrome. She underwent an evaluation for alternative causes of her organ failure. Her workup included a negative infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, toxic, and malignant work-up. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound were remarkable for evidence of hepatic steatosis and possible cirrhotic morphology. Additionally, a chest CT demonstrated diffuse and symmetric nodular alveolar lung opacities with peripheral sparing not consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome or edema. Ultimately, her condition continued to decline, and she required intubation on several occasions. On hospital day 25 she succumbed to distributive shock in the setting of probable sepsis and multi-organ failure. Discussion: DRESS syndrome occurs in 1 in 1,000 to 10,000 patients with a mortality rate of around 10%. Anti-convulsant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and sulfonamide drugs are the most common drugs implicated in the development of DRESS syndrome; however, the list of offending agents is extensive . The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is made after excluding other causes of disease such as infectious and autoimmune etiologies. The RegiSCAR scoring system is used to diagnose DRESS syndrome with 2-3 points indicating possible disease, 4-5 probable disease, and >5 definite disease. This patient scored a 7 on the RegiSCAR scale for eosinophilia, rash, organ involvement, and exclusion of other causes (infectious and autoimmune). While the pharmacologic trigger in this case is unknown, it is speculated to be caused by vancomycin, meloxicam, or furosemide due to the favorable timeline of initiation. Despite aggressive treatment, DRESS syndrome can often be fatal. Because of this, early diagnosis and treatment of patients with suspected DRESS syndrome is imperative.

Keywords: drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, multi-organ failure, pulmonary involvement, renal failure

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1818 A Comparative Study in Acute Pancreatitis to Find out the Effectiveness of Early Addition of Ulinastatin to Current Standard Care in Indian Subjects

Authors: Dr. Jenit Gandhi, Dr. Manojith SS, Dr. Nakul GV, Dr. Sharath Honnani, Dr. Shaurav Ghosh, Dr. Neel Shetty, Dr. Nagabhushan JS, Dr. Manish Joshi


Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas which begins in pancreatic acinar cells and triggers local inflammation that may progress to systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and causing distant organ involvement and its function and ending up with multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS). Aim: A comparative study in acute pancreatitis to find out the effectiveness of early addition of Ulinastatin to current standard care in Indian subjects . Methodology: A current prospective observational study is done during study period of 1year (Dec 2018 –Dec 2019) duration to evaluate the effect of early addition of Ulinastatin to the current standard treatment and its efficacy to reduce the early complication, analgesic requirement and duration of hospital stay in patients with Acute Pancreatitis. Results: In the control group 25 were males and 05 were females. In the test group 18 were males and 12 females. Majority was in the age group between 30 - 70 yrs of age with >50% in the 30-50yrs age group in both test and control groups. The VAS was median grade 3 in control group as compared to median grade 2 in test group , the pain was more in the initial 2 days in test group compared to 4 days in test group , the analgesic requirement was used for more in control group (median 6) to test group( median 3 days ). On follow up after 5 days for a period of 2 weeks none of the patients in the test group developed any complication. Where as in the control group 8 patients developed pleural effusion, 04-Pseudopancreatic cyst, 02 – patient developed portal vein and splenic vein thrombosis, 02 patients – ventilator with ARDS which were treated symptomatically whereas in test group 02 patient developed pleural effusions and 01 pseudo pancreatic cyst with splenic artery aneurysm, 01 – patient with AKI and MODS symptomatically treated. The duration of hospital stay for a median period of 4 days (2 – 7 days) in test group and 7 days (4 -10 days) in control group. All patients were able to return to normal work on an average of 5days compared 8days in control group, the difference was significant. Conclusion:The study concluded that early addition of Ulinastatin to current standard treatment of acute Pancreatitis is effective in reducing pain, early complication and duration of hospital stay in Indian subject

Keywords: Ulinastatin, VAS – visual analogue score , AKI – acute kidney injury , ARDS – acute respiratory distress syndrome

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1817 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref


Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: asthma, emergency department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

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1816 Parameter Estimation with Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for the SARS Outbreak in Hong Kong

Authors: Afia Naheed, Manmohan Singh, David Lucy


This work is based on a mathematical as well as statistical study of an SEIJTR deterministic model for the interpretation of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Based on the SARS epidemic in 2003, the parameters are estimated using Runge-Kutta (Dormand-Prince pairs) and least squares methods. Possible graphical and numerical techniques are used to validate the estimates. Then effect of the model parameters on the dynamics of the disease is examined using sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity and uncertainty analytical techniques are used in order to analyze the affect of the uncertainty in the obtained parameter estimates and to determine which parameters have the largest impact on controlling the disease dynamics.

Keywords: infectious disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analysis, Runge-Kutta methods, Levenberg-Marquardt method

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1815 Evaluation of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury

Authors: Hossein Barri Ghazani


Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the main reason of transfusion-related death, and it’s assigned to white blood cell reactive antibodies present in the blood product (anti-HLA class I and class II or anti granulocyte antibodies). TRALI may occur in the COVID-19 patients who are treated by convalescent plasma. The rate of TRALI’s reactions is the same in both males and females and can happen in all age groups. TRALI’s occurrence is higher for people who receive plasma from female donors because the parous female donors have multiple HLA antibodies in their plasma. Patients with chronic liver disease have an augmented risk of transfusion-related acute lung injuries from plasma containing blood products like FFP and PRP. The condition of TRALI suddenly starts with a non‐cardiogenic pulmonary Edema, often accompanied by marked systemic hypovolemic and hypotension. The conditions occur during or within a few hours of transfusion. Chest X-ray shows a nodular penetration or bats’ wing pattern of Edema which can be seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome as well. TRALI can occur with any type of blood products and can occur with as little as one unit. The blood donor center should be informed of the suspected TRALI reactions when the symptoms of TRALI are observed. After a review of the clinical data, the donors must be screened for granulocyte and HLA antibodies. The diagnosis and management of TRALI is not simple and is best done with a professional team and a specialty skilled nurse experienced with the upkeep of these patients.

Keywords: TRALI, transfusion-related death, anti-granulocyte antibodies, anti-HLA antibodies, COVID-19

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1814 Demand for Care in Primary Health Care in the Governorate of Ariana: Results of a Survey in Ariana Primary Health Care and Comparison with the Last 30 Years

Authors: Chelly Souhir, Harizi Chahida, Hachaichi Aicha, Aissaoui Sihem, Chahed Mohamed Kouni


Introduction: In Tunisia, few studies have attempted to describe the demand for primary care in a standardized and systematic way. The purpose of this study is to describe the main reasons for demand for care in primary health care, through a survey of the Ariana Governorate PHC and to identify their evolutionary trend compared to last 30 years, reported by studies of the same type. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which concerns the study of consultants in the first line of the governorate of Ariana and their use of care recorded during 2 days in the same week during the month of May 2016, in each of these PHC. The same data collection sheet was used in all CSBs. The coding of the information was done according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: Our study found that the most common ICPC chapters are respiratory (42%) and digestive (13.2%). In 1996 were the respiratory (43.5%) and circulatory (7.8%). In 2000, we found also the respiratory (39,6%) and circulatory (10,9%). In 2002, respiratory (43%) and digestive (10.1%) motives were the most frequent. According to the ICPC, the pathologies in our study were acute angina (19%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (8%). In 1996, it was tonsillitis ( 21.6%) and acute bronchitis (7.2%). For Ben Abdelaziz in 2000, tonsillitis (14.5%) follow by acute bronchitis (8.3%). In 2002, acute angina (15.7%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (11.2%) were the most common. Conclusion: Acute angina and tonsillitis are the most common in all studies conducted in Tunisia.

Keywords: acute angina, classification of primary care, primary health care, tonsillitis, Tunisia

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1813 Analysis of Financial Performance Measurement and Financial Distress Assessment of Highway Companies Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange before and during COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Ari Prasetyo, Taufik Faturohman


The COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was confirmed to have spread to Indonesia on 2 March 2020. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has been conducting a local lockdown to limit people's movement from one city to another city. Therefore, this situation has impact on business operation, especially on highway companies listed on the Indonesia stock exchange. This study evaluates and measures three companies’ financial performance and health conditions before and during the COVID-19 pandemic from 2016 – 2020. The measurement is conducted by using financial ratio analysis and the Altman Z-score method. The ratio used to measure the financial ratio analysis is taken from the decree of the Ministry of SOE’s KEP-100/MBU/2002 about the company’s health level condition. From the decree, there are eight financial ratios used such as return on equity (ROE), return on investment (ROI), current ratio, cash ratio, collection period, inventory turnover, total asset turnover, and total equity to total asset. Altman Z-score is used to calculate the financial distress condition. The result shows that the highway companies for the period 2016 – 2020 are as follows: PT Jasa Marga (Persero) Tbk (AA, BB, BB, BB, C), PT Citra Marga Nusaphala Persada Tbk (BB, AA, BB, BBB, C), and PT Nusantara Infrastructure Tbk (BB, BB, AA, BBB, C). In addition, the Altman Z-score assessment performed in 2016-2020 shows that PT Jasa Marga (Persero) Tbk was in the grey zone area for 2015-2018 and in the distress zone for 2019-2020. PT Citra Marga Nusaphala Persada Tbk was in the grey zone area for 2015-2019 and in the distress zone for 2020. PT Nusantara Infrastructure Tbk was in the grey zone area for 2015-2018 and in the distress zone for 2019-2020.

Keywords: financial performance, financial ratio, Altman Z-score, financial distress, highway company

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1812 Relationships of Driver Drowsiness and Sleep-Disordered Breathing Syndrome

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Yin-Tzu Lin, Chen-Chen Lo, Kang Lo


Background: Driving drowsiness related to inadequate or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of traffic accidents. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) syndrome is a common respiratory disorder during sleep. However, the effects of SDB syndrome on driving fatigue remain unclear. Objective: This study aims to investigate the relationship between SDB pattern and driving drowsiness. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. SDB syndrome was quantified as the polysomnography, and the air flow pattern was collected by the thermistor and nasal pressure cannula. To evaluate the desaturation, the mean hourly number of greater than 3% dips in oxygen saturation was sentenced by reregistered technologist during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The independent T-test was used to investigate the correlations between sleep disorders related index and driving drowsiness. Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. Four-hundred-eighty-four subjects (55%) were classified as fatigue group, and 396 subjects (45%) were served as the control group. Significantly higher values of snoring index (242.14 ± 205.51 /hours) were observed in the fatigue group (p < 0.01). The value of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (31.82 ± 19.34 /hours) in fatigue group were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We observe the considerable association between SDB syndrome and driving drowsiness. To promote traffic safety, SDB syndrome should be controlled and alleviated.

Keywords: driving drowsiness, sleep-disordered breathing syndrome, snoring index, respiratory disturbance index.

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1811 Relative Importance of Contact Constructs to Acute Respiratory Illness in General Population in Hong Kong

Authors: Kin On Kwok, Vivian Wei, Benjamin Cowling, Steven Riley, Jonathan Read


Background: The role of social contact behavior measured in different contact constructs in the transmission of respiratory pathogens with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remains unclear. We, therefore, aim to depict the individual pattern of ARI in the community and investigate the association between different contact dimensions and ARI in Hong Kong. Methods: Between June 2013 and September 2013, 620 subjects participated in the last two waves of recruitment of the population based longitudinal phone social contact survey. Some of the subjects in this study are from the same household. They are also provided with the symptom diaries to self-report any acute respiratory illness related symptoms between the two days of phone recruitment. Data from 491 individuals who were not infected on the day of phone recruitment and returned the symptom diaries after the last phone recruitment were used for analysis. Results: After adjusting different follow-up periods among individuals, the overall incidence rate of ARI was 1.77 per 100 person-weeks. Over 75% ARI episodes involve running nose, cough, sore throat, which are followed by headache (55%), malagia (35%) and fever (18%). Using a generalized estimating equation framework accounting for the cluster effect of subjects living in the same household, we showed that both daily number of locations visited with contacts and the number of contacts, explained the ARI incidence rate better than only one single contact construct. Conclusion: Our result suggests that it is the intertwining property of contact quantity (number of contacts) and contact intensity (ratio of subject-to-contact) that governs the infection risk by a collective set of respiratory pathogens. Our results provide empirical evidence that multiple contact constructs should be incorporated in the mathematical transmission models to feature a more realistic dynamics of respiratory disease.

Keywords: acute respiratory illness, longitudinal study, social contact, symptom diaries

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1810 The Combination Of Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score (ADD-RS) With D-dimer As A Diagnostic Tool To Exclude The Diagnosis Of Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS)

Authors: Mohamed Hamada Abdelkader Fayed


Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a screening test to exclude AAS. Methods: We conducted research for the studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD- RS)+ D-dimer to exclude the diagnosis of AAS, We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane of Trials up to 31 December 2020. Results: We identified 3 studies using (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a diagnostic tool for AAS, involving 3261 patients were AAS was diagnosed in 559(17.14%) patients. Overall results showed that the pooled sensitivities were 97.6 (95% CI 0.95.6, 99.6) at (ADD-RS)≤1(low risk group) with D-dimer and 97.4(95% CI 0.95.4,, 99.4) at (ADD-RS)>1(High risk group) with D-dimer., the failure rate was 0.48% at low risk group and 4.3% at high risk group respectively. Conclusions: (ADD-RS) with D-dimer was a useful screening test with high sensitivity to exclude Acute Aortic Syndrome.

Keywords: aortic dissection detection risk score, D-dimer, acute aortic syndrome, diagnostic accuracy

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1809 Histopathological Examination of Lung Surgery Camel in Iran

Authors: Ali Chitgar


Respiratory infections including diseases in camels are important not only because of the threat of animal health but also to reduce their production. Since that deal with respiratory problems and their treatment requires adequate knowledge of the existing respiratory problems, unfortunately, there is limited information about the species of camels. This study aimed to identify lung lesions camels slaughtered in a slaughterhouse more important was performed using histopathology. Respiratory camels (n = 477) was examined after the killing fully and tissue samples were placed in 10% formalin. The samples and histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining and color were evaluated. In this study 79.6 % (236 of 477 samples) of the samples was at least a lung lesion. Rate acute interstitial pneumonia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the pleura and 52.8 % respectively atelectasis (236 of 477 samples), 5.4 % (24 of 477 samples), 7.8 % (35 of 477 samples), 6.7 % (30 of 477 samples), 3.4 % (15 of 477 samples) and 15.2% (68 of 477 samples). The lung lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in autumn winter rather than spring and summer (p <0/05) and as a result, this study showed that high rates of lung lesions in the camel population. Waste higher results in cold seasons (fall and winter) shows.

Keywords: camel, surgery, histopathology, breathing organ

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1808 A Patent Foramen Ovale as a Potential Indication for Systemic Thrombolysis in Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: M. E. Nuver, F. M. M. Meijer, M. Goeijenbier


Systemic thrombolysis is recommended in patients with obstructive shock due to a pulmonary embolism. According to the current guidelines, thrombolysis, is not indicated in normotensive patients with intermediate risk pulmonary embolism. This is mainly due to an increased bleeding risk. The same is the case in isolated hypoxic respiratory failure. We present a case of a patient without hemodynamic instability, but with a intermediate risk acute pulmonary embolism. The case was complicated due to an intracardiac shunt through a patent foramen ovale (PFO). This PFO was aggravated by mechanical ventilation. We contemplate whether a PFO could be an additional thrombolysis indication in acute pulmonary embolism. A 47 year-old female attended the emergency department with a three day history of progressive shortness of breath. At physical examination, we observed a female in respiratory distress with tachypnea (30 breaths per minute) and severe hypoxia with a blood oxygen saturation of 60%. She was tachycardic (130 beats per minute) but was normotensive (165/75 mmHg). She had normal heart sounds an pulmonary auscultation revealed no abnormalities. Chest X-ray showed no abnormalities and a chest computed tomography angiography revealed severe saddle pulmonary embolism with lung infarction in the right lower lobe and dilatation of the right ventricle. Patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and continuous unfractionated heparin was initiated. The respiratory distress deteriorated and positive pressure mechanical ventilation was commenced. After the initiation of positive pressure ventilation the patients hypoxia worsened, hence an intra-cardiac shunt was suspected. A trans thoracic echocardiogram revealed a right-to-left shunt through a PFO. Because the severe and progressive hypoxia, systemic thrombolysis was considered to accelerate the resolution of pulmonary embolism. According to literature the prevalence of PFO lies between 25-30%. The presence of a right-to-left intracardiac shunt in patients with acute pulmonary embolism is associated with a remarkable increase in mortality. Furthermore, arterial embolism and ischaemic stroke are seen in higher numbers in these patients. Mechanical ventilation may increase the fraction of intracardiac shunt. Currently a PFO, in patients needing mechanical ventilation, is not an indication for thrombolysis in any guideline. Systemic thrombolysis in patients with a pulmonary embolism and severe hypoxia due to shunting is pathophysiological conceivable. Acceleration of the resolution of pulmonary embolism, will reduce right ventricular pressure thereby reducing the shunt fraction. A possible detriment of systemic thrombolysis is an increased bleeding risk. Furthermore, it may be a (relative) contra-indication for the initiation of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. With these possible drawbacks in mind, we did not administer systemic thrombolysis and therapy with unfractioned heparine was continued. After 3 days, mechanical ventilation could be discontinued and patient was discharged from the intensive care unit. Patients with acute pulmonary embolism and a concomitant intracardiac shunt through a patent foramen ovale have a high risk of mortality and severe complications. Positive mechanical ventilation may increase the shunt fraction and aggravate hypoxaemia. Systemic thrombolysis may be considered but it remains unclear whether the potential benefits outweigh the increased bleeding risk.

Keywords: intracardiac shunt, patent foramen ovale, pulmonary embolism, systemic thrombolysis

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1807 Unexpected Acute Respiratory Failure following Administration of Rocuronium Bromide during Cesarean Delivery in a Severely Preeclamptic Parturient Treated with Magnesium Sulfate

Authors: Joseph Carl Macalintal, Erlinda Armovit


Magnesium sulfate has been a mainstay in the management of preeclampsia and is associated with a decreased incidence of morbidity and mortality. The syndrome has an unpredictable course, sometimes rapidly evolving to full-blown disease. In patients with deteriorating status, it is indicated to terminate the pregnancy via cesarean section. The anesthesiologists would prefer to have the procedure done under regional anesthesia; however, there may be cases when neuraxial anesthesia is contraindicated, or a general anesthesia would permit prompt delivery of the fetus. A patient with severe preeclampsia was given magnesium sulfate intrapartum, wherein a primary cesarean section was indicated for arrest in cervical dilatation, and was performed under general anesthesia. The patient developed acute respiratory failure and the causes of this occurrence were investigated in this report. It was later found out that neither the hypermagnesemia nor the muscle relaxant alone caused the patient’s condition but the interaction between the two. The patient was managed expectantly at the intensive care unit (ICU) and was eventually extubated during the 1st post-operative day. Knowledge of this drug interaction would allow obstetricians to advise their patients and their family about the possibility of prolonged intubation and ICU admission. This would also bring to the anesthesiologists’ attention the need to decrease the dose of muscle relaxant and to prepare drugs for immediate decurarisation.

Keywords: eclampsia, magnesium sulfate, preeclampsia, rocuronium bromide

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1806 Therapeutic Application of Light and Electromagnetic Fields to Reduce Hyper-Inflammation Triggered by COVID-19

Authors: Blanche Aguida, Marootpong Pooam, Nathalie Jourdan, Margaret Ahmad


COVID-19-related morbidity is associated with exaggerated inflammation and cytokine production in the lungs, leading to acute respiratory failure. The cellular mechanisms underlying these so-called ‘cytokine storms’ are regulated through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both light (photobiomodulation) and magnetic fields (e.g., pulsed electromagnetic field) stimulation are non-invasive therapies known to confer anti-inflammatory effects and regulate ROS signaling pathways. Here we show that daily exposure to two 10-minute intervals of moderate-intensity infra-red light significantly lowered the inflammatory response induced via the TLR4 receptor signaling pathway in human cell cultures. Anti-inflammatory effects were likewise achieved by electromagnetic field exposure of cells to daily 10-minute intervals of either pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) or to low-level static magnetic fields. Because current illumination and electromagnetic field therapies have no known side effects and are already approved for some medical uses, we have here developed protocols for verification in clinical trials of COVID 19 infection. These treatments are affordable, simple to implement, and may help to resolve the acute respiratory distress of COVID 19 patients both in the home and in the hospital.

Keywords: COVID 19, electromagnetic fields therapy, inflammation, photobiomodulation therapy

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1805 Pres Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Case Series of Five Cases

Authors: Vaibhavi Birle


Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare clinic-radiological syndrome associated with acute changes in blood pressure during pregnancy. It is characterized symptomatically by headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual blurring with radiological changes of white matter (vasogenic oedema) affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain. It is being increasingly recognized due to increased institutional deliveries and advances in imaging particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In spite of the increasing diagnosis the prediction of PRES and patient factors affecting susceptibility is still not clear. Hence, we conducted the retrospective study to analyse the factors associated with PRES at our tertiary centre.

Keywords: pres syndrome, eclampsia, maternal outcome, fetal outcome

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1804 Spontaneous Tumour Lysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan


Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome is a constellation of electrolyte abnormalities and an acute renal failure which occurs in the setting of rapid cell turnover prior to the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. While spontaneous tumour lysis well-described in patients with Burkitt lymphoma, it is thought to occur less commonly in patients with other hematological malignancies. We present a case of forty-year-old female who presented with features of acute renal failure, on further evaluation turned out to be a newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia with spontaneous tumour lysis best of our knowledge only three cases of AML with spontaneous tumour lysis has reported world wide.

Keywords: AML, tumour lysis, renal failure, myeloid leukemia

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1803 Causes of Death in Neuromuscular Disease Patients: 15-Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Po-Ching Chou, Wen-Chen Liang, I. Chen Chen, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yuh-Jyh Jong


Background:Cardiopulmonary complications seem to cause high morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD) but so far there is no domestic data reported in Taiwan. We, therefore attempted to analyze the factors to cause the death in NMD patients from our cohort. Methods:From 1998 to 2013, we retrospectively collected the information of the NMD patients treated and followed up in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Forty-two patients with NMD who expired during these fifteen years were enrolled. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and the causes of death and the associated affecting factors were analyzed. Results:Eighteen patients with NMD (mean age=13.3, SD=12.4) with complete medical record and detailed information were finally included in this study, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (n=9, 7/9: type 1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n=6), congenital muscular dystrophy (n=1), carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency (n=1) and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD)(n=1). The place of death was in ICU (n=11, 61%), emergency room (n=3, 16.6%) or home (n=4, 22.2%). For SMA type 1 patients, most of them (71.4%, 5/7) died in emergency room or home and the other two expired during an ICU admission. The causes of death included acute respiratory failure due to pneumonia (n=13, 72.2 %), ventilator failure or dislocation (n=2, 11.1%), suffocation/choking (n=2, 11.1%), and heart failure with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=1, 5.55%). Among the 15 patients died of respiratory failure or choking, 73.3% of the patients (n=11) received no ventilator care at home. 80% of the patients (n=12) received no cough assist at home. The patient died of cardiomyopathy received no medications for heart failure until the last admission. Conclusion: Respiratory failure and choking are the leading causes of death in NMD patients. Appropriate respiratory support and airway clearance play the critical role to reduce the mortality.

Keywords: neuromuscular disease, cause of death, tertiary care hospital, medical sciences

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1802 Orientia Tsutsugamushi an Emerging Etiology of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Northern Part of India

Authors: Amita Jain, Shantanu Prakash, Suruchi Shukla


Introduction: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a complex multi etiology syndrome posing a great public health problem in the northern part of India. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is an established etiology of AES in this region. Recently, Scrub typhus (ST) is being recognized as an emerging aetiology of AES in JE endemic belt. This study was conducted to establish the direct evidence of Central nervous system invasion by Orientia tsutsugamushi leading to AES. Methodology: A total of 849 cases with clinical diagnosis of AES were enrolled from six districts (Deoria and its adjoining area) of the traditional north Indian Japanese encephalitis (JE) belt. Serum and Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and tested for major agent causing acute encephalitis. AES cases either positive for anti-ST IgM antibodies or negative for all tested etiologies were investigated for ST-DNA by real-time PCR. Results: Of these 505 cases, 250 patients were laboratory confirmed for O. tsutsugamushi infection either by anti-ST IgM antibodies positivity (n=206) on serum sample or by ST-DNA detection by real-time PCR assay on CSF sample (n=2) or by both (n=42).Total 29 isolate could be sequenced for 56KDa gene. Conclusion: All the strains were found to cluster with Gilliam strains. The majority of the isolates showed a 97–99% sequence similarity with Thailand and Cambodian strains. Gilliam strain of O.tsusugamushi is an emerging as one of the major aetiologies leading to AES in northern part of India.

Keywords: acute encephalitis syndrome, O. tsutsugamushi, Gilliam strain, North India, cerebrospinal fluid

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1801 Factors Associated with Commencement of Non-Invasive Ventilation

Authors: Manoj Kumar Reddy Pulim, Lakshmi Muthukrishnan, Geetha Jayapathy, Radhika Raman


Introduction: In the past two decades, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) emerged as one of the most important advances in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure in children. In the acute setting, it is an alternative to intubation with a goal to preserve normal physiologic functions, decrease airway injury, and prevent respiratory tract infections. There is a need to determine the clinical profile and parameters which point towards the need for NIV in the pediatric emergency setting. Objectives: i) To study the clinical profile of children who required non invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation, ii) To study the clinical parameters common to children who required non invasive ventilation. Methods: All children between one month to 18 years, who were intubated in the pediatric emergency department and those for whom decision to commence Non Invasive Ventilation was made in Emergency Room were included in the study. Children were transferred to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit and started on Non Invasive Ventilation as per our hospital policy and followed up in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. Clinical profile of all children which included age, gender, diagnosis and indication for intubation were documented. Clinical parameters such as respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation, grunting were documented. Parameters obtained were subject to statistical analysis. Observations: Airway disease (Bronchiolitis 25%, Viral induced wheeze 22%) was a common diagnosis in 32 children who required Non Invasive Ventilation. Neuromuscular disorder was the common diagnosis in 27 children (78%) who were Intubated. 17 children commenced on Non Invasive Ventilation who later needed invasive ventilation had Neuromuscular disease. High frequency nasal cannula was used in 32, and mask ventilation in 17 children. Clinical parameters common to the Non Invasive Ventilation group were age < 1 year (17), tachycardia n = 7 (22%), tachypnea n = 23 (72%) and severe respiratory distress n = 9 (28%), grunt n = 7 (22%), SPO2 (80% to 90%) n = 16. Children in the Non Invasive Ventilation + INTUBATION group were > 3 years (9), had tachycardia 7 (41%), tachypnea 9(53%) with a male predominance n = 9. In statistical comparison among 3 groups,'p' value was significant for pH, saturation, and use of Ionotrope. Conclusion: Invasive ventilation can be avoided in the paediatric Emergency Department in children with airway disease, by commencing Non Invasive Ventilation early. Intubation in the pediatric emergency department has a higher association with neuromuscular disorders.

Keywords: clinical parameters, indications, non invasive ventilation, paediatric emergency room

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1800 Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/cas9-Based Lateral Flow and Fluorescence Diagnostics for Rapid Pathogen Detection

Authors: Mark Osborn


Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas) proteins can be designed to bind specified DNA and RNA sequences and hold great promise for the accurate detection of nucleic acids for diagnostics. Commercially available reagents were integrated into a CRISPR/Cas9-based lateral flow assay that can detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequences with single-base specificity. This approach requires minimal equipment and represents a simplified platform for field-based deployment. A rapid, multiplex fluorescence CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease cleavage assay capable of detecting and differentiating SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus in a single reaction was also developed. These findings provide proof of principle for CRISPR/Cas9 point-of-care diagnosis that can detect specific SARS-CoV-2 strain(s). Further, Cas9 cleavage allows for a scalable fluorescent platform for identifying respiratory viral pathogens with overlapping symptomology. Collectively, this approach is a facile platform for diagnostics with broad application to user-defined sequence interrogation and detection.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, lateral flow assay, SARS-Co-V2, single-nucleotide resolution

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1799 Resurgence of Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 during November 2015 - February 2016, Pakistan

Authors: Nazish Badar


Background: To investigate the epidemic resurgent wave of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infections during 2015-16 Influenza season(Nov,15 –Feb,16) we compared epidemiological features of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 associated hospitalizations and deaths during this period in Pakistan. Methods: Respiratory samples were tested using CDC Real-Time RT-PCR protocols. Demographic and epidemiological data was analyzed using SPSS. Risk ratio was calculated between age groups to compare patients that were hospitalized and died due to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 during this period. Results: A total of 1970 specimens were analyzed; influenza virus was detected in 494(25%) samples, including 458(93%) Influenza type A and 36(7%) influenza type B viruses. Amongst influenza A viruses, 351(77%) A(H1N1) pdm09 and 107(23%) were A/H3N2. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 peaked in January 2016 when 250(54%) of tested patients were positive. The resurgent waves increased hospitalizations due to pdmH1N1 as compared to the rest part of the year. Overall 267(76%) A(H1N1) pdm09 cases were hospitalized. Adults ≥18 years showed the highest relative risk of hospitalization (1.2). Median interval of hospitalization and symptom onset was five days for all age groups. During this period, a total of 34 laboratory-confirmed deaths associated with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were reported out of 1970 cases, the case fatality rate was 1.72%. the male to female ratio was 2:1in reported deaths. The majority of the deaths during that period occurred in adults ≥18 years of age. Overall median age of the death cases was 42.8 years with underlying medical conditions. The median number of days between symptom onset was two days. The diagnosis upon admission in influenza-associated fatal cases was pneumonia (53%). Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 9 (26%), eight out of which (88%) required mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The present resurgence of pandemic virus cannot be attributed to a single factor. The prolong cold and dry weather, possibility of drift in virus and absence of annual flu vaccination may have played an integrated role in resurfacing of pandemic virus.

Keywords: influenza A (H1N1)pdm 09, resurgence, epidemiology, Pakistan

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1798 Clinical Profile of Renal Diseases in Children in Tertiary Care Centre

Authors: Jyoti Agrawal


Introduction: Renal diseases in children and young adult can be difficult to diagnose early as it may present only with few symptoms, tends to have different course than adult and respond variously to different treatment. The pattern of renal disease in children is different from developing countries as compared to developed countries. Methods: This study was a hospital based prospective observational study carried from March, 2014 to February 2015 at BP Koirala institute of health sciences. Patients with renal disease, both inpatient and outpatient from birth to 14 years of age were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of renal disease was be made on clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: Total of 120 patients were enrolled in our study which contributed to 3.74% % of total admission. The commonest feature of presentation was edema (75%), followed by fever (65%), hypertension (60%), decreased urine output (45%) and hematuria (25%). Most common diagnosis was acute glomerulonephritis (40%) followed by Nephrotic syndrome (25%) and urinary tract infection (25%). Renal biopsy was done for 10% of cases and most of them were steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome. 5% of our cases expired because of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, sepsis and acute kidney injury. Conclusion: Renal disease contributes to a large part of hospital pediatric admission as well as mortality and morbidity to the children.

Keywords: glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, urinary tract infection

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1797 Covid-19 Pandemic: Another Lesson Learned by a Military Hospital

Authors: Mariana Floria, Elena-Diana Năfureanu, Diana-Mihaela Gălăţanu, Anca-Ecaterina Grumeza, Cristina Gorea-Bocîncă, Diana-Elena Iov, Aurelian-Corneliu Moraru, Dragoș-Marian Popescu


SARS-CoV-2 is the most deadly and devastating virus of the last one hundred years, being more highly contagious than EBOLA, HIV, Swine Influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome. After two years of pandemic, planning and budgeting for use of healthcare resources and services is very important. The aim of this study was to analyze the costs for hospital stay in patients with predominantly moderate forms of COVID-19 in a support military hospital located in Nord-East of Romania. Inpatient COVID-19 hospitalizations costs, regardless of ICD-10 procedure codes (DRG payment), in a Covid-19 support military hospital were analyzed. From August 2020 through June 2021, 241 patientswere hospitalized. Our national protocol for the treatment of Covid-19 infection was applied. The main COVID-19 manifestations were: 69% respiratory (18% with severe pneumonia, 2.9% with pulmonary embolism, diagnosed by angio-computed tomography), 3.3% cardiac, 28% digestive, and 33% psychiatric (most common anxiety) manifestations. According to COVID-19 severity, most of the patients had moderate (104 patients – 43%) and severe (50 patients - 21%) forms. Seven patients with severe form died because of multiple comorbidities, and 30 patients were transferred in hospitals with COVID-19 intensive care units.Only two patients have had procalcitonin>10 ng/mL (high probability of severe sepsis or septic shock), and 1 patient had moderate risk for septic shock (0.5 - 2 ng/mL). The average estimated costs were about 3000€/patient, without significantly differences depending on disease severity. Equipment costs were 2 times higher than for drugs and 4 times than for laboratory tests. In a Covid-19 support military hospital that took care for predominantly moderate forms of COVID-19, the costs for equipment were much higher than that for treatment. Therefore, new criteria for hospitalization of these forms of COVID-19 deserve to be analyzed to avoid useless costs.

Keywords: Covid-19, costs, hospital stay, military hospital

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