Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Yemen

34 Saudi Arabia and the Yemen War: A Fruitless Struggle

Authors: Majid Dashtgerd, Eisa Moradi Afrapoli

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The “Yemen War” is one of the longest wars of the recent century, which was launched on 26 March 2015 after the Saudi Arabia-led alliance's military intervention in Yemen. The war began with the aim of fighting Yemen's Houthis and preventing Iranian influence in the region, and Saudi leaders expected a quick victory; However, the “Yemen War” lasted about seven years and is still going on (May 2022), and Saudi Arabia has not been able to achieve its strategic objectives. This study seeks to examine some of the most important reasons for Saudi Arabia's protracted war and failure in Yemen.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, yemen war, houthis, Iran

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33 Urban Heritage and Its Role in the Tourism Development in Yemen: Case Study of Historic Town of Zabid

Authors: Yasser Alhiagi, Moshalleh Almoraekhi, Sameh Refaat

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Urban heritage has an important status in the process of developing the Yemeni tourism sector. Urban heritage in Yemen differs depending on the regions and historical cities such as City of Old Sana'a, Historic Town of Zabid, Shibam Hadhramout, Taiz, and others. Zabid is an old town with a long history, founded in the 9th century. It has been the capital of Yemen from the 13th to the 15th century and played, because of its Islamic university, an important role in the Arab and Muslim world for many centuries. The aim of this research is to promote the built heritage of Historic Town of Zabid and explore the possibilities of visiting the rehabilitated buildings and other heritage attractions through tourism. It examines the nature of the relationship exists between tourism and built heritage. The research is intended to contribute to the strategy development of national tourism for the purpose of protecting, developing, and utilizing cultural heritage. Also, the research depended chiefly on the results of a field work proposed to be carried out at Historic Town of Zabid.

Keywords: historic town of Zabid, strategy, tourism development, urban heritage

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32 An Assessment on the Effect of Participation of Rural Woman on Sustainable Rural Water Supply in Yemen

Authors: Afrah Saad Mohsen Al-Mahfadi

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In rural areas of developing countries, participation of all stakeholders in water supply projects is an important step towards further development. As most of the beneficiaries are women, it is important that they should be involved to achieve successful and sustainable water supply projects. Women are responsible for the management of water both inside and outside home, and often spend more than six-hours a day fetching drinking water from distant water sources. The problem is that rural women play a role of little importance in the water supply projects’ phases in rural Yemen. Therefore, this research aimed at analyzing the different reasons of their lack of participation in projects and in what way a full participation -if achieved- could contribute to sustainable water supply projects in the rural mountainous areas in Yemen. Four water supply projects were selected as a case study in Al-Della'a Alaala sub-district in the Al-Mahweet governorate, two of them were implemented by the Social Fund and Development (SFD), while others were implemented by the General Authority for Rural Water Supply Projects (GARWSSP). Furthermore, the successful Al-Galba project, which is located in Badan district in Ibb governorate, was selected for comparison. The rural women's active participation in water projects have potential consequences including continuity and maintenance improvement, equipment security, and improvement in the overall health and education status of these areas. The majority of respondents taking part in GARWSSP projects estimated that there is no reason to involve women in the project activities. In the comparison project - in which a woman worked as a supervisor and implemented the project – all respondents indicated that the participation of women is vital for sustainability. Therefore, the results of this research are intended to stimulate rural women's participation in the mountainous areas of Yemen.

Keywords: assessment, rural woman, sustainability, water management

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31 Evaluating Health-Related Quality of Life of Lost to Follow-Up Tuberculosis Patients in Yemen

Authors: Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman

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Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as a major disease that affects daily activities and impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The impact of TB on HRQoL can affect treatment outcome and may lead to treatment defaulting. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the HRQoL of TB treatment lost to follow-up during and after treatment in Yemen. For this aim, this prospective study enrolled a total of 399 TB lost to follow-up patients between January 2011 and December 2015. By applying HRQoL criteria, only 136 fill the survey during treatment. Moreover, 96 were traced and fill out the HRQoL survey. All eight HRQol domains were categorized into the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS), which were calculated using QM scoring software. Results show that all lost to follow-up TB patients reported a score less than 47 for all eight domains, except general health (67.3) during their treatment period. Low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 were reported for emotional role limitation (RE) and mental health (MH), respectively. Moreover, the mental component score (MCS) was found to be only 28.9. The trace lost follow-up shows a significant improvement in all eight domains and a mental component score of 43.1. The low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 for role emotion and mental health, respectively, in addition to the MCS score of 28.9, show that severe emotional condition and reflect the higher depression during treatment period that can result to lost to follow-up. The low MH, RE, and MCS can be used as a clue for predicting future TB treatment lost to follow-up.

Keywords: Yemen, tuberculosis, health-related quality of life, Khat

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30 Rescaling Global Health and International Relations: Globalization of Health in a Low Security Environment

Authors: F. Argurio, F. G. Vaccaro

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In a global environment defined by ever-increasing health issues, in spite of the progress made by modern medicine, this paper seeks to readdress the question of global health in an international relations perspective. The research hypothesis is: the lower the security environment, the higher the spread of communicable diseases. This question will be channeled by re-scaling the connotation of 'global' and 'international' dimension through the theoretical lens of glocalization, a theory by Bauman that starts its analysis from simple systems to get to the most complex ones. Glocalization theory will be operationalized by analyzing health in an armed-conflict context. In this respect, the independent variable 'low security environment' translates into the cases of Syria and Yemen, which provide a clear example of the all-encompassing nature of conflict on national health and the effects on regional development. In fact, Syria and Yemen have been affected by poliomyelitis and cholera outbreaks respectively. The dependent variable will be constructed on said communicable diseases which belong to the families of sanitation-related and vaccine-preventable diseases. The research will be both qualitative and quantitative, based on primary (interviews) and secondary (WHO and other NGO’s reports) sources. The methodology is based on the assessment of the vaccine coverage and case-analysis in time and space using epidemiological data. Moreover, local health facilities’ functioning and efficiency will be studied. The article posits that the intervention and cooperation of international organizations with the local authorities becomes crucial to provide the local populations with their primary health needs. In Yemen, the majority of fatal cholera cases were in the regions controlled by the Houthi rebels, not officially accredited by the International Community. Similarly, the polio outbreak in Syria primarily affected the areas not controlled by the Syrian Arab Republic forces, recognized as the leading interlocutor by the WHO. The jeopardized possibilities to access these countries have been pivotal to the determining the problem in controlling sanitation-related and vaccine preventable diseases. This represents a potential threat to global health.

Keywords: health in conflict-affected areas, cholera, polio, Yemen, Syria, glocalization

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29 Determination of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Different Cigarette Brands in Yemen by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Ali A. Mutair

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The concentration levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different cigarette brands commonly produced and sold in Yemen were determined. Convenient sample treatment for cigarette tobacco of freshly opened packs was achieved by a sample preparation method based on dry digestion, and the concentrations of the analysed metals were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The mean values obtained for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in different Yemeni cigarette tobacco were 311, 52.2, 10.11, 1.71 and 4.06 µg/g dry weight, respectively. There is no more significant difference among cigarette brands tested. It was found that Fe was at the highest concentration, followed by Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.77% to 19.34%. The accuracy and precision of the results were checked by blank and recovery tests. The results show that Yemeni cigarettes contain heavy metal concentration levels that are similar to those in foreign cigarette brands reported by other studies in the worldwide.

Keywords: iron, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, tobacco, Yemeni cigarette brands, atomic absorption spectrometry

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28 Traditional Sustainable Architecture Techniques and Its Applications in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo and Sana'a, Cities in Egypt and Yemen

Authors: Ahmed S. Attia

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This paper includes a study of modern sustainable architectural techniques and elements that are originally found in vernacular and traditional architecture, particularly in the Arab region. Courtyards, Wind Catchers, and Mashrabiya, for example, are elements that have been developed in contemporary architecture using modern technology to create sustainable architecture designs. An analytical study of the topic will deal with some examples of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo city in Egypt, analyzing its elements and their relationship to the environment, in addition to the examples in southern Egypt (Nubba) of sustainable architecture systems, and traditional houses in Sana'a city, Yemen, using earth resources of mud bricks and other construction materials. In conclusion, a comparative study between traditional and contemporary techniques will be conducted to confirm that it is possible to achieve sustainable architecture through the use of low-technology in buildings in Arab regions.

Keywords: Islamic context, cultural environment, natural environment, Islamic house, low-technology, mud brick, vernacular and traditional architecture

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27 Difficulties in Pronouncing the English Bilabial Plosive Sounds among EFL Students

Authors: Ali Mohammed Saleh Al-Hamzi

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This study aims at finding out the most difficult position in pronouncing the bilabial plosive sounds at the fourth level of English foreign language students of the Faculty of Education, Mahweet, Sana’a University in Yemen. The subject of this study were 50 participants from English foreign language students aged 22-25. In describing sounds according to their place of articulation, sounds are classified as bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, palato-alveolar retroflex, palatal, velar, uvular, and glottal. In much the same way, sounds can be described in their manner of articulation as plosives, nasals, affricates, flaps, taps, rolls, fricatives, laterals, frictionless continuants, and semi-vowels. For English foreign language students in Yemen, there are some articulators that are difficult to pronounce. In this study, the researcher focuses on difficulties in pronouncing the English bilabial plosive sounds among English foreign language students. It can be in the initial, medial, and final positions. The problem discussed in this study was: which position is the most difficult in pronouncing the English bilabial plosive sounds? To solve the problem, a descriptive qualitative method was conducted in this study. The data were collected from each English bilabial plosive sounds produced by students. Finally, the researcher reached that the most difficult position in pronouncing the English bilabial plosive sounds is when English bilabial plosive /p/ and /b/ occur word-finally, where both are voiceless.

Keywords: difficulty, EFL students’ pronunciation, bilabial sounds, plosive sounds

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26 Reasons for Language Words in the Quran and Literary Approaches That Are Persian

Authors: Fateme Mazbanpoor, Sayed Mohammad Amiri

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In this article, we will examine the Persian words in Quran and study the reasons of their presence in this holy book. Writers of this paper extracted about 70 Persian words of Quran by referring to resources. (Alalfaz ol Moarab ol Farsieh Edishir, Almoarabol Javalighi, Almahzab va Etghan Seuti; Vocabulary involved in Quran Arthur Jeffry;, and etc…), some of these words are: ‘Abarigh, ‘Estabragh’,’Barzakh’, ‘Din’,’Zamharir, ‘Sondos’ ‘Sejil’,’ Namaregh’, ‘Fil’ etc. These Persian words have entered Arabic and finally entered Quran in two ways: 1) directly from Persian language, 2) via other languages. The first way: because of the Iranian dominance on Hira, Yemen, whole Oman and Bahrein land in Sasanian period, there were political, religious, linguistic, literary, and trade ties between these Arab territories causing the impact of Persian on Arabic; giving way to many Persian-loan words into Arabic in this period of time. The second way: Since the geographical and business conditions of the areas were dominated by Iran, Hejaz had lots of deals and trades with Mesopotamia and Yemen. On the other hand, Arabic language which was relatively a young language at that time, used to be impressed by Semitic languages in order to expand its vocabulary (Syrian and Aramaic were influenced by the languages of Iran). Consequently, due to the long relationship between Iranian and Arabs, some of the Persian words have taken longer ways through Aramaic and Syrian to find their way into Quran.

Keywords: Quran, Persian word, Arabic language, Persian

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25 Liquefaction Assessment of Marine Soil in Western Yemen Region Based on Laboratory and Field Tests

Authors: Monalisha Nayak, T. G. Sitharam

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Liquefaction is a major threat for sites consists of or on sandy soil. But this present study concentrates on the behavior of fine soil under cyclic loading. This paper presents the study of liquefaction susceptibility of marine silty clay to clayey silt for an offshore site near western Yemen. The submerged and loose sediment condition of marine soil of an offshore site can favour liquefaction during earthquakes. In this regard, the liquefaction susceptibility of the site was carried out based on both field test results and laboratory test results. From field test results of seismic cone penetration test (SCPT), liquefaction susceptibility was assessed considering normalized cone tip resistance, and normalized friction ratio and results give an idea regarding both cyclic mobility and flow liquefaction. Laboratory cyclic triaxial tests were also conducted on saturated undisturbed and remoulded sample to study the effect of cyclic loading on strength and strain characteristics. Liquefaction susceptibility of the marine soft soil was also carried out based on index properties like grain size distribution, natural moisture content and liquid limit of soil.

Keywords: index properties, liquefaction, marine soil, seismic cone penetration test (SCPT)

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24 Genetic Analysis of Growth Traits in White Boni Sheep under the Central Highlands Region of Yemen

Authors: Abed Al-Bial, S. Alazazie, A. Shami

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The data were collected from 1992 to 2009 of White Boni sheep maintained at the Regional Research Station in the Central Highlands of Yemen. Data were analyzed to study the growth related traits and their genetic control. The least square means for body weights were 2.26±0.67, 11.14±0.46 and 19.21±1.25 kg for birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), six-month weight (WM6), respectively. The pre- and post-weaning average daily weight gains (ADG1 and ADG2) were 106.04±4.98g and 46.21±8.36 g/ day. Significant differences associated with the year of lambing were observed in body weight and weight gain at different stages of growth. Males were heavier and had a higher weight gain than females at almost all stages of growth and differences tended to increase with age. Single-born lambs had a distinct advantage over those born in twin births at all stages of growth. The lambs in the dam’s second to fourth parities were generally of heavier weight and higher daily weight gain than those in other parities. The heritabilities of all body weights, weight gains at different stages of growth were moderate (0.11-0.43). The phenotypic and genetic correlation among the different body weights were positive and high. The genetic correlations of the pre- and post-weaning average daily gains with body weights were hight to moderate, except BW with ADG2.

Keywords: breed, genetics, growth traits, heritability, sheep

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23 Peculiar Mineralogical and Chemical Evolution of Contaminated Igneous Rocks at a Gabbro-Carbonate Contact, Wadai Bayhan, Yemen

Authors: Murad Ali, Shoji Arai, Mohamed Khedr, Mukhtar Nasher, Shawki Nasr

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The Wadi Bayhan area of southeastern Yemen is about 60 km NW of Al-Bayda city in the Al-Bayda uplift terrane at the southeast margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Intrusion of alkali gabbro into carbonate rocks apparently produced an 8m to 10 m thick reaction zone at the contact. This had been identified as nepheline pyroxenite. We have observed this to be mineralogically zoned with calc-silicate assemblages (e.g. pyroxene, calcite, spinel, garnet and melilite). The presence of melilite implies a skarn. The sinuous embayed pyroxenite-skarn contact, the presence of skarn minerals in pyroxenite, and textural evidence for growth of calc-silicate skarn by replacement of both carbonate rocks and solid pyroxenite indicate that reaction involved assimilation of carbonate wall rock by magma and loss of Al and Si to the skarn. Textural relationships between minerals provide evidence for a metasomatic development of the skarn at the expense of the pyroxenite. This process, related to the circulation of fluids equilibrated with carbonates, is responsible for those pyroxenite-spinel (± calcite) skarns. The uneven modal distribution of euhedral pyroxenite and enveloping nepheline in pyroxenite, the restricted occurrence of alkali gabbro as dikes in pyroxenite and skarn and the leucocratic matrix of pyroxenite suggest that pyroxenite represents an accumulation of titanaugite cemented by an alkali-rich residual magma and that alkali gabbro represents a part of the residual contaminated magma that was squeezed out of the pyroxene crystal mush. Carbonate assimilation is modeled by reaction of calcite and magmatic plagioclase, which results in resorption of plagioclase, growth of pyroxene enriched in Ca, Fe, Ti, and Al, and solution of nepheline in residual contaminated magma. The composition of nepheline pyroxenite evolved by addition of Ca from dissolved carbonate rocks, loss of Al and Si to skarn, and local segregation of solid pyroxene and alkali gabbro magma. The predominance of pyroxenite among contaminated rocks and their restriction to a large zone along the intrusive contact provide little evidence for the genesis of a significant volume of alkaline magmatic surroundings by carbonate assimilation.

Keywords: Yemen, Wadi Bayhan, skarn, pyroxenite, carbonatite, metasomatic

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22 Endangered Languages in Arabia: Documentation Challenges

Authors: Munira Al-Azraqi

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Modern South Arabian Languages (MSAL) belong to the Semitic language family and are believed to be either a southern member of the west Semitic branch (Rubin 2010; Moscati et al 1969) or an eastern member of the south Semitic branch (Faber 1997), (Watson 2012). They are six languages which are still spoken in southern Arabia. They are used in Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia and in some of the Gulf states. Mehri is one of them however it has the highest number of speakers comparing to the other members of MSAL. It is used in Yemen, Oman, in parts of southern and eastern Saudi Arabia and in some of the Gulf states. The number of Mehri speakers is estimated at between 100,000 and 180,000. The problem that this language might face is that its speakers live in different places which are belonging to different countries. This might cause the language to change rapidly due to education and communication. There are some studies on Omani and Yemeni Mehri but not in Saudi Mehri. In the nineteenth century, travelers, western scholars and explorers played their parts in the discovery of these peoples and their languages. The historical turning point for the knowledge of the MSAL is 1898, when the Südarabische Expedition of the Imperial Academy of Vienna started. The three scholars, Müller, Jahn and Hein began their systematic collection of texts, which were later studied grammatically and lexically by Bittner (1908-1917), Jahn (1915), Leslau (1938) and Wagner (1953). Saudi Mehri has not been studied. This might be caused by the lack of information or the difficulty in collecting the data which this paper aims to shed light on.

Keywords: Modern South Arabian, Mehri, Saudi Arabia, endangered languages

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21 Assessment of Nurse's Knowledge Toward Infection Control for Wound Care in Governmental Hospital at Amran City-Yemen

Authors: Fares Mahdi

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Background: Infection control is an important concern for all health care professionals, especially nurses. Nurses have a higher risk for both self-acquiring and transmitting infections to other patients. Aim of this study: to assess nurses' knowledge regarding infection control for wound care. Methodology: a descriptive research design was used in the study. The total number studied sample was 200 nurses, were conducting in Amran Public Hospitals in Amran City- Yemen. The study covered sample nurses in the hospital according to the study population; a standard closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: The results showed less than half (37.5 %) of nurses were from 22 May Hospital, also followed by (62.5%) of them were from Maternal and Child Hospital. Also according to the department name. Most (22.5%) of nurses worked in an intensive care unit, followed by (20%) of them were working in the pediatric world, also about (19%) of them were working in the surgical department. While in finally, only about (8.5%) of them worked from another department. According to course training, The results showed about (21%) of nurses had course training in wound care management. At the same time, others (79%) of them have not had course training in wound care management. According to the total nurse's knowledge of infection control for wound care, that find more than two-thirds (68%) of nurses had fair knowledge according to total all of nurse's knowledge of infection control wound care. Conclusion:The results showed that more than two-thirds (68%) of nurses had fair knowledge according to total all of the nurse's knowledge of infection control for wound care. Recommendations: There should be providing training program about infection control masseurs and it's important for new employees of nurses. Providing continuing refreshment training courses about infection control programs and about evidence-based practice in infection control for all health care teams.

Keywords: assessment, knowledge, infection control, wound care, nurses, amran hospitals

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20 Genetic and Phenotypic Variability Among the Vibrio Cholerae O1 Isolates of India

Authors: Sreeja Shaw, Prosenjit Samanta, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay

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Cholera is still a global public health burden and is caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups. Evidence from recent outbreaks in Haiti and Yemen suggested that circulating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains are continuously changing to cause more ruinous outbreaks worldwide, and most of them have emerged from the Indian subcontinents. Therefore, we studied the changing virulence characteristics along with the antibiotic resistance profile of V. cholerae O1strains isolated from seasonal outbreaks in three cholera endemic regions during 2018, Gujarat and Maharashtra in Western India (87 strains), and to compare those features with the isolates of West Bengal in Eastern India (48 strains) collected during the same period. All the strains from Western India were of Ogawa serotype, polymyxin B-sensitive, hemolytic, and contained a large fragment deletion in VSP-II genomic region similar with Yemen outbreak strains and carried more virulent Haitian genetic alleles of major virulence associated genes ctxB, tcpA, and rtxA. Conversely, 14.6% (7/48) of the strains from Eastern India were belong to the Inaba serotype, polymyxin B-resistant, non-hemolytic, harbored intact VSP-II region, classical ctxB, Haitian tcpA, and El Tor rtxA alleles. Interestingly, resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol was seen in isolates from both regions, which are not very common among V. cholerae O1 isolates in India. Therefore, this study indicated West Bengal as a diverse region where two different types of El Tor variant hypervirulent strains are co-existed, probably competing for their better environmental survival, which may result in severe irrepressible disease outcome in the future.

Keywords: cholera, vibrio cholerae, polymyxin B, Non-hemolytic, ctxB, tcpA, rtxA, VSP-II

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19 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pregnant Women toward Antenatal Care at Public Hospitals in Sana'a City-Yemen

Authors: Abdulfatah Al-Jaradi, Marzoq Ali Odhah, Abdulnasser A. Haza’a

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Background: Antenatal care can be defined as the care provided by skilled healthcare professionals to pregnant women and adolescent girls to ensure the best health conditions for both mother and baby during pregnancy. The components of ANC include risk identification; prevention and management of pregnancy-related or concurrent diseases; and health education and health promotion. The aim of this study: to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant women regarding antenatal care. Methodology: A descriptive KAP study was conducting in public hospitals in Sana'a City-Yemen. The study population was included all pregnant women that intended to the prenatal department and clinical outpatient department, the final sample size was 371 pregnant women, a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data, statistical package for social sciences SPSS was used to data analysis. The results: Most (79%) of pregnant women were had correct answers in total knowledge regarding antenatal care, and about two-thirds (67%) of pregnant women were had performance practice regarding antenatal care and two-third (68%) of pregnant women were had a positive attitude. Conclusions & Recommendations: We concluded that a significant association between overall knowledge and practice level toward antenatal care and demographic characteristics of pregnant women, women (residence place, level of education, did your husband support you in attending antenatal care and place of delivery of the last baby), at (P-value ≤ 0.05). We recommended more education and training courses, lecturers and education sessions in clinical facilitators focused ANC, which relies on evidence-based interventions provided to women during pregnancy by skilled healthcare providers such as midwives, doctors, and nurses.

Keywords: antenatal care, knowledge, practice, attitude, pregnant women

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18 Arabicization and Terminology with Reference to Social Media Terms

Authors: Ahmed Al-Awthan

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This study addresses the prevalence of English terminology in published Arabic documentation on social media. Although the problem of using English terms in translation instead of existing native ones has been addressed in general by researchers around the world, to the best of the author’s knowledge the attitude of the translators as professionals to this phenomenon in Qatar and Yemen has not received a detailed study. This study examines the impact of the use of English, social media terms in the Arab world on aspiring and professional translators; it explores the benefits and drawbacks of linguistic borrowing as identified by the translators and investigates whether translators consider any means of resisting linguistic borrowing and prioritizing Arabic. It also aims to answer the following questions: i. Is there any prevalence of English, social media terms in Arabic translation? Why or why not? ii. Do Arabic translators prefer using English, social media terms to their equivalents in Arabic? If so, why? iii. Which measures could be adopted to help reduce the frequently observed borrowing of English terms? In particular, how do translators see the role of the Arabic Language Academies in preserving Arabic? iv. This research is descriptive, comparative and analytical in nature. It is both qualitative and quantitative. To validate the problem, the researcher will analyze articles published by Al-Jazeera in 2016-2018 that refer to the use of social media in diplomacy. It will be examined whether the increased international discussion of political events in social media increased the amount of transliterated English terminology referring to this mode of communication.To investigate whether the translators recognize the phenomenon of borrowing, the researcher proposes to use a survey. This survey will use multiple choice questions. It will target 20 aspiring translators from Yemen and 20 participants from Qatar. It will offer 15 English, social media terms used in discourse in 15 sentences. For each sentence, the researcher will provide three different translations and will ask the translators to rate them and offer their rendition. After collecting all the answers online, the researcher will analyze the data. The results are expected to confirm whether there is a prevalence of English terms in translating into Arabic. It is also expected to show what measures the translators used to render the English, social media terms, and it raises awareness of borrowing English terms. It will guide the translator toward using Arabicization methods in order to contribute to preserving Arabic.

Keywords: Arabicization, trans lingual borrowing, social media terms, terminology

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17 Contribution to the Hydrogeochemical Investigations on the Wajid Aquifer System, Southwestern Part of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed, Ezat Korany, Abdelaziz Al Basam, Osama Kasem

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The arid climate, low rate of precipitations and population reflect the increasing of groundwater uses as the main source of water in Saudi Arabia. The Wajid Aquifer System represents a regional groundwater aquifer system along the edge of the crystalline Arabian Shield near the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The aquifer extends across the border of Saudi Arabia and Yemen from the Asir –Yemen Highlands to the Rub al Khali Depression and possibly to the Gulf coast (at the southwestern tip). The present work is representing a hydrogeochemical investigation on the Wajid Aquifer System. The studied area is being classified into three zones. The 1st zone is West of Wadi Ad Dawasir (Northern part of the studied area), the 2nd is Najran-Asir Zone (southern part of the studied area), and the 3rd zone is the intermediate -central zone (occupying the central area between the last two zones). The groundwater samples were collected and chemically analyzed for physicochemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH), alkalinity (pH), total dissolved solids (TDS), major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42- and Cl-), and trace elements. Some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (Na%), potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio, hydrochemical coefficients, hydrochemical formula, ion dominance, salt combinations and water types were also calculated in order to evaluate the quality of the groundwater resources in the selected areas for different purposes. The distribution of the chemical constituents and their interrelationships are illustrated by different hydrochemical graphs. Groundwater depths and the depth to water were measured to study the effect of discharge on both the water level and the salinity of the studied groundwater wells. A detailed comparison between the three studied zones according to the variations shown by the chemical and field investigations are discussed in detailed within the work.

Keywords: Najran-Asir, Wadi Ad Dawasir, Wajid Aquifer System, effect of discharge

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16 Propagation of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider by Stem Cuttings

Authors: Ahmed M. Eed, Adam H. Burgoyne

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Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider), is a desert shrub which tolerates saline, alkyle soils and drought. The seeds contain a characteristic liquid wax of economic importance in industry as a machine lubricant and cosmetics. A major problem in seed propagation is that jojoba is a dioecious plant whose sex is not easily determined prior to flowering (3-4 years from germination). To overcome this phenomenon, asexual propagation using vegetative methods such as cutting can be used. This research was conducted to find out the effect of different Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) and rooting media on Jojoba rhizogenesis. An experiment was carried out in a Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) with three replications, each with sixty cuttings per replication in fiberglass house of Natural Jojoba Corporation at Yemen. The different rooting media used were peat moss + perlite + vermiculite (1:1:1), peat moss + perlite (1:1) and peat moss + sand (1:1). Plant materials used were semi-hard wood cuttings of jojoba plants with length of 15 cm. The cuttings were collected in the month of June during 2012 and 2013 from the sub-terminal growth of the mother plants of Amman farm and introduced to Yemen. They were wounded, treated with Indole butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) all @ 4000 ppm (part per million) and cultured on different rooting media under intermittent mist propagation conditions. IBA gave significantly higher percentage of rooting (66.23%) compared to NAA and IAA in all media used. However, the lowest percentage of rooting (5.33%) was recorded with IAA in the medium consisting of peat moss and sand (1:1). No significant difference was observed at all types of PGRs used with rooting media in respect of root length. Maximum number of roots was noticed in medium consisting of peat moss, perlite and vermiculite (1:1:1); peat moss and perlite (1:1) and peat moss and sand (1:1) using IBA, NAA and IBA, respectively. The interaction among rooting media was statistically significant with respect to rooting percentage character. Similarly, the interactions among PGRs were significant in terms of rooting percentage and also root length characters. The results demonstrated suitability of propagation of jojoba plants by semi-hard wood cuttings.

Keywords: cutting, IBA, Jojoba, propagation, rhizogenesis

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15 Measuring e-Business Activities of SMEs in Yemen

Authors: Ahmed Abdullah, Lyndon Murphy, Brychan Thomas

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Increasingly, in developed and developing countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are becoming more important to national economies due to their strategic significance in developing different industrial sectors Worldwide. SMEs play a major role in an economy by significantly contributing to the enhancement of the countries’ gross domestic product and its labor force by creating more job opportunities and developing skilled labor. Rapid development has been witnessed in the World within different aspects of life, especially the technological revolution such as e-business. This has become a feature of this era requiring us to ‘keep-up’ in our daily society, losing the traditional pattern of our daily lives and combining scientific methodology of an analytical and experimental nature. In the past few years the emergence of e-business and e-commerce in the world has been carefully surveyed. There is widespread use of the internet in every aspect and phase of business.

Keywords: e-business, e-business activities, SMEs, e-adoption ladder

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14 Saudi State Arabia’s Struggle for a Post-Rentier Regional Order

Authors: Omair Anas

Abstract:

The Persian Gulf has been in turmoil for a long time since the colonial administration has handed over the role to the small and weak kings and emirs who were assured of protection in return of many economic and security promises to them. The regional order, Saudi Arabia evolved was a rentier regional order secured by an expansion of rentier economy and taking responsibility for much of the expenses of the regional order on behalf of relatively poor countries. The two oil booms helped the Saudi state to expand the 'rentier order' driven stability and bring the countries like Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Palestine under its tutelage. The disruptive misadventure, however, came with Iran's proclamation of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 which it wanted to be exported to its 'un-Islamic and American puppet' Arab neighbours. For Saudi Arabia, even the challenge presented by the socialist-nationalist Arab dictators like Gamal Abdul Nasser and Hafez Al-Assad was not that much threatening to the Saudi Arabia’s then-defensive realism. In the Arab uprisings, the Gulf monarchies saw a wave of insecurity and Iran found it an opportune time to complete the revolutionary process it could not complete after 1979. An alliance of convenience and ideology between Iran and Islamist groups had the real potential to challenge both Saudi Arabia’s own security and its leadership in the region. The disruptive threat appeared at a time when the Saudi state had already sensed an impending crisis originating from the shifts in the energy markets. Low energy prices, declining global demands, and huge investments in alternative energy resources required Saudi Arabia to rationalize its economy according to changing the global political economy. The domestic Saudi reforms remained gradual until the death of King Abdullah in 2015. What is happening now in the region, the Qatar crisis, the Lebanon crisis and the Saudi-Iranian proxy war in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen has combined three immediate objectives, rationalising Saudi economy and most importantly, the resetting the Saudi royal power for Saudi Arabia’s longest-serving future King Mohammad bin Salman. The Saudi King perhaps has no time to wait and watch the power vacuum appearing because of Iran’s expansionist foreign policy. The Saudis appear to be employing an offensive realism by advancing a pro-active regional policy to counter Iran’s threatening influence amid disappearing Western security from the region. As the Syrian civil war is coming to a compromised end with ceding much ground to Iran-controlled militias, Hezbollah and Al-Hashad, the Saudi state has lost much ground in these years and the threat from Iranian proxies is more than a reality, more clearly in Bahrain, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen. This paper attempts to analyse the changing Saudi behaviour in the region, which, the author understands, is shaped by an offensive-realist approach towards finding a favourable security environment for the Saudi-led regional order, a post-rentier order perhaps.

Keywords: terrorism, Saudi Arabia, Rentier State, gulf crisis

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13 Iran and the Security of the Gulf Cooperation Council States

Authors: Ibrahim Alshalan

Abstract:

The Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the greatest and most powerful countries, not only in the Arabian Gulf but in the entire Middle East region. However, the Iranian regime, which came to power as a result of the 1979 revolution that resulted in overthrowing the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, has been the biggest source of threat to the stability of the Middle East since the revolution until this day. It has ambitions to dominate the neighboring Arab countries, especially Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen and Bahrain. Iran has bad relationships with countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain. The main objective of this paper is to shed light on the deteriorating political relations between the Iranian regime on one hand and the GCC on the other, especially Saudi Arabia which is witnessing more challenges as a result of Iran's determination to develop its nuclear program. Another important objective of this paper is to identify the Iranian role in the creation of the hotbeds of conflict in addition to its responsibility for some of the region's problems. It also aims to answer the question; why does Iran insist on developing its controversial nuclear program?

Keywords: Iran, GCC, Gulf, Saudi Arabia

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12 Predicting Long-Term Meat Productivity for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahsan Abdullah, Ahmed A. S. Bakshwain

Abstract:

Livestock is one of the fastest-growing sectors in agriculture. If carefully managed, have potential opportunities for economic growth, food sovereignty and food security. In this study we mainly analyse and compare long-term i.e. for year 2030 climate variability impact on predicted productivity of meat i.e. beef, mutton and poultry for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia w.r.t three factors i.e. i) climatic-change vulnerability ii) CO2 fertilization and iii) water scarcity and compare the results with two countries of the region i.e. Iraq and Yemen. We do the analysis using data from diverse sources, which was extracted, transformed and integrated before usage. The collective impact of the three factors had an overall negative effect on the production of meat for all the three countries, with adverse impact on Iraq. High similarity was found between CO2 fertilization (effecting animal fodder) and water scarcity i.e. higher than that between production of beef and mutton for the three countries considered. Overall, the three factors do not seem to be favorable for the three Middle-East countries considered. This points to possibility of a vegetarian year 2030 based on dependency on indigenous live-stock population.

Keywords: prediction, animal-source foods, pastures, CO2 fertilization, climatic-change vulnerability, water scarcity

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11 Effectiveness of ISSR Technique in Revealing Genetic Diversity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Representing Various Parts of the World

Authors: Mohamed El-Shikh

Abstract:

Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world’s second most important bean after soybeans; used for human food and animal feed. It has generally been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and diseases of digestive tract. The effectiveness of ISSR in achievement of the genetic diversity among 60 common bean accessions; represent various germplasms around the world was investigated. In general, the studied Phaseolus vulgaris accessions were divided into 2 major groups. All of the South-American accessions were separated into the second major group. These accessions may have different genetic features that are distinct from the rest of the accessions clustered in the major group. Asia and Europe accessions (1-20) seem to be more genetically similar (99%) to each other as they clustered in the same sub-group. The American and African varieties showed similarities as well and clustered in the same sub-tree group. In contrast, Asian and American accessions No. 22 and 23 showed a high level of genetic similarities, although these were isolated from different regions. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the Asian accessions (along with Australian No. 59 and 60) were similar except Indian and Yemen accessions No. 9 and 20. Only Netherlands accession No. 3 was different from the rest of European accessions. Morocco accession No. 52 was genetically different from the rest of the African accessions. Canadian accession No. 44 seems to be different from the other North American accessions including Guatemala, Mexico and USA.

Keywords: phylogenetic tree, Phaseolus vulgaris, ISSR technique, genetics

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10 Difficulty and Complexity in Dealing with Visual Pollution in the Historical Cities: The Historical City of Ibb-Yemen as a Case Study

Authors: Abdulfattah A. Q .Alwah, Wen Li, Mohammed A. Q. Alwah, Duc Thien Tran, Bing Xi Liu

Abstract:

The historical cities in the third world suffer from many environmental problems; one of them is the spread of visual pollution manifestations. These phenomena increase with low levels of public awareness and low per capita income. The historical city of Ibb is suffering from a variety of visual pollution of the urban environment, so it has been chosen as a case study. This study aims to identify the difficulty and complexity of dealing with visual pollutions manifestations in the historical city of Ibb, and to provide appropriate solutions, which suit with the complex and contradictory circumstances. The study relies on an inductive approach to achieve its aims through two methods; the first is a visual survey of the visual pollution phenomenon based on images and researcher notes. The Second method is the analyses of the opinions and impressions of the city's residents and visitors through interviews, in addition to interviews with the officials in the competent authorities, and some specialists in the field of urban environment. Through the results of the field study and discussion of the interview results, this study presents an analysis of the phenomenon of visual distortion of the historical city of Ibb regarding the appearances and the reasons. Furthermore, this study provides appropriate solutions, which suitable with the complex and contradictory circumstances. These solutions take two paths: the first one is to stop the spread of visual distortions, and the second path is to address the current visual pollutions.

Keywords: visual pollution, visual image, urban environment, difficulty, complexity, historical cities, the historical city of Ibb

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9 China and the Middle East in the 21st Century: From Political Mediation to Economic Expansionism

Authors: Ali Asghar Sotoudeh

Abstract:

Mediation Diplomacy has emerged as one of the main pillars of China's foreign policy goals and practices, and Beijing has established itself as a peacekeeping force in regional conflicts and crises such as Afghanistan, Syria, Sudan, Yemen, and the Arab-Israeli peace process. China is deepening and intensifying its diplomatic interventions in the Middle East and trying to shape the security and political developments in the Middle East. On the other hand, economically, China has become one of the most important trading partners with Middle Eastern governments. China is also seeking to expand its foreign policy and economic interests in the Middle East through the New Silk Road initiative and has signed cooperation agreements with 17 Arab countries. In this regard, due to the importance of the subject, this research focuses on answering this question; what is the basis of China's political mediation and economic expansionism in the Middle East? In parallel with this question, this study follows the hypothesis that the mediating role of peace is a legitimate way for China to intervene in Middle East political crises, Without causing China to deviate from its traditional guiding principles based on non-interference in the internal affairs of other actors in the international system. This policy also promotes the security of economic interests and increases the country's political influence in the Middle East. The research method is descriptive-analytical based on the qualitative method, and the data collection method is library and internet resources.

Keywords: China, middle east, political mediation, economic expansionism

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8 Prevalence and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Dodonaea viscosa Extract and Antibacterial Agents against Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry

Authors: Shayma Munqith Al-Baker, Fadhl Ahmed Saeed Al-Gasha’a, Samira Hamid Hanash, Ahmed Ali Al-Hazmi

Abstract:

A total of 200 samples (180 fecal materials and 20 organ samples) were collected from (5 different poultry farms, 10 local poultry shops, 5 houses poultry, 5 Eggs stores shops and 5 hand slaughters centers) in Ibb city, Yemen, 2014. According to morphological, cultural, as well as biochemical characterization and serological tests, 59 29.5% isolates were identified as Salmonella spp. and all Salmonella isolates were categorized by serotype, which comprised of, 37 62.71% Salmonella Typhimurium serovar, 21 35.59%. Salmonella Enteritidis serovar and 11.69% Salmonella Heidelberg serovar. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for bacterial isolates and the results showed there were clear differences in antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates varies as follows: Ofloxacin 79.66%, Ciprofloxacin 67.80%, Colistin 59.32% and Gentamycin 52.54%. All of isolates were resistant to Erythromycin, Penicillin and Lincomycin. Antibacterial activity was done for both aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dodonaea viscosa plant by using well and disc diffusion assay. The results indicated that well diffusion assay had best results than disc diffusion assay, the highest inhibition zone was 22 mm for well diffusion and 15 mm for disc diffusion assay, the results observed that ethanol extract had best antibacterial effect than aqueous extract which the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 71.19% comparing with aqueous extract 28.81% by using disc diffusion assay, while the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 88.13% comparing with aqueous extract 52.54% by using will diffusion assay.

Keywords: Salmonella spp, Dodonaea viscosa, antimicrobial and salmonellosis

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7 Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

Authors: Sara D. Garduno-Diaz, Philippe Y. Garduno-Diaz

Abstract:

To date, one of the few comprehensive indicators for the measurement of food security is the Global Food Security Index. This index is a dynamic quantitative and qualitative bench marking model, constructed from 28 unique indicators, that measures drivers of food security across both developing and developed countries. Whereas the Global Food Security Index has been calculated across a set of 109 countries, in this paper we aim to present and compare, for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), 1) the Food Security Index scores achieved and 2) the data available on affordability, availability, and quality of food. The data for this work was taken from the latest (2014) report published by the creators of the GFSI, which in turn used information from national and international statistical sources. According to the 2014 Global Food Security Index, MENA countries rank from place 17/109 (Israel, although with resent political turmoil this is likely to have changed) to place 91/109 (Yemen) with household expenditure spent in food ranging from 15.5% (Israel) to 60% (Egypt). Lower spending on food as a share of household consumption in most countries and better food safety net programs in the MENA have contributed to a notable increase in food affordability. The region has also however experienced a decline in food availability, owing to more limited food supplies and higher volatility of agricultural production. In terms of food quality and safety the MENA has the top ranking country (Israel). The most frequent challenges faced by the countries of the MENA include public expenditure on agricultural research and development as well as volatility of agricultural production. Food security is a complex phenomenon that interacts with many other indicators of a country’s well-being; in the MENA it is slowly but markedly improving.

Keywords: diet, food insecurity, global food security index, nutrition, sustainability

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6 Changing Routes: The Adaptability of Somali Migrants and Their Smuggling Networks

Authors: Alexandra Amling, Emina Sadic

Abstract:

The migration routes linking the Horn of Africa to Europe shift in response to political and humanitarian developments across the region. Abrupt changes to those routes can have profound effects on the relative ease of movement and the well-being of migrants. Somali migrants have traditionally been able to rely on a sophisticated, well-established, and reliable network of smugglers to facilitate their journey through the Sahel to Libya, but changes to the routes have undermined those networks. Recently, these shifts have made the journey from Somalia to Europe much more perilous. As the Libyan coast guard intensifies its efforts to stymie boats leaving its coast for Italian shores, arrivals in Spain are trending upwards. This paper thus, will examine how the instability in transit countries that are most commonly used by Somali migrants has had an impact on the reliability of their massive network of smuggling, and how resurgence in the Western route toward Spain provides a potentially new opportunity to reach Europe—a route that has rarely been used by the Somali migrant population in the past. First, the paper will discuss what scholars have called the pastoralist, nomadic tradition of Somalis which reportedly has allowed them to endure the long journeys from Somalia to their chosen destinations. Facilitated by relatives or clan affiliation, Somali migrants have historically been able to rely on a smuggling network that – at least tangentially – provided more security nets during their travels. Given the violence and chaos that unfolded both in Libya and Yemen in 2011 and 2015, respectively, the paper will, secondly, examine which actors in smuggling hubs increase the vulnerabilities of Somalis, pushing them to consider other routes. As a result, this paper will consider to what extent Somalis could follow the stream of other migrants to Algeria and Morocco to enter Europe via Spain. By examining one particular group of migrants and the nature and limitations of the networks associated with their movements, the paper will demonstrate the resilience and adaptability of both the migrants and the networks regardless of the ever-changing nature of migration routes and actors.

Keywords: Europe, migration, smuggling networks, Somalia

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5 The Red Persian Carpet: Iran as Semi-Periphery in China's Belt and Road Initiative-Bound World-System

Authors: Toufic Sarieddine

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As the belt and road Initiative (henceforth, BRI) enters its 9th year, Iran and China are forging stronger ties on economic and military fronts, a development which has not only caused alarm in Washington but also risks staining China’s relationships with the oil-rich Gulf monarchies. World-systems theory has been used to examine the impact of the BRI on the current world order, with scholarship split on the capacity of China to emerge as a hegemon contending with the US or even usurping it. This paper argues the emergence of a new China-centered world-system comprised of states/areas and processes participating in the BRI and overlapping with the global world-system under (shaky) US hegemony. This world-system centers around China as core and hegemon via economic domination, capable new institutions (Shanghai Cooperation Council), legal modi operandi, the common goal of infrastructure development to rally support among developing states, and other indicators of hegemony outlined in world-systems theory. In this regard, while states like Pakistan could become peripheries to China in the BRI-bound world-system via large-scale projects such as the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, Iran has greater capacities and influence in the Middle East, making it superior to a periphery. This paper thus argues that the increasing proximity between Iran and China sees the former becoming a semi-periphery with respect to China within the BRI-bound world-system, having economic dependence on its new core and hegemon while simultaneously wielding political and military influence on weaker states such as Iraq, Lebanon, Yemen, and Syria. The indicators for peripheralization as well as the characteristics of a semi-periphery outlined in world-systems theory are used to examine the current economic, political, and militaristic dimensions of Iran and China’s growing relationship, as well as the trajectory of these dimensions as part of the BRI-bound world-system.

Keywords: belt and road initiative, China, China-Middle East relations, Iran, world-systems analysis

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