Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Yaman Maharjan

27 Glaucoma Detection in Retinal Tomography Using the Vision Transformer

Authors: Sushish Baral, Pratibha Joshi, Yaman Maharjan

Abstract:

Glaucoma is a chronic eye condition that causes vision loss that is irreversible. Early detection and treatment are critical to prevent vision loss because it can be asymptomatic. For the identification of glaucoma, multiple deep learning algorithms are used. Transformer-based architectures, which use the self-attention mechanism to encode long-range dependencies and acquire extremely expressive representations, have recently become popular. Convolutional architectures, on the other hand, lack knowledge of long-range dependencies in the image due to their intrinsic inductive biases. The aforementioned statements inspire this thesis to look at transformer-based solutions and investigate the viability of adopting transformer-based network designs for glaucoma detection. Using retinal fundus images of the optic nerve head to develop a viable algorithm to assess the severity of glaucoma necessitates a large number of well-curated images. Initially, data is generated by augmenting ocular pictures. After that, the ocular images are pre-processed to make them ready for further processing. The system is trained using pre-processed images, and it classifies the input images as normal or glaucoma based on the features retrieved during training. The Vision Transformer (ViT) architecture is well suited to this situation, as it allows the self-attention mechanism to utilise structural modeling. Extensive experiments are run on the common dataset, and the results are thoroughly validated and visualized.

Keywords: glaucoma, vision transformer, convolutional architectures, retinal fundus images, self-attention, deep learning

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26 Numerical Simulation of Truck Collision with Road Blocker

Authors: Engin Metin Kaplan, Kemal Yaman

Abstract:

In this study, the crash of a medium heavy vehicle onto a designed Road blocker (vehicle barrier) is studied numerically. Structural integrity of the Road blocker is studied by nonlinear dynamic methods under the loading conditions which are defined in the standards. NASTRAN® and LS-DYNA® which are commercial software are used to solve the problem. Outer geometry determination, alignment of the inner part and material properties of the road blocker are studied linearly to yield design parameters. Best design parameters are determined to achieve the most structurally optimized road blocker. Strain and stress values of the vehicle barrier are obtained by solving the partial differential equations.

Keywords: vehicle barrier, truck collision, road blocker, crash analysis

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25 Factors Affecting the Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture in Central and Western Nepal

Authors: Maharjan Shree Kumar

Abstract:

Climate change impacts are observed in all livelihood sectors primarily in agriculture and forestry. Multiple factors have influenced the climate vulnerabilities and adaptations in agricultural at the household level. This study focused on the factors affecting adaptation in agriculture in Madi and Deukhuri valleys of Central and Western Nepal. The systematic random sampling technique was applied to select 154 households in Madi and 150 households in Deukhuri. The main purpose of the study was to analyze the socio-economic factors that either influence or restrain the farmers’ adaptation to climate change at the household level by applying the linear probability model. Based on the analysis, it is revealed that crop diversity, education, training and total land holding (acre) were positively significant for adaptation choices the study sites. Rest of the variables were not significant though indicated positive as expected except age, occupation, ethnicity, family size, and access to credit.

Keywords: adaptation, agriculture, climate, factors, Nepal

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24 Black Box Model and Evolutionary Fuzzy Control Methods of Coupled-Tank System

Authors: S. Yaman, S. Rostami

Abstract:

In this study, a black box modeling of the coupled-tank system is obtained by using fuzzy sets. The derived model is tested via adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In order to achieve a better control performance, the parameters of three different controller types, classical proportional integral controller (PID), fuzzy PID and function tuner method, are tuned by one of the evolutionary computation method, genetic algorithm. All tuned controllers are applied to the fuzzy model of the coupled-tank experimental setup and analyzed under the different reference input values. According to the results, it is seen that function tuner method demonstrates better robust control performance and guarantees the closed loop stability.

Keywords: function tuner method (FTM), fuzzy modeling, fuzzy PID controller, genetic algorithm (GA)

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23 Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter

Authors: Mevlüt Burak Dalmış, Kemal Yaman

Abstract:

In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.

Keywords: flutter, plate, subsonic flow, wind tunnel

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22 Evaluation of Drilling Performance through Bit-Rock Interaction Using Passive Vibration Assisted Rotation Drilling (PVARD) Tool

Authors: Md. Shaheen Shah, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Dipesh Maharjan, Syed Imtiaz, Stephen Butt

Abstract:

Drilling performance is an essential goal in petroleum and mining industry. Drilling rate of penetration (ROP), which is inversely proportional to the mechanical specific energy (MSE) is influenced by numerous factors among which are the applied parameter: torque (T), weight on bit (WOB), fluid flow rate, revolution per minute (rpm), rock related parameters: rock type, rock homogeneousness, rock anisotropy orientation, and mechanical parameters: bit type, configuration of the bottom hole assembly (BHA). This paper is focused on studying the drilling performance by implementing a passive vibration assisted rotary drilling tool (pVARD) as part of the BHA through using different bit types: coring bit, roller cone bit, and PDC bit and various rock types: rock-like material, granite, sandstone, etc. The results of this study aim to produce a pVARD index for optimal drilling performance considering the recommendations of the pVARD’s spring compression tests and stress-strain analysis of rock samples conducted prior to drilling experiments, analyzing the cutting size distribution, and evaluating the applied drilling parameters as a function of WOB. These results are compared with those obtained from drilling without pVARD, which represents the typical rigid BHA of the conventional drilling.

Keywords: BHA, drilling performance, MSE, pVARD, rate of penetration, ROP, tensile and shear fractures, unconfined compressive strength

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21 Determination of Sintering Parameters of TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ Composites

Authors: Bilge Yaman Islak, Erhan Ayas

Abstract:

The densification behavior of TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites is investigated for temperatures in the range of 1200°C to 1400°C, for the pressure of 40 and 50MPa, and for holding time between 15-30 min by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Ti, Si, TiC and 5 wt.% TiB₂ were used to synthesize TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites and the effect of different sintering parameters on the densification and phase evolution of these composites were investigated. The bulk densities were determined by using the Archimedes method. The polished and fractured surfaces of the samples were examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The phase analyses were accomplished by using the X-Ray diffractometer. Sintering temperature and holding time are found to play a dominant role in the phase development of composites. TiₓCᵧ and TiSi₂ secondary phases were found in 5 wt.%TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites densified at 1200°C and 1400°C under the pressure of 40 MPa, due to decomposition of Ti₃SiC₂. The results indicated that 5 wt.%TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites were densified into the dense parts with a relative density of 98.77% by sintering at 1300 °C, for 15 min, under a pressure of 50 MPa via SPS without the formation of any other ancillary phase. This work was funded and supported by Scientific Research Projects Commission of Eskisehir Osmangazi University with the Project Number 201915C103 (2019-2517).

Keywords: densification, phase evolution, sintering, TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites

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20 Implementation of Total Quality Management in a Small Scale Industry: A Case Study

Authors: Soham Lalwala, Ronita Singh, Yaman Pattanaik

Abstract:

In the present scenario of globalization and privatization, it becomes difficult for small scale industries to sustain due to rapidly increasing competition. In a developing country, most of the gross output is generally obtained from small scale industries. Thus, quality plays a vital role in maintaining customer satisfaction. Total quality management (TQM) is an approach which enables employees to focus on quality rather quantity, further improving the competitiveness, effectiveness and flexibility of the whole organization. The objective of the paper is to present the application of TQM and develop a TQM Model in a small scale industry of narrow fabrics in Surat, India named ‘Rajdhani Lace & Borders’. Further, critical success factors relating all the fabric processes involved were identified. The data was collected by conducting a questionnaire survey. After data was collected, critical areas were visualized using different tools of TQM such as cause and effect diagram, control charts and run charts. Overall, responses were analyzed, and factor analysis was used to develop the model. The study presented here will aid the management of the above-mentioned industry in identifying the weaker areas and thus give a plausible solution to improve the total productivity of the firm along with effective utilization of resources and better customer satisfaction.

Keywords: critical success factors, narrow fabrics, quality, small scale industries, total quality management (TQM)

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19 A Study of Cost and Revenue Earned from Tourist Walking Street Activities in Songkhla City Municipality, Thailand

Authors: Weerawan Marangkun

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This study is a survey intended to investigate cost, revenue and factors affecting changes in revenue and to provide guidelines for improving factors affecting changes in revenue from tourist walking street activities in Songkhla City Municipality. Instruments used in this study were structured interviews, using Yaman table (1973) where the random sampling error was+ 10%. The sample consisting of 83 entrepreneurs were drawn from a total population of 272. The purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected during the 6-month period from December 2011 until May 2012. The findings indicate that the cost paid by an entrepreneur in connection with his/her services for tourists is mainly for travel, which stands at about 290 Baht per day. Each entrepreneur earns about 3,850 Baht per day, which means about 400,000 Baht per year. The combined total revenue from walking street tourist activities is about 108.8 million Baht per year. Such activities add economic value to tourist facilities due to expenditures by tourists and provide the entrepreneurs with considerable income. Factors affecting changes in revenue from tourist walking street activities are: the increase in the number of entrepreneurs; the holding of trade fairs, events or interesting shows in the vicinity; and weather conditions (e.g. abundant rainfall, which can contribute to a decrease in the number of tourists). Suggested measures to improve factors affecting changes in the income are: addition or creation of new activities; regulation of operations of the stalls and parking area; and generation of greater publicity through the social network.

Keywords: cost, revenue, tourist, walking street

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18 Exploring Perceptions of Local Stakeholders in Climate Change Adaptation in Central and Western Terai, Nepal

Authors: Shree Kumar Maharjan

Abstract:

Climate change has varied impacts on diverse livelihood sectors, which is more prominent at the community level. The stakeholders and local institutions have been supporting the communities either by building adaptive capacities and resilience or minimizing the impacts of different adaptation interventions. Some of these interventions are effective, whereas others need further dynamisms and exertions considering the complexity of the risks and vulnerabilities. Hence, consolidated efforts of concerned stakeholders are required to minimize and adapt the present and future impacts. This study digs out and analyses the perceptions of local stakeholders in climate change adaptation in Madi and Deukhuri valleys of Nepal through a questionnaire survey. The study has categorized the local stakeholders into 5 groups in the study sites – Farmers groups and cooperatives, Government, I/NGOs, Development banks and education and other organizations. The local stakeholders revealed flood, drought, cold wave and riverbank erosion as the major climatic risks and hazards found in the sites eventually impacting on the loss of agricultural production, loss of agricultural land and properties, loss of livestock, the emergence of diseases and pest. The stakeholders believed that most of the farmers dealing with these impacts based on their traditional knowledge and practices, followed by with the support of NGOs and with the help of neighbors and community. The major supports of the stakeholders to deal with these impacts were on training and awareness, risk analysis and minimization, livelihood improvement, financial support, coordination and networking and facilitation in policy formulation. The stakeholders emphasized primarily on capacity building, appropriate technologies, community-based planning and monitoring, prioritization to the poor and the marginalized and establishment of community fund respectively for building adaptive capacities.

Keywords: climate change adaptation, local stakeholders, Madi, Deukhuri, Nepal

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17 Islamic Education System: Implementation of Curriculum Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang

Authors: Basyir Yaman, Fades Br. Gultom

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The picture and pattern of Islamic education in the Prophet's period in Mecca and Medina is the history of the past that we need to bring back. The Basic Education Institute called Kuttab. Kuttab or Maktab comes from the word kataba which means to write. The popular Kuttab in the Prophet’s period aims to resolve the illiteracy in the Arab community. In Indonesia, this Institution has 25 branches; one of them is located in Semarang (i.e. Kuttab Al-Fatih). Kuttab Al-Fatih as a non-formal institution of Islamic education is reserved for children aged 5-12 years. The independently designed curriculum is a distinctive feature that distinguishes between Kuttab Al-Fatih curriculum and the formal institutional curriculum in Indonesia. The curriculum includes the faith and the Qur’an. Kuttab Al-Fatih has been licensed as a Community Activity Learning Center under the direct supervision and guidance of the National Education Department. Here, we focus to describe the implementation of curriculum Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang (i.e. faith and al-Qur’an). After that, we determine the relevance between the implementation of the Kuttab Al-Fatih education system with the formal education system in Indonesia. This research uses literature review and field research qualitative methods. We obtained the data from the head of Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang, vice curriculum, faith coordinator, al-Qur’an coordinator, as well as the guardians of learners and the learners. The result of this research is the relevance of education system in Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang about education system in Indonesia. Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang emphasizes character building through a curriculum designed in such a way and combines thematic learning models in modules.

Keywords: Islamic education system, implementation of curriculum, Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang, formal education system, Indonesia

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16 Effects of Boron Compounds in Rabbits Fed High Protein and Energy Diet: A Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Approach

Authors: Nuri Başpınar, Abdullah Başoğlu, Özgür Özdemir, Çağlayan Özel, FundaTerzi, Özgür Yaman

Abstract:

Current research is targeting new molecular mechanisms that underlie non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated metabolic disorders like nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Forty New Zealand White rabbits have been used and fed a high protein (HP) and energy diet based on grains and containing 11.76 MJ/kg. Boron added to 3 experimental groups’ drinking waters (30 mg boron/L) as boron compounds. Biochemical analysis including boron levels, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics evaluation, and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family were performed. LDL-cholesterol concentrations alone were decreased in all the experimental groups. Boron levels in serum and feces were increased. Content of acetate was in about 2x higher for anhydrous borax group, at least 3x higher for boric acid group. PPARα mRNA expression was significantly decreased in boric acid group. Anhydrous borax attenuated mRNA levels of PPARα, which was further suppressed by boric acid. Boron supplementation decreased the degenerative alterations in hepatocytes. Except borax group other boron groups did not have a pronounced change in tubular epithels of kidney. In conclusion, high protein and energy diet leads hepatocytes’ degenerative changes which can be prevented by boron supplementation. Boric acid seems to precede in this effectiveness.

Keywords: high protein and energy diet, boron, metabolomics, transcriptomic

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15 Changing Skills with the Transformation of Procurement Function

Authors: Ömer Faruk Ada, Türker Baş, M. Yaman Öztek

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In this study, we aim to investigate the skills to be owned by procurement professionals in order to fulfill their developing and changing role completely. Market conditions, competitive pressure, and high financial costs make it more important than ever for organizations to be able to use resources more efficiently. Research shows that procurement expenses consist more than 50 % of the operating expenses. With increasing profit impact of procurement, reviewing the position of the procurement function within the organization has become inevitable. This study is significant as it indicates the necessary skills that procurement professionals must have to keep in step with the transformation of procurement units from transaction oriented to value chain oriented. In this study, the transformation of procurement is investigated from the perspective of procurement professionals and we aim to answer following research questions: • How do procurement professionals perceive their role within the organization? • How has their role changed and what challenges have they had to face? • What portfolio of skills do they believe will enable them to fulfill their role effectively? Literature review consists of the first part of the study by investigating the changing role of procurement from different perspectives. In the second part, we present the results of the in-depth interviews with 15 procurement professionals and we used descriptive analysis as a methodology. In the light of these results, we classified procurement skills under operational, tactical and strategic levels and Procurement Skills Framework has been developed. This study shows the differences in the perception of purchasing by professionals and the organizations. The differences in the perception are considered as an important barrier beyond the procurement transformation. Although having the necessary skills has a significant effect for procurement professionals to fulfill their role completely and keep in step with the transformation of the procurement function, It is not the only factor and the degree of high-level management and organizational support has also a direct impact during this transformation.

Keywords: procuement skills, procurement transformation, strategic procurement, value chain

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14 The Influence of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) on the Mechanical Properties and Workability of Oil Well Cement

Authors: Mohammad Reza Dousti, Yaman Boluk, Vivek Bindiganavile

Abstract:

Well cementing is one of the most crucial and important steps in any well completion. Oil well cement paste is employed to fill the annulus between the casing string and the well bore. However, since the cementing process takes place at the end of the drilling process, a satisfying and acceptable job may not be performed. During the cementing process, the cement paste must be pumped in the annulus, therefore concerns arise both in the workability and the flowability associated with the paste. On the other hand, the cement paste around the casing must demonstrate the adequate compressive strength in order to provide a suitable mechanical support for the casing and desirably prevent collapse of the formation. In this experimental study, the influence of cellulose nanocrystal particles on the workability, flowability and also mechanical properties of oil well cement paste has been investigated. The cementitious paste developed in this research is composed of water, class G oil well cement, bentonite and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Bentonite is used as a cross contamination component. Two method of testing were considered to understand the flow behavior of the samples: (1) a mini slump test and (2) a conventional flow table test were utilized to study the flowability of the cementitious paste under gravity and also under applied load (number of blows for the flow table test). Furthermore, the mechanical properties of hardened oil well cement paste dosed with CNC were assessed by performing a compression test on cylindrical specimens. Based on the findings in this study, the addition of CNC led to developing a more viscous cement paste with a reduced spread diameter. Also, by introducing a very small dosage of CNC particles (as an additive), a significant increase in the compressive strength of the oil well cement paste was observed.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystal, cement workability, mechanical properties, oil well cement

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13 Implementation of Lean Tools (Value Stream Mapping and ECRS) in an Oil Refinery

Authors: Ronita Singh, Yaman Pattanaik, Soham Lalwala

Abstract:

In today’s highly competitive business environment, every organization is striving towards lean manufacturing systems to achieve lower Production Lead Times, lower costs, less inventory and overall improvement in supply chains efficiency. Based on the similar idea, this paper presents the practical application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) tool and ECRS (Eliminate, Combine, Reduce, and Simplify) technique in the receipt section of the material management center of an oil refinery. A value stream is an assortment of all actions (value added as well as non-value added) that are required to bring a product through the essential flows, starting with raw material and ending with the customer. For drawing current state value stream mapping, all relevant data of the receipt cycle has been collected and analyzed. Then analysis of current state map has been done for determining the type and quantum of waste at every stage which helped in ascertaining as to how far the warehouse is from the concept of lean manufacturing. From the results achieved by current VSM, it was observed that the two processes- Preparation of GRN (Goods Receipt Number) and Preparation of UD (Usage Decision) are both bottle neck operations and have higher cycle time. This root cause analysis of various types of waste helped in designing a strategy for step-wise implementation of lean tools. The future state thus created a lean flow of materials at the warehouse center, reducing the lead time of the receipt cycle from 11 days to 7 days and increasing overall efficiency by 27.27%.

Keywords: current VSM, ECRS, future VSM, receipt cycle, supply chain, VSM

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12 Histopathological and Biochemical Investigations of Protective Role of Honey in Rats with Experimental Aflatoxicosis

Authors: Turan Yaman, Zabit Yener, Ismail Celik

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The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties and protective role of honey, considered a part of traditional medicine, against carcinogen chemical aflatoxin (AF) exposure in rats, which were evaluated by histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring level of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamil transpeptidase (GGT)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)], and lipid peroxidation content in liver, erythrocyte, brain, kidney, heart and lungs. For this purpose, a total of eighteen healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three experimental groups: A (Control), B (AF-treated) and C (AF+honey-treated). While rats in group A were fed with a diet without AF, B, and C groups received 25 µg of AF/rat/day, where C group additionally received 1 mL/kg of honey by gavage for 90 days. At the end of the 90-day experimental period, we found that the honey supplementation decreased the lipid peroxidation and the levels of enzyme associated with liver damage, increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the AF+honey-treated rats. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of honey is further substantiated by showing almost normal histological architecture in AF+honey-treated group, compared to degenerative changes in the liver and kidney of AF-treated rats. Additionally, honey supplementation ameliorated antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation content in other tissues of AF+honey-treated rats. In conclusion, the present study indicates that honey has a hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect in rats with experimental aflatoxicosis due to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: aflatoxicosis, honey, histopathology, malondialdehyde, antioxidant, rat

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11 Impact of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility and Microbial Activity

Authors: Menuka Maharjan

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In the name of food security, agriculture intensification through conventional farming is being implemented in Nepal. Government focus on increasing agriculture production completely ignores soil as well human health. This leads to create serious soil degradation, i.e., reduction of soil fertility and microbial activity and health hazard in the country. On this note, organic farming is sustainable agriculture approach which can address challenge of sustaining food security while protecting the environment. This creates a win-win situation both for people and the environment. However, people have limited knowledge on significance of organic farming for environment conservation and food security especially developing countries like Nepal. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the impacts of organic farming on soil fertility and microbial activity compared to conventional farming and forest in Chitwan, Nepal. Total soil organic carbon (C) was highest in organic farming (24 mg C g⁻¹ soil) followed by conventional farming (15 mg C g⁻¹ soil) and forest (9 mg C g⁻¹ soil) in the topsoil layer (0-10 cm depth). A similar trend was found for total nitrogen (N) content in all three land uses with organic farming soil possessing the highest total N content in both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. Microbial biomass C and N were also highest under organic farming, especially in the topsoil layer (350 and 46 mg g⁻¹ soil, respectively). Similarly, microbial biomass phosphorus (P) was higher (3.6 and 1.0 mg P kg⁻¹ at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively) in organic farming compared to conventional farming and forest at both depths. However, conventional farming and forest soils had similar microbial biomass (C, N, and P) content. After conversion of forest, the P stock significantly increased by 373% and 170% in soil under organic farming at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively. In conventional farming, the P stock increased by 64% and 36% at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively, compared to forest. Overall, organic farming practices, i.e., crop rotation, residue input and farmyard manure application, significantly alters soil fertility and microbial activity. Organic farming system is emerging as a sustainable land use system which can address the issues of food security and environment conservation by increasing sustainable agriculture production and carbon sequestration, respectively, supporting to achieve goals of sustainable development.

Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility, micobial biomas, food security

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10 Rheological Assessment of Oil Well Cement Paste Dosed with Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC)

Authors: Mohammad Reza Dousti, Yaman Boluk, Vivek Bindiganavile

Abstract:

During the past few decades, oil and natural gas consumption have increased significantly. The limited amount of hydrocarbon resources on earth has led to a stronger desire towards efficient drilling, well completion and extracting, with the least time, energy and money wasted. Well cementing is one of the most crucial and important steps in any well completion, to fill the annulus between the casing string and the well bore. However, since it takes place at the end of the drilling process, a satisfying and acceptable job is rarely done. Hence, a large and significant amount of time and energy is then spent in order to do the required corrections or retrofitting the well in some cases. Oil well cement paste needs to be pumped during the cementing process, therefore the rheological and flow behavior of the paste is of great importance. This study examines the use of innovative cellulose-based nanomaterials on the flow properties of the resulting cementitious system. The cementitious paste developed in this research is composed of water, class G oil well cement, bentonite and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Bentonite is used as a cross contamination component. Initially, the influence of CNC on the flow and rheological behavior of CNC and bentonite suspensions was assessed. Furthermore, the rheological behavior of oil well cement pastes dosed with CNC was studied using a steady shear parallel-plate rheometer and the results were compared to the rheological behavior of a neat oil well cement paste with no CNC. The parameters assessed were the yield shear stress and the viscosity. Significant changes in yield shear stress and viscosity were observed due to the addition of the CNC. Based on the findings in this study, the addition of a very small dosage of CNC to the oil well cement paste results in a more viscous cement slurry with a higher yield stress, demonstrating a shear thinning behavior.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystal, flow behavior, oil well cement, rheology

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9 Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophage against Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

Authors: Guna Raj Dhungana, Roshan Nepal, Apshara Parajuli, , Archana Maharjan, Shyam K. Mishra, Pramod Aryal, Rajani Malla

Abstract:

Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known opportunistic human pathogen, primarily causing healthcare-associated infections. The global emergence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaeis a major public health burden, which is often extensively multidrug resistant.Thus, because of the difficulty to treat these ‘superbug’ and menace and some term as ‘apocalypse’ of post antibiotics era, an alternative approach to controlling this pathogen is prudent and one of the approaches is phage mediated control and/or treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to isolate novel bacteriophage against carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaeand characterize for potential use inphage therapy. Material and Methods: Twenty lytic phages were isolated from river water using double layer agar assay and purified. Biological features, physiochemical characters, burst size, host specificity and activity spectrum of phages were determined. One most potent phage: Phage TU_Kle10O was selected and characterized by electron microscopy. Whole genome sequences of the phage were analyzed for presence/absence of virulent factors, and other lysin genes. Results: Novel phage TU_Kle10O showed multiple host range within own genus and did not induce any BIM up to 5th generation of host’s life cycle. Electron microscopy confirmed that the phage was tailed and belonged to Caudovirales family. Next generation sequencing revealed its genome to be 166.2 Kb. bioinformatical analysis further confirmed that the phage genome ‘did not’ contain any ‘bacterial genes’ within phage genome, which ruled out the concern for transfer of virulent genes. Specific 'lysin’ enzyme was identified phages which could be used as 'antibiotics'. Conclusion: Extensively multidrug resistant bacteria like carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaecould be treated efficiently by phages.Absence of ‘virulent’ genes of bacterial origin and presence of lysin proteins within phage genome makes phages an excellent candidate for therapeutics.

Keywords: bacteriophage, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR, phage therapy, carbapenemase,

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8 FMCW Doppler Radar Measurements with Microstrip Tx-Rx Antennas

Authors: Yusuf Ulaş Kabukçu, Si̇nan Çeli̇k, Onur Salan, Mai̇de Altuntaş, Mert Can Dalkiran, Gökseni̇n Bozdağ, Metehan Bulut, Fati̇h Yaman

Abstract:

This study presents a more compact implementation of the 2.4GHz MIT Coffee Can Doppler Radar for 2.6GHz operating frequency. The main difference of our prototype depends on the use of microstrip antennas which makes it possible to transport with a small robotic vehicle. We have designed our radar system with two different channels: Tx and Rx. The system mainly consists of Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) source, low noise amplifiers, microstrip antennas, splitter, mixer, low pass filter, and necessary RF connectors with cables. The two microstrip antennas, one is element for transmitter and the other one is array for receiver channel, was designed, fabricated and verified by experiments. The system has two operation modes: speed detection and range detection. If the switch of the operation mode is ‘Off’, only CW signal transmitted for speed measurement. When the switch is ‘On’, CW is frequency-modulated and range detection is possible. In speed detection mode, high frequency (2.6 GHz) is generated by a VCO, and then amplified to reach a reasonable level of transmit power. Before transmitting the amplified signal through a microstrip patch antenna, a splitter used in order to compare the frequencies of transmitted and received signals. Half of amplified signal (LO) is forwarded to a mixer, which helps us to compare the frequencies of transmitted and received (RF) and has the IF output, or in other words information of Doppler frequency. Then, IF output is filtered and amplified to process the signal digitally. Filtered and amplified signal showing Doppler frequency is used as an input of audio input of a computer. After getting this data Doppler frequency is shown as a speed change on a figure via Matlab script. According to experimental field measurements the accuracy of speed measurement is approximately %90. In range detection mode, a chirp signal is used to form a FM chirp. This FM chirp helps to determine the range of the target since only Doppler frequency measured with CW is not enough for range detection. Such a FMCW Doppler radar may be used in border security of the countries since it is capable of both speed and range detection.

Keywords: doppler radar, FMCW, range detection, speed detection

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7 Fabrication of High Energy Hybrid Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon

Authors: Makhan Maharjan, Mani Ulaganathan, Vanchiappan Aravindan, Srinivasan Madhavi, Jing-Yuan Wang, Tuti Mariana Lim

Abstract:

There is great interest to exploit sustainable, low-cost, renewable resources as carbon precursors for energy storage applications. Research on development of energy storage devices has been growing rapidly due to mismatch in power supply and demand from renewable energy sources This paper reported the synthesis of porous activated carbon from biomass waste and evaluated its performance in supercapicators. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited a high BET surface area of 1,901 m2 g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making different hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered a high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg–1. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 6.6 Wh kg-1 and 16.3 Wh kg-1, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g–1 were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments; for instances, the characteristics binding energies appeared at ~283.83, ~284.83, ~286.13, ~288.56, and ~290.70 eV which correspond to sp2 -graphitic C, sp3 -graphitic C, C-O, C=O and π-π*, respectively. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. The findings opened up the possibility of developing high energy LICs from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste.

Keywords: lithium-ion capacitors, orange peel, pre-lithiated graphite, supercapacitors

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6 The Importance of Urban Pattern and Planting Design in Urban Transformation Projects

Authors: Mustafa Var, Yasin Kültiğin Yaman, Elif Berna Var, Müberra Pulatkan

Abstract:

This study deals with real application of an urban transformation project in Trabzon, Turkey. It aims to highlight the significance of using native species in terms of planting design of transformation projects which will also promote sustainability of urban identity. Urban identity is a phenomenon shaped not only by physical, but also by natural, spatial, social, historical and cultural factors. Urban areas face with continuous change which can be whether positive or negative way. If it occurs in a negative way that may have some destructive effects on urban identity. To solve this problematic issue, urban renewal movements initally started after 1840s around the world especially in the cities with ports. This process later followed by the places where people suffered a lot from fires and has expanded to all over the world. In Turkey, those processes have been experienced mostly after 1980s as country experienced the worst effects of unplanned urbanization especially in 1950-1990 period. Also old squares, streets, meeting points, green areas, Ottoman bazaars have changed slowly. This change was resulted in alienation of inhabitants to their environments. As a solution, several actions were taken like Mass Housing Laws which was enacted in 1981 and 1984 or urban transformation projects. Although projects between 1990-2000 were tried to satisfy the expectations of local inhabitants by the help of several design solutions to promote cultural identity; unfortunately those modern projects has also been resulted in alienation of urban environments to the inhabitants. Those projects were initially done by TOKI (Housing Development Administration of Turkey) and later followed by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization after 2011. Although they had significant potentials to create healthy urban environments, they could not use this opportunity in an effective way. The reason for their failure is that their architectural styles and planting designs are unrespectful to local identity and environments. Generally, it can be said that the most of the urban transformation projects implementing in Turkey nearly have no concerns about the locality. However, those projects can be used as a positive tool for enhanching the urban identity of cities by means of local planting material. For instance, Kyoto can be identified by Japanese Maple trees or Seattle can be specified by Dahlia. In the same way, in Turkey, Istanbul city can be identified by Judas and Stone Pine trees or Giresun city can be identified by Cherry trees. Thus, in this paper, the importance of conserving urban identity is discussed specificly with the help of using local planting elements. After revealing the mistakes that are made during urban transformation projects, the techniques and design criterias for preserving and promoting urban identity are examined. In the end, it is emphasized that every city should have their own original, local character and specific planting design which can be used for highlighting its identity as well as architectural elements.

Keywords: urban identity, urban transformation, planting design, landscape architecture

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5 Effect of Particle Size Variations on the Tribological Properties of Porcelain Waste Added Epoxy Composites

Authors: B. Yaman, G. Acikbas, N. Calis Acikbas

Abstract:

Epoxy based materials have advantages in tribological applications due to their unique properties such as light weight, self-lubrication capacity and wear resistance. On the other hand, their usage is often limited by their low load bearing capacity and low thermal conductivity values. In this study, it is aimed to improve tribological and also mechanical properties of epoxy by reinforcing with ceramic based porcelain waste. It is well-known that the reuse or recycling of waste materials leads to reduction in production costs, ease of manufacturing, saving energy, etc. From this perspective, epoxy and epoxy matrix composites containing 60wt% porcelain waste with different particle size in the range of below 90µm and 150-250µm were fabricated, and the effect of filler particle size on the mechanical and tribological properties was investigated. The microstructural characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and phase analysis was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Archimedes principle was used to measure the density and porosity of the samples. The hardness values were measured using Shore-D hardness, and bending tests were performed. Microstructural investigations indicated that porcelain particles were homogeneously distributed and no agglomerations were encountered in the epoxy resin. Mechanical test results showed that the hardness and bending strength were increased with increasing particle size related to low porosity content and well embedding to the matrix. Tribological behavior of these composites was evaluated in terms of friction, wear rates and wear mechanisms by ball-on-disk contact with dry and rotational sliding at room temperature against WC ball with a diameter of 3mm. Wear tests were carried out at room temperature (23–25°C) with a humidity of 40 ± 5% under dry-sliding conditions. The contact radius of cycles was set to 5 mm at linear speed of 30 cm/s for the geometry used in this study. In all the experiments, 3N of constant test load was applied at a frequency of 8 Hz and prolonged to 400m wear distance. The friction coefficient of samples was recorded online by the variation in the tangential force. The steady-state CoFs were changed in between 0,29-0,32. The dimensions of the wear tracks (depth and width) were measured as two-dimensional profiles by a stylus profilometer. The wear volumes were calculated by integrating these 2D surface areas over the diameter. Specific wear rates were computed by dividing the wear volume by the applied load and sliding distance. According to the experimental results, the use of porcelain waste in the fabrication of epoxy resin composites can be suggested to be potential materials due to allowing improved mechanical and tribological properties and also providing reduction in production cost.

Keywords: epoxy composites, mechanical properties, porcelain waste, tribological properties

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4 Reactivities of Turkish Lignites during Oxygen Enriched Combustion

Authors: Ozlem Uguz, Ali Demirci, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman

Abstract:

Lignitic coal holds its position as Turkey’s most important indigenous energy source to generate energy in thermal power plants. Hence, efficient and environmental-friendly use of lignite in electricity generation is of great importance. Thus, clean coal technologies have been planned to mitigate emissions and provide more efficient burning in power plants. In this context, oxygen enriched combustion (oxy-combustion) is regarded as one of the clean coal technologies, which based on burning with oxygen concentrations higher than that in air. As it is known that the most of the Turkish coals are low rank with high mineral matter content, unburnt carbon trapped in ash is, unfortunately, high, and it leads significant losses in the overall efficiencies of the thermal plants. Besides, the necessity of burning huge amounts of these low calorific value lignites to get the desired amount of energy also results in the formation of large amounts of ash that is rich in unburnt carbon. Oxygen enriched combustion technology enables to increase the burning efficiency through the complete burning of almost all of the carbon content of the fuel. This also contributes to the protection of air quality and emission levels drop reasonably. The aim of this study is to investigate the unburnt carbon content and the burning reactivities of several different lignite samples under oxygen enriched conditions. For this reason, the combined effects of temperature and oxygen/nitrogen ratios in the burning atmosphere were investigated and interpreted. To do this, Turkish lignite samples from Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Kütahya-Tunçbilek regions were characterized first by proximate and ultimate analyses and the burning profiles were derived using DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) curves. Then, these lignites were subjected to slow burning process in a horizontal tube furnace at different temperatures (200ºC, 400ºC, 600ºC for Adıyaman-Gölbaşı lignite and 200ºC, 450ºC, 800ºC for Kütahya-Tunçbilek lignite) under atmospheres having O₂+N₂ proportions of 21%O₂+79%N₂, 30%O₂+70%N₂, 40%O₂+60%N₂, and 50%O₂+50%N₂. These burning temperatures were specified based on the burning profiles derived from the DTA curves. The residues obtained from these burning tests were also analyzed by proximate and ultimate analyses to detect the unburnt carbon content along with the unused energy potential. Reactivity of these lignites was calculated using several methodologies. Burning yield under air condition (21%O₂+79%N₂) was used a benchmark value to compare the effectiveness of oxygen enriched conditions. It was concluded that oxygen enriched combustion method enhanced the combustion efficiency and lowered the unburnt carbon content of ash. Combustion of low-rank coals under oxygen enriched conditions was found to be a promising way to improve the efficiency of the lignite-firing energy systems. However, cost-benefit analysis should be considered for a better justification of this method since the use of more oxygen brings an unignorable additional cost.

Keywords: coal, energy, oxygen enriched combustion, reactivity

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3 Influence of Torrefied Biomass on Co-Combustion Behaviors of Biomass/Lignite Blends

Authors: Aysen Caliskan, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman

Abstract:

Co-firing of coal and biomass blends is an effective method to reduce carbon dioxide emissions released by burning coals, thanks to the carbon-neutral nature of biomass. Besides, usage of biomass that is renewable and sustainable energy resource mitigates the dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. However, most of the biomass species has negative aspects such as low calorific value, high moisture and volatile matter contents compared to coal. Torrefaction is a promising technique in order to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass through thermal treatment. That is, this technique improves the calorific value of biomass along with serious reductions in the moisture and volatile matter contents. In this context, several woody biomass materials including Rhododendron, hybrid poplar, and ash-tree were subjected to torrefaction process in a horizontal tube furnace at 200°C under nitrogen flow. In this way, the solid residue obtained from torrefaction that is also called as 'biochar' was obtained and analyzed to monitor the variations taking place in biomass properties. On the other hand, some Turkish lignites from Elbistan, Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Çorum-Dodurga deposits were chosen as coal samples since these lignites are of great importance in lignite-fired power stations in Turkey. These lignites were blended with the obtained biochars for which the blending ratio of biochars was kept at 10 wt% and the lignites were the dominant constituents in the fuel blends. Burning tests of the lignites, biomasses, biochars, and blends were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer up to 900°C with a heating rate of 40°C/min under dry air atmosphere. Based on these burning tests, properties relevant to burning characteristics such as the burning reactivity and burnout yields etc. could be compared to justify the effects of torrefaction and blending. Besides, some characterization techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also conducted for the untreated biomass and torrefied biomass (biochar) samples, lignites and their blends to examine the co-combustion characteristics elaborately. Results of this study revealed the fact that blending of lignite with 10 wt% biochar created synergistic behaviors during co-combustion in comparison to the individual burning of the ingredient fuels in the blends. Burnout and ignition performances of each blend were compared by taking into account the lignite and biomass structures and characteristics. The blend that has the best co-combustion profile and ignition properties was selected. Even though final burnouts of the lignites were decreased due to the addition of biomass, co-combustion process acts as a reasonable and sustainable solution due to its environmentally friendly benefits such as reductions in net carbon dioxide (CO2), SOx and hazardous organic chemicals derived from volatiles.

Keywords: burnout performance, co-combustion, thermal analysis, torrefaction pretreatment

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2 Production and Characterization of Biochars from Torrefaction of Biomass

Authors: Serdar Yaman, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma

Abstract:

Biomass is a CO₂-neutral fuel that is renewable and sustainable along with having very huge global potential. Efficient use of biomass in power generation and production of biomass-based biofuels can mitigate the greenhouse gasses (GHG) and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are also other beneficial effects of biomass energy use such as employment creation and pollutant reduction. However, most of the biomass materials are not capable of competing with fossil fuels in terms of energy content. High moisture content and high volatile matter yields of biomass make it low calorific fuel, and it is very significant concern over fossil fuels. Besides, the density of biomass is generally low, and it brings difficulty in transportation and storage. These negative aspects of biomass can be overcome by thermal pretreatments that upgrade the fuel property of biomass. That is, torrefaction is such a thermal process in which biomass is heated up to 300ºC under non-oxidizing conditions to avoid burning of the material. The treated biomass is called as biochar that has considerably lower contents of moisture, volatile matter, and oxygen compared to the parent biomass. Accordingly, carbon content and the calorific value of biochar increase to the level which is comparable with that of coal. Moreover, hydrophilic nature of untreated biomass that leads decay in the structure is mostly eliminated, and the surface properties of biochar turn into hydrophobic character upon torrefaction. In order to investigate the effectiveness of torrefaction process on biomass properties, several biomass species such as olive milling residue (OMR), Rhododendron (small shrubby tree with bell-shaped flowers), and ash tree (timber tree) were chosen. The fuel properties of these biomasses were analyzed through proximate and ultimate analyses as well as higher heating value (HHV) determination. For this, samples were first chopped and ground to a particle size lower than 250 µm. Then, samples were subjected to torrefaction in a horizontal tube furnace by heating from ambient up to temperatures of 200, 250, and 300ºC at a heating rate of 10ºC/min. The biochars obtained from this process were also tested by the methods applied to the parent biomass species. Improvement in the fuel properties was interpreted. That is, increasing torrefaction temperature led to regular increases in the HHV in OMR, and the highest HHV (6065 kcal/kg) was gained at 300ºC. Whereas, torrefaction at 250ºC was seen optimum for Rhododendron and ash tree since torrefaction at 300ºC had a detrimental effect on HHV. On the other hand, the increase in carbon contents and reduction in oxygen contents were determined. Burning characteristics of the biochars were also studied using thermal analysis technique. For this purpose, TA Instruments SDT Q600 model thermal analyzer was used and the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves were compared and interpreted. It was concluded that torrefaction is an efficient method to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass and the biochars from which have superior characteristics compared to the parent biomasses.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, fuel upgrade, torrefaction

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1 High Performance Lithium Ion Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon

Authors: Makhan Maharjan, Mani Ulaganathan, Vanchiappan Aravindan, Srinivasan Madhavi, Jing-Yuan Wang, Tuti Mariana Lim

Abstract:

The ever-increasing energy demand has made research to develop high performance energy storage systems that are able to fulfill energy needs. Supercapacitors have potential applications as portable energy storage devices. In recent years, there have been huge research interests to enhance the performances of supercapacitors via exploiting novel promising carbon precursors, tailoring textural properties of carbons, exploiting various electrolytes and device types. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited BET surface area of 1,901 m² g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The high surface area OP-AC accommodates more ions in the electrodes and its well-developed porous structure facilitates fast diffusion of ions which subsequently enhance electrochemical performance. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg⁻¹. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 8.0 Wh kg⁻¹ and 16.3 Wh kg⁻¹, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g⁻¹ were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry analysis, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments. The presence of functional groups is also corroborated from the FTIR spectroscopy. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. Overall, the intriguing properties of OP-AC make it a new alternative promising electrode material for the development of high energy lithium ion capacitors from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste. The authors gratefully acknowledge Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)/ Singapore International Graduate Award (SINGA) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore for funding support.

Keywords: energy storage, lithium-ion capacitors, orange peels, porous activated carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 137